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called to parliament in England, 1265; in Scotland in | Linen scarfs introduced at funerals in Ireland, 1729; and

woollen shrouds used.........

1733 1326; and in Ireland abou 1365. Burgesses to be resi

Burials taxed

1695 dent in the places they represented in parliament, 1 Hen. A tax enacted on burials in England-for the burial of a V. (1413). During the colonial period the Virginia duke 501., and for that of a common person 48.--under House of Representatives was called the House of Bur

William III. 1695, and George III..

1783 Acts relating to metropolitan burials passed

1850-67 gesses; sée Borough,

Parochial registers of burials, births, and marriages insti. Burghers AND ANTIBURGHERS. In 1732 Ebenezer tuted in England by Cromwell, lord Essex, about 1538.

-Stow. Erskine and others seceded from the church of Scotland. Earth to earth" system of burial advocated by Mr. Sey. Differing in regard to the interpretation of the burgess mour Haden ; wicker coffins exhibited at Stafford. oath, they divided into two sections with the foregoing


.17 June, 1875 names in 1747. In 1820 they were reunited as the consecrated burial-grounds in England, 13,673; closed,

1877 United Associate Synod of the Secession church, which Burials Act (permitting any Christian service in a parish on 13 May, 1847, joined the Relief church, together form- churchyard) passed..

.7 Sept. 1880 ing the United Presbyterian church.

(See Dissenters.) Burglary was a capital offence till 1829. Formerly

Burking, a new species of murder, committed in he who convicted a burglar was exempted from parish Britain, thus named from Burke, the first known crimi offices, 1699; Statute of Rewards, 5 Anne, 1706, and 6 nal by whom it was perpetrated. His victims were Geo. I. 1720. Receivers of stolen plate and other goods killed by pressure or other modes of suffocation, and the to be transported, 10 Geo. III. 1770. Persons having bodies, which exhibited no marks of violence, were sold upon them picklock-keys, etc., to be deemed rogues and to the surgeons for dissection. He was executed at Edvagabonds, 13 Geo. III. 1772-3. The laws with respect inburgh, 28 Jan. 1829. A monster named Bishop was to burglary were amended by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) apprehended in Nov. 1831, and executed in London, 5 Peel's acts between 1823 and 1829, and by the criminal Dec., with Williams, one of his accomplices, for the múrlaws of 1861.

der of a poor, friendless Italian boy named Carlo FerraBurglaries in England, 1871, 614; 1873, 433; 1875, 501; 1879, ri. They confessed to this and other similar murders.

Burlingame Treaty, promoted by Mr. Anson Burgos (Spain), the burial-place of the Cid, 1099. Burlingame and a Chinese embassy, and signed at Lord Wellington entered Burgos on 19 Sept. after the Washington 4 July, 1868. It authorized mutual immibattle of Salamanca (fought 22 July, 1812). The castle gration. California prospered through Chinese labor; was besieged by the British and allied army; but the but depression in 1879-80 led to a demand for its expul. siege was abandoned 21 Oct. same year. The fortifica- sion and abrogation of the treaty. Two new treaties tions were blown up by the French, 12 June, 1813. between the United States and China, one relating to

Burgundy, a large province in France, derives its immigration and the other to commerce, were signed 17 name from the Burgundians, a Gothic tribe who overran Nov. 1880. Gaul in 275, and were driven out by the emperor Probus; Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, opened 20 March, they returned in 287, and were defeated by Maximin. 1819. In 413 they established a KINGDOM, comprising the present Burgundy, large parts of Switzerland, with Alsace, works of art, and promoting intercourse between artists,

Burlington Fine Arts Club, for exhibiting Savoy, Provence, etc. Gondicar, their leader, the first

amateurs, etc., founded 1867. king. It was conquered by the Franks, 534.–The second kingdom, consisting of a part of the first, began with Burlington Heights. After a fierce contest here Gontran, son of Clotaire I. of France, in 561. The king- between the British and the United States forces, 6 doms of Arles, Provence, and Transjurane Burgundy were June, 1813, the British carried the heights. formed out of the old kingdom.-Duchy. In 877 Charles Burlington House (Piccadilly, London) was built the Bald made his brother-in-law Richard the first duke by Denham for lord Burlington about 1664, and rebuilt of Burgundy. In 938, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, by lord Burlington, the architect, about 1731. It was founder of the house of Capet, obtained the duchy. His bought for 140,0001. by the government, authorized by descendant Henry, on becoming king of France, conferred vote of the house of commons, on 27 July, 1854. It beit on his brother Robert, in whose family it remained till came the home of the Royal, Linnean, and Chemical the death of Philippe de Rouvre, without issue, in 1361. societies in 1857 (who occupied new rooms in 1873), and In 1363, king John of France made his fourth son, Philip, of the Antiquaries, Geological, and Royal Astronomical duke; see Austria and Germany.

