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of human knowledge in which blind persons have not | EATING BLOOD was prohibited to Noah, Gen. ix.; to the Jews, obtained distinction.* Laura Bridgman, born in 1829,

Lev. xvii., etc.; and to the Gentile converts by the apostles became dumb and blind two years after. She was so BLOOD-DRINKING was anciently tried to give vigor to the sys

at an assembly at Jerusalem, A. D. 52, Acts xv. well taught by Dr. Howe, of Boston, U.S., as to become

tem. Louis XI., in his last illness, drank the warm blood an able instructor of blind and dumb persons. By the

of infants, in the vain hope of restoring his decayed strength,

1483. - Hénault. census of 1851, there were in Great Britain 21,487 blind In the fifteenth century an opinion prevailed that the declin. persons; 11,273 males, 10,214 females ; about one in 975 ing vigor of the aged might be repaired by TRANSFUSING blind. Royal Normal College and Academy of Music

into their veins the blood of young persons. It was coun. for the Blind, established 1873. By the census of 1870,

tenanced in France by the physicians about 1668, and pre

vailed for many years, till, the most fatal effects having enthere were in the United States 20,320 blind persons ; sued, it was suppressed by an edict. "An English physi11,343 males, 8997 females.

cian (Louver, or Lower) practised in this way; he died in

1691.''-Freind. It was attempted again in France in 1797, Blinding, by consuming the eyeballs with lime or and more recently there, in a few cases, with success; and scalding vinegar, was a punishment inflicted anciently in England (but the instances are rare) since 1823. Tried at on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In the middle Philadelphia, U. S., April, 1877; in London, unsuccessful, 10

May, 1877. ages the penalty was frequently changed from total blindness to a diminution of sight. A whole army of Blood's Conspiracy. Blood, a discarded officer Bulgarians were deprived of sight by the emperor Basil, of Oliver Cromwell's household, with his confederates, 104. Several of the Eastern emperors had their eyes seized the duke of Ormond in his coach, intending to torn from their heads.

hang him, and had got him to Tyburn, when he was Blisters, used by Hippocrates (460-357 B.ç.), made, rescued by his friends, 6 Dec. 1670. Blood afterwards, it is said, of cantharides (which see).

in the disguise of a clergyman, attempted to steal the

regal crown from the Jewel-office in the Tower, 9 May, Block Books, see Printing.

1671; yet, notwithstanding these and other offences, he Blockade is the closing an enemy's ports to all was not only pardoned, but had a pension of 5001. per commerce; a practice introduced by the Dutch about annum settled on him by Charles II. 1671. He dieci 24 1584. The principle recognized by the European pow. Aug. 1680. ers is that every blockade, in order to be binding, must "Bloody Assizes," held by Jeffreys in the west be effective. The Elbe was blockaded by Great Britain, of England, in Aug. 1685, after the defeat of the duke of 1803; the Baltic, by Denmark, 1848-9 and 1864; the Monmouth in the battle of Sedgmoor. Upwards of 300 gulf of Finland by the Allies, 1854; and the ports of the persons were executed after short trials; very many Southern States of North America by president Lincoln, were whipped, imprisoned, and fined; and nearly 1000 April 19, 1861. The naval force of the United States were sent as slaves to the American plantations. then consisted of 90 vessels, of which only 42 were in

Bloomer Costume, see a note to article Dress. commission, these latter mounting between 500 and 600 guns. The Home Squadron consisted of 12 vessels. Bloomsbury Gang, a cant term applied to an inThe institution of the blockade was a formal recognition fiuential political party in the reign of George III., who of the belligerent rights of the Confederates. A large met at Bloomsbury House, the residence of the duke of number of vessels succeeded in running the blockade Bedford. The marquess of Stafford, the last survivor, during the war; 1143 were captured by blockading died 26 Oct. 1803. squadrons, valued at $24,500,000; and 355 destroyed, Bloreheath (Staffordshire), where, 23 Sept. 1459, valued at $7,000,000; see Orders in Council and Berlin. the earl of Salisbury and the Yorkists defeated the Lan

Blocks employed in the rigging of ships were much castrians, whose leader, lord Audley, was slain with improved in their construction by Walter Taylor, about many Cheshire gentlemen. A cross commemorates this 1781. In 1801, Mark I. Brunel invented a mode of mak- conflict. ing blocks by machinery, which was put into operation Blowing-machines. The large cylinders used in in 1808, and in 1815 was said to have saved the coun- blowing-machines were erected by Mr. Smeaton at the try 20,0001. a year.

Carron iron-works, 1760. One equal to the supply of air Blois, France, the Roman Blesum. The count Guy for forty forge-fires was erected at the king's dockyard, II. sold it with his domains to Louis duke of Orleans in Woolwich. The hot-air blast, a most important im1391, and eventually it accrued to the crown.

