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Manchester, Bolton, and Bury.

1791 | Greeks victorious in several conflicts. .... Sept. and Oct. 1866 Warwick and Birmingham..

1793 The Greek steamer Panhellenion begins to convey volun. Crinan, Argyllshire, cut... 1793-1801 teers, etc., to Candia...

.Oct. Barnsley, cut..

1794 Monastery of Arkadi besieged; blown up by the defend. Rochdale, aci passed..

ers; great loss on both sides..

26 Nov. Huddersfield, act passed..

Proposition of Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Switzerland to Derby, completed..

the sultan to give up Candia, 28 March; declined Hereford and Gloucester..

1796

31 March, 1867 Paddington canal begun.

1798 Many defenceless villages said to be burned ......June, Kennet and Avon, opened...

1799 Collective note from Russia and other powers urging Peak Forest canal, completed..

1800 the Porte to suspend hostilities..

.15 June, Thames to Fenny Stratford.

Indecisive conflicts.....

...July, Buckingham canal..

1801 The Arkadi Greek steamer, after running the blockade 22 Grand Surrey, act passed.

times, landing Greek volunteers, and bringing away Brecknock canal..

1802 women and children, destroyed by the Turkish vessel Caledonian canal begun.

1803 Izeddin...

.....19 Aug. Ellesmere aqueduct..

1805 Assembly of delegates meet the vizier. .22 Sept. Ashby.de-la-Zouch, opened.

Insurrection subsides; the graud-vizier arrives, 28 Sept.; Royal Military canal, Hythe to Rye.

1807 proclaims an amnesty, and promises reforms..5 Nov. Aberdeen, completed...

Successful blockade-running by the Greeks; Omar Pacha, Glasgow and Ardrossan, opened..

1811

the Turkish general, resigns his command in the Leeds and Liverpool, opened..

island...

.Nov. Wye and Avon..

The delegates' demands granted..

11 Dec. Edinburgh and Glasgow Union.. 1818 The war renewed (indecisive)..

.Feb. 1868 Sheffield, completed....

1819 The Petropaulakes landed about 2500 men on opposite Regent's canal, opened.

1820 sides of the isle, 10 Dec., but failed in their attempt to Caledonian canal, completed.

.30 Oct. 1822 unite; after several skirmishes, in which they lost Birmingham and Liverpool, begun..

1826

about 650 men, all surrendered (and were sent to Gloucester and Berkeley ship-canal completed..

1827 Greece)......

.... 26 Dec. Norwich and Lowestof, navigation opened....

1831 The provisional government surrendered. ..30 Dec. Canary Islands (N. W. Africa), known to the an

The new Turkish governor, Omar Fenizi, arrived, and

the blockade ended.. cients as the Fortunate Isles. The first meridian was Insurrection announced, with provisional government,

.8 March, 1869 referred to the Canary Isles by Hipparchus, about 140

about 20 Dec. 1877 B.C. They were rediscovereel by a Norman named Be- Union with Greece proclaimed, 21 Jan.; decreed by a

general assembly..

.....11 Feb. 1878 thencourt, about 1400; his descendants sold them to the Insurrection unsubdued; anarchy; Berlin treaty deSpaniards, who became masters, 1843. The canary-bird, clares for enforcing legal and political reforms, 13 July, a native of these isles, brought to England about 1500. Pacification by Mukhtar Pacha through concession of

..Oct. Teneriffe is the largest island.

self-government, etc....... Cancer Hospital, West Brompton, S. W. London,

Candlemas-day, 2 Feb., is kept in the church in was founded by Miss (now baroness) Burdett-Coutts, 30 memory of the purification of the Virgin, who presented May, 1859. A temporary hospital begun in 1851.

the infant Jesus in the Temple. From the number of

candles lit (it is said in memory of Simeon's song, Luke Candahar, a province of Afghanistan held by Du- ii. 32, “ a light to lighten the Gentiles,” etc.), this fesranis and Ghilzais. Candahar, the capital, is said to tival was called Candlemas, as well as the Purification. have been founded by Alexander the Great (334-323 Its origin is ascribed by Bede to pope Gelasius in the B.C.). After being subject to successive rulers of India, tifth century. The practice of lighting the churches it was made capital of Afghanistan by Ahmed Shah, was forbidden by order of council, 2 Edw. VI. 1518 ; but 1747, but the seat of government was transferred to is still continued in the church of Rome. Candlemas is Cabul in 1774.

a Scotch quarter-day. Taken and held by the British, 7 Aug. 1839 to 22 May.... 1842 Gen. Nott (with major Rawlinson and major Lape) de

Candles. The Roman candles were composed of feated the Afghans near here.... ...Jan, and June, string surrounded by wax, or dipped in pitch. Splinters The government of Candahar conferred on Shere Ali (a of wood fatied were used for light among the lower

cousin of the late ameer Shere Ali), with the title of Wali, by the viceroy of India.

classes in England, about 1300.

Wax candles were . April, 1880 Shere Ali resigned, and went to Calcutta in..

...... Dec.

little used, and dipped candles were usually burned. After the disaster of Maiwand, 27 July, 1880, Candahar The Wax-chandlers’ Company was incorporated 1484. was held by British during the winter..

