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Cathedral, the chief church of a diocese, as con- cattle were 185,707 head, valued at $14,304,103. The taining the cathedra, or seat of the bishop, obtained the importation of horned cattle from Ireland and Scotland name in the tenth century.

into England was prohibited by a law, 1663 ; but the exA conference of the higher clergy to consider cathedral

port of cattle from Ireland became very extensive. In institutions held at Lambeth, ........ 1 March, 1872 1812 the importation of cattle into England from foreign The act 3 & 4 Vict. c. 113, for the regulation of cathedrals countries was subjected to a moderate duty, and in 1846 passed in 1840, amended and the endowment of canon

they were made duty free; and since then the numbers ries facilitated in.

1873 A royal commission to inquire respecting cathedral

imported have enormously increased.* Horned cattle churches appointed (abp. of Canterbury, lord Cran- imported into the United Kingólom 1849, 53,480 ; 1853, brook, Mr. Beresford Hope, and others), July; met in

125,523 ; 1855 (war), 97,527; 1860, 104,569; 1865, 283,Aug. 1879

271; 1866, 237,739; 1867, 177,948; 1868, 136,688; 1869, Catherine. The order of knights of St. Catherine 220,190; 1870, 202,172; 1874, 193,862; 1876, 271,576; was instituted in Palestine, 1063. An order of ladies of 1877, 201,193 ; 1879, 247,768; see Smith field, Metropolithe highest rank in Russia was founded by Peter the tan Cattle-market, and Foreign Cuttle-market. Great, 1714, in honor of the bravery of his empress Cath- A cattle plague began in Hungary; extended over Westerine. They were to be distinguished, as the name im- ern Europe, destroying 14 million cattle.. ...1711-14 plied (from katapós, pure), for purity of life and manners; A severe cattle plague raged in England and west Europe

1745-56 see Docks and Katharine.

(about 3 million cattle perish)..

The privy council ordered diseased beasts to be shot, Catholic Majesty. This title was given by pope

and their skins destroyed, granting moderate compen.

sation.. Gregory III. to Alphonso I. of Spain, 739, and to Ferdi- Great disease among foreign cattle; excluded from this

12 March, 1745 nand V. and his queen in 1474 by Innocent VIII. on ac- country by prohibitions..

. April, 1857 count of their zeal for religion and their establishment The cattle plague appears at Laycock's dairy, Barnsbury, of the Inquisition.

London, N.; rapidly spreads.... .about 24 June, 1865

27, 432 beasts had been attacked; 12,680 died; 8,998 Catholic Union of Great Britain; president, slaughtered up to....

...21 Oct. the duke of Norfolk; was constituted in 1871. A Cath

A royal commission to inquire into the causes of cattle

plague and suggest remedies met first, 10 Oct.; report olic union in Dublin was formed Dec. 1873; see Roman of majority considered the disease to have been imCatholics.

ported, and recommend slaughter of animals and strin

gent prohibition of passage of cattle across public roads, Catholics, see Roman Catholics.

etc., 31 Oct. 1865; second report, 6 Feb. ; third report, Catiline's Conspiracy. Lucius Sergius Cati- Orders in council for regulating the cattle plague (in con

1 May, 1866 line, a dissolute Roman noble, having been refused the formity with the act of 1850), 23 Nov. and 16 Dec. consulship (65 B.c.), conspired to kill the senate, plunder 1865; and..

.20 Jan. the treasury, and set Rome on fire. This conspiracy was

Disease raging; official report; cattle attacked, 120,740;

killed, 16,742; died, 73,750; recovered, 14, 162; unactimely discovered and frustrated. A second plot (in 63) counted for, 16,086....

11 Feb. was detected by the consul Cicero, whom he had resolved Cattle Disease Acts passed.. .20 Feb. and 10 Aug. to murder. Catiline's daring appearance in the senate

Orders in council making uniform repressive measures throughout the country.

...27 March, house, after his guilt was known, drew forth Cicero's cel. The disease materially abates..

... April, ebrated invective, “Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, Privy council return: cattle attacked. 248,965; killed, patientia nostra ?” on 8 Nov. On seeing five of his ac

80,597; died, 124, 187; recovered, 32,989; unaccounted for, 11, 192..

.22 June, complices arrested, Catiline fled to Gaul, where his par- The disease nearly stamped out”

....27 Oct. tisans were assembling an army. Cicero punished the Order in council directing that foreign cattle be landed conspirators at home, and Petreius routed their forces; only at certain parts (after 13 Nov.), there to be sub.

jected to quarantine.

...10 Nov. Catiline being killed in the engagement, Jan. 62 B.C.

Cattlo plague reappears in Cheshire and Lancashire and Cato, SUICIDE OF. Considering freedom as that


Dec. which alone “ sustains the dignity of man," and unable Reappears at Barnsbury (see 24 June, 1865), 46 animals


.2 Feb. 1867 to survive the independence of his country, Cato stabbed Reappearance in various places..

