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to prevent adulteration of food and drugs passed 10 Aug. parliament of Paris in 1685 that the king's advocate of 1872. Penalties for adulterating liquors were imposed France might at the same time be a judge; and in Scotby the new licensing act passed same time. The report land, sir William Oliphant (1612) and sir John Nesbit of a commission, issued in July, 1874, declared that the (1666) were lord advocates and lords of session at the public “ were cheated rather than poisoned.” All the same time.-- Beatson. The Advocates' library in Edinanti-adulteration acts were repealed by the Sale of Food burgh was established by sir G. Mackenzie about 1682; and Drugs Act, passed 11 Aug. 1875; which was amend- see Judge Advocate. ed in 1879.

Ædiles. Roman city officers of threc degrees, said Adultery was punished with death by the law of to owe their name to having had charge of the ædes, or Moses (1490 B.C. ; Lev. xx. 10), and by Lycurgus (884 temple, of Ceres. 1. Two plebeian ædiles were appointed B.C.). The early Saxons burned the adulteress and erect- with the tribunes to assist them in looking after builded á gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the ings, weights, and measures, the supply of provisions and adulterer. The ears and nose were cut off under Canute, water, etc., 494 B.C. 2. The ædiles curules, at first patri1031. Adultery was ordained to be punished capitally cians, were appointed 365 B.C. 3. Julius Cæsar appointby the parliament, May 14, 1650 ; but there is no record ed ædiles cereales for watching over the supply of corn. of this law taking effect; and it was repealed at the res- The ædiles became a kind of police under the emperors. toration. In New England the punishment for adultery

Ædui, or Hedui, a Celtic people, N.E. France, was made capital to both parties, and several suffered for who were delivered from subjection to the Sequani by it, 1662.--Hardie. Till 1857 the legal redress against Julius Cæsar, B.C. 58; but afterwards, opposing him, the male offender was by civil action for a money com- were subjugated by him, 52. Their insurrection, headed pensation, the female being liable to divorce. By 20 by Julius Sacrovir, A.D. 21, was quelled by C. Silius. & 21 Vict. c. 85 (1857), the “action for criminal conversation" was abolished, and the Court for Divorce and

Ægates Isles, W. of Sicily: near these, during the Matrimonial Causes established with power to grant di- first Punic war, the Roman consul C. Lutatius Catulus vorces for adultery and ill-usage; see Divorce. An act gained a decisive victory over the Carthaginian fleet un

Peace ensued, the Rowas passed in 1869 permitting parties to suits for adul- der Hanno, 10 March, 241 B.C. tery to give evidence. In the United States adultery is mans obtaining Sicily and a tribute of 3200 talents. variously punished under differing state laws, usually by Ægina, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was humfine or imprisonment or both. It is also good ground for bled by Themistocles, 485 B.C.; and taken and its works absolute divorce in all the states.

destroyed, 455. Its inhabitants expelled, 431, were reAdvent (adventus, arrival). The season includes stored by the Spartans, 404; they renewed war with

Athens, 388, and made peace, 387. four Sundays, previous to Christmas, the first the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), before or after. Ægospotami (the Goat-rivers), in the ChersoneHomilies respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. sus, where Lysander, the Lacedæmonian, defeated the Advent Sunday, 1880, 28 Nov.; 1881, 27 Nov.; 1882, 3 Athenian fleet, 405 B.C., and ended the Peloponnesian Dec.; 1883, 2 Dec.; 1884, 30 Nov.; 1885, 29 Nov. Adventists. An American sect who look for the

A. E. I. O. U. (for “ Austria est imperare orbi uniearly second coming of Christ. A fanatical member of versi,” “ Austria is to rule all the world”) was the motto the sect in Pocasset, Mass., professing to imitate Abra- of the weak and unfortunate emperor Frederick III.,

1440-93. ham, sacrificed his child, the mother looking on, May, 1879.

Ælfric Society, founded 1812; closed 1856; pub

lished “Homilies of Ælfric, Archbishop of Canterbury,” Adventure Bay, S.E. end of Van Diemen's Land, discovered in 1773 by capt. Furneaux in his first voyage

and other Anglo-Saxon works. to the Pacific, and named from his ship Adventure. It

Ælia Capitolina, built on the ruins of Jerusalem was visited by capt. Cook 1777; by capt. Bligh in 1788 by the emperor Adrian, 130. and 1792.

Æmilia, the name given to the provinces of Parma, Adventurers, see Merchants.

Modena, and the Romagna, united to Sardinia in 1860, Advertisements in NEWSPAPERS, as now pub

and now part of the kingdom of Italy. lished, were not general in England till the beginning

Æneid, the great Latin epic poem relating the adof the eighteenth century. A penalty of 501. was inflict- ventures of Æneas, written about 24 B.c. by Virgil, who ed on persons advertising a reward with “No questions died 22 Sept. 19 B.C., before he had finally corrected the to be asked” for the return of things stolen, and on the poem. It was tirst printed in 1469 at Rome. printer, 1754. The advertisement duty (first enacted Ænigma. Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C.; Judg. 1712), formerly charged according to the number of xiv. 12) is the earliest on record. Gale attributes æniglines, was afterwards tixed, in England, at 3s. 6d., and in matical speeches to the Egyptians. The ancient oracles Ireland at 2s. 6d, each advertisement. The duty (fur- frequently gave responses admitting of perfectly conther reduced, in England to 1s. 6d. and in Ireland to 1s. trary interpretations. In Nero's time, the Romans had each, in 1833) was abolished in 1853.