The provement, causing great economy of fuel, was invented states-general were held here 1576 and 1588, on account by Mr. James B. Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented in of the religious wars; and here Henry duke of Guise was 1828. He died 18 Jan. 1865. assassinated by order of the king, Henry III., 23 Dec. Blow-pipe. An Egyptian using one is among the 1588. The empress Maria Louisa retired here in 1814. paintings on the tombs at Thebes. It was employed in

Blood. The circulation of the blood through the mineralogy by Antony von Swab, a Swede, about 1733, lungs was known to Michael Servetus, a Spanish physi- and improved by Wollaston and others. In 1802, procian, in 1553. Cæsalpinus published an account of the fessor Robert Hare, of Philadelphia, increased the action general circulation, of which he had some confused ideas, of the blow-pipe by the application of oxygen and hyimproved afterwards by experiments, 1569. Paul of drogen. By the agency of Newman's improved blowVenice, or Father Paolo (real name Peter Sarpi), dis- pipes, in 1816, Dr. E. D. Clarke fused the earths, alkacovered the valves which serve for the circulation; but lies, metals, etc. A work on the blow-pipe by Plattner the honor of the positive discovery of the circulation and Muspratt, published 1854; by G. Plympton, 1874. belongs to William Harvey, between 1619 and 1628.- Blue was the favorite colour of the Scotch covenantFreind. A memorial window in the church at Folke-ers in the seventeenth century. Blue and orange or stone, his birthplace, was uncovered 9 April, 1874. yellow became the whig colors after the revolution in

1688; and were adopted on the cover of the whig peri* James Holman, the “blind traveller?' (born 1786, died odical, the Edinburgh Review, first published in 1802. 1857), visited almost every place of note in the world. travels were published in 1825. In April, 1858, a blind ciergyThe Prussian-blue dye was discovered by Diesbach, at man, rev. J. Sparrow, was elected chaplain to the Mercers' Berlin, in 1710. Fine blues are now obtained from coalCompany, London, and read the service, etc., from embossed tar; sce Aniline. BLUE-COAT SCHOOLS, so called in books.

Viscount Cranborne (blind) was the author of many inter- reference to the costume of the children. The Blue-coat esting historical essays. He died in June, 1865. On 13 July. school in Newgate Street, London, was instituted by Ed1865, Henry Fawcett, the blind professor of political economy ward VI. in 1552; see Christ's Ilospital. BLUE-STOCKat Cambridge, was elected M.P. for Brighton; for Hackney: Ing, a term applied to literary ladies, was originally 1874 and 1880; and was appointed postmaster general, April 1880, Mr. F. 'J. Campbell (blind) ascended Mont Blanc in conferred on a society comprising both sexes (1760 et 1880.

seq.). Benjamin Stillingfleet, the naturalist, an active

His

dar...

335 170

member, wore blue worsted stockings; hence the name. | Epaminondas gains the victory of Mantinea, but is slain 362 Thé beautiful Mrs. Jernirgham is said to have worn

Philip, king of Macedon, defeats the Thebans and Athenians near Chæronea...

338 blue stockings at the conversaziones of Mrs. Montagu. Alexander destroys Thebes, but spares the house of Pin

Blue-books, reports and other papers printed by The Bæotian confederacy dissolved by the Romans. order of parliament; are so named on account of their Bæotia henceforth partook of the fortunes of Greece; A.D. wrappers; 70 vols. were printed for the lords, and 76 vols. and was conquered by the Turks under Mahomet 11.. 1456 for the commons in 1871.

Boers (peasants), a name given to the Dutch setBlumenau, Lower Austria; on 22 July, 1866, the tlers in South Africa; see Transvaal. Austrians in possession of this place were attacked by

Bogotà, SANTA FÉ DE, capital of New Granada the Prussians on their march towards Vienna; a severe conflict was interrupted by the news of the 'armistice (which see), founded 1538. agreed to at Nikolsburg; and the same evening Aus

Bogs, probably the remains of forests, covered with trians and Prussians bivouacked together.

peat and loose soil. An act for the drainage of Irish Board of Admiralty, Control, GREEN-CLOTH, been estimated at 3,000,000 acres; that of Scotland at

bogs passed March, 1830. The bog-land of Ireland has HEALTH, TRADE, etc., see under Admiralty, etc.

upwards of 2,000,000; and that of England at near Boats. Flat-bottomed boats, made in England in 1,000,000 of acres. In Jan. 1849, Mr. Rees Reece took the reign of William I.; again brought into use by out a patent for certain valuable products from Irish Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690; see Life - boat. A peat. Candles and various other articles produced from mode of building boats by the help of the steam-engine peat have been since sold in London. Fuel for railway was invented by Mr. Nathan Thompson of New York in engines and other purposes was made from peat (April, 1860, and premises were erected for its application at 1873); and a peat, coal, and charcoal company estabBow, near London, in 1861. Charles Clifford's valuable lished. Boat-lowering apparatus was invented 1856; see Cunal

Much destruction has been caused by the motion of bogs. bouts.

Leland (about 1546) speaks of Chat Moss doing so,

Mischief was done at Enaghmore, Ireland, 3 Jan. 1853; and Boat Voyage. Alfred Johnson, a young man, started farm-houses and fields near Dunmore were covered, Oct. 1873.

from America in the Centennial, a boat 20 feet long,
on 15 June, and landed at Abercastle, Pembrokeshire, Bogue Forts, see China, 1841.