..June, July, himself at Utica, 46 B.C.

Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act amended. Aug.
No case reported to the privy council.

..3 Aug. Cato-street Conspiracy. A gang of desperate Cattle plague, originating in Texas, prevailed throughout men, headed by Arthur Thistlewood, assembled in Cato the United States.. Street, Edgware Road, and proposed the assassination of

Order of council permitting cattle to be removed from the metropolis..

25 July, 1868 the ministers of the crown at a cabinet dinner. They New general orders issued..

. Aug. 1869 were betrayed and arrested, 23 Feb. 1820; and Thistle- Prevalence of " foot and mouth disease” in England, wood, Brunt, Davidson, Ings, and Tidd were executed as

Aug. 1869-Dec. 1870; June, July, 1871

Disease appears at Kaiserslautern, rear of the German traitors on 1 May.

army; cautionary regulations promulgated by the Catti, a German tribe, attackeıl but not subdued by New foreigu cattle market determined on, Nov. 1870;

priry council.

.9 Sept. 1870 the Romans A.D. 15 and 84; absorbed by the Franks,


Dec. 1871 third century.

Foot and month disease in England.. ..July, Aug. 1872 Cattle. Of horned cattle only the buffalo or bison is Appearance of the plague in German cattle; further im:

portation suspended.

.. about 3 Aug. native of America, and this has never been domesticated. Caitle plague appears at Pocklington, Yorkshire; vigorColumbus, in 1493, brought the tirst tame cattle to Amer

ously treated, 3 Sept.; stringent order from the privy council..

.7 Sept. ica, a bull and several cows. As the various parts of Live cattle imported to Glasgow from America by Mr. North and South America were settled by Europeans,

..July, 1873 cattle were introduced, and from these have descended Foot and mouth disease in some English counties, all the vast herds which now roam over the pampas of Reappearance of cattle-plague in England; restrictions

Aug Sept. 1875 'Texas and South America. In 1611 and 1624, cattle in London and other places; much cattle killed, were imported into Virginia and Massachusetts. In

Jan. - May, 1877 Great Britain and in the United States they have been Cattle-plagne commission enlarged, 3 May; plague said

to be stamped out; restrictions removed, 26 June; fresh vastly improved, both in the weight of carcass, the qual

cases in London; restrictions resumed 13 July; reity of the beef, and the abundance of the milk, by the moved

..31 July, extraordinary attention that has been given to the se

New Cattle Contagious Diseases Act passed...... 16 Aug. 1878 lection and crossing of the best breeds, according to the Order in.council, prohibiting importation of living cat:

tle from eastern half of Europe after 1 Jan. 1879; imobjects in view. This sort of improvement began about ports permitted from some countries, cattle to be the middle of last century, or rather later. The export

slaughtered (no restriction respecting some countries),

6 Dec. trade of the United States in neat cattle for the eight months ending 31 Aug. 1880 amounted to $12,462,837;

* Sale of thirty of duke of Devonshire's short-horn bulls for for the year ending 30 June, 1881, the exports of live 19,9231., about 18 Sept. 1878. •

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CATTLE AND SHEEP IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND ISLANDS. admitted at other colleges, and leaving earlier), was inCattle. Sheep.

Cattle. Sheep.

augurated by the duke of Devonshire, 26 Oct. 1876. 1866.. 8,570,000 26,380,000 1873.. 10,153,670 33,982, 404 1867.. 8,731,473 33,817,951 1874.. 10,281,036 34,857,597 Cavendish Experiment. In 1798 the Hon. 1868.. 9,083, 416 35,607,812 1875.. 10,162,787 33,491,948 Henry Cavendish described his experiment for deter1869.. 9,078,282 34,250,272 1876.. 9,997, 189 32,252,579 1870.. 9,235,052 32,786,783 1877.. 9,731,537 32,220,067

mining the mean density of the earth, by comparing 1871.. 9,346,216 31, 403,500 1878.. 9,761, 288 32,571,018 the force of terrestrial attraction with that of the at. 1872.. 9,718,505 32, 246,642 1879.. 9,961,536 32,237,958 traction of leaden spheres of known magnitude and Maximum, 1874; decrease since.

density, by means of the torsion balance. - Brande. Cattle Show, see Smithfield.