recourse to this method of concealing truth. The folEarly advertisements are found in Perfect Occurences

lowing epitaph on Fair Rosamond (mistress of our Henry of every Daie, 26 March to 2 April, 1617, and Mercu

II. about 1173) is a mediæval specimen: “Hic jacet in rius Elencticus,

...4 Oct. 1648 tombâ Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda; Non redolet, sed H. Sampson's " History of advertising," published. Nov, 1874 olet, quæ redolere solet." The whole libretto of Macfurren's opera “Robin Hood” inserted as an advertisement in the Times (4% col. Æolia, in Asia Minor, was colonized by a principal

..16 Oct. 1860 branch of the Hellenic race about 1124 B.C. A debate in the Portuguese parliament, translated, in

The Æoserted as advertisement in the Daily News (8 col

lians built several large cities both on the mainland and

..3 May, 1877 the neighboring islands; Mitylene, in Lesbos, was conADVERTISING VANS, a great nuisance, prohibited.. 1853 sidered the capital. The American system of advertising agencies was orig- Æolian Harp. Its invention is ascribed to Kirinated by Orlando Bourne in 1828. The system was cher, 1650, who wrote on it, but it was known before. brought to perfection in 1860.

Æolina, a free-reed wind-instrument, invented by Advocate, The King's (always a doctor of the Wheatstone in 1829. civil law), was empowered to prosecute at his own in- Æolopile, a hollow ball with an orifice in which a tube stance certain crimes about 1597. The Lord Anvo- might be screwed, was used in the seventeenth century as CATE in Scotland is the same as the attorney-general in a boiler for experimental steam-engines; a similar apEngland with judicial powers.--It was decided in the paratus is described by Vitruvius, first century, A.D.





Aqui, an ancient Italian race, were subdued by the altered in 1702, 1721, 1837, and in April, 1859.—The inRomans, and their lands annexed, after a severe strug- dulgence was granted to persons who were formerly gle, 471-302 B.C.

Quakers, but who had seceded from that sect, 2 Vict. Æras, see Eras.

1838; and extended to other dissenters by 9 Geo. IV. C. Aerated Waters. Apparatus for combining gases laugh's case, see Parliament, 1880-1.

32, 1828, and 18 & 19 Vict. c. 2, 1855. For Mr. Bradwith water were patented by Thomson in 1807, F. C. Bakewell in 1832 and 1847, Tylor in 1840, and by oth

Afghanistan (the Greek Ariana), a large country ers.--AERATED Bread is made by processes patented in central Asia, successively part of the Persian and by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7.

Greek empires. Chief cities, Cabul, Herat, Candahar, Aerians, followers of Aerius, a presbyter in the fourth Ghuznee. The tribes are ruled by sirdars. century, who held that there was no distinction between Early Afghan conquests in India..

1200-1290 a bishop and a presbyter; that there was no Pasch to be Conquests of Genghis Khan about 1221, and by Tamer

lalle.. observed by Christians; that the Lent and other fasts Baber conquered Cabul..

1525 should not be observed; and that prayers should not be On his death Afghanistan divided between Persia and offered for the dead.- Epiphanius.


The Afghans revolt in 1720; invade Persia and take Ispa. Aerolites, see Meteors.

han; repulsed by Nadir Shah in 1728, who subdues the whole of the country..

1738 Aeronautics AND Aerostatics, see Balloons on his assassination, one of his officers, Ahmed Shah, an and Flying. The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain Afghan, made Alghanistan independent, and reigued was established by the duke of Argyll and others, 12 Timur Shah ison), succeeds, 1773; rules cruelly; dies,


1747-73 Jan. 1866.

leaving 23 sous.

1793 Aerophore, an apparatus invented by M. Denay- Zeman becomes ameer, 1793; cripples the power of the rouze to enable persons to enter a noxious inflammable Mahmud Shah, son, ameer 1800; deposed for his brother,

sirdars; blinded and dethroned

1800 atmospbere. It comprises an air-pump, lamp, and flexi- Suja Shah, 1803; Mahmud restored, Fultih Khan the ble tubing. It was tried at Chatham, 12-14 Jan. 1875, vizier predominant, 1809; Futuh blinded; Mahmud and reported successful. A gold medal was awarded to Impotent rulers at Cabul ; Dost Mabomed Klan becomes

flees from Cabul and becomes ruler at Herat..

1816 the inventor at the Vienna Exhibition, 1873.


He is dethroned by the British, and sent to Calcutta ; Aero-steam Engine, see under Air.

Suja Shah restored.

1838 Æsculapius, god of medicine: his worship intro- British occupation of Cabul causes great discontent; induced at Rome, about 291 B.C.

surrection ; sir Alexander Burnes and 23 others killed,

2 Nov. 1841 Æsop's Fables, see Fables.

Akbar Khan, son of Dost Mahomed, head of the rebels ;

invites sir "I'm. Macnagliten to meet, and assassinates Æsthetics (from the Greek aïoonrıç, perception), him and others...