11 Aug. 1876

Bohemia, formerly the Hercynian forest (Boiemum, Boat-races, see Dogget and University. The Lon- Tacitus), derives its name from the Boii, a Celtic tribe. don rowing club beat the Atalanta rowing club in a It was governed by dukes (Borzivoi the first, 891), till four-oared race on the Thames, 10 June, 1872.

Ottocar assumed the title of king, 1198. The kings at Boccaccio's Decamerone, a collection of a hun- first held their territory from the empire: and the crown dred stories or novels (many very immoral), severely was elective till it came to the house of Austria, in satirizing the clergy, feigned to have been related in ten which it is now hereditary. The original Bohemians days, during the plague of Florence in 1348. Boccaccio term themselves Czechs, and, following the example of lived 1313-75. A copy of the first edition (that of Val- Hungary, now call for autonomy. Prague, the capital, darfer in 1471) was knocked down at the duke of Rox- is famous for sieges and battles. Population in 1857, burgh's sale, to the duke of Marlborough, for 22601., 17 4,707,525; in 1870,5,140,544; see Prague. June, 1812.' This copy was afterwards sold by public The Czechs (Slavonians) seize Bohemia about...

550 auction, for 875 guineas, 5 June, 1819. 5 City of Prague founded...

795

Introduction of Christianity. Bodleian Library, Oxford, founded in 1598, and Bohemia conquered by the emperor Henry III., who opened in 1602, by sir Thos. Bodley (died 28 Jan. 1612). spreads devastation through the country.

1041 It is open to the public, and claims a copy of all works Ottocar II. rules over Austria, and obtains Styria, etc.,

Ottocar (Premislas) I., first king of Bohemia. published in this country. In 1868 it contained about

1253; refuses the imperial crown...

1272 250,000 volumes. For rare works and MSS. it is said to Ottocar vanquished by the emperor Rudolph and debe second only to the Vatican. Mr. Macray's “ Annals

prired of Austria, Styria, and Carniola, 1277; killed at Marchfeld

..26 Aug. 1278 of the Bodleian Library,” published 1868.

King John (blind) slain at the battle of Crecy... Beotia, a division of Greece, north of Attica, known John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two of the first re

formers, burned for heresy; which occasions an insurpreviously as Aonia, Messapia, Hyantis, Ogygia, and

..1415, 1416 Cadmeis. Thebes, the capital, was celebrated for the Ziska, leader of the Hussites, takes Prague, 1419; dies exploits and misfortunes of its kings and heroes. The Albert, duke of Austria, marries the daughter of the late

of the plague..

1424 term Boeotian was used by the Athenians as a synonym emperor and king, and receives the crowns of Bohefor dulness; but unjustly - since Pindar, Hesiod, Plu

mia and Hungary

1437 tarch, Democritus, Epaminondas, and Corinna were Boe- The succession infringed by Ladislas, son of the king of

Poland, and George Podiebrad, a Protestant chief, 1440-1458 otians. The early bistory and dates are mythical; see Ladislas, king of Poland, elected king of Bohemia, on Thebes.

the death of Podiebrad..

1471

The emperor Ferdinand I. marries Anne, sister of Louis, Arrival of Cadmus, founder of Cadmea (Hales, 1494;

the late king, and obtains the crown.

1527 Clinton, 1313)..

.B.C. 1493 The emperor Ferdinand II., oppressing the Protestants, Reign of Polydore.

is deposed, and Frederic, the elector-palat de, elected Labdachus ascends the throne.

king...

.5 Sept. 1619 Amphion and Zethus besiege Thebes, and dethrone Laius 1388 Frederic, totally defeated at Prague, flees to Holland, Myth of (Edipus; he kills in an affray his father Laius:

9 Nov. 1620 confirming the oracle foretelling his death by the Bohemia secured to Austria by treaty.. hands of his son, 1276; resolves the Sphinx's enigmas 1266 Silesia and Glatz ceded to Prussia...

1742 War of the Seven Captains.. 1225 Prague taken by the Prussians

1744 Thebes besieged and taken..

Prussians defeat Austrians at Prague.

..6 May, 1757 Thersander reigns 1198; slain..

1193 Revolt of the peasantry.... The Thebans abolish royalty (ages of obscurity follow) Edliet of Toleration promulgated..

1781 about 1120 The French occupy Prague.

1806 The Thebans fight with the Persians against the Greeks Insurrection at Prague, 12 June; submission, state of at Platea..

479 siege raised...

.20 July, 1848 The Spartans aiding the Thebans deftat the Athenians The Prussians enter Bohemia, which becomes the seat rear Tanagra..

456 of war (see Germany, 1866)..

24 June, 1866 Battle of Coronea, in which the Theb os defeat the Athe- Agitation of the Czechs, who require the emperor to be pians.

crowned king of Bohemia with the crown of St. Wen. The Thebans, under Epaminondas and Pelopidas, enroll

ceslas at Prague...

