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Campidoglio contains palaces of the senators, erected on middle ages Capua was successively subjugated by the the site of the Capitol by Michael Angelo soon after Greeks, Saracens, Normans, and Germans. It was re1546.

stored to Naples in 1424, and captured by Cæsar Borgia, Capitularies, the laws of the Frankish kings, com- 24 July, 1501; was taken by Garibaldi 2 Nov. 1860. mencing with Charlemagne (801). Collections have Capuchin Friars, Franciscans, so named from been published by Baluze (1677) and others.

wearing a capuchon, or cowl, hanging down upon their Capitulations: a name given to the judicial rights backs. The order was founded by Matthew Baschi granted by treaties to foreign consuls in Turkey. After about 1525, and established by the pope, Clement VII., many years' opposition, the sultan addressed a memorial 1529. The capuchin confessors of the queen Henrietta, to the sovereigns of Europe, in June, 1869; and moditi- introduced here 1630, were imprisoned by the parliament, cations were agreed to, April, 1870. The sultan decided 1642. on the abolition of the capitulations in Egypt about July, Car. The invention is ascribed to Erichthonius of 1872.

Atbens, about 1486 B.C. Covered cars (currus arcuati) Cappadocia, Asia Minor. Its early history is in- were used by the Romans. The lecticu (a soft-cushioned volved in obscurity.

car), next invented, gave place to the carpentum, a twoPharnaces said to have founded the kingdom...

wheeled car, with an arched covering, hung with costly

...B.C. 744 Cappadocia conquered by Perdiccas, regent of Macedon; cloth. Still later were the carrucæ, in which the offithe king, Ariarathes I., aged 82, crucitied..

cers of state rode. Triumphal cars, introduced by TarRecovers its independence... Conquered by Mithridates of Pontus.

quin the Elder, were formed like a throne. Held by. Seleucus, 288; independent..

Caracas (South America), part of Venezuela, discorAriaraihes V., Philopator, reigns, 162; dethroned by Holophernes, 130, but restored by the Romans, 158; killed

ered by Columbus 1498. It was reduced by arms, and with Crassus in the war against Aristonicus.

130 assigned as property to the Welsers, German merchants, His queen, Laodice, poisons five of her sons; the sixth by Charles V.; but for their tyranny they were dispos

(Ariarathes VI.) is saved; she is put to death.. Ariarathes VI. murdered by Mithridates Eupator; who

sessed in 1550, and a crown governor appointed. The sets up various pretenders; the Roman senate declares province declared its independence, 9 May, 1810. In

the country free, and appoints Ariobarzanes I. king.., 93 the city Leon de Caracas, on 26 March, 1812, nearly He is several times expelled by Mithridates, etc., but re. stored by the Romans; dies.


12,000 persons perished by an earthquake; sce VeneAriobarzanes II. supports Pompey, and is slain by Cras


42 Ariarathes VII. deposed by Antony..

Caraites, see Karaites.

36 Archelaus is favored by Augustus, 20 B.C.; but accused Carberry Hill (S. Scotland). Here lord Hume

by Tiberius, he comes to Rome and dies there op. and the confederate barons dispersed the royal army

pressed with age.. Cappadocia becomes a Roman province

under Both well, and took Mary queen of Scots prisoner, Invaded by the Huns...

515 15 June, 1567. Bothwell fled. And by the Saracens. Recovered by the emperor Basil I...

Carbolic Acid (or phenic acid), obtained by the Conquered by Soliman and the Turks..

1074 distillation of pit-coal by Laurent, 1846-7, is a powerful Annexed to Turkish empire....

1360 antiseptic. It is largely manufactured for medical purCappel (Switzerland). Here the reformer Ulric poses, and has been advantageously used at Carlisle and Zwinglius was slain in a conflict between the Catholics Exeter in the deodorization of sewage (1860-1); and as and the men of Zurich, 11 Oct. 1531.

a disinfectant during the prevalence of cholera in LonCapri (Caprew), an island near Naples, the sumptu- don in 1866. It was successfully used for embalming by ous residence of Augustus, and particularly of Tiberius, professor Seely in 1868. Professor F. Crace Calvert, a memorable for the debaucheries he committed during great manufacturer of this acid, died 1873. his last years, 27–37. Capri was taken by sir Sydney Carbon was shown to be a distinct element by LaSmith, 12 May, 1806.

voisier in 1788. He proved the diamond to be its purest Caps, see Hats.

form, and converted it into carbonic-acid gas by com

bustion. Caps and Hats. About 1738, Sweden was much distracted by two factions thus named, the former in the

Carbonari (charcoal-burners), a powerful secret sointerest of the Russians, and the latter in that of the ciety in Italy, which derived its origin, according to French. They were broken up and the names prohibited some, from the Waldenses, and which became prominent by Gustavus III. in 1771, who desired to exclude foreign early in the present century. It aimed at the expulsion influence. His assassination by Ankarström, 16 March, of foreigners from Italy, and the establishment of civil 1792, set aside all his plans for the improvement of Swe and religious liberty. In March, 1820, it is said that den.