The Cavendish Society, for the publication of chemical Caubul, see Cabul.

works, which ceased with Gmelin's Chemistry (1848–67),

was established 1846. Caucasus, a lofty mountain, a continuation of the ridge of Mount Taurus, between the Euxine and Caspian Caves are frequently mentioned in the Bible as seas. In mythology, Prometheus was said to have been dwellings, refuges, and burying-places. Mr. W. B. Dawtied on the top of Caucasus by Jupiter, and continually kins's “ Cave-hunting; Researches on the Evidence of devoured by vultures (1548 B.c.). The passes near the Caves respecting the Early Inhabitants of Europe," was mountain were called Caucasice Portæ, and it is sup- published 1874. The Mammoth Cave, in Kentucky, posed that through them the Sarmatians or Huns in- which is the largest in the world, discovered 1809; vaded the provinces of Rome, A.D. 447; see Circussiu. Weyer's Cave, Virginia, 1804; Wyandotte Care, IndiCaucus. An American term applied to a private 1821 ; Kent's Hole, Torquay, 1825; Brixham Cave, 1858;

ana; Oreston Cave, Devon, 1816; Kirkdale, Yorkshire, meeting of the leading politicians of a party to agree Wookey Hole, Somerset, 1859; and many others, have upon the plans to be pursued during an election or ses- been well explored. sion of congress. The word is now applied to private meetings of all the members of congress, or of a legis- Cawnpore, a town in India, on the Doab, a peninlature, belonging to one political party, for the purpose sula between the Ganges and Jumna. During the muof determining in advance the course to be pursued by tiny in June, 1857, it was garrisoned by native troops the party, and of compelling individual members to yield under sir Hugh Wheeler. These broke out into revolt. to the will of the majority of the caucus. The word is An adopted son of the old Peishwa Bajee Rao, Nana said to be derived from ship”-caulkers' meetings. A Sahib, who had long lived on friendly terms with the “caucus club” is mentioned by John Adams, in 1763. British, came apparently to their assistance, but joined -Bartlett. Similar meetings are occasionally held in the rebels. He took the place after three weeks' siege, London by conservatives and liberals; one was held by 26 June; and, in spite of a treaty, massacred great num. Mr. Gladstone respecting the ballot bill, 6 July, 187i. bers of the British, without respect to age or sex, in the Jealousy respecting the system was aroused in 1878.

most cruel manner. Gen, Havelock defeated Nana Sa. Caudine Forks, according to Livy, the Furculæ hib, 16 July, at Futtehpore, and retook Cawnpore, 17 Caudinæ (in Samnium, S. Italy), were two narrow defiles July. Sir Colin Campbell defeated the rebels here on or gorges, united by a range of mountains on each side. 6 Dec. following. A column was erected here, in mem. The Romans went through the first pass, but found the ory of the sufferers, by their relatives of the 32d regi

ment. In Dec. 1860, Nana - was said to be living at second blocked up; on returning they found the first similarly obstructed. Being thus hemmed in by the Thibet ; and in Dec. 1851 was incorrectly said to have

been captured at Kurrachee; see India, 1857. Samnites, under the command of C. Pontus, they surrendered at discretion, 321 B.C. (after a fruitless contest, Caxton Society, established for the publication according to Cicero). The Roman senate broke the of chronicles and literature of the middle ages, published treaty.

sixteen volumes, 1844-54. Caxton Celebration, see unCauliflower, said to have been brought from Cy

der Printing, 1877. prus to England about 1603.

Cayenne, French Guiana (South America), settled Caustic, in Painting, a method of burning colors by the French, 1604-35. It afterwards came successively into wood or ivory, invented by Gausias of Sicyon. He into the hands of the English (1654), French, and Dutch.

The last were expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne painted bis mistress Glycerē sitting on the ground mak

was taken by the British, 12 Jan. 1809, but was restored ing garlands with flowers; the picture was hence named

to the French in 1814. Here is produced the Capsicum Stephanoplocon. It was bought by Lucullus for two tal

baccatum, or cayenne pepper. Many French political ents, 335 B.C.Pliny.

prisoners were sent here in 1848. Cautionary Towns (Holland), (the Briel, Flushing, Rammekins, and Walcheren), were given to queen

Cecilian Society, see Cæcilian. Elizabeth in 1585 as security for their repaying her for

Cedar Creek and Mountain (Virginia, U. S.). assistance in their struggle with Spain. They were re- On 19 Oct. 1864, gen. Sheridan converted the defeat of stored to the Dutch republic by James I. in 1616.

the Federals by the Confederates under Longstreet into Cavalier. The appellation given to the supporters wall Jackson defeated Banks, 9 Aug. 1862.

a complete victory. At CEDAR MOUNTAIN gen. Stoneof the king during the civil war, from a number of gentlemen forming themselves into a body-guard for the

Cedar-tree. The red cedar (Juniperus Virginiana) king in 1641. They were opposed to the Roundheads, came from North America before 1664; the Bermudas or parliamentarians.

cedar from Bermudas before 1683; the Cedar of Lebanon Cavalry. Used by the Canaanites in war, 1450 B.C. (Pinus Cedrus) from the Levant before 1683. In 1850 a

grove of venerable cedars, about 40 feet high, remained (Josh. ix. 4). Attached to each Roman legion was a

on Lebanon. The cedar of Goa (Cupressus lusitanici) body of 300 horse, in ten turmæ; the commander always a veteran.— The Persians had 10,000 horse at Marathon, was brought to Europe by the Portuguese about 1683;

see Cypress. 490 B.C.; and 10,000 Persian horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 B.C.-Plutarch. In the wars with Napo

Celery is said to have been introduced into England leon I. the British cavalry reached to 31,000 men.