societies in 1873. In 1866, sites for buildings for the

University of London and the Royal Academy were 1363. Philip the Bold; marries Margaret, heiress of Flanders, granted in the grounds of Burlington House. The en1404. John the Fearless (son); joined the English invaders of trance, colonnade, etc., were removed in 1868, and the

Franco; privy to the assassination of the duke of Or- exhibition of the Royal Academy was first opened here leans in 1407; himself assassinated at Montereau, in 3 May, 1869. Burlington charity-school, near here, presence of the dauphin, Sept. 1419.

founded 1699. 1419. Philip the Good (son), the most powerful duke. 1467. Charles the Bold; married to Margaret of York, sister to Edward IV. 9 July, 1468; invaded France, 1472; middle of the eighteenth century by Alompra, the first

Burmah, or Burmese Empire, founded in the
Switzerland, 1476; killed in an engagement with the
Swiss, before Nancy, 4 Jan. 1477.

sovereign of the present dynasty. Our first dispute with 1477. Mary (daughter); married, 19. Aug. 1477, to Maximilian this formidable power in 1795 was amicably adjusted by of Austria; died 27 March, 1482.

gen. Erskine. Hostilities were commenced by the Brit1479. Louis XI. annexed Burgundy to France, The other dominions fell to Austria.

ish in 1824, and they took Rangoon on 11 May. The Burials. Abraham buried Sarah at Machpelah, 1860 fort and pagoda of Syriam were taken in 1825. "After a BC., Gen. xxiii. Places of burial were consecrated un

short armistice, hostilities were renewed, 1 Dec. same der pope Calixtus I. in A.D. 210.- Eusebius. The Greeks year, and pursued until the successive victories of the had their burial-places at a distance from their towns; ture of peace, 24 Feb. 1826. For the

events of this war,

British led to the cession of Arracan, and to the signathe Romans near the highways; hence the necessity for and of the war in 1851, see India. Pegu was annexed inscriptions. The first Christian burial-place, it is said, to our Indian empire 20 Dec. 1852. The war ended 20 was instituted in 596; burial in cities, 742; in consecrated places, 750; in churchyards, 758. Many of the early

June, 1853. Christians are buried in the catacombs at Rome; see Rebellion against the king suppressed by British aid, Catacombs, Cemeteries, and Dissenters.

about Sept. 1868 Treaties with Great Britain....

.1862 and 25 Oct. 1867 Vaults erected in chancels first at Canterbury........... 1075 Burmese embassy in England, 6 June; introduced to the Woollen shrouds only permitted to be used in England.. 1666

....21 June, 1872




The king Mindone suspected of inciting Chinese to attack Burton Crescent (London). Here Mrs. Rachael

British expedition to West China (see India)..... Feb. 1875 Samuel, a widow living alone, was murdered in the night Sir Douglas Forsyth's mission to the king; arrives at Mandalay, 14 June; submission of the king announced

11 Dec. 1878. No robbery. Mary Donovan, a charabout 18 June; he refuses permission for British troops woman, was arrested and discharged, 10 Jan. 1879. to march as a convoy through his territories to China; sir D. Forsyth retires.

...June, Burwell Fire. A number of persons assembled to Col. Duncan sent to Mandalay.

about Aug.

see a puppet-show in a barn at Burwell, near NewmarThe king eventually acceded to the British demands;

ket, 8 Sept. 1727. A candle having set fire to a heap announced

..Oct, The king dies, about 5 Sept. ; announced. ..2 Oct. 1878 of straw, seventy-six individuals perished, and others His successor, Theebau (Wongyee, prince of Theebau), died of their wounds.

kills many of the royal family and their friends..Feb. 1879 The British resident and others quit Mandalay....8 Oct.

Bury St. Edmund's (Suffolk), named from St. The king, attacked by small-pox, commits fresh atroci. Edmund, king of East Anglia, who was murdered by the ties.

12 April, 1880 Danes on 20 Nov. 870, and buried here, and to whose Prince Nyoung's rehellion, May, June, suppressed; he enters British territory...