650,000 joined the society, and an insurrection soon after Capstan, used to work ships' anchors, is said to The king, Ferdinand, made political concessions, but the

broke out in Naples, gen. Pépé taking the command. have been invented, but more probably was only im- influence of the allied sovereigns at Laybach led Ferdiproved, by sir Samuel Morland, who died 30 Dec. 1695.

nand to annul them and suppress the liberal party, Jan. "Captain," H.M.'s iron - clad turret - ship, capsized 1821, when the Carbonari were denounced as traitors. during a squall, 12.15 A.M., 7 Sept. 1870. Capt. Hugh Bur- The society spread in France, and doubtless hastened the goyne, capt. Cowper Coles, who designed the vessel, and revolutions in 1830 and 1848. 469 persons perished; see under Nary of England. Subscriptions for relief of the widows and orphans of the bon and oxygen, found in the air, and a product of com.

Carbonic-acid Gas, a gaseous compound of carlost up to 17 Nov.

, 34,8941.; 3 Dec., 38,0041.; 31 Dec., bustion, respiration, and fermentation. The Grotto del about 46,000/.; May, 1871, about 55,0001.; 25 June, 1871, Cane yields 200,000 lbs. per annum. No animal can about 55,7001. Total, 57,8241. The fund was transferred breathe this gas. The briskness of champagne, beer, to the Royal Commission of the Patriotic Fund.

etc., is due to its presence. It was liquefied by atmosCapua (Naples), capital of Campania, took the part pheric pressure by Faraday in 1823. On exposing the of Hannibal when his army wintered here after the bat- liquid to the air it becomes solid, resembling snow, tle of Cauna, 216 B.C., and it is said became enervated. through vaporization. In 211, when the Romans retook the city, they scourged

Carchemish, see Hittites. and beheaded all the surviving senators; the others had poisoned themselves after a banquet previous to the

Cardiff Castle (S. Wales). Here Robert, duke of surrender of the city. Only two persons escaped ; one

Normandy, eldest son of William I., is said to have been woman who had prayed for the success of the Romans, imprisoned from 1106 till his death, 10 Feb. 1135. and another who succored some prisoners. During the Cardigan Bay, see Fishguard.

Cardinals, princes in the church of Rome, the coun- Carillons, see Bells. cil of the pope, and the conclave, or “sacred college,” at Carinthia, a Bavarian duchy, annexed to the terrifirst were the principal priests or incumbents of the par- tories of the duke of Austria, 1336. ishes in Rome, and said to have been called cardinales in 853. They began to assume the exclusive power of been a British and Roman fortress, was taken 530 by

Carisbrooke Castle (Isle of Wight), said to have electing the popes about 1179. They first wore the red hat to remind them that they ought to shed their blood Cerdic, founder of the kingdom of the West Saxons. Its for religion, if required, and were declared princes of the Norman character has been ascribed to William Fitz

Osborne, earl of Hereford in William I.'s time. Here church by Innocent IV., 1243 or 1245. Paul II. gave the scarlet habit, 1464; and Urban VIII. the title of Charles I. was imprisoned Nov. 1647 to Nov. 1618; and Eminence in 1623 or 1630. In 1586 Sixtus V. fixed their here his daughter Elizabeth, aged fifteen, died, too probnumber at 70, but there are generally vacancies. In 1860 ably of a broken heart, 8 Sept. 1650. there were 69 cardinals; in 1864, 59; in Nov. 1867, 52 ;

Carizmians (fierce shepherds living near the Casin 1873, 5 of the order of bishops, 34 priests, 6 deacons; pian), having been expelled by the Tartars, invaded 45 in all. Nine cardinals (one a Bonaparte) were made Syria in 1243. The union of the sultans of Aleppo, 13 March, 1868.* Eleven new cardinals appointed 12 Hems, and Damascus was insutficient to stem the torrent, March, 1877. In 1880 6 cardinal-bishops, 47 priests, 11 and the Christian military orders were nearly extermideacons ; in all 64 (including archbishops Manning, nated in a single battle in 1244. In Oct. they took JeMcCloskey, an American, Ledochowski, Edward How- rusalem. They were totally defeated in two battles in ard, and John Henry Newman). Two more appointed 1247. 16 Dec. 1880.