..23 Dec. the science of the beautiful (especially in art); à term The British army retires from Cabul, and is destroyed by invented by Baumgarten, a German philosopher, whose

the Ghilzais in the Khyber pass; of 3819 soldiers, and

about 12,000 camp-followers, only Dr. Brydone and four work “ ÆEsthetica” was published in 1750.

or five natives escaped massacre.. ...6-13 Jan. 1842

Sir George Pollock forces the Khyber pass; defeats Ak. Æthiopia, see Ethiopia.

bar Khan at Tezeen; captures Cabul and releases lady "Æthiopica," see Romances.

Sale and others, 16 Sept.; destroys the great bazaar; retires.

.12 Oct. Aetians, followers of Aetius, an Arian heretic about Dost Mahomed becomes ameer. 351.

His treaty of friendship with lord Dalhousie (faithfully kept)..

.30 Murch, 1855 Ætna, see Elna.

He dies, leaving 16 sons; appointing as his successor

Shere' Ali, the third son, 9 June; who is much opposed Ætolia, in Greece, a country named after Ætolus

by his brothers, especially by Uzul, the eldest son of Elis, who is said to have accidentally killed a son of (and his son Abdul Rahman, or Abdur-Ralıman), Azim, Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and set

Ameen, and Shureef; yet is recognized by them.Sept. 1863 tled here. After the ruin of Athens and Sparta, the #to- Unsuccessful insurrection of Ufzul and Azimn; Azim tiees

to British territories, 16 day; lfzul reconciled to lians became the rivals of the Achæans, and were alter- Shere Ali...

2 June, 1864 nately allies and enemies of Rome.

Insurrection of Abdul Rahman; l'fzul imprisoned. . Aug.
Shere Ali enters Cabul.

...14 NoY. The Ætolians join Sporta against Athens.. .B.C. 455 | Azim and his confederates defeated at Kujhbaz, ncar The Ætolian league of tribes opposes Macedon

323 Khelat-i-Ghilzye, by Shere Ali (whose gallant son is Invaded by Antipater during the Lamian war.

322 killed), 6 June; he enters Candalar.........14 June, 1865 Aid in expulsion of the Gauls...


Azim joins his nephew Abdul Rahman; defection of MaInvade the Peloponnesus, ravage Messenia (Social war), homed Rufeek from Ibrahim (Shere Ali's son) weakly and defeat the Achaans at Caphyæ...


ruling Cabul; it surrenders to Azim.........2 March, 1866 Philip V. of Macedon invades Etolia, and takes Ther- Shere Ali rouses himself from his grief; raises an army; mum---Peace of Naupactus concluded


some of his treacherous friends return to him; he is Alliance with Rome

211 defeated at Sheikhabad, and flees to Candahar 10 May Deserted by the Romans, the Ætolians make peace with Ufzul (sensual and easy) and Azim (cruel and tyrannical) Philip

205 rule at Cabul..

May, et seq. War with Philip, 200; he is defeated at ('ynoscephalæ... 197 Azim and Abdul Rahman defeat Shere Ali at Kujlibaz, 17 The Ætolians invite the kings of Maced Syria, and

Jan.; he flees to Candabar; out, flees to Herat Sparta to coalesce against the Romans..

held by his son Yakoob..

..Jan. 1867 Defeat of the allies near Thermopylæ

191 His army again defeated and his general and brother, Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius.

Fyz Mahomed, killed..

.17 Sept. Leading patriots massacred by the Roman party

167 Uszul dies; Az m sole ruler at Cabul.

..... Oct. Ætolia made a province of Rome.....

146 He quarrels with Abdul-Rahmau; who leaves him, and

refuses to help him.. Affinity. Marriage within certain degrees of kin- Yakoob defeats Azim's troops, and enters Candahar

March, 1868 dred was prohibited in almost every age and country,

April, but has yet taken place to a considerable extent. The Azim leaves Cabul, July; his army dissolves by deserJewish law is given in Lev. xviii. (1490 B.c.). In the Sir John Lawrence helps Shere Ali with arms and mon

tion; Shere Ali enters Cabul..

.8 Sept. English Prayer-book the table restricting marriage with- ey; the attempts of Abdul Rabman repulsed, Nov., Dec. in certain degrees was set forth by authority, 1563. Shere Ali totally defeats him and Azim (who dies soon Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous sliere Ali honorably received at Umballah by the vice


...Jan. 1869 and unlawful by the 99th canon, in 1603. All marriages

roy, the earl of Mayo, and receives a subsidy, within the forbidden degrees are declared to be abso

27 March et seq.

... about June, 1870 lutely void by 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54, 1835; see Marriage The limits of his territories defined.

His son Yakoob rebels; captures Herat.. ......6 May, (of Wife's Sister). The prohibited degrees were set forth Feramoz Khan, his father's general, assassinated. June, 1871 in 25 Hen. VIII. c. 22, 1533-4.

Yakoob recopciled to his father through lord Mayo, July;

made governor of Herat; soon rebels... .Sept. Affirmation ; sec Quakers. The affirmation was 'slum, murderer of Feramoz, killed in prison...... Oct.

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Shere Ali agrees to new houndaries, and receives an. gen. Hills to be mil tary governor, with Gholam Husother British subsidy, Oct.; nominates his youngest

sein Khan.

14 Oct. 1879 son, Abdoola Jan, his successor, to the great dissatis- Great explosions (supposed treacherous) in the Bala Hisfaction of his older son Yakoob..

.. Dec. 1873 sar; destruction of much arms and ammunition; capt. Yakoob Khan imprisoned by his father... .about Dec. 1874 Shafto and about 20 others missing.

