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ish government) in 1822. The population is estimated this strait when about to invade Greece, 493 B.C.; see by Denham at 5,000,000, by Barth at 9,000,000.

Constantinople. Borodino, a Russian village on the river Moskwa, Bosporus (improperly Bosphorus), now called Cirnear which a sanguinary battle was fought, 7 Sept. 1812, cassia, near the Bosphorus Cimmerius, the straits of between the French under Napoleon, and the Russians Kertch or Yenikalé. The history of the kingdom is inunder Kutusoff; 240,000 men being engaged. Each volved in obscurity. It was named Cimmerian, from the party claimed the victory; but the Russians retreated, Cimmeri, who dwelt on its borders about 750 B.C. leaving Moscow, which the French entered, 14 Sept.; The Archænactidæ from Mitylene rule..

.B.C. 502-480 see Moscow,

They are dispossessed by Spartacus I...

Seleucus, 431; Satyrus I. Boron, see Borax.

Leucon, 393; Spartacus II., 353; Parysades.

348 Borough or Burgi, anciently a company of ten

Eumelus, aiming to dethrone his brother Satyrus II., is

defeated; but Satyrus is killed. families living together, now such towns as send mem-Prytanis, his next brother, ascends the throne, but is bers to parliament, since the election of burgesses in the murdered by Eumelus..

Eumelus puts to death all his relations, 309, and is killed, 304 reign of Henry III. 1265. Charters were granted to

The Scythians conquer Bosporus. towns by Henry I., 1132; which were remodelled by Mithridates VI. of Pontus conquers Bosporus..

80 Charles II. in 1682-4. but restored in 1688. Twenty-two He poisons himself; and the Romans make his son, new English boroughs were created in 1553. Burgesses

Pharnaces, king..

63 were first admitted into the Scottish parliament by Rob- Battle of Zela, gained by Julius Cæsar over Pharnaces II.

(Cæsar writes home, Veni, vidi, vici, “I came, I saw, I ert Bruce, 1326; and into the Irish, 1365. Acts to amend conquered”)..

47 the Representation of the People in England and Wales Asander usurps the crown..

Casar makes Mithridates of Pergamus king.
passed 7 June, 1832, and 15 Aug. 1867; and the Act for Polemon conquers Bosporus,and, favored by Agrippa reigns 14
the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, 9 Sept. 1835; Polemon killed by barbarians of the Palus Mæotis.... A. D.
see Constituency.

Polemon II. reigns..
Mithridates II. reigns.

Borough-bridge (W. R. of York). Here Edward Mithridates conducted a prisoner to Rome by order of
II. defeated the earls of Hereford and Lancaster, 16 March, Claudius; Cotys I. king...

49 1322. Lancaster was mounted on a lean horse, led to

A list of kings given by some writers ends with Sauroma.
tes VII..

314 an eminence near Pontefract, and beheaded.

Boston (Lincolnshire), a trading town, made a staBorough-English, an ancient tenure by which the ple for wool, 1357; St. Botolph's church, with a lofty younger son inherits, is mentioned as occurring 834.

tower, was erected about 1309. was abolished in Scotland by Malcolm III. in 1062. Boscobel, near Donington, Shropshire. Charles II. Here originated that resistance to the British authori

Boston (Massachusetts, U. S.), built about 1627. (after his defeat at Worcester, 3 Sept. 1651), disguised in ties which led to American independence. The act the clothes of the Pendrills, remained from 4 to 6 Sept. of parliament laying duties on tea, papers, colors, etc. at White Ladies; on 7 and 8 Sept. he lay at Boscobel (passed June, 1767), so excited the indignation of the House, near which exists an oak, said to be the scion citizens of Boston that they destroyed several hunof the Royal Oak in which the king was part of the time dreds of chests of tea, 16 Dec. 1773. Population in 1880, hidden with col. Careless. Sharpe. The “Boscobel

362,535. Tracts” were first published in 1660. In 1861 Mr. F. Manning published “Views,” illustrating these tracts.

Boston News Letter, first American newspaper, appeared, W. H. Ainsworth's “Boscobel,” a story with authentic Boston seaport shut by the English parliament, nntil res.

24 April, 1704 details, published 1872.

titution should be made to the East India Company for

the tea lost... Bosnia, in European Turkey formerly part of Pan- The town besieged by the Americans, and 400 houses de

.25 March, 1774 nonia, was governed by chiefs till a brother-in-law of


1775 Louis, king of Ilungary, was made king, 1376. He was Battle of Bunker's Hill..

.17 June, defeated by the Turks in 1389, and became their vassal. The city evacuated by the king's troops.......17 March, 1776

Industrial Exhibition opened.