Carlaverock Castle (S. Scotland), taken by EdCardross Case, see Trials, 1861.

ward I., July, 1300, the subject of a contemporary poem Cards, Playing. The origin of the game is uncer- published, with illustrations, by sir Harris Nicolas in tain. It is said to have been brought to Viterbo in 1379. 1828. Cards were illuminated for Charles VI. of France, 1392, Carlisle (Cumberland), a frontier town of England, then depressed in mind. W. A. Chatto's work on the wherein for many ages a strong garrison was kept. Just “ History of Playing-cards," published 1818. Piquet below this town the famous Picts'wall began, which crossed and all the early names are Freuch. Cards first taxed the whole island to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and bere also in England 1710. 428,000 packs were stamped in 1775, ended the great Roman highway. Of the great church, and 986,000 in 1800. In 1825, the duty being then 2s. called St. Mary's, a large part was built by David, king 6d. per pack, less than 150,000 packs were stamped; but of Scotland, who held Cumberland, Westmoreland, and in 1827 the stamp-duty was reduced to 18., and 310,854 Northumberland, from the crown of England. The caspacks paid duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 tle, destroyed by the Danes, 875, restored in 1092 by packs in the year ending 5 Jan. 1840; and on near 300,000, William II., was the prison of Mary queen of Scots in year ending 5 Jan. 1850. By an act passed in 1802 the 1568.—Taken by the parliamentary forces in 1645, and duty on cards was reduced to 3d. per pack, and the sell- by the young Pretender, 15 Nov. 1745; retaken by the ers were required to take out a license. Duty received in duke of Cumberland, 30 Dec. same year. The see was 1874, 13,131l.; in 1875, 13,8101.

erected by Henry I. in 1132, and made suffragan to Caria (Asia Minor), was conquered by Cyrus, 546 York. The cathedral had been founded a short time B.C.; by Dercyllidas, a Lacedæmonian, 397; bis succes- previously by Walter, deputy for William Rufus. It sor Hecatomnus became king, 385 B.C.; for his son Mau- was almost ruined by Cromwell, 1618, and partially resolus the Mausoleum was erected (which see). Caria paired after the Restoration. It was reopened in 1856 was annexed by the Romans, 129 B.C. It is now part of after renovation, costing 15,0001. The sec has been held the Turkish empire.

by one lord chancellor and two lord treasurers; it is valCaribbee Islands, see West Indies.

ued in the king's books at 5301. 4s. 11d. per annum.

Present income 45001. Caricatures. Bufalmaco, an Italian painter, about 1330, drew caricatures and put labels to the mouths of 1791. Edward Venables Vernon, trans). to York 1807. his figures with sentences. The modern caricatures of 1803. Samuel Goodenough, died 12 Aug. 1827.

1827. Hugh Percy, died Feb). 1856. Gillray, Rowlandson, H. B. (John Doyle =H), Rich- 1856. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers, transl. to Durham, May, 1850.

1860. Hon. Samuel Waldegrave, died 1 Oct. 1869. ard Doyle, John Lecch, John Tenniel, Thomas Nast, and 1869. Harvey Goodwin; consecrated Jan. 1870. Du Maurier are justly celebrated. The well-known Carlisle Administration, see Halifax. Punch was first published in 1841. The most eminent writers of fiction of the day and others (Douglas Jerrold, imists of Europe subscribed to their cause 1873-6. A

Carlists, see Spain, 1830-40 and 1872-6. The legitThackeray, A'Becket, professor E. Forbes, etc.) contrib- committee in London supplied arms and money. uted to it. See Charivari and Punch. Mr. T. Wright published a “History of Caricature," 1865; and “The

Carlovingians, or Carolingians, the second dyLife and Works of James Gillray,” 1873. Mr. J. Grego nasty of the French kings, 752-987. Charles Martel published “ T. Rowlandson's Works and Life," 1880. Mr. (715-741) and Pepin his son (741-752) were mayors of James Parton's " Caricature and other Comic Art in all the palace. The latter became king 752; see France. Times and Many Lands" was published by Messrs. Har- Carlow (S.E. Irelan«). The castle, erected by per & Brothers in 1877.