...1880-1 Mould-candles are said to be the invention of the sieur In the house of lords, on the earl of Lytton's motion to retain Candahar, 165 voted for its retention, 76 against,

Le Brez, of Paris. Spermaceti candles are of modern

5 March, 1881 manufacture. The Chinese make candles from wax The house of commons, on Mr. Stanhope's motion for re- obtained from the candleberry-tree (Myrica cerifera).

tention, 336 voted against it; 216 for it... 24-26 March, Candahar evacuated by the British.. ..16-21 April,

The duty upon candles made in England, imposed in Sirdar Kashim Kban (on behalf of Abdur-rahman, ameer 1709, amounted to about 500,000l. annually, when it was of Cabul) enters Candahar..

.16 April,

repealed in 1831. Very great improvements in the Invasion of Avoob Khan; he defeats the ameer's army at Karez-i-Atta, 26 July; enters Candahar..... 30 July,

manufacture of candles are due to the researches on oils (Seo Afghanistan.) and fats carried on by “the father of the fatty acids,"

At Price's Candia, the ancient Crete, an island in the Mediter- Chevreul, since 1811, and published in 1823. ranean sea, celebrated for its 100 cities, its centre Mount manufactory at Lambeth, the principles involved in Ida, the laws of its king Minos, and its labyrinth to many patents are carried into execution; including secure the Minotaur (about 1300 B.c.). It was con

those of Gwynne (1840), Jones and Price (1842), and quered by the Romans 68 B.C.

Wilson in 1814, for candles which require no snuffing

(termed composite). Palm and cocoa-nut oils are now Seized by the Saracens.

823 Retaken by the Greeks...

961

extensively used. In 1860, at the Belmont works, 900 Sold to the Venetians..

Aug. 1204 persons were employed, and in winter 100 tous (70001. Rebelled; reduced.

1361 worth) of candles are manufactured weekly. Candles are Gained by the Turks, after a twenty-four years' siege, during which more than 200,000 men perished....

manufactured at Belmont from the mineral oil of tar

1669 Ceded to the Egyptian pacha..

1830 (paraffine) brought from Rangoon in the Burmese empire, Restored to Turkey.....

1840 and from Trinidad. This substance was first discovered Insurrections suppressed, 1841; by conciliation

1858

in petroleum by Buckner in 1820; it was discovered as a Persecution of the Christians.

.31 July, 1859 The Christians demand redress of grievances......June, 1866 product of the distillation of wood by Reichenbach in 1830. They establish a sacred battalion”.

12 Aug

Paraffine from petroleum is now extensively used in the Publish an address to the powers protecting Greece,

manufacture of candles. In 1870 the manufacture of can

21 Aug. The Cretan general assembly proclaim the abolition of

dles from a mineral substance named ozokerit began. Electhe Turkish authority in Candia, and union with

tric candles of Jablochkoffand Jamin, see under Electricity. Greece...

.2 Sept. Commencement of hostilities; the Turkish army com

Candlesticks(or lamp-stands) with seven branches manded by Mustapha Pacha..

.11 Sept.

were regarded as emblematical of the priest's office, and

A. D.

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were engraven on their seals, cups, and tombs. Beza- 10 in., and its weight 21 tons 17 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs.

Its cost was 35001. leel made “a candlestick of pure gold " for the taber

With a charge of 25 lbs. it struck

a target 2000 yards distant. It has been since prenacle, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxxvii. 17). Candlesticks were

sented to government. used in Britain in the days of king Edgar, 959 (6 silver Rifled ordnance committee appointed. .20 Aug. 1858 candelabra and gilt candelabra well and honorably Recently great improvements have been made in the

construction of cannon by Messrs. Whitworth, Mallet, made").

Armstrong, Dahlgren, and others. Mr. Wm. G. Arm. Candy (Ceylon) was taken by a British detachment, strong knighted.

18 Feb. 1859 20 Feb. 1803, who capitulated 23 June following, on ac

He had been working for four years on gun-making, and

had succeeded in producing “a breech-loading rifled count of its unhealthiness, and many were treacherously wrought iron gun of great durability and of extreme massacred at Colombo, 26 June. The war was renewed lightness, combiving a great extent of range and ex. in Oct. 1814; the king was made prisoner by gen.

traordinary accuracy." The range of a 32 - 1b. gun

charged with 5 lbs. of powder was a little more than 5 Brownrigg, 19 Feb. 1815; and the sovereignty was

miles. The accuracy of the Armstrong gun is said, at vested in Great Britain, 2 March, 1815.

equal distances, to be filly-seven times more than that Canicular Period, see Dog-star.

of our common artillery, which it greatly exceeded,

also, in destructive effects. The government engaged Cannæ (Apulia). Here, on 2 Ang. 216 B.C., Hanni- the services of sir W. Armstrong for ten years (combal with 50,000 Africans, Gauls, and Spaniards, defeated mencing with 1855) for 20,0001., as consulting engineer Paulus Æmilius and Terentius Varro, with 88,000 Ro- A parliamentary committee on ordnance was appointed

of rifled ordnance.

22 Feb. mans, of whom 40,000 were slain. The victor sent to

20 Feb., and reported...

.23 July, 1860 Carthage three bushels of rings taken from the Roman Sir W. Armstrong resigned his appointment......5 Feb. 1803 knights. The place is now denominated by some “ the His gun said to be very effectivo in the attack on the

Chinese forts at Taku..

.21 Aug. 1860 field of blood.”