...autumn, 1867 their Sacred Band, and join Athens againsi Sparta.... 377 Riots at Prague; habeas corpus act suspended... 10 Oct. 1868 Epaminondas defeats the Lacedæmonians at Leuctra, Bohemian agitation for seil-government; adıdresses to and restores Thebes to independence....

the emperor...

.14 Sept. and 5 ct. 1870 Pelopidas killed at the battle of Cynoscephalæ..

...14 Sept. 1871

364 Manifesto of the emperor..

894

1198

1346

rection.

1459
1430

1648

1213

1775

371

The

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Bohemian deputies absent from the reichsrath..... Dec. 1871 , were made by the Russians, and Samarcand was secured “Young Czech party defeated in the elections,

July, 1874

by treaty, Nov. 1868. A new political and commercial Czech deputies enter reichsrath..

.8 Oct. 1879 treaty with Russia was published Dec. 1873.

Bolivia, a republic in South America, formerly part 1198. Premislas Ottocar I.

of Peru, population in 1875 about 2,000,000; in 1880, 1230. Wenceslas III. 1253. Premislas Ottocar II.

2,325,000. 1278, Wenceslas IV., king of Poland.

The insurrection of the ill-used Indians, headed by Tupac 1305. Wenceslas V.

Amaru Andres, took place here....

1780-2 1305. Rudolph of Austria.

The country declared its independence...........6 Aug. 1824 1307. Henry of Carinthia.

Secured by the victory of Ayacucho... ..9 Dec. 1310. John of Luxemburg (killed at Crecy).

Took the name of Bolivia, in honor of gen. Bolivar, 1346. Charles I., emperor (1347). 1378. Wenceslas VI., emperor.

11 Aug. 1825 First congress met...

25 May, 1826 1419. Sigismund I., emperor.

General Sucre governed ably..

1826-8 1438. Albert of Austria, emperor.

Slavery abolished..

1836 1440. Ladislas V.

Santa Cruz ruled..

.1828-39 1458. George von Podiebrad.

Free-trade proclaimed

1853 1471. Ladislas VI., king of Hungary (in 1490).

General Cordova, president..

1855-7 1516. Louis, king of Hungary killed at Mohatz). 1526. Bohemia united to Austria under Ferdinand I., elected Succeeded by the dictator José Maria Linares, 31 March, 1859

George Cordova, constitutional president...

1860 king; see Germany, emperors.

Succeeded by Jos. M. de Acha..

May, 1861 Bohemian Brethren, a body of Christians in Bo- General Melgarejo defeats the troops of president De

Acha....

.28 Dec. 1864 hemia, appear to have separated from the Calixtines Becomes dictator of the republic.

Feb. 1865 (which see), a branch of the Hussites, in 1467. Dupin Puts down an insurrection under Belzu.. .March, says, “ They rejected the sacraments of the church, were Totally defeats Arguedas at Viacha and publishes an

amnesty

.24 Jan. 1866 governed by simple laics, and held the Scriptures for suppresses a revolt...

17 Oct. their only rule of faith. They presented a confession Proclaims an amuesty.

.21 Dec. 1867 of faith to king Ladislas in 1504 to justify themselves civil war....

1867-70 from errors laid to their charge.” They appear to have the president, A. Morales, 1871, said to have been mur.

...Jan. 1873 had communication with the Waldenses, but were dis. President, Dr. Tomas Frias. .

.14 Feb. 1874 tinct from them. Luther, in 1533, testifies to their puri- Corral's insurrection suppressed.

..Sept. ty of doctrine, and Melanchthon commends their disci- Bolivia joins Chili in war against

Peru (see Chili).. April 1879 General Hilarion Daza, president.

.4 May, 1876 pline. They were dispersed during the religious wars Revolution; Daza deposed; flees; Campero president, of Germany in the seventeenth century.

1 June, 1880 Boii, a Celtic people of N. Italy, who emigrated Bollandists, see Acta Sanctorum. into Italy, and were defeated at the Vadimonian lake,

Bologna (central Italy) the ancient Felsina, after283 B.c. They were finally subdued by Scipio Nasica, wards Bononia, a city distinguished for its architecture, 191 B.C.

made a Roman colony, 189 B.C. Boilers, Steam. Many lives have been lost by A university said to have been founded by Theodosius, their explosions. 23 persons were killed at Glasgow about 433; really in....

1116 iron-works, 5 March, 1879; and 21 killed at the Birchill Bologna joins the Lombard League..

1167

Pope Julius II. takes Bologna; enters in triumph, 11 Nov. 1503 iron-works, near Walsall, 15 May, 1880.

It becomes part of the States of the Church.

1513 Boiling of Liquids. Dr. Hooke, about 1683, as- In the church of St. Petronius, remarkable for its pave

ment, Cassini drew his meridian line (over one drawn certained that liquids were not increased in heat after

by Father Ignatius Dante in 1575)....