... Oct. 1856 Bosnia was incorporated with Turkey in 1463. Many Great peace jubilee; concert of about 10,371 voices and efforts have been made by the Bosnians to recover their 1094 instruments, with anvils, bells, etc., begun 15 June, 1869 independence. A rebellion, begun in 1819, was quelled International peace jubilee; chorus about 20,000; orchesby Omar Pacha in 1851. The Bosnians joined the in

tra, 1000; with military bands and other performers of

different nations, including the British grenadier guards' surgents in Herzegovina, Sept. 1875; revolt was sub

band; a day allotted to each pation...17 June-4 July, 1872 dued, Aug. 1877; see Turkey.

Tremendous fire; great loss of life and property; about

80 acres of buildings burned, 959 houses (125 dwell. About 100,000 Bosnian fugitives said to be in Austran

ings); 35 persons killed...

.....9, 10, 11 Noy. territories...

..... July, 1878 Anoiher great fire, with loss of life and property..30 May, 1873 Proclamation of the emperor before his troops enter Bosnia (in conformity with the treaty of Berlin, 13 July), Boston, EVACUATION OF, 17 March, 1776. The

27 July, American army under Washington had hemmed the Advance of the Austrians, 29 July, vigorously resisted by the Bosnian begs, aided by Turks...

British army within the small area of the peninsula in

4-6 Aug. The Bosnians defeated between Zepce and Maglai,

which Boston stands, for several months, during which

7,8 Aug. time there had been frequent skirmishing and some canThe Austrians occupy Travnik, the old capital, 11 Aug;

nonading. At length Washington took such a comslightly repulsed...

.16 Aug Victories of Philippovich at Han Belalovich, 16 Aug ; of

manding position upon Dorchester Heights that the Tegethoff..

18 Aug. British general, Howe, agreed to leave the city immediSerajevo, the capital, bombarded and taken by storm. 19 ately il' allowed to do so in peace. The permission was Aug ; other successes.

30 Aug., 5 Sept.

granted, and, on 17 March, gen. Howe, with 7000 solThe fortress Trebinje voluntarily surrenders.....7 Sept. Behaсs firmly resists, 10 Sept. ; taken.. .......19 Sept. diers, 4000 seamen, and 1500 loyalist families, sailed for Senkovics, a strong fortress, with arms and ammunition, Halifax, The American army then took possession, to taken...

21 Sept.

the great joy of the remaining inhabitants. Zwornik, a stronghold, surrenders........ about 25 Sept.

Congress Livno bombarded and taken..

28 Sept.

gave Washington a gold medal in commemoration of Other places surrender...

the event. Resistance ended; general amnesty issued about 9 Nov. Austrian loss estimated 5000 killed, wounded, missing,

Bosworth Field (Leicestershire), the site of the

Nov. thirteenth and last battle between the houses of York The country settled gradual political reforms. .... .Jan. 1880 and Lancaster, 22 Aug. 1485, when Richard III, was dePopulation, 1, 142, 147; announced.


feated by the earl of Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.) Bosphorus, Thracian (now Channel of Constanti- and slain, through the desertion of sir William Stanley. nople). Darius II ystaspis threw a bridge of boats over. It is said that llenry was crowned on the spot with the

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crown of Richard, found in a hawthorn bush near the Boulogne, a seaport in Picardy, N. France, added field.

to Burgundy, 1435; to France, 1447. Here Henry VIII. Botany. Aristotle is considered the founder of the and Francis I. concluded a treaty to oppose the Turks, science (about 347 B.c.). Historia Plantarum of Theo- 28 Oct. 1532. Boulogne was besieged by Henry VII. 2 phrastus was written about 320 B.G. Authors on botany Oct. 1492, for a few days; taken by Henry VIII. on 14 became numerous at the close of the fifteenth century. Sept. 1514, but restored for a sum of money', 1550. Fuchsius, Bock, Baubin, Cæsalpinus, and others wrote Lord Nelson attacked a flotilla here, disabling ten vessels between 1535 and 1600. The system and arrangement in another attempt he was repulsed with great loss, and

and sinking five...

..3 Aug. 1801 of the great Linnæus was made known about 1735; and

capt. Parker of the Medusa and two thirds of his crew Jussieu's system, founded on Tournefort's, and called were killed.. “the natural system,” in 1758.

At Linnæus's death Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, and

a flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors, to invade (1778) the species of plants actually described amounted

Englund in 1804; the coasts of Kent and Sussex were in number to 11,800. The number of species now re- covered with martello towers and lines of defence; and corded cannot fall short of 100,000. J. C. Loudon's “En- nearly half the adult population of Britain was formed

into volunteer corps; sir Sidney Smith unsuccessfully cyclopædia of Plants," a most comprehensive work, first

attempted to burn the flotilla with fire-machines called appeared in 1829. De Candolle's " Prodromus Systema- catamarans....