27 June,

memory its magnificent abbey was founded. Magna

Charta was prepared here by the barons on 20 Nov. Burnett Prizes, to be awarded every 40 years to 1214. Henry VI. summoned a parliament in Feb. 1447, the authors of the two best essays on “the evidence when Humphry, duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned, that there is a Being all powerful, wise, and good, by and died here, it is supposed by poison. It was almost whom everything exists, etc.,” were founded by Mr. consumed by fire in 1608, and was desolated by plague Burnett, a Scottish gentleman, who died 1784, bequeath- in 1636. ing moneys for the purpose. Various amounts have

Burying Alive. In Baotia, Creon ordered Antigbeen paid to Dr. W. L. Brown, to rev. J. B. Sumner, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 1815; to Rev. R. A. one, the sister of Polynices, to be buried alive, 1225 B.C. Thompson, and to Dr. J. Tulloch, 1855. The establish- that excited suspicion of their chastity. The vestals

The Roman vestals were subjected to it for any levity ment of a Burnett lectureship in Aberdeen by the trus- buried alive on a charge of incontinence were Minutia, tees (the lecturer to be chosen in 1883) was sanctioned 337 B.C. ; Sextilla, 274 B.C. ; Cornelia, A.D. 92. Lord Aug. 1880; but opposed by the house of lords, 24 Jan. Bacon gives instances of the resurrection of persons who 1881.

had been buried alive, Duns Scotus being of the numBurnham Beeches (Bucks), the picturesque re- ber. The two assassins of Capo d'Istria, president of mains of an ancient forest, were purcnased for public use Greece, were sentenced to be immured in brick walls by the corporation of London in 1879.

built around them up to their chins, and to be supplied

with food in this species of torture until they died, Oct. Burning Alive was inflicted among the Romans,

1831. Jews, and other nations, and was countenanced by bulls of the pope; see Witches. Many persons have been Busaco, or BuzACO (Portugal). Here the British, burned alive as heretics. Sir William Sawtre, priest of under lord Wellington, repulsed the French under MasSt. Osyth, London, suffered 12 Feb. 1401. In the reign sena, 27 Sept. 1810. The latter lost one general and of Mary numbers were burned; see Protestants. Eliza 1000 men killed, two generals and about 3000 men beth Gaunt, an Anabaptist, was burned at Tyburn for wounded, and several hundred prisoners; the loss of the treason (concealing rebels under Monmouth), 23 Oct. allies did not exceed 1300; the British retreated to the 1685.

lines of Torres Vedras, too strong for Massena to force,

and the armies remained in sight of each other to the Burning the Dead was practised among the

end of the year. Greeks and Romans, and Homer gives descriptions. It

Bushel. This measure was ordered to contain eight was very general about 1225 B.C., and was revived by Sylla about 78 B.C. It is still practised in parts of the gallons of wheat, 12 Hen. VIII. 1520; the legal Win. East Indies, and has been advocated in this country by chester bushel was regulated 9 Will

. III. 1697; the imthe eminent surgeon, sir Henry Thompson, and others, perial corn bushel of 2218.192 cubic inches is to the

Winchester of 2150.42 as 32 to 31. Regulated by act 1873; see Suttees, Barrows.

5 Geo. IV., June, 1824, which act came into operation 1 Professor L. Brunetti exhibited his plan and results at

Jan. 1826. The same in the United States. the Vienna exhibition..

1873 Cremation societies founded in London, Vienna, and Ber- Bushire (on the Persian Gulf), attacked by sea by lin, etc.

.13 Jan. 1874 sir H. Leeke, and by land by gen. Stalker, was taken 10 The corpse of the wife of sir Charles Dilke, with coffin, burned at Dresden; ashes about 6 lbs..........10 Oct.

Dec. 1856. The place proved stronger than was expectThe erection of a crematorium at Woking stopped by ed, and was bravely defended. Brigadier Stopford and authorities.....

summer, 1879 col. Malet were killed in a previous attack on the fort at Burning-glass and Concave MIRRORS. Their Reshire, 9 Dec. The loss of the British was four officers power was known to Archimedes, and it is even asserted killed and one wounded; five men killed and thirty-five that by their aid he burned a fleet in the harbor of Syr- wounded. acuse, 214 B.C. Their powers were increased by Set

Bushrangers, Australian highwaymen, formerly talla; Tschirnhausen, 1680; Buffon, 1747; and Parker escaped convicts. Morgan, a desperate robber and murand others more recently. The following experiments derer, was surrounded and shot April, 1865. The “Kelly were made about 1800 with Mr. Parker's lens or burn- gang" seized and pillaged the town of Jerilderie, New ing-mirror, which cost 7001., and is said to have been South Wales, 8–10 Feb. 1879. Ned Kelly and some of the largest ever made. It was sold to capt. Mackenzie, his gang were captured and taken to Melbourne, 27, 28 who took it to China, and left it at Pekin.

June, 1880. Substances fused.

Weight. Time. Bussorah, see Bussorah. Pure gold...

