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fully enough bind Porto Rico and the Hawaiian Islands to ourselves by ties of justice and interest and affection, but the performance of our duty toward the Philippines is a more difficult and debatable matter. We can satisfy the obligations of generous justice toward the people of Porto Rico by giving them the ample and familiar rights and privileges accorded our own citizens in our own territories, and our obligations toward the people of Hawaii by perfecting the provisions for self-government already granted them; but in the Philippines we must go further. We must hold steadily in view their ultimate independence, and we must move toward the time of that independence as steadily as the way can be cleared and the foundations thoughtfully and permanently laid.

Acting under the authority conferred upon the President by Congress, I have already accorded the people of the islands a majority in both houses of their legislative body by appointing five instead of four native citizens to the membership of the commission. I believe that in this way we shall make proof of their capacity in counsel and their sense of responsibility in the exercise of political power, and that the success of this step will be sure to clear our view for the steps which are to follow. Step by step we should extend and perfect the system of self-government in the islands, making test of them and modifying them as experience discloses their successes and their failures; that we should more and more put under the control of the native citizens of the archipelago the essential instruments of their life, their local instrumentalities of government, their schools, all the common interests of their communities, and so by counsel and experience set up a government which all the world will see to be suitable to a people whose affairs are under their own control. At last, I hope and believe, we are beginning to gain the confidence of the Filipino peoples. By their counsel and experience, rather than by our own, we shall learn how best to serve them and how soon it will be possible and wise to withdraw our supervision. Let us once find the path and set out with firm and confident tread upon it and we shall not wander from it or linger upon it.

A duty faces us with regard to Alaska which seems to me very pressing and very imperative; perhaps I should say a double duty, for it concerns both the political and the material development of the Territory. The people of Alaska should be given the full territorial form of government, and Alaska, as a storehouse, should be unlocked. One key to it is a system of railways. These the Government should itself build and administer, and the ports and terminals it should itself control in the interest of all who wish to use them for the service and development of the country and its people. But the construction of railways is only the first step; is only thrusting in the key to the storehouse and throwing back the lock

and opening the door. How the tempting resources of the country are to be exploited is another matter, to which I shall take the liberty of from time to time calling your attention, for it is a policy which must be worked out by well-considered stages, not upon theory, but upon lines of practical expediency. It is part of our general problem of conservation, We have a freer hand in working out the problem in Alaska than in the States of the Union; and yet the principle and object are the same, wherever we touch it.

use the resources of the country, not lock them up. There need be no conflict or jealousy as between State and Federal authorities, for there can be no essential difference of purpose between them. The resources in question must be used, but not destroyed or wasted; used, but not monopolized upon any narrow idea of individual rights as against the abiding interests of communities. That a policy can be worked out by conference and concession which will release these resources and yet not jeopard or dissipate them, I for one have no doubt; and it can be done on lines of regulation which need be no less acceptable to the people and governments of the States concerned than to the people and Government of the Nation at large, whose heritage these resources are. We must bend our counsels to this end. A common purpose ought to make agreement easy.

Three or four matters of special importance and significance I beg that you will permit me to mention in closing.

Our Bureau of Mines ought to be equipped and empowered to render even more effectual service than it renders now in improving the conditions of mine labor and making the mines more economically productive as well as more safe. This is an all-important part of the work of conservation; and the conservation of human life and energy lies even nearer to our interest than the preservation from waste of our material resources.

We owe it, in mere justice to the railway employees of the country, to provide for them a fair and effective employers' liability act; and a law that we can stand by in this matter will be no less to the advantage of those who administer the railroads of the country than to the advantage of those whom they employ. The experience of a large number of the States abundantly proves that.

We ought to devote ourselves to meeting pressing demands of plain justice like this as earnestly as to the accomplishment of political and economic reforms. Social justice comes first. Law is the machinery for its realization and is vital only as it expresses and embodies it.

An international congress for the discussion of all questions that affect safety at sea is now sitting in London at the suggestion of our

own Government. So soon as the conclusions of that congress can be learned and considered we ought to address ourselves, among other things, to the prompt alleviation of the very unsafe, unjust, and burdensome conditions which now surround the employment of sailors and render it extremely difficult to obtain the services of spirited and competent men such as every ship needs if it is to be safely handled and brought to port.

May I not express the very real pleasure I have experienced in cooperating with this Congress and sharing with it the labors of common service to which it has devoted itself so unreservedly during the past seven months of uncomplaining concentration upon the business of legislation? Surely it is a proper and pertinent part of my report on "the state of the Union" to express my admiration for the diligence, the good temper, and the full comprehension of public duty which has already been manifested by both the Houses; and I hope that it may not be deemed an impertinent intrusion of myself into the picture if I say with how much and how constant satisfaction I have availed myself of the privilege of putting my time and energy at their disposal alike in counsel and in action.

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1912. Dec. 21

Certificates of inspection of nursery stock. Incloses
circular from the Department of Agriculture issued
Dec. 20, 1912, containing the text of the "Plant
Quarantine Act" of Aug. 20, 1912, and the rules
and regulations for carrying out the act; instruc-
tions concerning distribution thereof.