John, 1180, surrendered after a desperate siege to Rory Carignan, a small town about twelve miles from Oge O'Moore in 1577; again to the parliamentary forces Sedan, department of Ardennes, N.E. France. At the in 1650. Here the royal troops routed the insurgents 24 plain of Douzy, near this place, and the encampment of May, 1798. Vaux, a part of MacMahon's army, retreating before the Carlowitz (Austria). Here was concluded a treaty Germans, turned round and made a stand, 31 Aug. 1870. of peace between Turkey and the allies-Germany, RusAfter a long, severe engagement, in which the same po- sia, Poland, and Venice -- 26 Jan. 1699, in consequence sitions were taken and retaken several times, the Ger- of the great defeat of the Turks by prince Eugene at mans turned the flank of their enemies, who were com- Zenta, 11 Sept. 1697, by which Hungary was finally sepelled to fall back upon Sedan, where they were tinally cured to Austria. overcome, 1 Sept.

Carlsbad (or Charles's Bath), in Bohemia, the cele* English Cardinals: Henry Stuart, created 1747; Charles brated springs, said to have been discovered by the emErskine, 1801; Thomas Weld, 1830; Charles Acton, 18:39; Nich. peror Charles IV. in 1370. On 1 Aug. 1819, a congress olas Wiseman, 30 Sept. 1850–65; Henry Edward Manning, 1875; Edward Howard, 12 March, 1877; John Henry Newman, 12

was held here, when the great powers decreed measures May, 1879.

to repress the liberal press, etc.





Carlsruhe, capital of Baden, built by margrave Caroline Islands (S. Pacific), were discovered by Charles William, 1715. A revolution here was sup- the Spaniards in the reign of Charles II., 1686. pressed by Prussian aid, June, 1849, and the grand-duke

Carp, a fresh-water or pond fish, was it is said, first returned 18 Aug.

brought to these countries about 1525.- Walton. It is Carlton Club, Pall Mall (Conservative), established mentioned by lady Juliana Berners in her book printed by the duke of Wellington and others, 1831-2; present 1496. house opened 1855.

Carpet-baggers, a name given to adventurers in Carmagnole, a Piedmontese song and dance, writ- the southern states of North America, who, after the ten about Aug. 1792; popular in France during the reign conclusion of the war, in 1863, endeavored, from interof terror, 1793-4. The chorus was “Dansons la Car- ested motives, to promote the political predominance of magnole: vive le son du canon !"

the negroes. Their influence counteracted by the conCarmathians, a Mahometan sect. Carmath, a

ciliatory measures of president Hayes, 1877-8. [The Shiite, about 890, assumed the title of the guide, the term, originally applied to political adventurers, was director,” etc., including that of the representative of afterwards used in the South with little discrimination, Mahomet, St. John the Baptist, and the angel Gabriel. and applied to all settlers from the North who took His followers subdued Bahrein in 900, and devastated part in politics as members of the Republican party.the East. Dissensions arose among themselves, and their

Am. Ed.] power soon passed away.

Carpets are of ancient use in the East. The manuCarmelites, or White Friars, of Mount Carmel, facture of woollen carpets was introduced into France one of the four orders of mendicants with austere rules, from Persia, in the reign of Henry IV., between 1589

and 1610. founded by Berthold about 1156, and settled in

Some artisans who had quitted France in in 1252.-ilénault. Their rules were modified about 1540. disgust established the English carpet manufacture, They claimed succession from Elijah. They had numerous about 1750. A cork-carpet company was formed in monasteries in England, and a precinct in London with- 1862. The manufacture of carpets in the United States out the Temple, west of Blackfriars, is called Whitefri- is very extensive, and rapidly growing as the production

of wool increases. ars to this day, after a community of their order founded there in 1245. A Carmelite church at Kensington was Carpi (N. Italy). Here prince Eugene and the Imfounded by archbishop Manning, July, 1865. The Car- perialists defeated the French 9 July, 1701. melites, as well as other orders, were expelled from their Carpocratiar.s, followers of Carpocrates, a Gnostic, houses in France in Oct. 1880.

in the second century. Carnatic, a district of southern Hindostan, extend- Carrack, or KARRACK (Italian, Caracca), a large ing along the whole coast of Coromandel. Hyder Ali ship in the middle ages. The Santa Anna, the property entered the Carnatic with 80,000 troops in 1780, and was of the knights of St. John, of about 1700 tons, sheathed defeated by the British under sir Eyre Coote, 1 July and with lead, was built at Nice about 1530. It was literal27 Aug. 1781; and decisively overthrown 2 June, 1782. ly a floating fortress, and aided Charles V. in taking The Carnatic was overrun by Tippoo in 1790. The Brit- Tunis in 1535. It contained a crew of 300 men and 50 ish acquired entire authority over the Carnatic by treaty, pieces of artillery. 31 July, 1801; see India.