20 grains, 4 seconds. Silver.

Busts. Lysistratus, the statuary, was the inventor Copper.

of moulds from which he cast wax figures, 328 B.Cr Platina ..

Pliny. Busts from the face, in plaster of Paris, were first Cast-iron (a cube).

taken by Andrea Verrochi, about A.D. 1466. Smaller Steel A topaz.

busts and statuettes are now accurately produced from An emerald..

larger ones by machinery. A crystal pebble...

Butchers. Among the Romans there were three Cornelian

classes: the Suarii provided hogs, the Boarii or Pecu. Pumice-stone.

arii oxen and sheep, which the Lanii or Carnifices killed. Green wood takes fire instantaneously; water boils immediately; bones are calcined; and things not capable of melt. The Butchers' Company in London is ancient, though not ing at once become red-hot, like iron.

incorporated till 1604.

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Bute Administration. John, earl of Bute,* tutor ship to Romanists, was suppressed 1603. It was called of prince George (afterwards George III.), formed an ad- also the "surprise plot." ministration in May, 1762, which, after various changes, resigned 8 April, 1763. It was severely attacked by by subordinate communities, such as corporations. These

By-laws, or Bye-Laws, private ordinances made Junius and John Wilkes.

laws must not militate against the law of the land. By John, carl of Bute, first lord of the treasury.

5 & 6 Will. IV. 1834, those made by corporate bodies beSir Francis Dashwood, chancellor of the exchequer. Earl Granville, president of the council.

come valid, if not disallowed by the king's council withDuke of Bedford, privy seal.

in forty days after their enactment, Earl of Halifax, admiralty.

Byng, Hon. ADMIRAL JOHN, was charged with negEarl of Egremont and George Granville, secretaries of state. Lord Ligonier, ordnance.

lect of duty in an engagement with the enemy off MiHenry Fox, afterwards lord Holland, paymaster of the forces. norca, 20 May, 1756, condemned for an error of judgViscount Barrington, treasurer of the navy. Lord Sandys, first lord of trade.

ment, and shot on board the Monarch at Spithead, 14 Duke of Marlborough, earl Talbot, lord Huntingdon, lord An. March, 1757. son, lord North, etc.

Byron National Memorial. Its erection deButter is said to have been used by the Arabs in termined on, at a meeting in London, 16 July, 1875; Mr. early times, but not by the Greeks and Romans, who had Disraeli in the chair. About 30001. were subscribed. excellent oil. It is not mentioned as food by Galen, The statue by Richard Claude Belt, placed on a pedestal A.D. 130-200. It has long been used by northern na

near Hamilton place, Hyde Park, was uncovered pritions. Various statutes have passed respecting its pack- vately by lord Houghton, 24 May, 1880. A marble pedage, weight, and sale; the principal of which are the estal was promised by the Greeks. 36th & 38th Geo. III. and 10 Geo. IV. 1829. In Africa, Byron's Voyage. Commodore Byron left Engvegetable butter is made from the fruit of the shea tree, land on his voyage round the globe, 21 June, 1764, and and is of richer taste, at Kebba, than any butter made returned 9 May, 1766. He discovered the populous island from cow's milk.-Mungo Park. The import duties of in the Pacific Ocean which bears his name, 16 Aug. 1765. 59. per cwt. on foreign butter (producing, in 1859, 104,- Though brave and intrepid, such was his general ill-fort5871. on 421,354 cwt.) was repealed in 1860. Butter une at sea that he was called by the sailors of the fleet imported, 1846, 257,385 cwt. ; 1856, 513,392 cwt. ; 1866, "Foulweather Jack.” 1,165,081 cwt.; 1870, 1,159,210 cwt.; 1874, 1,619,808

Byzantium, now Constantinople, and Stamboul, in cwt.; 1876, 1,659,492 cwt.; 1877, 1,637,403 cwt.; 1879, the ancient Thrace, founded by a colony of Megarians, 2,015,399 cwt. The export of butter from the United under Byzas, 667 B.C.; but various dates and persons States, during the year ended June 30, 1880, amounted are given. It was taken successively by the Medes, to 31,061,610 lbs., valued at $5,179,071.