1653 they had once begun to boil, and that a fierce fire only Bologna was taken by the French, 1796; by the Ausmade them boil more rapidly. The following boiling- trians, 1799; again by the French, after the battle of

Marengo, in 1800; and restored to the pope in.

1815 points have been stated :

A revolt suppressed by Austrian interference. Ether. 930 Fahr. | Phosphorus...... 5549 Fahr. Rebellion, 1848; taken by Austrians.

..16 May, 1849 Alcohol, Oil of Turpentine.. 312

The Austrians evacuate Bologna; and cardinal Ferretti Water

Sulphur...

822

departs; the citizens rise and form a provisional gov. Nitric acid. ... 187

Mercury

662
ernment..

12 June, 1859 Sulphuric acid... 600

Which decrees that all public acts shall be headed “Un

der the reign of king Victor Emmanuel," etc...1 Oct. Boiling to Death, made a capital punishment in He enters Bologna as sovereign...

.2 May, 1860 England, by stat. 22 Hen. VIII. 1531 (repealed in 1547). This act was occasioned by seventeen persons having isles in the Baltic sea, taken by sir Charles Napier, com

Bomarsund, a strong fortress on one of the Aland been poisoned by Richard Rosse, otherwise Coke, the mander of the Baltic expedition, aided by the French bishop of Rochester's cook, two of whom died. Marga- military contingent under gen. Baraguay'd'Hilliers, 15 ret Davy, a young woman, suffered in the same manner for a similar crime, 28 March, 1542.--Stou,

Aug. 1854. The gor. Bodisco, and the garrison, about

2000 men, became prisoners. The fortifications were Bois-le-duc, Dutch Brabant, the site of a battle destroyed. between the British and the French republican army,

Bombay, the most westerly and smallest of our Inin which the British were defeated, and forced to abandon their position and retreat to Schyndel, 14 Sept. 1794. dian presidencies, was visited by the Portuguese in 1509, This place was captured by the French, 10 Oct. follow and acquired by them in 1530. It was given (with Taning; it surrendered to the Prussian army, under Bulow, gier in Africa, and 300,0001. in money) to Charles II. as in Jan. 1814.

the marriage portion of the infanta Catherine of Portu

gal, 1662. In 1668, it was granted to the East India Bokhara, the ancient Sogdiana, after successively company, who had long desired it, “ in free and common forming

part of the empires of Persia, of Alexander, and socage," as of the manor of East Greenwich, at an anBactriana, was conquered by the Turks in the sixth nual rent of 101. Confirmed by William III., 1689. The century, by the Chinese in the seventh, and by the two principal castes at Bombay are the Parsees (lescendArabs about 705. After various changes of masters, it ants of the ancient Persian fire-worshippers ) and the was subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, its present possess- Borahs (sprung from early converts to Islamism). They ors, in 1505. The British envoy's col. Stoddart and are both remarkable for commercial activity. capt. Conolly were murdered at Bokhara, the capital, by First Br'tish factory established at Ahmednuggur. 1612 the khan, about June, 1813. In the war with Russia, Mr. Gyfford, deputy governor, 100 soldiers, and other begun in 1866, the emir's army was defeated several English, perish through the climate...,Oct. 1675-Feb. 1676 times in May et seq. Peace was made 11 July, 1867. Capt. Keigwin usurps the government...

1681-4 The Russians were again victors, 25 May, 1868, and oc- The wholo island, except the fort

, seized aud held for å

Bombay made chief over the company's settlements. ... 1687 cupied Samarcand the next day. Further conquests time by the mogul's admiral..

1690

1831

173 212

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66

Bombay becomes a distinct presidency..

17081 Würtemberg, 12 Aug. 1807). Made governor of the InvaAdditions to the Bombay territory: Baucot river, 1756; lides, 1848; and marshal, 1850; died 24 June, 1860; his chil. island of Salsette...

1775 dren Bishopric established.

1837 Mathilde, born 27 May, 1820; married to prince A. Demi. Lord Elphinstone governor..

1853

doll in 1841. Population of the presidency, 12,034,483.

1858 Napoleon, born 9 Sept. 1822; married princess Clotilde of The benevolent sir Jamset jee Jejeebhoy, a Parsee (who

Savoy, 30 Jan. 1859: issue, Victor, born 18 July, 1862; erected several hospitals, etc.), dies.

15 April, 1859 Louis, born 16 July, 1864; Marie, born 20 Dec. 1866. His son sir Cursetjee visits England.

1860 Sir G. R. Clerk, governor....

Bondage, see l’illanage.
Rioting against the income tax suppressed Nov. and Dec.
Sir Henry Bartle Frere governor..

Bones. The art of softening bones was discovered

. March, 1862 Greatly increased prosperity through the cotton trade, about 1688, and they were used in the cutlery manufactleads to immense speculation.

.Nov. 1864 ure, etc., immediately afterwards. The declared value Reported failure of Mr. Byramjee Cama, a Parsee, for

of the bones of cattle and of other animals, and of fish 3,300,0001. ; other failures, and great depression; the projected international exhibition in 1867 abandoned,

(exclusive of whale-fins ), imported into the United

May, 1865 Kingdom from Russia, Prussia, Holland, Denmark, etc., Recovering from commercial crisis.