16 Oct. Shere Ali refusing to allow a British resident, the sub- Abdication of Yakoob Khan announced. ...19 Oct.

sidy withheld; he raises an army, and is said to pro- 5 prisoners (mollahs and others) hanged as murderers
mote disaffection to the British..
1877-8 of major Cavagnari and others...

20-24 Oct. Death of the heir Abdoola Jan..

.17 Aug. 1878 Sahib Jan, a freebooter, with a strong force of Taraki Stolietoff, a Russian envoy, favorably received at Cabul, Ghilzais, defeated and killed by gen. Huglies at Shahjui, June; a treaty signed; Russia to be the guardian of

near Candahar...

..24 Oct. the ameer.

...Aug Proclamation of gen. Roberts announcing British occuThe nawab Gholam Hussein Khan sent as envoy to the

pation of Cabul, etc..

30 Oct. ameer with letters from the viceroy (16 and 24 Aug.), Junction of columns of gens. Macpherson and Bright at 30 Ang ; dismissed with presents; intercourse with


.6 Nov. the British declined....

Sept. 163 Afghan mutineers, etc., tried; 87 executed as mur. - A mission with military escort under sir Neville B.Chain

derers; 76 released

Oct., Nov. berlain, commander of the Madras army, starts from Combination of tribes under Mahomed Jan Wardak, Peshawar ..21 Sept.

Dec. At Ali Musjid, a fort in the Khyber pass, major Cava- Continued severe fighting, with heavy loss on both sides, gnari and an advance party are threatened with attack

11-14 Dec. if they proceed, 22 Sept.; they retire to Peshawur, 23, Gen. Roberts concentrates his forces in the Sherpir can. 24 Sept. ; Gholam Hussein sent with an ultimatum (an.


.14 Dec. swer required before 20 Nov.)........ ....28 Oct. Musa Khan, son of Yakoob, said to be proclaimed ameer British army formed in three divisions : at Quettah,

about 17 Dec, Peshawur, and Kuram (34,730 natives, 12,740 Euro- Gen. Gough at Jagdalak attacked; retreats into the fort, peans)...

.. about 16 Nov.
16 Dec. ; indecisive conflicts.

.18, 19 Deo. Despatch from lord Cranbrook supporting the viceroy, The Afghans (25,000) defeated with great loss near Sher.

18 Nov.

pur cantonments, by gens. Roberts and Gough. .23 Dec. No answer received from the ameer; the army advances, Cabul left by the enemy, 24 Dec.; the city and Bala His

21 Nov.
sar reoccupied by the British.

.26 Dec. Ali Musjid shelled and occupied by the British; 21 guns The enemy dispersed....

28 Dec. taken; major Birch and lieut. Fitzgerald and about 35 Attack of Afghan chiefs on col. Norman repulsed at Jag. men killed..

22 Nov.

..29 Dec. The viceroy's pro-lamation to the Afghans issued. 23 Nov. Ghazni seized and held for Musa Khan, as the new ameer, Occupation of Dakka and Pisheen, 23 Nov. ; of Kuram

by Mohammed Jan...

.about 10 Jan. 1880 fort.....

25 Nov. Gen. Roberts proclaims an amnesty with few exceptions; Kuddum burned to punish marauding hillmen....1 Dec. the bill tribes generally subdued. ..... about 6 Jan. Gen. Roberts victorious at l'eiwar pass (which see). 2 Dec. Mohmands and other tribes defeated in an attack near Evasive reply of the amcer, dated 19 Nov., received


15 Jan. 3 Dec. Correspondence with Russia; papers found in Cabul ito The British occupy Jellalabad.

20 Dec.
be kept secret)...

.6 Feb. Shere Ali flees from Cabul to Balkh, 13 Dec.; Yakoob Musa Khan and chiefs at Ghazni submit......21 March,

Khan assumes command; the Russian missiou with- Mahomed Jan defeated and killed, fighting with Ha-

.. Dec.

.. about 3 April,
Gen. Roberts proclaims annexation of Kuram district, A camp at Duwal attacked by Pathans; garrison killed
..26 Dec.

16 April, He enters the Khoost territory, 3 Jan.; defeats the Man. Shero Ali, cousin of the late ameer, made wali or gov. gals near Matoon.

..7 Jan. 1879 ernor of Candabar by the Britisb (see Candahar). April, Candahar abandoned ( Jan.; entered by general Stewart Gen. sir Donald Stewart defeats a furious attack of Ghil. unopposed. .

.7 Jan.

zais at Ahmad Khel, 19 April; again near Ghazni, Wali Mahomed, a relative of Shere Ali, joins the British,

23 April, Jan. Col. Jenkins, at Char-asiab, attacked by 4000 Logaris; reThe Alizais defeated in an attack..

..16 Feb.

sists till reinforced by gen. Macpherson; totally deDeath of Shere Ali, the ameer (announced). ...20 Feb.

feats them..

...25 April, About 46 of the 10th hussars drowned by current while Sir D. Stewart takes chief command at Cabul.....2 May, crossing the Cabul river, 10 p.m...

.31 March, Alleged defeats of Satis and Ghazis near Jellalabad, Gen. Gough, with the 10th hussars and others, defeats

19, 22 May, about 5000 Khugianis near Futtehabad; gallant major Gen. Burrows (with about 2400 men) sent from Bombay Wigram Batty killed. . ...2 April, • towards Candahar...