Our by the French marshal, Tallard, during his captivity in cavalry force, in 1810, was 10,733. In 1867, horse glarils, England, after his defeat at Blenheim by Marlborough, 1317; cavalry of the line, 10,023; in depots, 838; in 2 Aug. 1704. India, 5421; total, 17,599; in 1880, total 17,245; see Celestial Globe, see Globes. Horse Guards, etc.

Celibacy (from cælebs, unmarried) was preached by Cavendish College, Cambridge (founded to give St. Anthony in Egypt about 305. His early concerts cheap university education to youths younger than those I lived in caves, etc., till monasteries were founded. The



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doctrine was rejected in the council of Nice, 325. Celi- quires that a new census shall be made every ten years. bacy was enjoined on bishops only in 692. The decree The latest census year was 1880. For the latest census was opposed in England, 958-978. The Romish clergy of other countries, see Table facing page 1. generally were enjoined a vow of celibacy by pope Greg

Cental, a new name given to the 100 lbs, weight, ory VII. in 1073-85, and its observance was established London Gazette, 7 Feb. 1879. by the council of Placentia, held in 1095. Marriage was restored to the English clergy in 1547. The marriage

Centennial Exhibition, an international exhibiof the clergy was proposed, but negatived at the council tion, in celebration of the hundredth year of American of Trent (1563); also at a conference of the Old Catholics independence, was held in Philadelphia, 1876. Thirtyat Bonn, June, 1876. Sir Bartle Frere termed the Zulu three foreign countries were represented by their prodarmy “a celibute man-slaying machine," 1878.

Five principal buildings, with“ annexes," or supCell Theory (propounded by Schwann in 1839) plementary buildings, were erected ; and, including forsupposes that the ultimate particies of all animal and eign and state buildings, the total number of structures

was 199. The main building covered 21 acres, and the vegetable tissues are small cells. Some of the lowest five principal buildings, with their annexes, covered 75 forms of animal and vegetable life are said to be com

Number of persons admitted to the exhibition, posed of merely a single cell, as the germinal vesicle in

9,910,966. Largest number admitted on one day, 274,the egg and the red-snow plant.

919. Celtiberi, see Numantine Wur.

First bill providing for the exhibition signed by the Celts, or Kelts, a group of the Aryan family; see president..

.3 March, 1871 Gauls. Above 80001. subscribed to found a Celtic pro- Centennial board of finance created by act of congress,

Centennial commission formed..

.24 March, 1872 fessorship at the university of Edinburgh, Oct. 1876 ;

1 June, 11,937l. subscribed April, 1879. One was established at Exhibition opened by president Grant.. 19 May, 1876 Oxford in 1876.

Exhibition closed..

10 Nov. Cemeteries. The burying - places of the Jews, Central America, see America. A large AmerGreeks, Romans, were outside their towns (Matt. xxvii. ican steamer of this name was wrecked during a gale in CO). Many public cemeteries resembling « Père La the gulf of Mexico, 12 Sept. 1857. Of about 550 persons Chaise,”* at Paris, have been opened in all parts of the only 152 were saved; several of these after drifting on kingdom-since 1836; see Catacombs, Bunhill-fields. rasts above 600 miles. The loss of about 2 million dol

The United States government has established national lars in specie aggravated the commercial panic in New cemeteries in various parts of the country for the burial York shortly after. The captain and crew behaved heof men who died in the naval or military service. In roically. 1878 there were 78 of these cemeteries, in which 310,356

Central Criminal Court, established in 1834. men had been buried.

Commissions are issued to the tisteen judges of England Mount Auburn cemetery, Cambridge, Mass., consecrated 1831 (of whom three attend in rotation at the Old Bailey) Kensal Green cemetery, 53 acres; consecrated... 2 Nov. 1832 for the periodical delivery of the jail of Newgate, and Laurel Hill cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa., consecrated.... 1835 South Metropolitan and Norwood cemetery, 40 acres;

the trial of offences of greater degree, committed in Midconsecrated.

.6 Dec. 1837 dlesex and parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey; the new Highgate and Kentish town cemetery, 22 acres; opened district is considered as one county. and consecrated.

...20 May, 1839 Greenwood cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y., consecrated..