.2 Oct. 1804 tis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis” (of which Vol. I. ap- The army removed on the breaking-out of war with Auspeared in 1818) is now complete (1876). An Interna- Congreve-rockets used in another attack, and set the

1805 tional Botanical congress was opened in London 23 May,

town on fire..

.8 Oct. 1806 1866, professor A. De Candolle president; another at Am- Louis Napoleon (afterwards emperor) made a fruitless

descent here with about 50 followers. sterdam, 13 April, 1877. Robert Brown, who accompa

....6 Aug. 1840 nied Flinders in his survey of New Holland in 1803, died As emperor, he reviewed the French troops destined for

the Baltic, 10 July, 1854; and entertained prince Albert 10 June, 1858, aged 85, was long acknowledged to be the and the king of the Belgians

.5 Sept. 1854 chief of the botanists of his day (facile princeps).

Statue of Edward Jenner here inaugurated. 11 Sept. 1865

Pilgrimages here to adore an image of the Virgin and BOTANIC GARDENS.

Child, said to have been miraculously brought in a
Established about

Established about
boat in 633...

.. 1857-75 Padua.. 1545 Kew, 1760; greatly im

Law authorizing construction of a new deep-sea harbor Montpellier,


1841-65 by M. Stoecklin (in 15 years), cost about 680,0001.; Leyden. 1577 Cambridge.


passed 19 June; first stone laid by M. Freycinet, 9 Sept. 1878 Leipsic.. 1580 Coimbra

1773 Paris (Jardin des Plantes) 1624 St. Petersburg

Boundary Act. Commissioners were appointed by

1785 Jena.. 1629 Calcutta...


the Reform Bill, passed 15 Aug. 1867. Viscount Evers. Oxford 1632 Dublin..

1800 ley, Russell Gurney, sir John T. B. Duckworth, sir FranUpsal.

1657 Horticultural Society's, cis Crossley, and John Walter, first sat 16 Aug. England Chelsea . 1673-86 Chiswick.


and Wales were divided into 18 districts, and other arEdinburgh

1680 Royal Botanic Society's, Vienna,

Regent's Park.. 1839 rangements made. Another boundary act was passed 13 Madrid.

1755 Royal Horticultural Soci. July, 1868.
ety's, S. Kensington... 1860

Bounties, premiums granted to the producer, exBotany Bay (Australia), discovered by capt. Cook, porter, or importer of certain articles—a principle intro28 April, 1770, received its name from the great variety duced into commerce by the British parliament. The of plants growing on the shore. It was fixed on for a first granted on corn, in 1688, were repealed in 1815. colony of convicts from Great Britain. The first gov- They were first legally granted in England for raising ernor, capt. Arthur Phillip, who sailed from England in naval stores in America, 1703, and have been granted to May, 1787, arrived at the settlement in Jan. 1788. The the herring-fishery, on sail-cloth, linen, and other goods. colony was eventually established at Port Jackson, about thirteen miles to the north of the bay; see New South

Bounty Mutiny took place on board the Bounty, Wales and Transportation.

an armed ship which quitted Otaheite, with bread-fruit

trees, 7 April, 1789. The mutineers put their captain, Bothwell Bridge (Lanarkshire). The Scotch Bligh, and nineteen men into an open boat, with a small Covenanters, who took up arms against the intolerant stock of provisions, near Annamooka, one of the Friendly government of Charles II., and defeated the celebrated isles, 28 April, 1789; these reached the island of Timor, Claverhouse at Drumclog, 1 June, 1679, were totally rout- south of the Moluccas, in June, after a voyage of nearly ed by the earl of Monmouth at Bothwell Bridge, 22 June, 4000 miles. Some of the mutineers were tried 15 Sept. 1679, and many prisoners were tortured and executed. 1792; six were condemned and three executed. For the Bottle-conjurer. In accordance with a wager, a

fate of others, see Pitcairn's Island. person having advertised that he would jump into a Bourbon, Hou'SE OF (from which came the royal quart bottle at the Haymarket Theatre, on 16 Jan. 1749, houses of France, Spain, and Naples), derives its origin the house was densely crowded and besieged by thou- from the Archambauds, lords of Bourbon, in Berry, sands anxions to gain admittance. The pickpockets had Robert, count of Clermont, son of Louis IX. of France, a rich harvest, and the duped crowd nearly pulled down

married the heiress Beatrice in 1272; died 1317; and the edifice.

their son Louis I. created duke of Bourbon and peer of France by Charles IV...