.1 July, Yakoob Khan, son of the lite amcer, arrives at Ganda. The troops of the inefficient wali of Candahar, Shere Ali, mak to negotiate, 8 May; recognized as ancer..9 May,

revolt and join Ayoob Khan, about.. ....14 July, Treaty of pere signed at Gandamak (the British to oc- Gen. Burrows at Maiwand, near Kusck-i-Nakhud (which cupy Khyber pass, and the Kuram and Pisheen val


17 July, leys; to have a resilent at Cabul; and to pay an an. Abdul Rahman, or Abdur-Rahman (see above, 1863 et nual subsidy of (0,001to the ameer), 26 May; ratified

seq.), recognized as ameer at Cabul by the British, and 30 May; the Britist troops retire.. .8 June, proclaimed..

22 July, Sir Louis Cavagnari and escort honorably received in Ayoob Khan (son of the late ameer, Shere Ali), governor Cabul...

.24 July, of Herat, marches upon Candahar with about 12,000 Thanks of the house of lords voted to the viceroy, oflicers,

men and 20 guns; defeats the attack of gen. Burrows and men.

4 Aug

after severe conflicts; heavy loss on both sides; many Several regiments of Afghan soldiers arrive in Cabul

officers of 66th regiment killed..

.27 July, from Herat; about 13 Aug, aided by the populace, they Candahar citadel held by British with about 4000 men, besiege the British residents, who, after a brave resist.

28 July, ance, are massacred (including sir L. Cavagnari, Mr. Ayoob encamped at Kokaran...

.9 Aug. Jenkyns, his secretary, lieut. Hainilton, and Dr. Am- Gen. sir F. Roberts with about 10,000 men, etc., marches brose Kelly), with about 26 native cavalry and 50 in

from Cabul to relieve Candahar..

..9 Aug fantry; a few natives escape..

.3, 4 Sept. Sir D. Stewart, with all the troops, after an interview Gen. Roberts marches towards Cabul......6 Sept. et seq.

with the ameer Abdur-Rahman, withdraws from Cabul Mutiny at Herat; military and civil goveruors killed,

11 Aug. 5 Sept.

Attack of Pathans (hill-tribes) on the post at Kach AmaRepulse of an attack on Baker's entrenchments at Shitar

dan firmly beaten off by sepoys; 80 Pathans killed, gardan... .19 Sept.

16 Aug. A British convoy attar ked by Mongols, near Shutargar. Ineffectual sortie from Candahar, under gen. Primrose, dan; 8 sepoys and 15 muleteers killed; mules taken, against Deh Kwajee village, with heavy loss on both

22 Sept.

s:des; gen. Brooke, col. Newport, majors Vandaleur and Gen. Baker reaches Kushi 24 Sept. ; receives the ameer French, capt. Cruickshank, lieut. Marsh, and rev. Mr. Yakoob and his sou, his general Daoud, and suite,

Gordon, and 180 men killed....

...16 Aug. 27 Srpe.

Ayoob Khan's army (strengthened by Ghilzais) about Gen. Roberts arrives at Cabul, 28 Sept. ; occupies Dakka, 20,000 about 23 Aug.; he retires from Candahar 29 Sept.

about 30 Aug. Attack on British camp at Shutargardan repulsed.2 Oct. Gen. Roberts arrives at Candahar, 31 Aug; declines Battle of Charasiab; severe contlict with Afghans before

Ayoob's terms; defeats and disperses his army at Cabul; capt. Young, Dr. Duncan, lieut. Fergusson, and Mazra near the Argandab; and captures his camp at about 70 killed and wounded..

6 Oct.

Baba Wali Kotal (see Mazra)..... ......1 Sept. The enemy decamps; about 98 guns abandoned; pur. Ayoob Khan arrives in Herat; reported .........10 Oct. sued by cu valry; small pirties only overtaken.8-9 Oct. Tranquillity at Cabul announced

Nov. Gen. Roberts visits the abandoned Bala Hissar, 11 Oct.; Shore Ali, wali of Candahar, resigus and retires to India, enters Cabul, 12 Oct.; Jellalabad occupied by Gough,

Dec, 14 Oct. Alleged expenses of the war, 1878-80, 16,605,0001....Jan. 1881 Gen. Roberts's proclamation; heavy fine; martial law; Russian correspondence with the umeer Shere Ali in

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1878 published; explained by Russia as relating to Livingstone left Zanzibar to continue his search for the probable war in the East..

9, 10 Feb. 1881 sources of the Nile, March, 1866. Thanks of parliament voted to gen. Roberts and the

(See his narrative below.) army in both houses...

......5 May, Reports of the murder of Livingstone near Lake Nyassa, in Prospect of war between Ayoob Khan of Herat and Ab

Sept. 1866–March, 1867; doubted july, 1867. dur-Rahman of Cabul...

.May, June, Expeditiou of E. D. Young in search of Livingstone, sailed 9 Conflicts between partisans of the ameer and Ayoob July, 1867, returned and reported to the Royal Geographical Khan; the latter defeated..

....3, 11 June, Society his conviction that Livingstone was alive, 27 Jan. Ayoob Khan defeats the ameer's army under Gholam

1868. Hyder at Karez-i-atta, 26 July; enters Candahar

Letter from Dr. Livingstone dated Bembo, 2 March, 1867; 30 July,

heard of down to Dec. 1867.