Athenians, and Spartans. In 340 B.C., in alliance with Buttons, an early manufacture in England; those the Athenians, the Byzantines defeated the fleet of covered with cloth were prohibited, to encourage the Philip of Macedon. During the wars with Macedon, manufacture of metal buttons, 8 Geo. I. 1721. But- Syria, etc., it became an ally of the Romans, by whom tons largely employed to ornament ladies' dresses, 1873- it was taken, A.D. 73. Rebelling, it was taken after two 81.

years' siege, and laid in ruins by Severus in 196. It was Buxar, a town in Bengal, near which, on 23 Oct. refounded by Constantine in 324, and dedicated on 22 1764, major, afterwards sir Hector Monro (with 857 Eu- May, 330, all the heathen temples being destroyed ; and ropeans and 6215 Sepoys) gained a great victory over

from him it received its name; see Constantinople. Brthe troops of the nabob of Oude, etc., 50,000 in number; about 1204. The BYZANTINE or Eastern empire really

ZANTINE ART flourished from the time of Constantine to 6000 of these were killed, and 130 pieces of cannon were commenced in 395, when Theodosius divided the Roman taken. The loss of the English was trifling.

empire; see East. The “Byzantine Historians," from Bye Plot, of lord Gray of Wilton and others, to im- 325 to 1453, were published at Paris, 1615–1711; and at prison James I., and compel him to grant liberty of wor- Venice, 1722–33.


Caaba, a sacred black stone, kept in a temple at Ben-Jochai, A.D. 72–110. The true date of the books Mecca, and venerated by the Arabs, long before the containing the cabala is now considered to range from Christian era. Its guardians, the tribe of Koreish, were the ninth to the fourteenth century, and their origin to be defeated by Mahomet and the worship abolished, 623- the mingling of 'Talmudism with the Greek philosophy 630.

termed Neo-Platonism. Some of their dogmas are akin Cabal. In English history the term has been ap- to Christian tenets, such as the trinity, the incarnation, plied to the cabinet of Charles II, 1667-74; the word etc. The cabala exercised much influence upon the Cabal being formed from the initials of their names: sir mental development of the Jews, and even captivated Thomas, afterwards lord Clifford (C); the lord Ashley the greatest thinkers of the sixteenth and seventeenth (A), (afterwards earl of Shaftesbury); George Villiers, centuries. duke of Buckingham (B); Henry, lord Arlington (A); Cabbages. Some new kinds were brought to Engand John, duke of Lauderdale (L).

land from Holland about 1510, it is said by sir Arthur Cabala, a Jewish system of philosophy or theoso-Ashley of Dorset, and introduced into Scotland by Cromphy, deriving its name from a Hebrew word signifying

well's soldiers. reception or tradition, said to have been given by God Cabeira (Asia Minor). Here Mithridates, king of to Adam, and transmitted from father to son by his de- Pontus, was defeated by Lucullus, 71 B.C. scendants. It is said to have been lost at the Babylo- Cabinet Council. In the U. S. government the nian captivity (587 B.c.), but to have been revealed heads of the different departments compose a council, again to Ezra. Its supporters assert that the cabalistic which is known as a cabinet. They are appointed by book “ Sohar," or " Splendour," a mystic commentary on the president, and hold office at his will, and are, under the Pentateuch, was first committed to writing by Simon him, the executive officers of the general government.

* John Stuart, earl of Bute, born 1713; secretary of state. The secretaries of state, treasury, war, nary, interior, and March, 1761; prime minister, May, 1762; 'died 10 March, 1792. I the postmaster-general and attorney-general, form the cabinet. There were councils in England as early as the about 20,000 Kentish men, who armed "to punish evil reigu of Ina, king of the West Saxons, 690; Offa, king ministers, and procure a redress of grievances.” He deof the Mercians, 758; and in other reigns of the Hep- feated and slew sir Humphry Stafford, at Sevenoaks, 27 tarchy. State councils are referred to Alfred the Great. June; entered London in triumph, and beheaded the -Spelman; see Administrations. CABINET Noir, or lord treasurer, lord Save, and several other persons of “ Dark Closet," the chamber in which letters intrusted consequence, 3 July. When the insurgents lost ground, to the French post were opened for state purposes. The a general pardon was proclaimed, and Cade, deserted by system, which began with Louis XI., was organized un- his followers, fled. A reward having been offered for his der Louis XV.; and is said to have been discontinued apprehension, he was discovered, and, refusing to surin 1868.

render, was slain by Alexander Iden, sheriff of Kent, 11 Cables. A machine was invented in 1792 for mak- July. ing them, by which human labor was reduced nine Cadet's College, see Sandhurst. tenths. Chain cables were introduced into the British navy about 1812; directions for testing them enacted, Gades; said to have been built by the Phoenicians about

Cadiz (W. Spain), anciently Gadiz, the Roman 1864 and 1874.

1100 B.C. Cabochiens, an armed Burgundian faction, includ- One hundred vessels of the Spanish armada destroyed in ing 500 butchers, named from their leader Simonet Ca- the port by sir Francis Drake..