Carriages. Erichthonius of Athens is said to have Carnation, so called from the original species being produced the first chariot about 1486 B.C. Rude carof a flesh color (carnis, of flesh). Several varieties were riages were known in France in the reign of Henry II., first planted in England by the Flemings about 1567.- A.D. 1547; in England, in 1555. Henry IV. of France had Stow.

one without straps or springs. They were made in EngCarneian Games, observed in many Grecian cities, land in the reign of Elizabeth, and then called whirliparticularly at Sparta (instituted about 675 B.C., in hon- cotes. The duke of Buckingham, in 1619, drove six or of Apollo, surnamed Carneus), lasted nine days. horses; and the earl of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove

Carnifex Ferry (West Virginia), BATTLE OF, eight. Carriages were let for hire in Paris, in 1650, at fought Sept. 10, 1861. McClellan having been assigned the Hôtel Fiacre: hence the name, fiucre; see Car, to the army of the Potomac, the command in West Cabriolets, Couches, and License duty. - Annual license Virginia devolved upon General Rosecrans. Floyd com- duty for carriages: 4 wheels, 21. 23.; under 4 cit., or less manded the Confederate forces on the Gauley River. The than 4 wheels, 158. Carlo Bianconi successfully introlatter was attacked by Rosecrans at Carnifex Ferry. It duced curs into Ireland about 1815; he died, nearly 90, was rather a maneuvre than a battle, and during the 16 Sept. 1875. G. A. Thrupp's “ History of Coaches "pubnight Floyd retreated.

lished, 1877. Carnival (Carni rale, Italian, i.e. Flesh farewell !), Carrickfergus (Antrim, Ireland). Its castle is a festival time in Italy and other Catholic countries at supposed to have been built by Hugh de Lacy in 1178. Shrovetitle or beginning of Lent.

The town surrendered to the duke of Schomberg 28 Carolinas (North America). Said to have been dis Aug. 1689. The castle surrendered to the French adcovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1498, or by De Leon in miral Thurot, Feb. 1760; see Thurot. 1512. Raleigh formed a settlement at Roanoke in June,

Carriers' Act, 11 Geo. IV. & 1 Will. IV. c. 68, 1830. 1585, which was broken up in 1586. About 850 English Carrocium, a vehicle containing a crucifix and a settled here about 1660; and Carolina was granted to banner, usually accompanied Italian armies in the midlord Clarendon and others in 1603. The cultivation of dle ages. The Milanese lost theirs at Cortenuova, 27 rice was introduced by governor Smith in 1695, and Nov. 1237. subsequently cotton. A constitution drawn up by John Locke was abandoned. The province was divided into in Stirlingshire, established in 1760. The works in 1852

Carron Ironworks, on the banks of the Carron, North and South in 1729 ; see America. The Carolinas employed about 1600 men. Here, since 1776, have been being slave states, great excitement prevailed in them made ihe pieces of ordnance called carronades or smashers. in Nov. 1860, on account of Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency of the United States, he being strong

Carrots and other edible roots were imported from ly opposed to slavery. South Carolina began the seces. Holland and Flanders, about 1510. sion from the United States, 20 Dec. 1860: North Caro- Cartes de Visite. The small photographic porlina followed, 21 May, 1861; see United States, 1861-5. traits thus termed are said to have been first taken at Both readmitted to the Union 25 June, 1868. Embez- Nice, by M. Ferrier, in 1857. The duke of Parma had zlements of South Carolina “official ring” (state govern- bis portrait placed upon his visiting-cards, and bis exment) disclosed; prosecutions, Sept., Oct. 1877. ample was soon followed in Paris and London,


Cartesian Doctrines, promulgated by René Des- Campos, about 22 Aug. 1873. Bombardment begun 26 cartes, the French philosopher, in 1637. His metaphys- Nov., taken by general Lopez Dominguez, 12 Jan. 1874; ical principle is, “ I think, therefore I am;" his physical see Spain.--CARTHAGENA, in Colombia, South America, principle, “ Nothing exists but substance.” He accounts was taken by sir Francis Drake in 1585: pillaged by the for all physical phenomena on his theory of vortices, French buccaneers in 1697; bombarded by admiral Vermotions excited by God, the source of all motion. He non in March, 1741; and unsuccessfully besieged, April, was born in 1596, and died at Stockholm, the guest of 1741. queen Christina, in 1650.