Mr. Whitworth's guns and rifles greatly commended. . 1860-70 Cannibal, an Indian term, thought to be a form of an American cannon, weighing 35 tons, stated to be the Carribal; as Columbus, in 1493, found the Caribs of the Great endeavors made to improve the construction of

largest in the world, cast..

1860 West Indies gross cannibals. Anthropophagi (man- cannon, to counterbalance the strength given to ships eaters) are mentioned by Homer and Herodotus; and of war by iron plates; trials at Shoeburyness, Esses.. 1862 the practice still exists in some of the South Sea islands Targets of the thickness of the iron sides of the Warrior,

three 5.inch plates of wrought iron bolted together, and other savage countries.

pierced three times by 156. Ib. shot from an Armstrong Canning Administration.* The illness of lord gun, smooth bore, 300 lbs., muzzle-loaded with charges Liverpool, Feb., led to the formation of this administra- The Horsfall gun, mentioned above, with a charge of 75

of 40 lbs. of powder, twice, and once of 50 lbs. 8 April, tion, 24-30 April, 1827. Mr. Canning died 8 Aug. fol- Ibs. of powder and a shot of 270 lbs., smashed a War. lowing; see Goderich.

rior target...

...16 Sept.

Mr. Whitworth's shells sent through 54-inch iron plates George Canning, first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the

and wood work behind.

..12 Nov. erchequer.

Armstrong's gun, “ Big Will,'' tried and pronounced to Earl of Harrowby, president of the council.

be perfect; weight, 22 tons; length, 15 ft. ; range with Duke of Portland, lord privy seal. Viscount Dudley, viscount Goderich, and Mr. Sturges Bourne, Clark's target destroyed

shot weighing 510 lbs., 748 to 4187 yards......19 Nov. 1863

...7 July, foreign, colonial, and home secretaries.

Reed's larget tried successfully.

.8 Dec. W. W. Wynn, president of the India board. Wm. Huskisson, board of trade.

The competitive trial between tbe Armstrong and Whitworth guns began.....

..1 April, 1564 Lord Palmerston, secretary at war.

Iron-plate Commission experiments close........4 Aug. Lord Bexley, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.

Capt. Palliser, by experiment, has shown that iron shor Duke of Clarence, lord high admiral.

cast in cold iron moulds, instead of hot sand, is much Lord Lyndhurst, lord chancellor, etc.

harder, and equals steel; he also suggested the lining Marquess of Lansdowne, without office; aflerwards home secre.

cast-iron guns with wrought-iron exits, which is stated tary.

to be successful.. Earl of Carlisle, woods and forests.

The competitive trials of Armstrong's and Whitworth's Cannon. Gibbon describes a cannon employed by cannon upon the Alfred target-ship at Portsmouth

closed..

15 Nov. Mahomet II. at the siege of Adrianople, 1453 ; see Artillery.

Hercules target, 4 ft. 2 in. thick, 11; inches of iron. re. sists 300-pounders...

June, 1865 The first cannon cast in England was by Hugget, at Uck- National Artillery Association (sce Artillery).. field, Sussex, 1543.

Duel between the Bellerophon, with a 12jton 9-inch Mons Meg, a large cannon (above 13 ft. long, 20 in. cal.

ritled naval service gun with steel bolts (250 lbs.), and ibre) in Edinburgh castle, said to have been cast at powder charge of 48 lbs., and the single gun turret of Mons, in Hainault, in 1486, but more probably forged the Royal Sovereign, by capt. Cowper Coles; the equi. at Castle Douglas, Galloway, by three brothers named librium of the turret buse undisturbed by any amount Mckim, and presented by them to James II. at the of pounding..

..15 June, 1866 siege of Thrieve castle, 1455. It was removed to Lon. At Shoeburyness, Palliser's chilled metal shot (250 lbs.), don, 1754; but, at the request of sir Walter Scott, re

by 43 lbs. of powder, ir, a 9-inch muzzle - loading stored to Edinburgh, 1829.

wrought iron Woolwich rifle gun, is sent through a A cannon of Mahomet II., dated 1464, presented to the

target of 8 inches rolled iron, 18 inches teak, and British government by the sultan of Turkey, and

7-inch iron, and about 20 feet beyond .13 Sept. placed in the Artillery Museum, Woolwich, 1868,

(His patent is dated 27 May, 1863. Mr. James Nasmyth Moolk e- Mardan, an Indian bronze gun of Beejapoor, had previously suggested the use of chilled iron.) calibre 23 inches; seventeenth century.

Many experiments made with cannon and targets at At Ehrenbreitstein castle, opposite Coblentz, on the Shoeburyness.

1867 Rhine, is a cannon, 184 ft long. If it. in diameter in the The American 15-inch naval gun, with a cast-iron spheri. bore, and 3 11. 4 in. in the breech; the ball for it weighs cal shot (153 lbs.), greatly damages an 8-inch target; 180 lbs., and its charge of powder 94 lbs. It was made

other experiments at Shoeburyness... ...23 July, by one Simon ..

1529 Continued experiments at Shoeburyness; Plymouth In Dover castle is a brass gun (called queen Elizabeth's

model fort, with 15-inch solid shield-plates, tried with pocket pistol), 24 ft. long, a present from Charles V. to

23-ton gun of 12-inch bore, bearing 600 lb. Palliser Henry VIII.

shot; exterior of fort destroyed; interior intact; the Fine specimens in the Tower of London.

10-inch English gun shown to be superior to American A leathern candon tired three times in the King's park,

and Prussian great guns...