. Aug. amounted to 363,6131. in 1851, to 628,5351, in 1870, to Mr. (afterwards sir) W. R. Seymour Fitzgerald appointed governor, Nov. 1866; arrived...

:28 Feb. 1867 741,8991, in 1877, and to 432,6121. in 1879. Bone-dust Held a durbar of native princes at Poona.. .6 Oct. 1868 has been extensively employed in manure since the pubGrand reception of the duke of Edinburgh. .11 March, 1870 lication of Liebig's researches in 1810. Sir Philip Wodehouse, governor..

... April, 1872 Riots: Mahometans attack Parsees for publishing part Bonesetting cannot be said to have been practised of Washington Irving's “Life of Mahomet;'' lives lost

scientifically until 1620.-Bell. and property destroyed..

13-15 Feb. 1874 Culprits punished by the British.

Bonn, a town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna), was The prince of Wales warmly received, 8 Nov. 1875; sailed in the electorate of Cologne. It has been frequently befrom here for home,

13 March, 1876 sieged, and was assigned to Prussia in 1814. The acadMeeting of loyal Mahometans to petition the queen in favor of the sultan..

24 Sept.
emy founded by the elector in 1777; made a university,

а Dreadful famine, relieved by government and by British 1784; abolished by Napoleon; re-established and ensubscriptions ..

1877

larged, 1818. Here Albert, our late prince-consort, was Statue of the prince of Wales (given by sir Albert Sas. soon), uncovered..

26 or 27 June, 1879 entered as a student, May, 1837. Sir James Fergusson nominated governor.

Feb. 1880

Bonny River, Guinea, West Africa, a seat of the A patriotic fund to relieve sufferers by Afghan war lib. erally subscribed to by natives and others..... .Aug.

palm-vil trade; king George visited England in 1878. Bombs (iron shells filled with gunpowder), said to

Bons Hommes, hermits of simple and gentle have been invented at Venlo in 1495, and used by the lives, appeared in France about 1257; in England about Turks at the siege of Rhodes in 1522. They came into 1283. The prior of the order was called le bon homme general use in 1634, having been previously used only

by Louis VI. by the Dutch and Spaniards. Bomb-vessels were in- Book (Anglo-Saxon, boc; German, buch). Books vented in France in 1681.- Voltaire. The shrapnel shell were originally made of boards, or the inner bark of (invented by col. Henry Shrapnel, who died in 1812) is trees; afterwards of skins and parchment. Papyrus, an à bomb filled with balls

, and a lighted fuse to make it indigenous plant, was adopted in Egypt. Books with explode before it reaches the enemy.

leaves of vellum were invented by Attalus, king of PerBona, Algeria, an early station of the French Afri-gamus, about 198 B.C., at which time books were in rolcan Company till 1789. It was taken by the French umes or rolls. The MSS. in Herculaneum consist of from the Arabs, 6 May, 1832.

papyrus, rolled and charred and matted together by the

fire, and are about nine inches long, and one, two, or Bonaparte Family. The name appears at Florence and Genoa in the thirteenth century; in the fif- The most ancient books are the Pentateuch of Moses

three inches in diameter, each being a separate treatise. teenth a branch settled in Corsica; see Table in Vin- and the poems of Homer and Hesiod. The first PrixTED cent's “ Dictionary of Biography.”

Books (see Printing) were printed on one side only, the Charles BONAPARTE, born 29 March, 1746; died 24 Feb. 1785. leaves being pasted back to back. He married, in 1767, Letitia Ramolina (born 24 Aug. 1750; Books of astronomy and geometry were ordered to be de

died Feb. 1836): ISSUE, 1. JOSEPII, born 7 Jan. 1768; made king of Two Sicilies, 1805; stroyed in England as being infected with magic, 6 of Naples alone, 1806; of Spain, 1808; resides in United

Edw. VI.-Stow..

1552 States, 1815; comes to England, 1832; settles in Italy, 1841; Anne's act, 1709, relating to the price of books, repealed. 1739 dies at Florence, 28 July, 1844.

2032 volumc3 of new works and 773 of new editions were 2. NAPOLEON I., emperor, born 15 Aug. 1769 (see France). published in London in..

1839 3. LUCIEN, prince of Canino, born 1775; at first aided his broth. 3359 new works and 1159 new editions, and 908 pamer Napoleon, but opposed his progress towards universa! phlets, were published in.

1852 monarchy. He was taken by the English on his way to 3553 volumes were published in...

1864 America, and resided in England till 1814. He died at vi.

Published in Great Britain: terbo, 30 June, 1840. His son Charles (born 1803, died 1857) was an eminent naturalist.

Works. Editions.

Works. Editions. 4. Louis, born 2 Sept. 1778; made king of Holland, 1806; died 1870.

1876.

2931 1957 15 July, 1846. By his marriage with Hortense Beauharnais 1871..

3517

1877..

3049 2046 (daughter of the empress Josephine), in 1802, he had three

1872.
3419 1100

1878..