His despatch to lord Clarendon dated 7 July, 1868; read to the Africa, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three Letter dated 30 May, 1869, published Dec. 1869,

Royal Geographical Society. 8 Nov. 1869. parts of the ancient world, and the greatest peninsula of Uncredited reports of his murder by pegroes, Jan, ; his prob. the globe; said to have been first peopled by Ham. For able safety reported by Dr. Kirk, 22 June; said to be at Moits history, see Egypt, Cape, Carthage, Cyrene, Abyssinia, Expedition of sir Samuel Baker to put down slave-trade on

zambique, Nov. 1870. Algiers, Morocco, Ashantee, South Africa, etc.

the Upper Nile (see Egyp'), Jan. 1870.

Expedition in search of Livingstone, under lieut. Dawson, orCarthage subdued by the Romans, 146 B.C. ; other provinces ganized by the Royal Geographical Society; started 9 Feb. gained by Pompey, 82.

1872. Revolts subdued by Diocletian, A.D. 296; by Theodosius, 373. [It returned on hearing that Stanley had found LivingN. Africa conquered by the Vandals under Genseric, 429-35; stone.) reconquered by Belisarius, 533-55.

Dutch Guinea settlements purchased and transferred (see ElThe Saracens subdue the north of Africa, 639-709.

mina) 6 April, 1872. Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487.

Reports current that Livingstone is alive, May, June, 1872. Vasco de Gama doubles the Cape and explor the coast, 19 Expedition sent in search of Livingstone by Mr. James GorNov. 1497.

don Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, at a cost Portuguese settlements begun, 1450.

of about 80007. : English merchants visit Guinea in 1550; and Elizabeth Mr. Henry M. Stanley, chief of the expedition, left Zanzibar, granted a patent to an African company in 1588.

and, after much opposition from the native chiefs, accidenDutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650.

tally fell in with Livingstone at l'jiji, near Unyanyembe, 10 Capt. Stubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723.

Nov. 1871, and remained with him till 14 March, 1872, when Bruce commenced his travels in 1768.

he brought away his diary and other documents. Mr. Stan Sierra Leone settled by the English, 1787.

ley reported that Livingstone had arrived at l'jiji in bad Mungo Park made his first voyage to Africa, 22 May, 1795; his condition, having been robbed and deserted by his attendants, second, 30 Jan. 1801, and never returned; see Park.

Much controversy ensued between Mr. Stanley, the members Africa visited by Salt, 1805 and 1809; Burckhardt, 1812 ; of lieut. Dawson's expedition, Dr. Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, the

Campbell, 1813; Hornemann, 1816; Denham and Clapper- Royal Geographical Society, and others, Aug. --Oct. 1872. ton, 18:22; Laing, 1826; the brothers Lander, 1830.

Letter from Dr. Livingstone, at Ujiji, dated Nov. 1871, to Mr. The great Niger expedition to start a colony in Central Africa Bennett (printed in New York Herald 26 July, and reprint

(for which parliament voted 60,0001.), consisting of the Al- ed in the Times 27 July, 1872). He describes his explorabert, Wilberforce, and Soudan steamships, commenced the tions and his painsul journey to l'jiji; his meeting with Mr. ascent of the Niger, 20 Aug. 1841; when they reached Id. Stanley; and he speaks of the Nile springs being about 600 dah, fever broke out among the crews, and they were suc. miles south of the most southerly part of lake Victoria Vy. cessively obliged to return, the Albert having ascended the anza; and also of about 700 miles of water-shed in central river to Egga, 320 miles from the sea, 28 Sept. The expedi- Africa, of which he had explored about 600; and of the contion was relinquished owing to disease, heat, and hardships, vergence of the water-shed first into four, and then into two, and all the vessels had cast anchor at Clarence Cove, Fer- mighty rivers in the great Nile valley (?) between 10° and nando Po, 17 Oct. 1811.

120 S. lat. Second letier (dated Feb. 1872) describes the hor. James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 1845–6, and in rors of the slave trade in E. Africa, printed in the Times

1849 (by direction of the Foreign Office) he left England to 29 July, 1872. explore central Africa, accompanied by Drs. Barth and Livingstone's despatches, dated 1 and 15 Nov. 1871, received Overweg. Richardson died 4 March, 1851; and Overweg by the Foreign vilice, 1 Aug.; letter dated 1 July received died 27 Sept. 1852.

2 Oct. 1872. Dr. Vögel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. Barth, 20 Feb. Mr. Stanley described his discovery of Livingstone to the Brit1853; in April, 1857, said to have been assassinated.

ish Association at Brighton in presence of the ex emperor Dr. Barth returned to England, and received the Royal Geo. and empress of the French, 16 Aug, and received a gold

graphical Society's medal, 16 May, 1856. His travels were snuflbox from the queen about 30 Aug. 1872. published in 5 vols. in 1858.

Livingstone died of dysentery in Ilala, central Africa; his puDr. David Livingstone, a missionary traveller, returned to pil Jacob Wainwright, a young negro missionary: present,

England in Dec. 1856, after an absence of 16 years, during 1 May, 1873; his remains interred in Westmiuster Abbey, which he traversed a large part of the heart of S. Africa, and 18 April; his last journals published Dec. 1874. walked about 11.000 miles, principally over country hitherto New Erpedition, under sir Bartle Frere, to Zanzibar, to sup. unexplored. His book was published in Nov. 1857. in press the E. African slare - trade; lieut. Verney Lovett Feb. 1858, he was appointed British consul for the Portu- Cameron's offer to aid in the furtherance of Livingstone's

guese possessions in Africa, and left England shortly after. expedition was accepted; sailed 20 Nov. 1872; see Zan. Du Chaillu's travels in central Africa, 1856-9, created much zibar. controversy, 1861.