Carthusians, a religious order (springing from the Carthage (N. coast of Africa near Tunis), founded Benedictines) founded by Bruno of Cologne, who reby Dido or Elissa, 878 B.C. (869, Blair ; 826, Niebuhr). tired with six companions about 1084, to Chartreuse She fled from her brother Pygmalion, king of Tyre, who (which see), in the mountains of Dauphiné. Their aushad killed her husband, and took refuge in Africa. Car- tere rules were formed by Basil VII., their general. thage disputed the empire of the world with Rome, They appeared in England about 1180, and a monastery which occasioned the Punic wars. The Carthaginians was founded by sir William Manny, 1371, on the site of bore the character of a faithless people, hence the term the present Charter-house, London ; see Charter-house. Punic faith. Cato the censor (about 146 B.c.) always The Carthusian powder of father Simon, at Chartreuse, ended his speeches in the senate with Carthago delenda was first compounded about 1715. est 1—“Carthage must be destroyed !" Many councils Cartoons, large chalk drawings preparatory to oil held here, A.D. 200-535.

painting. Those of RAPHAEL (twenty-tive in number) First alliance of Carthaginians and Romans. ...B.C. 503 were designed (for tapestries) in the chambers of the Tho Carthaginians in Sicily defeated at Himera by Gelo; Vatican under Julius II. and Leo. X. about 1510 to 1516. the elder Hamilcar perishes...

480 They send 300,000 men into Sicily.

The seven preserved were purchased in Flanders by Take Agrigentum....

406 Rubens for Charles I. of England, for Hampton-court The siege of Syracuse...

396 palace in 1629. They were removed to South KensingThe Carthaginians land in Italy.

379 Their defeat by Timoleon at the Crimesus.


ton 28 April, 1865.—The tapestries executed at Arras Defeated by Agathocles, they immolate their children on from these designs are at Rome. They were twice carthe altar to Saturn....

310 ried away by invaders, in 1526 and 1798, and were reThe first Punic war begins (lasts 23 years).

264 stored in 1815.-The Cartoons for the British Houses of The Cartbaginians defeated by the Roman consul Duilius in a naval engagement..

260 Parliament were exhibited in July, 1848. Xanthippus defeats Regulus..


RAPHAEL'S CARTOONS. Hasdrubal defeated by Metellus at Panormus.

251 Regulus put to death....


1. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. Romans defeated before Lilybæum.

2. The Charge to Peter. The great Hannibal born


3. Peter and John Healing the Lame at the Gate of the Hasdrubal founds New Carthage (Carthagena)..


Temple. End of first Punic war; Sicily lost by Carthage.


4. The Death of Ananias. War between the Carthaginians and African mercenaries

5. Elymas the Sorcerer Struck with Blindness. Hamilcar Barcas sent into Spain: takes his son, Hannibal,

6. The Sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, at Lystra. at the age of nine years, having first made him swear

7. Paul Preaching at Athens. an eternal enmity to the Romans...

238 Hamilcar killed......,

Carving, sec Sculptures.

229 Hasdrubal assassinated..

Casamicciola, Ischia. See Earthquakes, 4 March, Hannibal conquers Spain, as far as the Iberus.


1881. The second Punic war begins (lasts 17 years)..

218 Hannibal crosses the Alps, and enters Italy..

Cashel (Tipperary, Ireland). Cormack Cuillinan, He defeats the Roman consuls at the Ticinus and Trebia, king and bishop of Cashel, was the reputed founder or

218; at the lake Thrasymenus, 217; and at Cannæ (which see).....

restorer of the cathedral, 901. In 1152 bishop Donat

.2 Aug. 216 Publius Scipio carries war into Spaip and takes New Car

O'Danergan was invested with the pall; see Pallium. thage.

210 Cashel was valued in the king's books, 29 Hen. VIII., at Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, arrives with an army; defeated and slain at the Metaurus...

661. 138. 4d. Irish money. By the Church Temporalities

207 Carthaginians expelled from Spain by Scipio.

206 Act, 1833, it ceased to be archiepiscopal, and was joined Scipio arrives in Africa, and lays siege to Utica.

204, to Waterford and Lismore. Hannibal recalled to Carthage...

203 Totally defeated at Zama (which see)..


Cashmere, in the valley of the Himalayas; was End of the second Punic war..

201 subdued by the Mahometans under Akbar, in 1586 ; by The third Punic war; Scipio invades Africa.

149 the Affghans in 1752; by the Sikhs, 1819; and by the Carthage taken and burned, by order of the Senate, July, 146 Colony settled at Carthage by C. Gracchus..

122 treaty of Lahore, 9 March, 1846, ceded to the British, Its rebuilding planned by Julius Cæsar.

46 who gave it to the Maharajah Gholab Singh, as tributary And executed by his successors..

19 et seq. sovereign. The true Cashmere shawls, first brought to A Christian bishopric...