....16-24 June, 1868 Edinburgh (Phillips)...

23 Oct. 1788 Capt. Monteriefl's protected barbette gun carriage (in The Turkish piece now in St. James's park was taken

which the recoil is utilized for reloading), tried at by the French at Alexandria; but was retaken, and

Shoeburyness and proved successful... ...2 Oct. placed in the park

. March, 1803 Contest at Shoeburyness: the iron targets of Brown of Messrs. Horsfall's monster wrought iron gun was com

Sheffield resist the Whitworth guns. .2 March, 1870 pleted in May, 1856, at Liverpool. Its length is 15 ft. Palliser shot said to have failed in the Hercules.. 20 Jan.

* Woolwich Infant,” 35 tons; largest gun then ever * George Canning was born 11 April, 1770; became foreign made; length, 16 ft. 3 in.; formed of a steel tube with secretary in the Portland administration, 1807; fought a duel coiled breech piece; designed to fire a 700-1b. projec. with lord Castlereagh and resigned, 1809; president of the tile, with 120-1b. charge; made at Woolwich in 1870; India Board in 1820; disapproved of the queen's trial, and re- when tried in Dec. 1871, the inner tube cracked; others signed in 1821; appointed governor general of India in 1822, made..

1872 but became soon after foreign secretary, and remained such Duel between the Hotspur (with 25-ton 12-inch rifle gun, till 1827, when he became premier. He died 8 Aug. same heaviest afloat, with Palliser's 600-Ib. shot, and 85 lbs. year.

of powder) and the G'atlon iron-clad, whoso turret

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plates successfully resisted the attack (animals in the canons, formed by the convocation in 1640, were declared turret uninjured)

.5 July, 1872 unlawful by the commons, 16 Dec. 1641.-An intermeCol. Moncriefl's hydro-pneumatic carriage for artillery invented about April; the principle claimed by sir

diate class of religious, between priests and monks, in the William Armstrong for hydraulic machine....11 Nov. eighth century, were termed canons, as living by a rule. Woolwich Infant. Experimental gun constructing at

Canons in some of our cathedrals and collegiate churches Woolwich --80 tous, 27 feet long; for 1650-lb. shot, 300 Ibs. of powder.....

May, 1874 resemble the prebendaries in others. The endowment 81-ton gun tried at Woolwich: shot, 1250 lbs., 190 lbs. of of canonries was facilitated by the Cathedrals Act, 1873.

powder; 12 men rammed in the charge; shot penetrated 50 feet of sand; tried successfully 18 Sept. 1875;

Canopus, see Alexundria. -26 July, with 370 lbs. of powder. .

.4 Aug. 1876 Canossa, a castle in Modena. Here the emperor Gen. von Uchatius's steel bronze cannon making at

Henry IV. of Germany submitted to penance imposed Vienna, Sept. 1875; reported successful.. ...... Sept. Sir William Armstrong's 100-ton gun for Italy tried suc- by his enemy, pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), then livcessfully at Spezzia; 2000.1b. shot and 330 lbs. powder, ing at the castle, the residence of the great countess Ma

21 Oct.

tilda. Henry was exposed for several days to the in81-ton (or 80-ton) gun tried at Shoeburyness for scarange, with 1760- 1b. Palliser shell, 27 Sept. et seq.

clemency of winter, Jan. 1077, till the pope admitted 1876, and....

...1 Feb. 1877 | him, and granted absolution. Matilda greatly increased Four 100-ton guns by Armstrong ordered by govern- the temporal power of the papacy by bequeathing to it ment...

..March, 1878 A 100-ton gun tried at Woolwich, 13 June; finally proved,

her large estates, to the injury of her second husband,

16 July, 1879 Guelph, duke of Bavaria. A Canossa monument, near Great guns by Krupp successfully tried at Meppen, Han- Harzburg, against the papacy, was inaugurated 26 Aug.

1877. Breech-loading cannon ordered to be made.. ... Dec. Experiments with the 38-ton Thunderer gun (sce Navy, Canterbury (Kent), the Durovernum of the Ro1879), 9 Dec. 1879; exploded when double - charged, mans, and capital of Ethelbert, king of Kent, who reigned

3 Feb. 1880 One of Armstrong's 100-ton guns in the Duilio, near Na

560-616. He was converted to Christianity by Augusples, exploded....

......6 March, tin, 596, upon whom he bestowed many favors, giving

him land for an abbey and cathedral, dedicated to Christ, Canoe. In the Rob Roy, a very lightly constructed

602. St. Martin's church is said to be the oldest Saxon canoe, “ giving the pleasure of a yacht without the ex- church in Britain. The riot at Boughton, near Canterpense,” Mr. J. Macgregor, in 1865, travelled about a bury, produced by a fanatic called Tom or Thom, who thousand miles on the rivers and lakes of Europe. His assumed the name of sir William Courtenay, occurred second cruise was on the Baltic. He explored the Suez 28-31 May, 1838; see Thomites. The railway to Loncanal, Nov., and the rivers of Syria, Dec., 1868, and the don was completed in 1846.—The ARCHBISHOP is pricanals and lakes of Holland in the summer of 1871. The mate and metropolitan of all England, and the first peer Octoroon (16 feet long, 23 inches broad) crossed the Chan in the realm, having precedency of all officers of state, nel from Boulogne to Dover in 11 hours, 19 Aug. 1867. and of all dukes not of the blood royal. Canterbury had The Royal Canoe Club founded, 1866. The prince of formerly jurisdiction over Ireland, and the archbishop Wales president, 1876. There are several canoe clubs in was styled a patriarch. This see has yielded to the the United States, and an annual canoe regatta is held Church of Rome 18 saints and 9 cardinals, and to the at Lake George, N. Y. The most remarkable canoe voy- civil state of England 12 lord chancellors and 4 lord ages made in the United States have been those of Mr. N.