1327 Bottles in ancient times were made of leather. The The last of the descendants of their elder son Peter I., art of making glass bottles and drinking-glasses was

Susanna, married Charles, duke of Montpensier, con

stable of Bourbon, who, offended by his sovereign, Franknown to the Romans at least before 79; for these arti- cis I., entered into the service of the emperor Charles cles and other vessels have been found in the ruins of V., and was killed at the siege of Rome.. ..6 May, 1527 Pompeii. Bottles were made in England about 1558. From James, the younger son of Louis I., descended An. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was blown, we

tony, duke of Vendôme, who married (1548) Jeanne

d'Albret, daughter of Henry, king of Navarre. Their are told, at Leith, in Scotland, in Jan. 1747–8; see Glass. son, Henry IV., born at Pau, 14 Dec. 1553, became king

of France.. Bouillon, Belgium, formerly a duchy, was sold by the crown of Spain was settled on a younger branch

..31 July, 1589 Godfrey, its ruler, to Albert, bishop of Liége, to obtain of this family, 1700, and guaranteed by the peace of funds for the crusade, 1095. It was seized by the French

Utrecht (Rapin)..

1713 in 1672, and held by them till 1815, when it was given Bourbon FAMILY COMPACT (a defensive alliance between

France, Spain, and the Two Sicilies concluded by M. to the king of the Netherlands, as duke of Luxemburg. de Choiseul)..

..15 Aug. 1761 It was awarded to Belgium after the Revolution of 1830. The Bourbons expelled France, 1791; restored 1814; again

expelled on the return of Bonaparte from Elba, and Boulevards (Bulwarks), sites of old fortifications again restored after the battle of Waterloo, 1815. The in Paris and other French towns, now planted with rows

elder branch was expelled once more, in the person of

Charles X. and his family, in 1830, in consequence of of trees. The practice has been adopted in some London

the revolution of the memorable days of July in that suburban roads, 1875 et seq.


Orleans branch ascended the throne in the person of the Boxtel (in Dutch Brabant), where the British and late Louis Philippe, as “ king of the French,” 9 Aug.

allied army, commanded by the duke of York, was de1830; deposed, 24 Feb. 1848; and his family also was expelled.

feated by the French republicans, who took 2000 prisonThe Bourbon family fled from Naples (6 Sept. 1860), and ers and eight pieces of cannon, 17 Sept. 1794.

Francis II. lost his kingdom; expelled from Spain,
Sept. 1868; restored by Alfonso XII., 31 Dec. 1874; seo Box-tree, indigenous to this country, and exceed-
France, Spain, Naples, Orleans, Parma, Condé,' and ingly valuable to wood-engravers. In 1815 a large box-

tree at Box Hill, Surrey, was cut down, and realized a The fusion of the parties supporting the comte de Chambord with the Orleanists said to be accomplished, 5

large sum. Macculloch says that “the trees were cut Aug. 1873; see France.

down in 1815, and produced upwards of 10,0002." About Bourbon, Isle of (in the Indian ocean), discorered 1820 the cutting of trees on the hill produced about by the Portuguese about 1542. The French are said to 60001.—In the United States the tree is common from have first settled here in 1642. It surrendered to the Massachusetts to Florida. It is called, indifferently, British, under admiral Rowley, 21 Sept. 1809, and was boxwood or dogwood. Boxwood is now the only wood restored to France in 1815.-- Alison. An awful hurri- used for engravings, and it is extensively used also by cane in Feb. 1829, did much mischief. Bourbon was mathematical-instrument makers, named “l'Île de la Réunion " in 1818; see Mauritius. Boy-bishop. During the middle ages a choir-boy Bourdeaux, see Bordeaux,

was frequently elected on St. Nicholas's day, 6 Dec., and Bourignonists, a sect founded by Antoinette Bou- held office till the 28th. The custom was suppressed in rignon, who, in 1658, took the Augustine habit and trav- England in July, 1542, but lingered for some time after. elled in France, Holland, England, and Scotland; in the Boycotting, sec Ireland, 1880. A Boycott fund to last she made many converts about 1670. She main- assist capt. Boycott in his trouble was subscribed in tained that Christianity does not consist in faith and 1880-1. practice, but in inward feeling and supernatural impulse. Boydell's Lottery for his Shakspeare gallery of A disciple named Court left her a good estate. She died paintings got up (1786) by alderman Boydell, lord mayor in 1680, and her works, 21 volumes 8vo, were published of London. Every ticket was sold at the time the alder1686.

man died, 12 Dec. 1804, before the decision of the wheel. Bournous, the Arabic name of a hooded garment Boyle Lectures, instituted by his will (18 July, worn in Algeria, which has been introduced in a modi- 1691), by Robert Boyle (son of the great earl of Cork), a fied form into England and France since 1817.