Dec. 30 International rifle-shooting tournament. Incloses
invitation to riflemen to take part in the tourna-
ment to be held at Camp Perry, Ohio, in Septem-
ber, 1913.

1913. Jan. 14

Feb. 7

Feb. 28

Statement by Senator Root Nov. 25, 1912, repudiat-
ing sentiments attributed to him in relation to
Latin America. Instruction to make use thereof
if occasion arise.

Plant Quarantine Act. Refers to the above circular
of Dec. 21, 1912, and incloses directions prepared by
the Department of Agriculture for inspection and
certification, with explanatory remarks.
Expatriation of naturalized citizens. Refers to
instruction of Apr. 19, 1907, and amending instruc-
tion of May 14, 1908; instructs that exceptional
treatment should be given certain naturalized
citizens temporarily residing in countries near to
the United States, and states the Department's
rule prescribed therefor.

Mar. 12 Declaration of policy with regard to Latin America.
Quotes a statement made by the President on
Mar. 11 for publication.

Mar. 13 Speech of Senator Root in the Senate, Jan. 16, 1913,
repudiating sentiments attributed to him in rela-
tion to Latin America. Refers to the circular of
Jan. 14, 1913, and incloses text of the speech of
Jan. 16, in the Senate.

Apr. 24


July 7
Aug. 12


Circular (telegram).......

Peace Plan of the President. Statement made by
the Secretary of State on presenting the President's
Peace Plan to the Representatives, some 36 in num-
ber, of the Foreign Governments who constitute
the Diplomatic Circle at Washington.
Same subject. Supplementary memorandum...
Same subject. Transmits copy of treaty with Salva-
dor and instructs to explain the tentative nature
of the suggestions made.

Sept. 17 Invitation to the Panama-Pacific International Ex-
position to be held at San Francisco in 1915. Re-
fers to circular of Feb. 5, 1912, and instructs to
invite the sending of war vessels and Government
representatives to the naval review at Hampton

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Dec. 18

Peace Plan of the President. Incloses copies of the
treaties with Salvador and Netherlands and in-
structs to bring the peace plan again to the atten-
tion of the Government.


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Mr. Bryan to Mr. Grant- July 16

Arrest and imprisonment of naturalized American
citizens on the charge of evasion of military service.
Incloses information concerning the arrest of Julius
Reich, a naturalized citizen of the United States,
the retention of his naturalization certificate and
other valuables: instructs him to request that
local officials be instructed to respect the naturali-
zation of such citizens in the future and to restore
the liberty and property of Julius Reich.

Mr. Grant-Smith to Mr. Aug. 4 Same subject. In view of Department's No. 305 of

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July 16, and of the frequent arrests and imprison-
ment in Austria-Hungary of naturalized American
citizens on the charge of evasion of military service,
the Chargé d'Affaires has addressed the Foreign
Office on the subject; his note inclosed.
Same subject. His note to the Foreign Office, in-
closed with his despatch No. 514, approved.
Same subject. Julius Reich was set at liberty and
his certificate of naturalization and money were
returned to him on July 16.










Mr. Fowler to Mr. Knox... July 12

Mr. Knox to Mr. Slechta... July 20
Mr. Dudley to Mr. Knox... Aug 28.

Valorization of coffee. Requests that the vice Con-
sul General at Rio de Janeiro be instructed to fur-
nish information on this subject to the Department
of Justice.

Same subject. Instructs him to comply with the
above request.

Termination of Extradition Treaty of 1897, and pro-
tocols of 1898 and 1903, between the United States
and Brazil. By the passage of the Act of June 28,
1911, the Government is required to denounce all
existing treaties of extradition but no action will
be taken until the Supreme Court shall have de-
cided on the constitutionality of the statute. In-
closes the text of the statute.

Mr. Chantland to Mr. Fow- Sept. 6 Coffee valorization. Detailed report.


Mr. Da Gama to Mr. Knox. May 30

Mr. Knox to Mr. Da Gama. June 8

Mr. Morgan to Mr. Knox.... July 19

Same to same (telegram)... Sept. 3

Same to same.
Sept. 16
Same to same (telegram).... Oct. 17

Same subject. Advises that he has learned of the
institution of a suit against the coffee valorization
committee and requests that steps be taken for its

Same subject. The Department of State had no offi-
cial information in regard to the coffee suit until
advised by the Brazilian Embassy.

Same subject. Incloses extracts of the annual mes-
sage of the President of the State of São Paulo to
the State Congress.

Same subject. The Brazilian minister of foreign af-
fairs regrets to learn that the investigation of the
legal status of valorized coffee is to be revived.
Same subject. Gives his impressions of public opin-
ion in Brazil on this subject.
Same subject. At its annual meeting next January
the valorization committee will vote to dispose of
its entire stock of coffee now in New York. The
Minister for foreign affairs desires to know whether
the suit against the committee, in view of the above
assurance, can be discontinued.

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