This see was made superior to York, 1073; H. Bishop, of Lake George, who sailed and paddled, upon see York. The revenue is valued in the king's books at inland water-ways, from the Canada line, via New York, 28161. 78. 90.-Beatson. Present income, 15,0001. The Norfolk, and Charleston, to the Gulf of Mexico on one Cathedral was sacked by the Danes, 1011, and burned voyage; and on another, down the Ohio and Mississippi down 1067; rebuilt by Lanfranc and Anselm, and the rivers.

choir, completed by the prior Conrad in 1130, and in New York Canoe Club, first in United States, organized which Becket was murdered, 1170, was burned 1174. It

autumn, 1870

was rebuilt by William of Sens (1174-8), and by “ EngMr. Fowler crossed from Boulogne to Sandgate standing in an india-rubber twin canoe (the Podoscaphe) in 12

lish William," 1178–84. A new nave was built and othhours

.19 Aug. 1878 er parts, 1378–1410. The great central tower was erectAmerican Canoe Association, organized at Lake George, ed by prior Goldstone about 1495. The gorgeous shrine N. Y.....

...3 Aug. 1880 of Becket was stripped at the Reformation, and his bones Canon, a piece of music in two or more parts, imi- burned. Here were interred Edward the Black Prince, tating each other. “Non nobis, Domine," by Birde (died Henry IV., cardinal Pole, and other distinguished per1523), is an early specimen.

sons. Part of the roof was destroyed by an accidental Canon of Scripture, sec Bible.

fire, and the edifice narrowly escaped, 3 Sept. 1872. The Canonical Hours, see Breviary.

clock-tower was nearly on fire, 2 June, 1876; see Hugue

nots. Canonization of pious men and martyrs as saints was instituted by pope Leo III., 800.- Tallent. Every 602-605. St. Augustin, or Austin (died 26 May). day in the calendar is now a saint's day. The first can- 605-619. St. Lawrence.

St. Mellitus. onization by papal authority was of St. Udalricus, Ulric,

624-630. Justus. in 993. Previously canonization was the act of the bish

631-653. St. Honorius. ops and people.Hénault. On 8 June, 1862, the pope 655-664. Deusdedit (Adeodatus). canonized 27 Japanese, who had been put to death on 5

668-690. Theodore of Tarsus

693-731. Berhtuald. Feb. 1597, near Nagasaki, and 25 others, on 29 June, 1867.

731-734. Taetwine. Among persons canonized by pope Pius IX. in Oct. 1872 735-741. Nothelm. was the late queen of Naples.

741-758. Cuthbert.

759-762. Breogwine. Canons, APOSTOLICAL, ascribed to the apostles by 763-790. Jaenbehrt, or Lambert. Bellarmin and Baronius, by others to St. Clement, are

790-803. Æthelheard.

803-829. Wulfred. certainly of much later date (since 325). The Greek

Fleogild. church allows 85, the Latin 50 of them. The first ec

830-870. Ceolnoth. clesiastical canon was promulgated 380.-Usher. Canon- 870-889. Ethelred. law of the church was introduced into Europe by Gra

891-923. Plegemund.
923 (?)

Æthelm. tian about 1140, and into England in 1154.–Stow. See

928--941. Wulfelm. Decretals. The present canons and constitutions of the 941-958. Odo. Church of England, collected from former ordinances,

959-988. St. Dunstan (died 19 May). were established in 1603 by the clergy in convocation,

988-989. Athelgar.

990-995. Sigeric. and ratified by king James I., 1604. A new body of 995-1006. Elfric.

treasurers,

ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY.

619-624.

829.

1006–1011. St. Ælpbage (murdered by the Danes, 19 April). away 10,000 houses and 1000 persons, Oct. 1833. Can1013-1020. Lyfing, or Ælfstun.

ton was taken by the British 1857; restored, 1861; 1020-1038. Æthelnoth. 1038-1050. St. Eadsige.

see China, 1835, 1839, 1856, 1861. Population estimated 1050-1052. Robert of Jumiéges.

at 1,000,000. 1052–1070. Stigand (deprived). 1070-1089. St. Lanfranc (died 24 May).

Cantor Lectures, courses given annually at the 1093-1109. Anselm.

rooms of the Society of Arts. The expenses are de(See vacant 5 years.)

frayed by a legacy from Dr. Theodore Edward Cantor, 1114-1122. Radulphus de Turbine.

of the Indian civil service, who died about 1859. The 1123-1136. William de Curbellio. 1139-1161. Theobald.

lectures began 7 Dec. 1863. 1162-1170. Thomas à Becket (murdered 29 Dec.). [See vacant.)

Canuleian Law, permitting the patricians and 1174-1184. Richard.

plebeians to intermarry, was passed at Rome 445 B.C. 1184-1190. Baldwin. 1191. Reginald Fitz-Joceline (died 26 Dec.).