philosopher distinguished by his genius, virtues, and beBouvines (N. France), the site of a desperate bat- nevolence, who died 30 Dec. 1691. Eight lectures (in tle, 27 July, 1214, in which Philip Augustus of France vindication of the Christian religion) are to be delivwas victorious over the emperor Otho and his allies, con- ered. The office of lecturer is tenable for three years. sisting of more than 150,000 men. The counts of Flan- Boyne, a river in Ireland, near which William III. ders and Boulogne were taken prisoners, and the earl of defeated his father-in-law, James II., 1 July, 1690. The Salisbury, brother of king John.

latter lost 1500 (out of 30,000) men; the Protestant ariny Bovill's Act, 23 & 24 Vict. c. 34, 1860, relates to lost about a third of that number (out of 36,000). James petitions of right.

fled to Dublin, thence to Waterford, and escaped to Bow Street, see Magistrates.

France. The duke of Schomberg was killed by mistake

by his own soldiers as he was crossing the river, and Bowls, or Bowling, an English game as early as the here also was killed the rev. George Walker, who dethirteenth century. Henry VIII. and Charles I. played fended Londonderry in 1689. Near Drogheda is a splenat it, and also Charles II. at Tunbridge.-Grammont. did obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 by the BOWS AND ARRows, see Archery.

Protestants of the empire in commemoration of this vicBowyer, Fort, near Mobile, Ala., was attacked by tory. a British land force of 730 troops and 200 Creek Indians Boyne, man-of-war of 98 guns, destroyed by fire at 15 Sept. 1814, assisted by a naval force. The garrison, Portsmouth, 4 May, 1795, the explosion of the magaof 134 men, rank and file, defended it successfully. They zine; numbers perished. Portions were recovered June, lost five killed and four wounded. The British lost 162 1810. killed and 70 wounded.

Boyton's SWIMMING APPARATUS; see under LifeBoxing, or PRIZE-FIGHTING, the pugilatus of the boat, etc. Romans, once a favorite sport with the British, who pos- Brabant, part of Holland and Belgium, an ancient sess strong arms, giving them superiority in battles de- duchy, part of Charlemagne's empire, fell to his son cided by the bayonet.

Charles, 806. It became a separate duchy (called at first Bronghton's amphitheatre, hehind Oxford road, built.... 1742 Lower Lorraine) in 959. It descended to Philip II. of Schools opened in England to teach boxing. Mendoza opened the Lyceum in the Strand in..

Burgundy, 1429, and in regular succession to the emperor

1791 Boxing was much patronized from about 1820 to... 1830

Charles V. lu the seventeenth century it was held by Tom Winter (nicknamed “Spring''), besides other victo- Holland and Austria, as Dutch Brabant and the Walloon ries, beat Langan (for 10001.).

..8 June, 1824 provinces, and underwent many changes through the John Gully, originally a butcher, afterwards a prize.

fighter, acquired wealth, and became M. P. for Ponte- wars of Europe. The Austrian division was taken by fract in 1835; died...

...9 March, 1863 the French in 1746 and 1794. It was united to the Desperate conflict at Farnborough between Thomas Say. Netherlands in 1814, but South Brabant was given to ers, the Champion of England, a light Sussex man,

Belgium, 1830. The heir of the throne of Belgium is about 5 feet 8 inches high, and John Heenan, the “Benieia Boy,” a huge American, in height 6 feet 1 inch. styled duke of Brabant; see Belgium. Strength, however, was matched by skill; and eventually the light was interrupted, 17 April. Both men re

Bracelets were worn by the ancients, and armillæ ceived a silver belt.

..31 May, 1860 were Roman military rewards. Those of pearls and gold Tom King beat Mace, and obtained the champion's belt, were worn by the Roman ladies.

.26 Nov. 1862 He beat Goss, 1 Sept., and Heenan (nearly to death),

Brachygraphy, see Stenography. 10 Dec. 1863

Bradfield Reservoir, see Sheffield, 1864. A trial, in consequence of the last fight, engyed: the culprits were discharged on promising not to offend again, Bradford (W. Riding of Yorkshire), an ancient

5 April, 1861 seat of the woollen manufacture; made a parliamentary Wormald obtained the championship after a contest with Marsden

4 Jan. 1865 borough in 1832; has thriven since 1851; see Poisoning. Contest for championship between Mace and O'Baldwin, New town hall was opened...

.9 Sept. 1873 a giant; prevented by the arrest of Mace......15 Oct. 1867 British Association met here...

17 Sept. Railways prohibited carrying persons going to a prize- Statue of sir Titus Salt unveiled.

..1 Aug 1874 tight, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 119.. 1868 | Statue of Richard Cobden unveiled..