Expedition to explore the upper part of the Congo (Mr. Young, Second expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858.

of Kelly, to subscribo 20001. Royal Geographical Society to Cajts. Speke and Grant announce the discovery of a source of supplement it), proposed Nov. 1872. the Nile in lake Victoria Nyanza, 23 Feb. 1863.

Lieut. Verney Cameron, after the finding of Livingstone, con(Capt. Speke was accidentally shot by his own gun while tinued his explorations, 1872–3. alone near Bath, 15 Sept. 1864.]

Leaving Ljuji, 14 May, 1874, he followed Livingstone's route; Some Dutch ladies unsuccessfully explore the White Nile, explored 1200 miles of fertile country; arriving at Portuand undergo many privations, Ju 1863-4.

(One Miss guese settlements, 4 Nov. 1875. Tinne said to have been killed; reported 5 Sept. 1869.) He was received by Royal Geographical Society, and gave acThe “Universities Mission to E. central Africa,” consisting count of his journey, 11 April, 1876.

of Charles F. Mackenzie, bishop of Central Africa, and six Expedition of Mr. H. M. Stanley (supported by Daily Telegraph clergymen and others, started Dec. 1860, and arrived at the and New York Herald); he surveyed lake Victoria NyanZambesi, in Feb. 1861. All died from privations and disease za (230 miles by 180), 1875, well and successful; last letter except two, who returned in 1864. The bishop died 31 Jan. dated 24 April, 1876. 1862; succeeded by Dr. Tozer.

Stanley reports survey of lake Tanganyika; and states that he Du Chaillu starts on a fresh expedition. 6 Aug 1863; after be- len jiji and crossed Africa from east to west, and identified

ing robbed, and undergoing many privations, returned to the Lualaba with the Congo river, which has an uninterLondon near the end of 1865. He gave an account of his rupted course of over 1400 miles, 24 Aug. 1876-6 Aug. 1877.

journey at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, 8 Arrives at Cape Town, 21 Oct. 1877; in London 22 Jan.; pubJan. 1866.

lished “Through the Dark Continent," May, 1878. Dr. Livingstone returns 23 July, 1864.

Italian expedition under marchesc Antinori well received by Death of Dr. W. B. Baikie, at Sierra Leone, 30 Nov. 1864. (He king of scida; announced 2 Dec. 1870; his death reported,

was sent as special cnroy to the negro tribes near the Niger Nov. 1877. by the Foreigu Office, about 1851. He opened commercial Portuguese government grant 20,0001. for expedition into the relations with central Africa)

interior, announced Dec. 1876. Mr.(afterwards sir) Samuel Baker discovered a lake, supposed Dr. Güssfeld, a German, after his exploration into S. W. Cen.

to be another source of the Nile, which he named Lake Ny. tral Africa, 1873, declared the difficulties insuperable. 1875. auza Albert, 14 March, 1864.

Mr. H. M. Stanley, with an international Belgian exped tion, Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for inner Africa, 24 explored the Congo, 1879-80. March, 1865.

Royal GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY'S siiccessful oxpedition into Narrative of Livingstone's Zambesi expedition, 1858-64, pub. E. Africa, under Mr. A. Keith Johnston, leaves England 14 lished 1806.

Nov. 1878, starts from Zanzibar about 14 May, 18.9.


mann, etc.

Johnston dies 28 June; succeeded by Joseph Thomson, who Age. In Greece and Rome twenty-five was full age returns to England Aug. 1880. Alleged massacre of col. Flatters's party (American) by Toua for both sexes, but a greater age was requisite for the regs, 16 Feb. 1881.

holding certain offices: e. g. thirty for tribunes, fortyAFRICAN ASSOCIATION, for promoting the exploration of central three for consuls. In England the minority of a male Africa, was formed in June, 1788, principally by sir Joseph terminates at twenty-one, and of a female in some cases, Banks; and under its auspices many additions were made to African geography by Ledyard, Park, Burckhardt, Horne- as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority

It merged into the Royal Geographical Society, of Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at July, 1831.

eighteen years; previously to completing which age, his AFRICAN CHURCH. In 1866 Robert Gray, bishop of Capetown

(in consequence of a decision of the privy council; see father, Henry VIII., had assumed the reins of governChurch of England), established synods of the “Church of ment, in 1509.-A male of twelve may take the oath of South Africa, AFRICAN COMPANY (merchants trading to Africa) arose out of allegiance, at fourteen he may consent to a marriage or an association in London formed in 1588. A charter was

choose a guardian, at seventeen he may be an executor, granted to a joint-stock company in 1618; a second com- and at twenty-one he is of age; but according to the pany was created in 1631; a third corporation in 1662; an- statute of wills, 7 Will. IV. and 1 Vict. c. 26, 1837, no other was formed by letters- patent in 1672; remodelled in will made by any person under the age of twenty-one

1695. In 1821 the company was abolished. AFRICAN EXPLORATION FUND, founded by Royal Geographical years shall be valid. A female at twelve may consent Society, May, 1877.