1587 boche, a skinner, 1412. They ruled Paris with violence, Cadiz was taken by the English under the earl of Essex, and constrained the doctors of the Sorbonne to become Vainly attacked by sir George Rooke..

15 Sept. 1596

1702 their allies and the dauphin to recognize them as the Bombarded by the British.

July, 1797 “White Hoods,” and reformers. They were extermi- Blockaded by lord St. Vincent for two years. ..1797-9 nated by the citizens in 1418.

Again bombarded by the British...

Oct. 1800

A French squadron of five ships of the line and a frigate Cabriolets (vulgo Cabs), one-horsed vehicles, were surrender to the Spanish and British. . 14 June, 1808 introduced into the streets of London in 1822, when the Besieged by the French, but the siege was raised after

the battle of Salamanca. number plying was twelve. In 1831 they had increased Insurrection, 1819; massacre of many inhabitants by the

...July, 1812 to 165, and then the licenses were thrown open. The soldiery.

.9, 10 March, 1820 number in 1862 running in the metropolis exceeded Taken by the French in Oct. 1823, and held till. 1828 6000 (of which about 1800 only plied on Sunday). Pre- Insurrection against the queen began with the fleet here

1829 vious to throwing open the trade, the number of hack- (see Spain).

.17 Sept. 1868 ney-carriages was limited to 1200, when there were few Republican 'insurrection suppressed with bloodshed,

5-13 Dec. omnibuses ; see Hackney-coaches. Cab Strike.-On 28 June, 1853, an act (called Mr. Fitz- Cadmium, a metal, discovered by Stromeyer and

Roy's act) was passed for “the better regulation of met- Hermann in 1818. ropolitan stage and hackney carriages, and for prohibiting the use of advertising vehicles," by which Cæcilian Society, instituted in London in 1785, the cab fares were reduced to 6d. a mile. It came into for the performance of sacred music, especially Hanoperation 11 July, and on the 27th a general strike of del's. At first it met at private houses, afterwards at the London cabmen took place. Much inconvenience was felt, and every kind of vehicle was employed to

various city company halls, and finally at Albion Hall, supply the deficiency. Some alterations having been Moorfields, till its dissolution in 1861. Mr. Z. W. Vinmade in the act, the cabs reappeared on the stands on cent, the first conductor, held the office for upwards of

the 30th. Cabman's clubs began at Paddington in.....

.Feb. 1859 thirty years. Out of this society, which was the predeA London General Cab Company published its prospec

cessor of the Sacred Harmonic Society, came many emitus, professing a reformed system.. July, 1862 nent professional musicians. Cabs running in London: in 1855, 3296; in 1867, 6149; in 1874, 7864; in 1877, about 8000.

Caen (N. France), a place of importance before 912, Cab Tragedy. --S. H. Hunt, a servant of Butler and Mc

when it became the capital of the possessions of the NorCulloch's, seedsmen, Covent Garden, London, poisoned

mans, under whom it flourished. It was taken by the his wife and children in a cab, on 7 Nov. 1863; and himself on 9 Nov., at his own house, just before his ap

English in 1346 and 1417; but was finally recovered by prehension.

the French 1 July, 1450. Here were buried William the The cabmen in Paris strike against a company; above

Conqueror (1087) and his queen (1083). 3000 vehicles stopped, 16 June; fierce attack on men who give in; strike subsides....

.23 June, 1865 Caerleon, Monmouthshire, a Roman station, and Second Cab Strike. - Metropolitan Streets Act, 30 & 31 made the seat of an archbishopric by Dubritius. His

Vict. c. 17 (passed 20 Aug.), required hackney-carriages to carry lamps; and changed lowest fare from 6d. to

disciple and successor, St. David (522), removed it to 1s. The cab proprietors and drivers struck at 4 P.M.,

Menevia, now St. David's, 577. 3 Dec.; but, by the intervention of lord Elcho, an ar

Caernarvon (N. Wales). In the castle (founded in rangement was made with Mr. Gathorne Hardy, the

home secretary, and the strike ceased..........4 Dec. 1867 1282) Edward II. was born, 25 April, 1284; and the town Third Cab Strike to compel railway companies to discon- was then chartered by Edward I. The town suffered by

tinue privileged cabs; unsuccessful.. .....5-9 Sept. 1868 the civil war of Charles, but was finally retained for the Licenses on cabs reduced from 191. and 171. to 428. by act of 1869..

.1 Jan. 1870 parliament. Cab-drivers olei Association founded...