200 Cyprian holds a council here..

England in 1666, are well imitated at Bradford and

252 Taken by Genseric the Vandal.

i9 oci. 439 Huddersfield. Shawls of Thibetian wool, for the omRetaken by Belisarius...

533 rahs, cost 150 rupees each, about 1650. Ravaged by the Arabs...

647 Taken and destroyed by Hassan, the Saracenic governor Gholab dies, succeeded by his son Runboer, a favorer of of Egypt...

698 education, 1857; who assists in suppressing the Indian Carthaginian antiquities (oxcavated by Mr. Nathan Davis) mutiny and receives further guarantees.. .. March, 1860 brought to the British Museum..

1861 The prince of Wales warmly received by the maharajah His excavations about to be renewed.

.Aug. 1876
at Jummoo.

20 Jan. 1876 Mr. Bosworth Smith's "Carthago,'' published..

1878 Dreadful famine (partly due to continued destructive

snowstorms, Oct. 1877-May, 1878)... ..summer 1879 Carthage (Missouri), BATTLE OF, fought July 6, 1861. Here Sigel attacked the Confederates under

Cash-payments, see Bank of England. Price, Rains, and Jackson. The battle until two P.M. Cassano (N. Italy). Site of an indecisive conflict was an artillery duel, in which the Confederates were between prince Eugene of Savoy and the French, 16 worsted. But Sigel was then obliged to retreat, which Aug. 1705. he did skilfully, saving his baggage.

Cassation, Court of, the highest court of appeal Carthagena, or New CarthagE (S.E. Spain), in France, was established 10 Nov. 1790, by the national built by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian general, 242 B.C.;

assembly. taken by Scipio, 210. The modern Carthagena was Cassel, formerly the capital of Hesse-Cassel, Central taken by a British force under sir John Leake, June, Germany, acquired importance through becoming the 1706; retaken by the duke of Berwick, Nov. It was refuge of French Protestants after the revocation of the the last place held by the Intransigentes and Interna-edict of Nantes, 1685. It was the capital of Jerome tionalists of Spain; was besieged by general Martin Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, 1807–13, and Wilhelms





höhe, a neighboring castle, became the residence of chus, formed of oriental alabaster, exquisitely sculptured. Napoleon III. after his surrender to the king of Prussia, In the Parisian catacombs (formerly stone quarries) hu2 Sept. 1870, arriving at 9.35 P.M. 5 Sept. He went to man remains from the cemetery of the Innocents were England in 1871.

deposited in 1785; and many of the victims of the revoCassiterides, see Scilly Isles.

lution in 1792-4 are interred in them.-On 31 May, 1578, Castalia, see under Steam.

some laborers digging on the Via Salaria, two miles from

Rome, discovered the celebrated catacombs of which an Castel Fidardo, near Ancona, Central Italy. Near account, with engravings, was published by Antonio here gen. Lamoricière and the papal army of 11,000 Bosio, in his “ Roma Sotteranea" (1632), and by Aringhi men were totally defeated by the Sardinian general, (1659), and others. John Evelyn saw them in 1645. Cialdini, 18 Sept. 1860. Lamoricière with a few horse- Elaborate accounts have been published recently by De' men fled to Ancona, then besieged. On 29 Sept. he and Rossi, an abstract of whose researches will be found in the garrison surrendered, but were shortly after set at the “Roma Sotteranea" of the Rev. J. S. Northcote and liberty:

W. R. Brownlow, 1869 and 1879. Castes, distinct sections of society in India. In the

Catalogues, see Libruries, Books. laws of Menu (see Menu), the Hindus are divided into the Brahmins, or sacerdotal class; the Kshatrya or Chut, and Alani about 409; conquered by the Saracens, 712;

Catalonia (N.E. Spain) was settled by the Goths tree, military class; the Vaisya, or commercial class; and recovered by Pepin, and by Charlemagne, 788. It formed the Sudras, or sooders, servile class.

part of the Spanish marches and the territory of the Castiglione (N. Italy). Here the French, under count of Barcelona (which see). The natives were able Augereau, defeated the Austrians, commanded by Wurm- seamen; being frequently unruly, their peculiar priviser, with great loss, 5 Aug. 1796.

| leges were abolished in 1714. Castile (Central Spain). A Gothic government Catalytic Force. The discovery in 1819, by was established here about 800.-Roderick, count of Cas- Thenard, of the decomposition of peroxide of hydrogen tile, 860; Ferdinand, a count, became king, 1035. Fer- by platinum, and by Döbereiner in 1825 of its property dinand, king of Aragon, married Isabella, queen of Cas- to ignite a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, formed the tile, in 1474, and formed one monarchy, 1479; see Spain. groundwork of the doctrine of catalytic force, also termed Castillejos (N. Africa). Here, on 1 Jan. 1860, was and Mitscherlich. Their view has not been adopted by

" action of contact or presence," put forth by Berzelius fought the first decisive action in the war between Spain Liebig and other chemists. and Morocco. Gen. Prim, after a vigorous resistance, repulsed the Moors under Muley Abbas, and advanced tow

Catamarans (or carcasses), fire-machines for deards Tetuan.

stroying ships; tried in vain by sir Sydney Smith, 2 Castillon, Guienne (S. France). Here the army to invade England.