25 July, 1877






Bradlaugh Case, see Parliament, 1880-1. as old as 1277 ; a white brass produced by Mr. P. M. Bradshaw's Railway Guide was first pub

Parsons, about 1875. lished by Mr. G. Bradshaw, assisted by Mr.W.J. Adams, Brauronia, festivals in Attica, at Brauron, where in Dec. 1841. He had previously published occasionally Diana had a temple. The most remarkable that ata “Railway Companion.” The “Continental Bradshaw” tended these festivals were young virgins in yellow was established in 1848.

gowns, dedicated to Diana. They were about ten years Braganza, a city in Portugal, gave title to Alfonso, tion was called õekateúelr', from déra, ten; 600 B.C.

age, and not under five; and therefore their consecranatural son of John I. of Portugal (in 1422), founder of the house of Braganza. When the nation, in a blood

Bravo Case. Mr. Charles Delauney Turner less revolution in 1640, threw off the Spanish yoke, John, Bravo, barrister, died suddenly and mysteriously (at duke of Braganza, was called to the throne as John IV., Balham, Surrey), suicide suspected, 18 April, 1876; open and his descendants now reign over Portugal and Brazil verdict at inquest; new inquest ordered 26 June, 1876; (which see).

began 10 July. Verdict: “Wilful murder by adminis

tration of tartar emetic; but not sufficient evidence to Brahmins, Hindoo priests, the highest of the four fix the guilt upon any person,” 11 Aug. 1876.

Pythagoras is thought to have learned from them his doctrine of the Metempsychosis ; and it is

Bray, Berks. Fuller says that its vicar, Symon Syaffirmed that some of the Greek philosophers went to monds, was twice a papist and twice a Protestant-in India on purpose to converse with them. The Brah- the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizamins derive their name from Brahma, one of the three beth (1533-1558). Upon being called a turn-coat, he beings whom God, according to their theology, created, said he kept to his principle, that “ of living and dying and with whose assistance he formed the world. See the vicar of Bray.” The modern song refers to the Vedas.

political changes of the seventeenth and eighteenth

centuries. Brahmo Somaj, see Deism,

Bray's Associates for founding clerical libraries Braintree Case (in Essex) was decided in 1842 by and supporting negro schools. This society began in Dr. Lushington, who determined that a minority in a 1723, by Dr. Thomas Bray, rector of Sheldon, appointing parish vestry cannot levy a church-rate.

trustees to expend 9001. bequeathed by Mr. D'Allone for

the instruction of negroes. In 1733 these trustees reBrakes, see under Ruilways.

ceived their present name, and their fund was increased Bramham (W. R. York): near here the earl of by legacies in 1767 and 1768. Northumberland and lord Bardolf were defeated and

Dr. Bray, who was one of the founders of the Society for slain by sir Thomas Rokeby, the general of Henry IV., Propagating the Gospel, and who had acted energetically as 19 Feb. 1408; and Fairfax was defeated by the royalists died 15 Feb. 1730, bequeathing part of his books to Sion Col?

commissary in Maryland for the bishop of London, abolil 1696, under the earl of Newcastle, 29 March, 1643.

lege, and part to found a parochial library, under certain conBrandenburg, a city in Prussia, founded by the ditions, complied with at Maidstone; and also money for

other religious purposes.

The associates assist schools and Slavonians, who gave it the name of Bander, which sig- libraries in the colonies, and parochial libraries at home. nified Guard of the Forest, according to some; others explain the name as Burg, or city, of the Brenns.

Brazen Bull, said to have been contrived by PerilHenry I., surnamed the Fowler, after defeating the Sla- lus, at Athens, for Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, 570 vonians, fortified “ Brannibor,” 926, as a rampart against tims, and a fire was kindled underneath to roast them to

It had an opening in the side to admit the victhe Huns, and bestowed the government on Sigefroi, death; their groans resembled the roaring of a bull. count of Ringelheim, with the title of margrave, or pro- Phalaris admired the invention, but ordered the artist tector of the marches or frontiers. The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of to make the first experiment. The Agrigentes revolted Nuremberg, of the house of Hohenzollern, ancestor of against Phalaris, cut his tongue ont, and roasted him in the royal family of Prussia, made elector in 1417. For the brazen bull, 549 B.C. a list of the margraves since 1134, see Prussia.

