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Catherine. The order of knights of St. Catherine was instituted in Palestine, 1063. An order of ladies of the highest rank in Russia was founded by Peter the Great, 1714, in honor of the bravery of his empress Catherine. They were to be distinguished, as the name implied (from ka apóg, pure), for purity of life and manners; see Docks and Katharine.

Catholic Majesty. This title was given by pope Gregory III. to Alphonso I. of Spain, 739, and to Ferdinand V. and his queen in 1474 by Innocent VIII. on account of their zeal for religion and their establishment of the Inquisition.

Catholic Union of Great Britain; president, the duke of Norfolk; was constituted in 1871. A Catholic union in Dublin was formed Dec. 1873; see Roman Catholics.

Catholics, see Roman Catholics.

Catiline's Conspiracy. Lucius Sergius Catiline, a dissolute Roman noble, having been refused the consulship (65 B.C.), conspired to kill the senate, plunder the treasury, and set Rome on fire. This conspiracy was timely discovered and frustrated. A second plot (in 63) was detected by the consul Cicero, whom he had resolved to murder. Catiline's daring appearance in the senatehouse, after his guilt was known, drew forth Cicero's celebrated invective, "Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra?" on 8 Nov. On seeing five of his accomplices arrested, Catiline fled to Gaul, where his partisans were assembling an army. Cicero punished the conspirators at home, and Petreius routed their forces; Catiline being killed in the engagement, Jan. 62 B.C.

Cato, SUICIDE OF. Considering freedom as that which alone "sustains the dignity of man," and unable to survive the independence of his country, Cato stabbed himself at Utica, 46 B.C.

Cato-street Conspiracy. A gang of desperate men, headed by Arthur Thistlewood, assembled in Cato Street, Edgware Road, and proposed the assassination of the ministers of the crown at a cabinet dinner. They were betrayed and arrested, 23 Feb. 1820; and Thistlewood, Brunt, Davidson, Ings, and Tidd were executed as traitors on 1 May.

Catti, a German tribe, attacked but not subdued by the Romans A.D. 15 and 84; absorbed by the Franks, third century.

Cattle. Of horned cattle only the buffalo or bison is native of America, and this has never been domesticated. Columbus, in 1493, brought the first tame cattle to America, a bull and several cows. As the various parts of North and South America were settled by Europeans, cattle were introduced, and from these have descended all the vast herds which now roam over the pampas of Texas and South America. In 1611 and 1624, cattle were imported into Virginia and Massachusetts. In Great Britain and in the United States they have been vastly improved, both in the weight of carcass, the quality of the beef, and the abundance of the milk, by the extraordinary attention that has been given to the selection and crossing of the best breeds, according to the objects in view. This sort of improvement began about the middle of last century, or rather later. trade of the United States in neat cattle for the eight months ending 31 Aug. 1880 amounted to $12,462,837; for the year ending 30 June, 1881, the exports of live

The export

cattle were 185,707 head, valued at $14,304,103. The importation of horned cattle from Ireland and Scotland into England was prohibited by a law, 1663; but the export of cattle from Ireland became very extensive. In 1842 the importation of cattle into England from foreign countries was subjected to a moderate duty, and in 1846 they were made duty free; and since then the numbers imported have enormously increased.* Horned cattle imported into the United Kingdom 1849, 53,480; 1853, 125,523; 1855 (war), 97,527; 1860, 104,569; 1865, 283,271; 1866, 237,739; 1867, 177,948; 1868, 136,688; 1869, 220,190; 1870, 202,172; 1874, 193,862; 1876, 271,576; 1877, 201,193; 1879, 247,768; see Smithfield, Metropolitan Cattle-market, and Foreign Cattle-market. A cattle plague began in Hungary; extended over West

ern Europe, destroying 14 million cattle..


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The privy council ordered diseased beasts to be shot, and their skins destroyed, granting moderate compen. sation..

12 March, 1745

Great disease among foreign cattle; excluded from this country by prohibitions..

...April, 1857 The cattle plague appears at Laycock's dairy, Barnsbury, London, N.; rapidly spreads.. ...about 24 June, 1865 27,432 beasts had been attacked; 12,680 died; 8,998 slaughtered up to... .21 Oct.