Caoutchouc, or INDIA-RUBBER, an elastic resin(See vacant.]

ons substance that exudes by incisions from several 1193-1205. Hubert Walter. (Reginald the sub-prior, and John Grey, bishop of Norwich, were successively Asia, especially Castilloa llerea or Siphoniu elastica,

trees that grow in South America, Mexico, Africa, and chosen, but set aside.) 1206–1228. Stephen Langton (died 6 July).

and Ficus elastica. 1229-1231. Richard Weathershed. 1233-1240. Edmund de Abingdon.

Observed at Hayti by Columbus (Herrera)...

1493 1240-1270. Boniface of Savoy.

Described by Torquemada...

1615 1272-1278. Robert Kilwarby (resigned).

Discovered by La Coudamine in Quito (termed by na1279-1292. John Peckham.

tives cahout-chou); brought to Europe... ......about 1735 1293–1313. Robert Winchelsey.

Dr. Priestley said that he had seen “a substance excel. 1313–1327. Walter Reynolds.

lently adapted to the purpose of wiping from paper 1327-1333. Simon de Mepham.

the marks of a black lead pencil." It was sold at the 1333-1348. John Stratford.

rate of 3s, the cubic half-inch.

1770 1348-1349. John de Ufford.

India-rubber cloth was made by Samuel Peal and patThomas Bradwardin. 1349.

ented...

1791 1349–1366. Simon Islip.

Caoutchouc discovered in the Malay Archipelago, 1798; in
Assam....

1810 1366–1368. Simon Langham (resigned). 1368–1374. William Whittelsey.

Vulcanized rubber, formed by combining India-rubber 1375–1381. Simon Sudbury (beheaded by the rebels, 14 June).

with sulphur, which process removes the susceptibili1381-1396. William Courtenay.

ty of the rubber to change under atmospheric temper1397–1398. Thomas Fitzalan, or Arundel (attainted).

atures, was patented in America, by Mr. C. Goodyear.. 1839 1398. Roger Walden (expelled).

Invented also by Mr. T. Hancock (of the firm of Mackin

1843 1399-1414. Thomas Arundel (restored).

tosh & Co.), and patented... 1414–1443. Henry Chicheley.

Mr. Goodyear invented the hard rubber (termed Ebonite) 1443-1452. John Stafford.

as a substitute for horn and tortoise-shell..

1849 1452-1454. John Kemp.

A mode of retaining India-rubber in its natural fluid 1454-1486. Thomas Bouchier.

state (by applying to it liquid ammonia) patented in 1486-1500. John Morton.

England for the inventor, Mr. Henry Lee Norris, of 1501-1503. Henry Deane, or Denny.

New York....

1853 1503-1532. William Warham.

(Sec under Printing.)

1856 1533-1556. Thomas Cranmer (burned 21 March).

African caoutchouc imported into England... 1556–1558. Reginald Pole (died 17 Nov.).

Caoutchouc imported in 1950, 7617 cwts. ; in 1856, 28, 765 1559–1575. Matthew Parker (died 17 May).

cwts. ; in 1564, 71,027 cwts. ; in 1866, 72, 176 cwts.; in 1576–1583. Edmund Grindal (died 6 July).

1570, 152, 118 cwts. ; in 1874, 129, 163 cwts.; in 1876, 1583–1604. John Whitgift (died 29 Feb.).

158,692 cwts. ; in 1677, 159,723 cwts. ; in 1879, 150,601

cwts. 1601–1610. Richard Bancroft (died 2 Nov.). 1611-1633. George Abbot (died 4 Aug.).

In 1923, 500 pairs of shoes were imported into Boston. 1633-1645. William Laud (beheaded 10 Jan.).

At a later date gum-elastic became the subject of scien. (See vacant 16 years. ]

tific investigation, and many persons commenced ex. 1660-1663. William Juxon (died 4 June).

perimenting with it. In 1832, the considerable manu1663-1677. Gilbert Sheldon (died 9 Nov.).

facture of it was commenced in Massachusetts by John 1678-1691. William Sancroft (deprived 1 Feb.; died 24 Nov.

Haskins and Edwin M. Chaffee, who, in connection 1693).

with others, started the celebrated Roxbury India-rub1691-1694. John Tillotson (died 22 Nov.).

ber Company, which was shortly after incorporated 1695-1715. Thomas Tenison (died 14 Dec.).

with a capital of $100,000. For this company Mr. Chaf. 1715–1737. William Wake (died 24 Jan.).

fee invented the famous mammoth machine for spread1737-1747. John Potter (died 10 Oct.).

ing rubber without a solvent, the machine itself cost. 1747–1757. Thomas Herring (died 13 March).

ing nearly $30,000. Similar machines are now re1757-1758. Matthew Hutton (died 19 March).

quired by all manufacturers of rubber goods. The 1758-1768. Thomas Secker (died 3 Aug. ).

apparent prosperity of this company induced the start1768-1783. Frederick Cornwallis (died 19 March).

ing of factories in Boston, Chelsea, Woburn, and Fram1783-1805. John Moore (died 18 Jan.).

ingham (Mass.). New York city, Staten Island, and 1805–1828. Charles Manners Sutton (died 21 July).

Troy (N. Y.), with capitals of from $50,000 to $500,000. 1828–1848. William Howley (died 11 Feb.).

These companies made their goods by dissolving the 1848-1862. John Bird Sumner (died 6 Sept.).

rubber in camphene and other solvents, then mixing 1862-1868. Charles Thomas Longley (died 27 Oct.).

lampblack with it, and while in the form of paste 1868. Archibald Campbell Tait (elected 4 Dec.).

spreading it on cloth from which coats, etc., are made.