Central Hall of Sciences, see under Albert. Abney Park cemetery, Stoke Newington, 30 acres; opened by the lord mayor.

20 May, 1840

Centurion, the captain, head, or commander of a Westminster or West London cemetery, Kensington subdivision of a Roman legion, which consisted of 100 Road; consecrated. ,

.15 June,

men, and was called a centuria. By the Roman census Nunhead cemetery; about 50 acres; consecrated. 29 July, City of London and Tower Hamlets cemetery, 30 acres,

each hundred of the people was called a centuria, 556 consecrated London Necropolis and National Mausoleum, at Woking,

Century. The Greeks computed time by the OlymSurrey, 2000 acres; the company incorporated in July, 1852; opened..

...Jan. 1855 piads, beginning 776 B.C., and the Roman church by InCity of London cemetery, Ilford; opened.. .24 June, 1856 dictions, the tirst of which began 24 Sept., A.D. 312. The Acts respecting burials passed..

,1850-57 method of computing time by centuries commenced from National cemeteries first provided for by act of congress..

.17 July, 1862 the incarnation of Christ, and was adopted in chronologAct of congress allowing all soldiers and sailors honora- ical history tirst in France.Dupin.

bly discharged from service, dying destitute, to be buried in national cemeteries ........1 June, 1872

Century, a New York club, founded 1817. Cenis, Mount, see under Alps.

Cephalonia, one of the Ionian islands, was taken Censors, Roman magistrates, to survey and rate the to the Athenians by Hadrian, A.D. 135; see lonian Isles.

from the Ætolians by the Romans, 189 B.C., and given property, and correct the manners of the people. The two first censors were appointed, 4-13 B.C. Plebeian cen- Cephisus, a river in Attica, near which Walter de sors were first appointed, 131 B.C. The office, abolished Brienne, duke of Athens, was defeated and slain by the by the emperors, was revived by Decius, A.D. 251; see Catalans, 1311. Press,

"Cerbere," a French gin-brig, with a crew of 87 Census. The Israelites were numbered by Moses, men, and seven guns, in the harbor of L'Orient, within 1490 B.C.; and by David, 1017 B.C.; Demetrius Phalereus pistol-shot of three batteries, was captured in a most is said to have taken a census of Attica, 317 B.C. Ser- daring manner by licut, Jeremiah Coghlan, in a cutter vius Tullius enacted that a general estimate of every with 19 companions aided by two boats, one of which Roman's estate and personal effects should be delivered was commanded by midshipman Paddon. The prize to the government upon oath every five years, 566 B.C. was towed out under a heavy but ineffectual fire from the The proposal for a census in 1753 was opposed as pro- batteries, 26 July, 1800.- Vicolus. fane. Iu the United Kingdom the census is now taken Ceremonies, MASTER OF THE, an office instituted at decennial periods since 1801; 1811, 1821, 1831, 1811, for the more honorable reception of ambassadors and 1851, 1861 (7 April), 1871 (3 April), 1881 (3 April); act

persons of quality at court, 1 James I. 1603. The order passed 7 Sept. 1880; see Population. The first United maintained by the master of the ceremonies at Bath, States census was made in 1790. The constitution re

“ Beau Nash,” the “King of Bath," led to the adoption * P. re La Chaise was the favorite and confessor of Louis of the office in or linary assemblies; he died in his 88th XIV., who made him superior of a great establishment of the year, 1761.- Ashe. Jesuits on this spot, then named Mont Louis. The house and grounds were bought for a national cemetery, which was laid

Ceres, a planet, 160 miles in diameter, was discovout by M. Brongn art, and first used on 21 May, 1804. ered by M. Piazzi, at Palermo, 1 Jan. 1801; he named it

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his army:

after the goddess highly esteemed by the ancient Sicil and sale of chain-cables and anchors were passed in ians.

1864, 1871, and 1874.-CHAIN-SHOT, to destroy the rigCeresuola (N. Italy). Here Francis de Bourbon, ging of an enemy's ship, were invented by the Dutch count d'Enghien, defeated the imperialists under the admiral, De Witt, in 1666. — CHAIN-PUMPs were first marquess de Guasto, 14 April, 1514.

used on board the Flora, British frigate, in 1787. Cerignola (S. Italy). Here the great captain Gon

Chains, HANGING IN. By 25 Geo. II. 1752, it was salvo de Cordova and the Spaniards defeated the duc de enacted that the judge should direct the bodies of piNemours and the French, 28 April, 1503.

rates and murderers to be dissected and anatomized, or Cerinthians, followers of Cerinthus, a Jew, who hung in chains. The custom of hanging in chains was

abolished in 1834. lived about A.1). 80, are said to have combined Judaism with pagan philosophy.