Cæsarea, the Roman capital of Judæa, built by HerFirst Cabmen's Shelter opened by hon. A. Kinnaird at St. John's Wood, 6 Feb. 1875; others soon after. Cab

od the Great 10 B.C. Eusebius the historian was bishop men's Mission Hall, King's Cross, London, N., opened,

about 315. 12 Nov. 1875

Cæsarean Section, which, it is said, first gave Cabul, or Cabool, on the river Cabul, about 1774, the name of Cæsar to the Roman family, is performed by by Timsur Shah, was made capital of Afghanistan cutting the child out of the womb.* (which see).

Cæsars, see Rome, Emperors. The Era of the Cachet, see Lettres de Cachet.

* The case of Alice O'Neal, an Irishwoman, who survived Caddee, or LEAGUE OF God's House, the league the section, which was performed by a female, is anthentiof independence in Switzerland, formed by the Grisons cated by Dr. Gabriel King, of Armagh, and surgeon Duncan to resist domestic tyranny, 1400 to 1419. A second

Stewart of Dungannon. In Jan. 1847, the operation was per.

formed in St. Bartholomew's hospital, London, on a young league of the Grisons was called the Grise or Gray woman of iminutive stature, under th influence of ether; League (Graubündten), 1424. A third league, the but she died the next day. On 9 Dec. 1860, a similar operaLeague of Ten Jurisdictions, was formed in 1436 ; see tion, was successfully performed by Dr. James Edmunds at

Bethnal Green. On the continent the operation is said to Grisons. They united in 1471.

have been more frequent and more successful. Cooper's “Sur. Cade's Insurrection. In May, 1450, Jack Cade, 2009 cases, gives a mortality of 55.4 per cent. of the mothers

gical Dictionary” (ed. 1861) contains a table, which, out of an Irishman, assumed the name of Mortimer, and headed 1 and 29.45 per cent of the children.

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1698 1707

Cæsars, or Spanish Era, is reckoned from 1 Jan. 38 B.C., machines to calculate and print have been devised. being the year following the conquest of Spain by Au- Pascal, when nineteen years of age, invented one (about gustus. It was much used in Africa, Spain, and the 1650). The construction of Mr. C. Babbage's differential south of France; but by a synod held in 1180 its use was machine was commenced at the expense of government abolished in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. in 1821, and continued till 1833, when the work was susPedro IV. of Aragon abolished the use of it in his do- pended after an expenditure of above 15,0001. The porminions in 1350. John of Castile did the same in 1383. tion completed was placed in the library of King's Col It was used in Portugal till 1415, if not till 1422. The lege, London; it is now at South Kensington. Professor months and days of this era are identical with the Julian Clifford, in his lecture at the Royal Institution, 24 May, calendar; and to turn the time into that of our era, sub- 1872, stated that Babbage expended 20,0001. upon his tract thirty-eight from the year; but if before the Chris- machines, and that the analytical machine was nearly tian era, subtract thirty-nine.

finished and would eventually be much used. In 1857 Cæsium (Latin, bluish), a rare alkaline metal, found Messrs. E. and G. Scheutz, two Swedish engineers, pubin some mineral waters by Bunsen in 1861, by means of lished in London specimen tables, calculated and printed the "spectrum analysis” (which see).

by machinery constructed between 1837 and 1843, after a Cafeine, an alkaline body, discovered in coffee by Scheutz brought their machine to England in 1854. It

study of the account of Mr. Babbage's machine. Messrs. Runge in 1820, and in tea (and named théine) by Oudry was bought for 10001. by Mr. J. F. Rathbone, an Ameriin 1827. The identity of the two was proved by Jobst can merchant, to be presented to Dudley observatory, in and Mulder in 1828.

his own city, Albany. In 1857 Messrs. Scheutz were Caffraria, AND CAFFRE WAR, see Kaffraria.

engaged to make one for the British government, which Cagliari, see Naples, note.

is now completed. Mr. Wiberg's machine, exhibited at

Tables conCagots, an outcast race in the Pyrenees, supposed to Paris, Feb. 1863, was much commended. be descendants of the ancient Goths. They have been structed by means of Scheutz's machine, and edited by subjected to superstitious persecution so lately as 1755.

Dr. W. Farre, were published by the government in 1864

The arithmometer, patented by M. Thomas (de Colmar) Cai-fong, the old capital of China, was besieged by in 1822 (?), exhibited at the International exhibitions, 100,000 rebels in 1642. The commander of the reliev- 1851 and 1862, is said to be in use in assurance offices ing forces, in order to drown the enemy, broke down its George B. Grant described a simpler machine in the embankments. All the besiegers and 300,000 of the citi- American Journal of Science, Oct. 1874. zens perished. Ça Ira! the burden of a popular song during the first settlement of the English here was made in 1689.