Brazil, an empire in South America, was discovered

by Vincent Pinzon in Feb. 1500. Pedro Alvarez de Brandenburg House, Hammersmith, see Queen Cabral

, a Portuguese, driven upon its coasts by a temCaroline.

pest, April following, called it the land of the Holy Cross; Brandy (German Branntwein, burnt wine), the but it was subsequently named Brazil, on account of its spirit distilled from wine. Alcohol appears to have red wood. The French having seized on Portugal in been known to Raymond Lully in the thirteenth cen- 1807, the royal family and nobles embarked for Brazil, tury, and to have been manufactured in France early in and landed 7 March, 1808. The dominant religion is the fourteenth. It was at first used medicinally, and Roman Catholic; but others are tolerated. Constitumiraculous cures were ascribed to its influence. In tion of 25 March, 1824; modified 12 Aug. 1834, and 12 1852, 3,959,452; in 1866, 5,621,930 ; in 1870, 7,942,965; May, 1810. Population, Aug. 1872, 10,093,978 (above in 1874, 3,378,057 ; in 1876,7,913,092; in 1877, 2,962,697; 14 million slaves and aborigines); see Portugal. in 1879, 5,024,668 gallons were imported into the United Brazil explored by Amerigo Vespucci...

about 1504 Kingdom. It is now largely manufactured in Britain. Divided into captaincies by the king of Portugal. 1530

Martin de Souza discovers Rio, and founds the first EuroBrandywine, a river in N. America, near which a pean colony at San Vincente battle took place between the British, under Howe, and Jews banished from Portugal to Brazil.. the Americans under Washington, in which the latter French Protestants occupy bay of Rio Janeiro

San Salvador (Bahia) founded by Thomé de Souza (after a day's fight) were defeated with great loss, 11 Sebastian founded... Sept. 1777. Philadelphia fell into the possession of the Brazil, with Portugal, becomes subject to Spain 1580 victors.

James Lancaster captures Pernambuco

The French establish a colony at Maranham.. Brass. That mentioned in the Bible was most Belem founded by Calderia... probably bronze. When Lucius Mummius burned Cor- The Dutch seize the coast of Brazil, 1630; and hold Per

The French expelled... inth to the ground, 146 B.C., he found immense riches,

1630 and during the conflagration, it is said, all the metals in Defeated at Guararapès, 1646; give up Brazil..

1661 the city melted, and, running together, formed the valu- Gold-mining commences..

Destruction of Palmares, able composition described as Corinthian Bruss. This The French assault and capture Rio Janeiro. .1710-11 is well doubted, for the Corinthian artists had long be- Diamond-mines discovered in Sezzo Frio

1729 fore obtained great credit for their method of combining Capital transferred from Bahia to Rio Janeiro..

expelled gold and silver with copper.-Du Fresnoy. Some of Royal family of Portugal arrive at Brazil. .7 March, 1808 the English sepulchral engraved brasses are said to be First printing press established...


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Aligbland Black Watch." Their removal for foreign Blanketeers. A number of operatives who, on service probably facilitated the outbreak iu 1745. They 10 March, 1817, met in St. Peter's field, near Manchester, wore dark tartans, and hence were called Black Watch. many of them having blankets, rugs, or great-coats rolled They distinguished themselves in the Ashantee war, up and fastened to their backs. This was termed the Jan., Feb. 1874.

Blanket meeting. They proceeded to march towards Blackburn, Lancashire, so called in Domesday- London, but were dispersed by the magistracy. It is book. The manufacture of a cloth called Blackburn stated that their object was to commence a great insurcheck, carried on in 1650, was superseded by Blackburn rection; see Derby. Eventually the ringleaders had an grays. In 1767, James Hargreaves, of this town, in- interview with the cabinet ministers, and a better unrented the spinning-jenny, for which he was eventually derstanding between the working classes and the gorexpelled from the county. About 1810 or 1812, the ernment ensued. townspeople availed themselves of his discoveries, and Blankets are said to have been first made at Brisengaged largely in the cotton manufacture, now their tol by Thos. Blanket, in the fourteenth century. This staple trade. Blackburn murder, see Trials, July, 1876. is doubtful.

Blackfriars Bridge, London. The first stone of Blasphemy was punished with death by the law the late bridge was laid 31 Oct. 1760, and it was com- of Moses (Lev. xxir.), 1491 B.C.; and by the code of pleted by MyIne in 1770. It was frequently repaired, Justinian, A.D. 529. It is punishable by the civil and 1834-50, and began to sink. In 1864 it was pulled down, canon law of England, regulated by 60 Geo. III. c. 8 and a temporary bridge erected. The foundation of a (1819). Daniel Isaac Eaton was tried and convicted in new five-arched bridge, designed by Mr. Joseph Cubitt, London of blasphemy, 6 March, 1812. Robert Taylor, was laid by lord mayor Hale, 20 July, 1865, and the a protestant clergy man, was tried twice for the same bridge was opened by the queen 6 Nov: 1869. The first crime. He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, railway train (London, Chatham, and Dover) entered the and largely fined, July, 1831. In Dec. 1840, two pub city of London over the new railway bridge, Blackfriars, lishers of blasphemous writings were convicted. 6 Oct. 1861.