Chalcedon, Asia Minor, opposite Byzantium, col. Cerium, a very rare metal, discovered by Klaproth Darius, 505 B.C.; by the Romans, 74; plundered by the

onized by Megarians, about 684 B.C. It was taken by and others in 1803.

Goths, A.D. 259; taken by Chosroes, the Persian, 609; Cerro Gordo, BATTLE OF. With about 8500 men, by Orchan, the Turk, 1338. Here was held the “Syngen. Scott, after capturing Vera Cruz (which see), marched od of the Oak,” 403; and the fourth general council, towards the Mexican capital. At Cerro Gordo, a difficult which annulled the act of the “ Robber Synod," 8 Oct. mountain pass at the foot of the eastern chain of the ' 451. Cordilleras, he found Santa Anna strongly posted and

Chalcis, see Eubca. fortified, with 12,000 men. Scott attacked him 18 April, 1847, drove him from his position, and dispersed

Chaldæa, the ancient name of Babylonia, but afterSanta Anna narrowly escaped on the back wards restricted to the S.W. portion. The Chaldæans of a mule. More than 1000 Mexicans were killed or were devoted to astronomy and astrology; see Dan. ii. wounded, and 3000 were made prisoners. The Ameri- etc.— The CHALDÆAN REGISTERS of celestial observacans lost in killed and wounded 431. Scott pushed on tions, said to have commenced 2234 B.C., were brought towards the Mexican capital. See Contreras, Cheru- down to the taking of Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C. busco, El Molino del Rey, Chapultepec.

(1903 years). These registers were sent to Aristotle by

Calisthenes.-CHALDÆAN CHARACTERS: the Bible was Ceuta (the ancient Septa), a town on N. coast of transcribed from the original Hebrew into these characAfrica, stands on the site of the ancient Abyla, the ters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra, about 445 B.C. southern pillar of Hercules. It was taken from the Vandals by Belisarius for Justinian, 534; by the Goths, prince Rupert, 18 June, 1643, John Hampuien, of the par.

Chalgrove (Oxfordshire). At a skirmish here with 618; by the Moors about 709, from whom it was taken liament party, was wounded, and died 24 June. A colby the Portuguese, 1415. With Portugal, it was annexed in 1580 to Spain, which power still retains it.

umn was erected to his memory, 18 June, 1843. Ceylon (the ancient Taprobane), an island in the

“Challenger," see Deep-sea Soundings. Indian Ocean, called by the natives the seat of paradise.

Chalons-sur-Marne (N.E. France). Here the It became a seat of Buddhism, 307 B.C., and was known emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, the last of the preto the Romans about A.D. 41. Population 1873, 2,323,760. tenders to the throne, termed the Thirty Tyrants, 274;

and here in 451 Aëtius defeated Attila the Hun, comInvaded by the Portuguese Almeyda...

1505 The Dutch landed in Ceylon, 1602; and captured the pelling him to retire into Pannonia. capital, Colombo..

1603 Frequent conflicts; peaceful commercial relations cs.

Cham, see Charirari. tablished

1664 Chamberlain, early a high court officer in France, Intercourse with the British begun..

1713 Germany, and England. The office of chamberlain of A large portion of the country taken by them in 1782; was restored.


the exchequer was discontinued in 1834. The Dutch settlements seized by the British; Trinco

HEREDITARY LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN of England. - The malee, 26 Aug ; Jaffnapatam..

...Sept. 1795 sixth great officer of state, whose duties, among others, relate C'eylon was ceded to Great Britain by the peace of Amiens 1802 to coronations and public solemnities.' The office was long British troops treacherously massacred or imprisoned held by the De Veres, carls of Oxford, granted by Henry I. by the adigar of Candy, at Colombo (see Candy),

in 1101. On the death of John De Vere, the sixteenth earl,

26 June, 1803 Mary, his sole daughter, marrying lord Willoughby De Eres. Complete sovereignty of the island assumed by England 1815 by, ihe right was established in that nobleman's family by a Bishopric of Colombo founded.....

1845 judgment of the house of peers, 2 Charles I. 1625. On the The gov., lord Torrington, absolved from a charge of

death of his descendant, unmarried, in July 1779, the house undue severity in suppressing a rebellion. May, 1851

of lords and twelve judges concurred that the oflice devolved Prosperity of Ceylon greatly increased under the admin

to lady Willoughby De Eresby, and her sister lady Georg pa istration of sir H. Ward..

1855-60 Charlotta Bertie, as heirs to their brother Robert, duke of Sir J. E. Tennent's work, “Ceylon," appeared...

Ancaster, deceased; and that they had powers to appoint a Sir Hercules G. Robinson appointed governor..7 March, 1865 deputy to act for them, not under the degree of a knight, The duke of Edinburgh visited Ceylon... .. April, 1870 who, if his majesty approved of him, might officiate accord. Wm. H. Gregory, M.P., appointed governor....... 9 Jan. 1872 ingly.- Beatson. This dignity was for some time held jointly Visit of the prince of Wales.