3730 1584 sons: 1. Napoleon Louis (born 1803, died 1807); 2. Louis Na- 1874.

3351 961

1879.

4294

1540 poleon (born 1804, died 1831); and

1875. ..... 3573 1331 1880..

4293 1415 3. CHARLES Louis NAPOLEON, born 20 April, 1808; educated The production of a l'niversal Catalogue of books print

under the care of his mother at Arenberg, Switzerland, ed in the l'nited Kingdom, proposed by the Society of and at Thun, under gen. Dufour; took part in the Carbo

Arts, in the Journal.......

......11 April, 1879 nari insurrection in the Papal States in March, 1831. Attempted a revolt at Strasburg, 30 Oct. 1836.

In Paris, 6445 volumes were published in 1842, and 7350 Sent to America, 13 Nov. 1836.

in 1851; see Bibliography. Repairs to London, 14 Oct. 1838.

PRICES OF BOOKS.-Jerome (who died 420) states that he Lands at Boulogne with fifty followers, 6 Ang. 1840.

had ruined hiniself by buying a copy of the works of Origen. Condemned to imprisonment for life, 6 Oct. 1840.

A large estate was given by Alfred for a book on cosmography, Escapes from Ham, 25 May, 1846.

about 872. The - Roman de la Rose” was sold for about 301., Arrives at Boulogue, 2 March, 1848.

and a homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quarters Elected deputy, 8 June; and takes his seat, 27 Aug (see of wheat. Books frequently fetched double or treble their

France, 1848-71); died at Chislehurst, 9 Jan. 1873, weight in gold. They sold at prices varying from 101. to 401. Son : Napoleon Eugene Louis Jean Joseph; born 16 each in 1100. A copy of “Macklin's Bible," ornamented by

March, 1856; educated at Military Academy, Woolwich; Mr. Tomkins, was declared worth 500 gminens. ---Butler. A yet killed in Zululand, 1 June, 1879.

more superb copy was insured in a London office for 30001.; 6. JEROME, born 15 Nov. 1784; king of Westphalia, 1 Dec. 1807- sec Boccaccio's Dreamerone.

14 (married: I. Elizabeth laterson, in America, 24 Dec, BOOKBINDING. —The book of St. Cuthbert, a very early 180:3 (she died, aged 94, 4 April, 1879); son Jerome, born at ornamental book, is supposed to have been bound Camberwell, London, 7 July, 1805. II. Princess Catherine of

about 600

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A Latin Psalter was bound in oak boards.......ninth century, with 20,0001. to fit out his polar expedition. Sir Felix A MS. copy of the four Evangelists, the book on which

died at Brighton in Feb. 1850. our kings from Henry I. to Edward VI. took their coronation oath, was bound in oaken boards, nearly an Boots, said to have been the invention of the Cainch thick...

1100 Velvet was the covering in the fourteenth century, and

rians, were mentioned by Homer, 907 B.C., and frequentsilk soon after. Vellum was introduced early in the ly by the Roman historians. A variety of forms may fifteenth century; it was stamped and ornamented be seen in Fairholt's “ Costume in England.” An in

about 1510

strument of torture termed the bootwas used in Scot. Leather came into use about the same time. The rolling machine, invented by Mr. William Burr, was

land

upon the Covenanters about 1666. substituted for the beating hammer, and gas stoves be.

Borax (Boron), known to the ancients, used in solgan to take the place of the charcoal tires used to heat the gilder's finishing tools.....

.... about 1830 dering, brazing, and casting gold and other metals, was Cloth binding superseded the common boards generally, called chrysocolla. Borax is produced naturally in the

about 1831 mountains of Thibet, and was brought to Europe from Caoutchone or India-rubber backs to account-books and large volumes were introduced in...

1841 India about 1713. Homberg, in 1702, discovered in borax BOOK HAWKING SOCIETIES (already in Scotland) begun in | boracic acid, which latter, in 1808, was decomposed by England in 1851 by archdeacon Wigram (afterwards

Gay-Lussac, Thénard, and H. Davy into oxygen an: bishop of Rochester). The hawkers vend moral and religious books in a similar inamer to the French col

the previously unknown element boron. Borax has late. porteurs.

ly been found in Saxony. It is now largely manufactBook of Common Prayer, see Common Prayer. the gas arising from certain lagoons in Tuscany; and an

ured from the boracic acid found by Hoefer to exist in Book of Sports, see Sports.

immense fortune has been made by their owner, M. LarBook Post, see Post.

darel, since 1818. Book Society, 28 Paternoster Row, established Bordeaux (W. France), the Roman Burdigalla, in for the gratuitous distribution of Bibles and good books, Aquitania, was taken by the Goths, 412; by Clovis, 508. 1750.