Blasting Gelatine (a mixture of nitro-glycerine Blackheath, Kent, near London. Here Wat Tyler and gun-cotton), a violent explosive prepared by Alfred and his followers assembled, 12 June, 1381 ; and here also Nobel, and modified by professor Abel, 1879. Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish men encamped, 1 June, 1450; see Tyler and Cade. Here the Cornish rebels

Blazonry. Bearing coats-of-arms was introduced were defeated and Flammock's insurrection quelled, 22 and became hereditary in France and England about June, 1497. The ancient cavern, on the ascent to Black- 1192, owing to the knights painting their banners with heath, popularly termed “the retreat of Cade," and of different figures, thereby to distinguish them in the crubanditti in the time of Cromwell, was rediscovered in

sades.Duydule. 1780. Several daring highway robberies were commit- Bleaching was known in Egypt, Syria, India, and ted near the heath, and the youthful culprits punished, Gaul.- Pliny. An improved chemical system was adoptin 1877; see Trials.

ed by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Black-hole, see Calcutta.

Scotland in 1768. There were large bleach-fields in

Lancashire, Fife, Forfar, and Renfrew, and in the vale Black-lead, see Graphite.

of the Leven, in Dumbarton. The application of the Black-letter, employed in the first printed books gas chlorine to bleaching is due to Berthollet's discorin the middle of the fifteenth century. The first print- ery, about 1785. Its combination with lime (as chloride ing-types were Gothic; but they were moditied into the of lime) was devised by Mr. Tennant, of Glasgow, who present Roman type about 1469 : Pliny's “ Natural His- took out a patent for the process in 1798, and by his firm tory” was then printed in the new characters.

it is still extensively manufactured. In 1822 Dr. Ure Black-mail, a compulsory payment for protection published an elaborate series of experiments on this subof cattle, etc., made in the border counties, was probibited stance. In 1860 bleaching and dyeing works were placed by Elizabeth in 1601. It was exacted in Scotland from under the regulations of the Factories Act. the lowlanders by the bighlanders till 1745. It checked Blenheim (or PLINTHEIM) a village in Bavaria agricultural improvement,

on the left bank of the Danube, near the town of HochBlacks, or Neri, see Bianchi,

stett, the site of a battle fought 2 Aug. (S. s., 13) 1704, Blackstocks, BATTLE AT. On 20 Nor. 1780, Ameri

between the English and confederates, commanded by cans under gen. Sumter, and British cavalry under col. rians, under marshal Tallard and the elector of Bavaria.

the duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bava. Tarleton, had an engagement at Blackstock's plantation, The latter were defeated with the loss of about 12,000 on the Tyger river, Cnion District, S.C. After a sharp killed, and 13,000 prisoners (including Tallard). Bavaengagement, Tarleton fled, leaving nearly 200 men dead ria became the prize of the conquerors. The British or wounded upon the field. Sumter lost only 3 killed and 5 wounded.

parliament gave Marlborough the honor of Woodstock

and hundred of Wotton, and erected for him the house Blackwall (London), the site of fine commercial of Blenheim.* docks and warehouses; see Dochs. The Blackwall rail

Blind. The first public school for the blind was way was opened to the public, 4 July, 1840; the cast- established by Valentine Hally, at Paris in 1784. The ern terminus being at Blackwall wharf, and the western first in England was at Liverpool, in 1791; in Scotland, in Fenchurch street.

at Edinburgh, in 1792; and the first in London in 1799. Blackwater, BATTLE OF, in Ireland, 14 Aug. 1598, Printing in raised or embossed characters for the use of when the Irish chief O'Neil defeated the English under the blind was begun at Paris by Haily in 1786. The sir Henry Bagnall. Pope Clement VIII. sent O'Neil a whole Bible was printed at Glasgow in raised Roman consecrated plume, and granted to his followers the same characters about 1848. A sixpenny magazine for the indulgence as to crusaders.

blind, edited by the late rev. W. Taylor, F.R.S., so emiBlackwood's EDINBURGH MAGAZINE established, nent for his forty years' exertions on behalf of these suf1817.

ferers, was published in 1855-6. He aided the estab

lishment of a college for the blind of the upper classes Bladensburg, see Washington, 1814.

at Worcester, in 1866. There is hardly any department Blanc, see Mont Blanc.

Blandford's Act, 19 & 20 Vict. c. 104, for aug. * On 5 Feb. 1861, a fire broke ont at this place, which dementation of benefices, etc., passed 1836.

stroyed the ** Titian Gallery and the pictures: tbe latter, a

present from Victor Amadeus, king of Sardinia, to John, the Blank Verse, see Verse.

grcat duke of Marlborough.

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