..1 Dec. 1875 by the lord Willoughby De Eresby and the marquis of Chol: Sir J. R. Longden appointed governor.. ........Nov. 1876 mondeley, descendants of John De Vere, earl of Oxford. Lord Chæronea (Baotia). Here Greece was ruined by lord Aveland, his sister's son, was appointed to act.

Willoughby De Eresby died without issue, 27 Aug. 1870, and Philip; 32,000 Macedonians defeating 30,000 Thebans, LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD. --An ancient office. Athenians, etc., 6 or 7 Aug. 338 B.C. Here Archelaus, The title is from the French Chambellan, in Latin Camerarius. lieutenant of Mithridates, was defeated by Sylla, and Sir William Stanley, knt., afterwards beheaded, was lord

chamberlain, 1 Henry VII. 1485. A vice-chamberlain acts in 110,000 Cappadocians were slain, 86 B.C.; see Coronea. the absence of the chief; the offices are coexistent. --Beatson.

The chamberlain of London is an ancient oflice. Chain-bridges. The largest and oldest chainbridge in the world is said to be that at Kingtung, in

Chambers, see Commerce, Agriculture. China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of one Chambers's Journal was first published at Edinmountain to the top of another. Mr. Telford constructed burgh in Feb. 1832. the tirst chain-bridge on a grand scale in England, over Chambre Ardente (fiery chamber), an extraorthe strait between Anglesey and the coast of Wales, dinary French tribunal so named from the punishment 1818-25; see Menai Straits.

frequently awarded by it. Francis I. in 1535, and HenChain-cables, Pumps, And Shot. Iron chain- ry II. in 1549, employed it for the extirpation of heresy, cables were in use by the Veneti, a people intimately which led to the civil war with the Huguenots in 1560; connected with the Belga of Britain in the time of and in 1679 Louis XIV. appointed one to investigate Cæsar, 57 B.C. These cables came into use, generally the poisoning cases which arose after the execution of in the navy of England, in 1812. Acts for the proving the marchioness Brinvilliers.


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Chambre Introuvable, a name given to the 1591. The great scal in commission. chamber of deputies elected in France in 1815, on ac

1592. Sir John Puckering, lord keeper.

1596. Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper. count of its ignorance, incapacity, and bigoted reaction- 1603. Sir T. Egerton, lord Ellesmere, chancellor. ary spirit.

1617. Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper.

1618. Sir Francis Bacon, or. lord Verulam, lord chancellor. Champ de Mars, an open square in front of the 1621. The great seal in commission. military school at Paris, with artificial embankments on 1625. John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper. each side, extending nearly to the river Seine. The

Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coventry, lord

keeper. ancient assemblies of the Frankish people, the germ of 1640. Sir John Finch, afterwards lord Finch. parliaments, held annually in March, received this name. 1641. Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttelton, lord In 747 Pepin changed the month to May.

Here was


1643. The great seal in the hands of commissioners. beld, 14 July, 1790 (the anniversary of the capture of 1645. Sir Ricbard Lane, royal keeper. the Bastile), the “ federation," or solemnity of swearing 1646. In the hands of commissioners. tidelity to the “patriot king” and new constitution : 1649. In commission for the commonwealth. great rejoicings followed. Ou 14 July, 1791, a second 1653. Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper.

1654. In commission during the commonwealth. great meeting was held here, directed by the Jacobin 1660. Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards created clubs, to sign petitions on the “altar of the country,”

lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon. praying for the abdication of Louis XVI. A commem

1667. Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper. oration meeting took place, 14 July, 1792. Another 1673. Sir Heneage Finch, lord keeper.

1672. Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord chancellor. constitution was sworn to here, under the eye of Napo- 1675. Heneage, now lord Finch, lord chancellor, afterwards leon I. , 1 May, 1815, at a ceremony called the Chump de 1682. Sir Francis Morih, created lord Guilforg, lord keeper.

earl of Nottingham. Mui. The prince president (afterwards Napoleon III.) 1685. Francis, lord Guilford; succeeded by had a grand review in the Champ de Mars, and distrib- George, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor. uted eagles to the army, 10 May, 1852. Here also was

1689. In commission. held the International Exhibitions opened 1 April, 1867, 1690. Sir John Trevor, knt., sir William Rawlinson, knt., and

sir George Hutchins, knt, commissioners or keepers. and 1 May, 1878; see Paris.