to a marriage, at fourteen she may choose a guardian, AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807,

for the abo- and at twenty-one she is of age. In the United States lition of the slave - trade and the civilization of Africa. Many schools have been established with success, particu: the legal age of majority is twenty-one years, but in larly at Sierra Leone.

some of the states eighteen is the legal age for women. African Confederation, see South African Con- Men of eighteen and women of sixteen may devise propfederation.

erty by will, and at fourteen and twelve, respectively,

they may contract marriage. The president and viceAgapæ (áyánn, Greek for love, charity), “ feasts of president of the United States must be thirty-five years charity," referred to Jude 12, and described by Tertullian, of age, senators thirty, and members of the House of of which the first Christians of all ranks as one family Representatives twenty-five. partook, as Christ did with his disciples. Disorders creeping in, these feasts were forbidden to be celebrated

Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society, founded in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366) and Car- 1807; asylums, 1826 and 1871. thage (390). They are still recognized by the Greek Agincourt, or AZINCOUR (N. France), a village church, and are held in their original form weekly by where Henry V. of England, with about 9000 men, dethe Glasites or Sandemanians, and in some degree by the feated about 60,000 French on St. Crispin’s day, 23 Oct. Moravians, Wesleyans, and others.

1415. Of the French, there were, according to some acAgapemone (Greek, the abode of love), an es-counts, 10,000 killed, including the dukes of Alençon, tablishment at Charlinch, near Bridgewater, Somerset- Brabant, and Bar, the archbis of Sens, one marshal, shire, founded in 1845, where Henry James Prince * thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights; and and his deluded followers, formerly persons of property, 14,000 prisoners, among whom were the dukes of Orlived in common, professing to devote themselves to in- leans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlenocent recreation and to maintain spiritual marriage. men. The English lost the duke of York, the earl of The Agapemone is described by Mr. Hepworth Dixon Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. Rémy asserts, with in his “Spiritual Wives,” published in Jan. 1868. Meet- more probability, that the English lost 1600 men. Henings of the sect were held at Hamp, near Bridgewater, ry V. soon after obtained the kingdom of France. Dec. 1872.

Agincourt iron-clad, see Navy, 1871.
Agar-town, the name given to a district in St.
Pancras parish, N. London. It consisted of hovels erect-

Agitators (or Adjutators), officers appointed by the ed on the site of the grounds of councillor Agar, after Parliamentary army in 1647 to take care of its interests: 1841, which, from their filthy and uncivilized condition, cach troop or company had two. The general, Cromwell, were termed by Charles Dickens, in 1851, the English

was eventually obliged to repress their seditious power. Connemara. The entire district was cleared by the At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, shot Midland Railway Company.

one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the

forces on the ground, and thus restored discipline.Age. Chronologers have divided the time between Hume. Daniel O'Connell, the agitator of Ireland, was the creation and the birth of Christ into ages. Hesiod born in 1775. He began to agitate at the elections (about 850 B.c.) described the Golden, Silver, Brazen, in 1826; was elected for Clare, 5 July, 1828; the election and Iron ages; see Dark Ages.

being declared void, he was re-elected 30 July, 1829. AfFirst AGE (from the Creation to the Deluge). ..... 4001–2349

ter the passing of the Catholic Emancipation bill, he agiSECOND AGE (to the coming of Abraham into Ca

tated in vain for the repeal of the union, 1834 to 1843. naan)..

2348–1922 He died 15 May, 1847.— Richard Cobden and John THIRD AGE (to the Exodus from Egypt).

1921-1491 Fourtu AGE (to the founding of Solomon's Tem

Bright were the chief Anti-corn-law agitators, 1811-5. ple)...

1490-1014 Mr. Bright became a Reform agitator in 1866. FIFTH AGE (to the capture of Jerusalem).

1014- 588 SIXTH AGE (to the birth of Christ)..

Agnadello (N.E. Italy). Here Louis XII. of SEVENTH AGE, to the present time.

France gained a great victory over the Venetians, some

of whose troops were accused of cowardice and treach* Prince was born in 1811; educated for the medical pro- ery; 14 May, 1509. The conflict is also termed the batfession and licensed to practise, 1832; gave it up for the tle of the Rivolta. church and entered St. David's college, Lampeter, and there commenced ultra-revivalist movements in 1836; and finally

Agnoitæ (from äyvoia, Greek, ignorance). I. A claimed to be an incarnation of the Deity, with corresponding sect founded by Theophronius of Cappadocia about 370; authority over his followers. On 22 May, 1850, Thomas Rob- said to have doubted the omniscience of God. II. The inson sought to recover the possession of his child from the care of its mother (from whom he had separated); the appli followers of Themistius of Alexandria, about 530, who cation was refused by the vice-chancellor, to save the child held peculiar views as to the body of Christ, and doubted from the pollution of the parent's teaching."-On 21 Aug. his divinity. 1858, Miss Louisa Jane Nottidge died, having transferred her property to Mr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by Agnostics, name given to philosophers who assert an action, recovered from Prince 57281., as having been fraud that we have no knowledge but what we acquire by olently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were made during the trial, 25 July, 1860. In the autumn of 1860, the Rev.

means of our senses, about 1876. Mr. Herbert Spencer Mr. Price, after several vain attempts, succeeded in rescuing and Mr. John Fiske are eminent agnostics. his wifo from the Agapemone. They had both been early supporters of it.

Agonistici (from ảyóv, Greek, a conflict), also




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