The goods were then dried in the sun or in a warm Canterbury (New Zealand), a Church of England

room until the solvent evaporated, leaving a coating

of rubber. In 1856, the United States imported crude settlement founded in 1850. Population in 1854, 6000 ; India-rubber to the amount of $97,796, and exported in 1868, 54,000; during that period, 1,800,0001. expended to the amount of $1,093,602 of rubber goods. In 1880, on public works, principally from the current revenue.

the United States imported crude India-rubber to the

amount of 13,951,964 lbs., valued at $9,606,239. Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, were written about 1364, and first printed about 1475 or 1476

Cape Breton, a large island. E. coast of North Amer. (by Caxton). Chaucer Society established 1867.

ica, said to have been discovered by Cabot, 1497; by the

English in 1581; taken by the French in 1632, but was Cantharides, venomous green beetles (called Span- afterwards restored; and again taken in 1745, and reish fies), employed to raise blisters. This use is ascribed taken in 1748. The fortress, Louisburg, was captured to Aretæus of Cappadocia, about 50 B.C.

by the English, 26 July, 1758, when the garrison were Canticles, a name given to the Benedictus, Mag- made prisoners, and eleven French ships were captured nificat, Nunc dimittis, etc., in the Book of Common or destroyed. The island was ceded to England, 10 Feb. Prayer, and especially to the Song of Solomon.

1763. Canton, founded about 200 B.C., the only city in Cape-Coast Castle (S.W. Africa). Settled by China with which Europeans were allowed to trade, till the Portuguese in 1610; taken by the Dutch, 1643; dethe treaty of 29 Aug. 1842. Merchants arrived here molished by admiral Holmes in 1661. All the British in 1517. English factory established, 1680. A fire de- factories and shipping along the coast were destroyed by stroying 15,000 houses, 1822. An inundation swept I the Dutch admiral, De Ruyter, in 1665. It was con

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tirmed to the English by the treaty of Breda in 1667; 1 Zulu war begins (see Zululand). ..

.12 Jan. 1879 see A shuntees.

Insurrection in the Transvaal (which see).

.. Dec.

Telegraphic communication with Great Britain comCape Finisterre (N.W. Spain). Off this cape ad- pleted; telegrain from the queen to sir Bartle Frere mirals lord Anson and Warren defeated and captured a

and others.

.25 Dec.

Government proposition for conference of delegates to French fleet uuder De la Jonquière, 3 May, 1747.

promote federation, rejected by the assembly, Cape of Good Hope, a promontory on the S.W.

about 24 June, 1880

War with Basutos.. point of Africa, called “Cabo Tormentoso" (the stormy Recall of sir Bartle Frere, 1 Aug.; announced in parlia

.....June, cape), the “Lion of the Sea," and the “Head of Africa,"

ment....

.2 Aug. discovered by Bartholomew de Diaz in 1487. Its pres- Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson appointed governor. 21 Aug. ent name was given by John II. of Portugal, who an- Resignation of Mr. Sprigg's ministry, through narrow es

cape of vote of censure; succeeded by Mr. Scanlen and gured favorably of future discoveries from Diaz having Mr. Molteno

.6, 7 May, 1881 reached the extremity of Africa. Population of “ Cape For recent wars, see Basutoland, Zululand, and TransColony," in 1856, 267,096; in 1875, 721,502.

vaal. The cape was doubled, and the passage to India discov.

Cape Horn, or Hoorn, on the last island of the ered, by Vasco da Gama...

..19 Nov. 1497 Fuegian archipelago, the southernmost point of America, Cape Town, the capital, founded by the Dutch..

1650

was discovered and named by Schouten, 1616, after his Colony taken by the English under admiral Elphinstone and gen. Clarke ...

16 Sept. 1795 birthplace in the Netherlands. Restored at the peace of Amiens..

.25 March, 1802 Cape la Hogue, see La llogue. Taken by sir D. Baird and sir H. Popham ...9 Jan. 1806 Finally ceded to England....

..13 Aug. 1814 Cape St. Vincent (S.W. Portugal). Sir George British emigrants arrive.

... March, 1820 Rooke, with twenty-three ships of war, and the Turkish The Katt make irruptions on the British settlements, and ravage Grahamstown (see Kaffraria). Oct. 1834

fleet, was attacked by Tourville, with 160 ships, off Cape Bishopric of Cape Town founded; Dr. Robert Gray, first St. Vincent, when twelve English and Dutch men-ofbishop...

1847 war, and eighty merchantmen, were captured or deThe inhabitants successfully resist the attempt to make the Cape a penal colony...

. 19 May, 1849 stroyed by the French, 16 June, 1693.—Sir John Jervis, Territories north of Great Orange river placed under

with the Mediterranean fleet of fifteen sail, defeated the British authority, 3 Feb. 1848; annexed as the Orange Spanish fleet of twenty-seven ships of the line off this River Territory

March, 1851

cape, taking four ships and sinking others, 14 Feb. 1797. The constitution granted to the colony promulgated and joyfully received..

.1 July, 1853 For this victory sir John was raised to the peerage, as Gen. Prætorius, chief of the Transvaal republic, died. Aug. earl St. Vincent, Nelson was engaged in this battle. The British jurisdiction over the Orange River Territory Near this cape the fleet of dom Pedro, under admiral abandoned, 30 Jan.; a free state was formed; see Or

Charles Napier, captured dom Miguel's fleet, 5 July, ange River ...