Calcutta, capital of Bengal and British India; the French revolution, first heard at Paris 5 Oct. 1789:

Population, 1876, 776,579. “Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira! Malgré les mutins, tout réussira.'' An after-addition was Les aristocrates à la lanterne !"

Purchased as a zemindary, and Fort William built.

Made the head of a separate presidency.. ("It will proceed! etc. In spite of mutineers, all will suc- The fort attacked and taken by an army of 70,000 horse ceed." “Hang the aristocrats!")

and foot, and 400 elephants (146 of the British crammed Cairo, or GRAND Cairo, the modern capital of Egypt,

into the “Black-hole prison," a dungeon about 18 feet

square, from whence 23 only came forth the next remarkable for its mosques and the sepulchres of its Fat- morning alive)..

20 June, 1756 imite caliphs; see Egypt.

Calcutta retaken by Clive.

.2 Jan. 1757

Supreme court of judicature established. Partially built by the Saracens.


Asiatic Society founded.. Taken by the Turks from the Egyptian sultans. 1517 College founded..

1801 Ruined by an earthquake and a great fire, when 40,000

Bishopric of Calcutta instituted by act.

July, 1813 persons perished..

.June, 1754 Bishop's College founded.... Taken by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte; they Cathedral founded.. enter the city.. .23 July, 1798 An industrial exhibition opened. .

25 Jan. 1855 Taken by the British and Turks, when 6000 French ca.

Great cyclone, followed by a "bore or spring tide in pitulated....

27 June, 1801 the Hooghly; water risos 30 feet high; immense dam. Massacre of the Mamelukes..

.1 March, 1811

age done to shipping and houses (see Cyclone)..,5 Oct. 1864 Visit of the prince of Wales.

. March, 1862 Another cyclone; about 30,000 small houses unroofed; Riots against Nubar Pacha and the British ministers,

much small shipping injured; and the crops in Lower 18 Feb. 1879

Bengal destroyed (about 90,000 persons drowned ; 75,000 die of cholera)..

1 Nov. 1867 Calabria (the ancient Messapia of S.E. Italy) was

Visited by the king of Siam.

...Jan. 1872 conquered by the Romans 266 B.C. It formed part of Visited by the prince of Wales.. 25 Dec. 1875-3 Jan. 1876 the kingdom of the Ostrogoths under Theodoric, A.D. Statue of lord Mayo, unveiled by him..

..1 Jan. 493; was reconquered (for the Eastern empire) by Beli- Statue of the queen, given by the maharajah of Burd.

wan, unveiled...

.1 Jan. 1878 sarius, 536; subdued by the Lombards and joined to the

(See Bengal and India.) duchy of Benevento, 572. After various changes, it was conquered by Robert Guiscard, the Norman, 1058, who

Caledonia (now Scotland). The name is supposed obtained the title of duke of Calabria, and eventually by some to be derived from Gael, or Gaelmen or Gadet that of king of Naples; see Naples.

doine, corrupted by the Romans. Tacitus, who died 99, Calais (N.W. France), fortified by Baldwin IV., of Caledonia. Venerable Bede says that it retained this

distinguishes this portion of Britain by the appellation count of Flanders, 997; taken by Edward III. after a year's siege, 4 Aug. 1347. It was retaken by the duke name until 258, when it was invaded by a tribe from Iro

land and called Scotia. The ancient inhabitants appear of Guise, in the reign of Mary, 7 Jan. 1558, and its loss so

to have been the Caledonians and Picts, tribes of the deeply touched the queen's heart as to cause some to Celts, who passed over from the opposite coast of Gaul. say it occasioned her death, which occurred soon after, About the beginning of the fourth century of the Chris wards, 17 Nov, same year. “When I am dead," said tian era they were invaded (as stated by some authorithe queen, “Calais will be found written on my heart." It was taken by the Spaniards, April, 1596; restored, who, having driven the Picts into the north, settled in

ties) by the Scuyths or Scythins (since called Scots), 1598. Here Louis XVIII. landed after his long exile the Lowlands, and gave their name to the whole counfrom France, April, 1814; see Tunnels.

try; see Scotland, Calatrava, see Knighthood.

Caledonian monarchy, said to have been founded by FerCalcium, the metallic base of lime, was discovered gus I.....

... about B.C. 330

The Picts from England settle in the south, at the Royal Institution, London, by Humphry Davy, in Agricola, the Roman, invades Caledonia.

79 1808.

He defeats Galgacus, and builds a wall between the Forth and Clyde...

84 Calculating-machines. To avoid errors in com- Wall of Antoninus built. puting and printing logarithms and tables of figures, | Ulpius Marcellus repels their incursions..

1773 1784

1820 1840



. A. D.

140 184

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