It was gained by Henry II. on his marriage with Eleanor Book-keeping. The system by double-entry, of Aquitaine, 1151. Edward the Black Prince brought called originally Italian book-keeping, was taken from John, king of France, captive to this city after the batthe course of algebra published by Burgo, in the fifteenth tle of Poictiers, 19 Sept. 1356, and here held his court century, at Venice. John Gowgne, a printer, published eleven years; bis son, our Richard II., was born at Bora treatise on the kepyng of the famouse reconynge

deaux, 1366. After several changes Bordeaux finally Debitor and Creditor," London, 1543. This is our ear- surrendered to Charles VII. of France, 14 Oct. 1453. The liest work on book-keeping. James Peele published his fine equestrian statue of Louis XV. was erected in 1:43. “ Book-keeping” in 1569. John Mellis published " A Borileaux was entered by the victorious British is my Briefe Instruction and Manner how to Keepe Bookes of after the battle of Orthes, fought 27 Feb. 1814.-T, irAccompts," in 1588. Improved systems were published teen vessels were burned and others injured in the port, by Benjamin Booth in 1789 and by Edward Thomas through the ignition and explosion of petroleum spirit, Jones in 1821 and 1831.

28 Sept. 1869. The French delegate government and Booksellers, at first migratory like hawkers, be- Tours, 11 Dec. 1870. M. Gambetta remained for a time

the representatives of foreign powers removed here from came known as stationarii

, from their practice of hav- with the army of the Loire. By the “ pacte de Boring booths or stalls at the corners of streets and in mar- deaux," between the different parties of the national askets. They were long subject to vexatious restrictions, sembly, M. Thiers became chief of the executive power, from which they were freed in 1758.

17 Feb. 1871. The French Association for the AdvanceThe earliest bookseller's catalogue is said to be that publishment of Science held its first meeting here, 5 Sept. 1872; ed by Andrew Maunsell, of Lothbury, dedicated to queen Eliz. M. Quatrefages, president. abeth, 1595.

“ Booksellers' Provident Institution,'' founded 1837; “Re- Borneo, an island in the Indian Ocean, the largest treat,” Abbot's Langley, Herts, 1813.

The Bookseller, a monthly newspaper of British and foreign in the world except Australia, was discovered by the literature, published in 1858; with it was incorporated Bent's Portuguese about 1518. Literary Advertiser, established in 1802.

The Dutch trade here in 1604; establish factories, 1609; Booksellers' Association. The chief publish- Sarawak settled by sir James Brooke; appointed rajah.. 1841

abandon them, 1623; re-establish them.... ers in London formed themselves into an association and the pirates of Borneo chastised by the British in 1813, fixed the amount of discount to be allowed, 29 Dec. 1829, and by capt. Keppel in....

.. ... March, 1843 and for some years restricted the retail booksellers from By a treaty with the sultan, through the instrumentali.

ty of sir James Brooke, the island of Labooan, or Laselling copies of works under the full publishing price. buan (N. W. of Borneo), and its dependencies, incorpoA dispute arose as to the right of the latter to dispose of rated with the British empire, and formally taken books which had become theirs by purchase at such less James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak (1846), governor of la

possession of in presence of the Bornean chiefs, 2 Dec. 1846 profit as they might deem sufficiently remunerative.

buan and consul-general of Boruco, visits England and The dispute was referred to lori chief-justice Campbell, receives many honors..

.....Oct. 1817 at Stratheden House, 14 April, 1852. His lordship gave He destroys many of the Bornean pirates. judgment against the association, which led to its disso- Labuan made a bishopric; the bishop (F. J. MacDougall)

consecrated at Calcutta, the first English bishop conse. lution, 19 May following.

crated out of England....

The Chinese in Sarawak rise in insurrection and massaBooneville (Mo.), BATTLE OF, fought 17 June,

cre a number of Europeans; sir James Brooke escapes 1861. Gov. Jackson of Missouri, a Confederate sympa- by swimming across a creek; he speedily returns with thizer, had abandoned Jefferson City, which was imme- a force of Malays, etc., and chastises the insurgents, of

whom 2000 are killed..... diately occupied by gen. Lyon. The Confederate forces He comes to England to seek help from the government,

..17, 18 Feb. 1857 in the state were concentrating about Booneville, 50 without success.

1858 miles above Jefferson City. Before they could accom- His health being broken up, an appeal for a subscription plish this, however, Lyon moved upon Booneville, and, Deputation of merchants waits on the earl of Derby, recwith 2000 men, defeated Marmaduke, who offered little

ommending the purchase of Sarawak, which is deresistance. The action only lasted 20 minutes. The re- clined..

.30 Nov.

.20 Nov. 1860 sult of Lyon's prompt movement compelled the Confed-Sir James Brooke returns to Borneo.. erate detachments to concentrate on the southern border The rajah of Sarawak, with an expedition of Malays and

11 June, 1868

Returned to England; died... of the state.

Dyaks, defeats and punishes a marauding decapitating

tribe of Dyaks...... Boothia Felix, a large peninsula, N.W. point of

...June, 1870 America, discovered by sir John Ross in 1830, and Bornou, an extensive kingdom in central Africa, exnamed after sir Felix Booth, who had presented him plored by Denham and Clapperton (sent out by the Brit

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1849

..18 Oct. 1855

for him made...

64

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