1693. Sir John Somers, lord keeper.

1697. Sir John Somers, created lord Somers, chancellor. Champagne, an ancient province, N.E. France, once 1700. Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief justice, part of the kingdom of Burgundy, was governed by C. P., and chief baron sir Edward Ward, lord keepers. counts from the 10th century till it was united to Na- Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper. varre, count Thibaut becoming king in 1234. The

1705. Right hon. William Cow per, lord keeper, afterwards lord

Cowper. countess Joanna married Philip IV. of France in 1281; 1707. William, iord Cowper, lord chancellor. and in 1361 Champagne was annexed by their descend- 1710. In commission. ant king John. The effervescing wine, termed Cham

Sir Simon Harcourt, created lord Harcourt, keeper.

1713. Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor. pagne, became popular in the latter part of the 18th 1714. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor. century.

1718. In commission.

Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor; afterwards carl Champion of the King of England (most hon

of Macclesfield. orable), an ancient office, since 1377 has been attached 1725. In commission. to the manor of Scrivelsby, held by the Marmion family: 1733. Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor.

Sir Peter King, created lord King, chancellor. Their descendant, sir Henry Dymoke, the seventeenth 1737. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor. of his family who held the office, died 28 April, 1865; 1756. In commission. succeeded by his brother John; he died, and his son 1757. Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, last lord Henry Lionel succeeded, who died Dec. 1875. At the


1761. Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards carl of Northcoronation of the English kings, the champion used to

ington challenge any one that should deny their title.

1766. Charles, lord Camden, lord chancellor.

1770. Hon. Charles Yorke, lord chancellor. Champlain, see Lake Champlain.

(Created lord Morden; died by suicide with'n three

days, and before the scals were put to his patent of Chancellor of England, LORD High, the first

peerage.] lay subject after the princes of the blood royal. An- In commission. ciently the office was conferred upon some dignitied ec- 1771. Henry Bathurst, Jord Apsley; succeeded as earl Bathurst. clesiastic termed Cancellarius, or doorkeeper, who ad- 1783. Alexander, lord Loughborough, and others, commis

1778. Edward Thurlow, created lord Thurlow. mitted suitors to the sovereign's presence. Arfastus or Herefast, chaplain to the king (William the Conqueror) Edward, lord Thurlow, again. and bishop of Elmham, was lord chancellor in 1067.- 1793. Alexander Wedderburne, lord Loughborough, lord chan.

1792. In commission. Hardy. Thomas à Becket was made chancellor in 1154.

cellor. The first person qualitied by education to decide causes 1801. John Scott, lord Eldon. upon his own judgment was sir Thomas More, appoint- 1806. Hon. Thomas Erskine, created lord Erskine.

1807. John, lord Eldon, again. ed in 1529, before which time the officer was rather a

1527. Joho Singleton Copley, created lord Lyndhurst. state functionary than a judge. Sir Christopher Hat- 1830. Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham. ton, appointed lord chancellor in 1587, was very igno- 18334. Lord Lyndhurst, again.

1835. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, master of the rolls, vicerant, on which account the first reference was made to a

chancellor Shadwell and Mr. justice Bosanquet, C. P., master in 1588. The great seal has been frequently put

commissioners. in commission; in 1813 the office of l'ice-chancellor was 1836. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord Cottenham, established; see Keeper and Vice-chancellor: – Salary, 1841. Lord Lyndhurst, a third time.

lord chancellor. 16 Jan.

3 Sept. 1875, 6000l.; as speaker of house of loris, 10001.

1846. Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor, 6 July,

[His lordship on signifying his intention to retire, 19 LORD HIGH CHANCELLORS.

June, 1850, was created earl of Cottenham.) 1487. John Moreton, archbishop of Canterbury.

1850. Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, sir Launcelot Shad1504. William Warham, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury.

well, vice-chancellor of England, and sir Robert Mon. 1515. Thomas Wolsey, cardinal and archbishop of York.

sey Rolse, B. E., commissioners of the great seal. 1529. Sir Thomas More.

June. 1532. Sir Thomas Audley, keeper.

Sir Thomas Wilde, lord Truro. 15 July 1533. Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor, afterwards lord Audley. 1852. Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonard's. 27 Feb. 1644. Thomas, lord Wriothesley.

Robert Mopsey Rolfe, lord Cranworth. 28 Dec. 1547. William, lord St. John, keeper.

1858. Sir Frederic Thesiger, lord Chelmsford. 26 Feb. Richard, lord Rich, lord chancellor.

1859. John, lord Campbell, 18 June; died 23 June, 1861. 1551. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, keeper.

1861. Richard Bethell, lord Westbury. 26 June. Resigned 4 1552. The same; now lord chancellor.

July, 1865. 1553. Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester.

1865. Thomas, lord Cranworth, again. 6 July. Resigned June, 1556. Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York.

1566. 1558. Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper.

1966. F. Thesiger, lord Chelmsford, again. 6 July. Resigned 1579. Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor.

Feb. 1868. 1587. Sir Christopher Hatton.

1868. Hugh Cairns, loru Cairns. 29 Feb.


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