. March, 1854 The first parliament meets at Cape Town. ...1 July,

1833, The Kaffirs much excited by a prophet named Umhlakaza; by the exertions of sir George Grey, the

Cape V Isla ds (N. Atl tic Ocean ), be

govern. or, tranquillity maintained..

... Aug. 1856 longing to Portugal, were known to the ancients as GorTho Cape visited by prince Alfred in.. ...July, 1860 gades, but not to the moderns till discovered by Antonio The first railway from Cape Town, about 58 miles long,

de Noli, a Genoese navigator in the service of Portugal, opened.

.about Dec. Governor, sir Philip E. Wodehouse.

1861 1446, 1450, or 1460. Disputes between bishops of Cape Town and Natal (see Church of England)...

Capel Court, see under Stocks.

1863-5 Cape Town visited by the duke of Edinburgh....17 Aug. 1867 Capetians, the third race of the kings of France, Discovery of diamonds; leads to disputes between the

named from Hugo Capet, count of Paris and Orleans, free states and the tribes (see Diamonds).

1867-70 Large tracts of territory devastated by fire. .Feb. 1809 who seized the throne on the death of Louis V., called Death of Moshesh, an eminent chief of the Basutos, the Indolent, 987.1énault. The first line of the house friendly to the British..

11 March, 1870 of Capet ended with Charles IV., in 1328, when Philip New harbor, breakwater, and docks at Cape Town inau. gurated by the duke of Edinburgh..

.12 July,

VI. of Valois ascended the throne; see France. Sir Henry Barkly appointed governor

... Aug.

Capillarity (the rising of liquids in small tubes, Energetic conduct of sir Henry Barkly, repressing aggressions of the president of the Orange River terri.

and the ascent of the sap in plants) is said to have been tory.

March, 1871 first observed by Niccolò Aggiunti of Pisa, 1600-35. The Colony of Griqualand constituted.

27 Oct. theory has been examined by Newton, La Place, and The British flag erected amidst the diamond-fields with

.17 Nov. great acclamation..

others. Dr. T. Young's theory was put forth in 1805, Great success in the diamond-fields; robbery of diamon.is

and Mr. Wertheim's researches in 1857. valued between 35,0001. and 40,0001.; oppression of the

Capital, estimated amount (R. Gifen): natives stopped by sir H. Barkly..

.. Aug. 1872 Death of bishop Gray, deeply lamented

1 Sept.

Great Britain: beginning of century, 115,000,0001. ; 1843, Macomo, an eminent Kailir chief, died. ..11 Sept. 1873 251,000,0001. ; 1853, 262.000.0001. Insurrection of Langalibalele, a chief, suppressed (see United Kingdom : 1855, 308,000,0001. ; 1865, 396,000,0002. ; 1875, Natal) .....

Nov., Dec. 571,000,0001. South African Confederation (which see), proposed by earl of Carnarvon; opposed by Mr. Molteno and his cabinet,

Capital Punishment, see Death. May; long debate commenced on it in the Cape parlia- Capitation-tax, see Poll-tar. ment

11 Nov. 1875 Earl of Carnarvon, in a despatch, proposes that the con- Capitol, said to have been so called from a human ference on the confederation shall be transferred to

head (caput) found when digging the foundations of the England, 22 Oct.; much resented...

....... Noy.

fortress of Rome, on Mons Tarpeius. Here a temple Earl of Carnarson's despatch expressing earnest desire for the confederation, and proposing a meeting of delo

was built to Jupiter Capitolinus. The foundation was gates in London, their decision not to be conclusive, 15 laid by Tarquinius Priscus, 616 B.C.; the building was Nov. ; parliament prorogued

26 Nov.

continued by Servius Tullius; completed by Tarquinius Conference of delegates in London began; earl of Carnarvon, not Mr. Molteno, present.

...5 Aug. 1876 Superbus, but not dedicated till 507 B.c. by the consul Sir H. Bartle E. Frere appointed governor and lord high Horatius. It was destroyed by lightning 6 July, 183; commissioner for South Africa..

.. Nov.

burned during the civil wars, 83; rebuilt by Sylla, and He opens a successful exhibition at Cape Town..5 April, 1877 dedicated again by Lutatius Catulus, 69; again burned, Transvaal republic (which ser) annexed .12 April, Troublesome disputes between tribes (Fingoes and Gale- A.D. 69,80; rebuilt 70,82; sacked by Genseric, June, 15ð. kas); lead to war (see Kaffraria).

..... Sept.

The Roman consuls made large donations to this temple, The ininister Molteno opposes employing imperial troops in the Killir war....

and the emperor Augustus bestowed on it 2000 pounds

.Jan, Feb. 1878 Mr. Moltedo's ministry dismissed; one formed by Mr. J. weight of gold, of which metal the roof was composed : Gordon Sprigg, about 12 Feb. ; reported successful,

its thresholds were of brass, and its interior was decoApril,

rated with shields of solid silver. The Capitoline games, Kafir war ended; amnesty to surrendering rebels an. nounced..

.2 July,

instituted 387 B.C. to commemorate the deliverance from Thanksgiving day for restoration of peace..

..1 Aug

the Gauls, were revived by Domitian, A.D. 86. The

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