Oct. 1804, on the Boulogne flotilla destined by Bonaparte of Henry VI. of England was defeated by that of Charles VII. of France, and an end put to the English dominion

Catania (the ancient Catana), a town near Etna, in France, Calais alone remaining, 17 or 23 July, 1453. Sicily, was founded by a colony from Chalcis, about 753

B.C. Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, was killed.

Ceres had a temple here, open to none but women.

Catania was almost totally overthrown by an eruption Castlebar (Ireland). About 1100 French troops, of Etna in 1669, and in 1693 was nearly swallowed up by under Humbert, landed at Killala, and, assisted by Irish an earthquake; in a moment more than 18,000 of its ininsurgents here, compelled the king's troops under Lake habitants were buried in the ruins. An earthquake did to retreat, 27 Aug. 1798; but were compelled to surren- great damage, 22 Feb. 1817. In Aug. 1862, the town der at Ballinamuck, 8 Sept.

was held by Garibaldi and his volunteers, in opposition Castlepollard (Ireland). At an affray at a fair to the Italian government. He was captured on 29 Aug. here between some peasantry and a body of police, thir- Cataphrygians, heretics in the second century, teen persons lost their lives, and many were wounded, who followed the errors of Montanus. They are said to 23 May, 1831.

have baptized their dead, forbidden marriage, and minCastles. The castle of the Anglo-Saxon was a

gled the bread and wine in the Lord's supper with the tower keep, either round or square, and ascended by a

blood of young children. flight of steps in front. William I. erected 48 strong

Catapultæ, military engines of the crossbow kind, castles. Sereral hundreds, built by permission of Ste for throwing huge stones as well as darts and arrows; phen, between 1135 and 1154, were demolished by Henry invented by Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, 399 B.C. II. 1154. Many were dismantled in the civil wars. Catch Club, NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN's, formed Richborough, Studfall

, and Burgh are existing specimens in 1761, included eminent musicians of the time. Prizes of Roman castles.

were given occasionally; sometimes, since 1821, for a Cat. The generally received opinion that our do- composition, a gold or silver cup. mestic cat is derived from the European wild-cat is Cateau Cambresis (N. France), where, on 2, 3 doubted by Mr. T. Bell (1827). Rüppell (died 1794) April, 1559, peace was concluded between Henry II. of found a wild-cat in Nubia, whose conformation agreed France, Philip II. of Spain, and Elizabeth of England. with that of the Egyptian cat mummies. Cats fetched France ceded Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200 forts in high prices in the middle ages, and were protected by Italy and the Low Countries to Philip. law in Wales about 948. Great cat shows were held at

Catechisms are said to have been compiled in the the Crystal Palace, 13 July and 2 Dec. 1871; 26-29 Oct. eighth or ninth century. Luther's were published 1520 1872; and annually since (last, 13 Oct. 1880). A cat in- and 1529. The catechism of the church of England in terrupted the debates in the commons, 9 July, 1874.

the first book of Edward VI., 7 March, 1549, contained A discussion respecting the use of the “cat-o'-nine-tails" merely the baptismal vow, the creed, the ten command

took place in the commons, and navy cats and others were inspected (see Flogging).... .....5 July, 1879 ments, and the Lord's prayer, with explanations; but

James I. ordered the bishops to add an explication of the Cat Isle, see Salvador.

sacraments, 1612. The catechism of the council of Trent Catacombs. The early depositories of the dead. was published in 1566; those of the Assembly of Divines The first Christians at Rome met for worship in the cat

at Westminster, 1647 and 16-18. acombs; and here are said to have been the tombs of Cathari (from the Greek kafapóc, pure), a name the apostles Peter and Paul. Belzoni in 1815-18 ex- i given to the Novatians (about 251 ), Montanists, and plored many Egyptian catacombs, built 3000 years ago. other early Christian sects; see Puritans. He brought to England the sarcophagus of Psammeti- Cathay, an old name for China.


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