A royal commission to inquire into the causes of cattle plague and suggest remedies met first, 10 Oct.; report of majority considered the disease to have been imported, and recommend slaughter of animals and stringent prohibition of passage of cattle across public roads, etc., 31 Oct. 1865; second report, 6 Feb.; third report,


1 May, 1866

Orders in council for regulating the cattle plague (in conformity with the act of 1850), 23 Nov. and 16 Dec. 1865; and...

..20 Jan. Disease raging; official report; cattle attacked, 120,740; killed, 16,742; died, 73,750; recovered, 14,162; unaccounted for, 16,086.. ..1 Feb. Cattle Disease Acts passed.. .20 Feb. and 10 Aug. Orders in council making uniform repressive measures throughout the country. 27 March, The disease materially abates.. ... April, Privy council return: cattle attacked. 248,965; killed, 80,597; died, 124, 187; recovered, 32,989; unaccounted for, 11,192.. .22 June, The disease nearly "stamped out". 27 Oct.

Order in council directing that foreign cattle be landed only at certain parts (after 13 Nov.), there to be subjected to quarantine. 10 Nov. Cattle plague reappears in Cheshire and Lancashire and Yorkshire. ...Dec.

Reappears at Barnsbury (see 24 June, 1865), 46 animals Reappearance in various places...


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.2 Feb. 1867 ...June, July, .Aug. ...3 Aug.



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Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act amended..
No case reported to the privy council..
Cattle plague, originating in Texas, prevailed throughout

the United States.. Order of council permitting cattle to be removed from the metropolis.. .25 July, 1868 New general orders issued. Aug. 1869 Prevalence of "foot and mouth disease" in England, Disease appears at Kaiserslautern, rear of the German Aug. 1869-Dec. 1870; June, July, 1871

army; cautionary regulations promulgated by the privy council..

.9 Sept. 1870

New foreign cattle market determined on, Nov. 1870;


Foot and mouth disease in England..

Appearance of the plague in German cattle;

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.Dec. 1871 ..July, Aug. 1872 portation suspended... about 3 Aug. Cattle plague appears at Pocklington, Yorkshire; vigorously treated, 3 Sept.; stringent order from the privy council.. .7 Sept. Live cattle imported to Glasgow from America by Mr. ..July, 1873 Foot and mouth disease in some English counties, Reappearance of cattle-plague in England; restrictions Aug, Sept. 1875 in London and other places; much cattle killed, Cattle-plague commission enlarged, 3 May; plague said


Jan.-May, 1877

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to be stamped out; restrictions removed, 26 June; fresh cases in London; restrictions resumed 13 July; removed ..31 July, New Cattle Contagious Diseases Act passed......16 Aug. 1878 Order in council prohibiting importation of living cattle from eastern half of Europe after 1 Jan. 1879; imports permitted from some countries, cattle to be slaughtered (no restriction respecting some countries), 6 Dec.


*Sale of thirty of duke of Devonshire's short-horn bulls for 19,9234., about 18 Sept. 1878.


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admitted at other colleges, and leaving earlier), was inaugurated by the duke of Devonshire, 26 Oct. 1876.

Sheep. 33,982,404 34,857,597 Cavendish Experiment. In 1798 the Hon. 33,491,948 Henry Cavendish described his experiment for deter32,252,579 mining the mean density of the earth, by comparing 32,220,067 32,571,018 the force of terrestrial attraction with that of the at32,237,958 traction of leaden spheres of known magnitude and density, by means of the torsion balance. - Brande. The Cavendish Society, for the publication of chemical works, which ceased with Gmelin's Chemistry (1848–67), was established 1846.

Caucasus, a lofty mountain, a continuation of the ridge of Mount Taurus, between the Euxine and Caspian seas. In mythology, Prometheus was said to have been tied on the top of Caucasus by Jupiter, and continually devoured by vultures (1548 B.C.). The passes near the mountain were called Caucasia Porte, and it is supposed that through them the Sarmatians or Huns invaded the provinces of Rome, A.D. 447; see Circassia.

Caucus. An American term applied to a private meeting of the leading politicians of a party to agree upon the plans to be pursued during an election or session of congress. The word is now applied to private meetings of all the members of congress, or of a legislature, belonging to one political party, for the purpose of determining in advance the course to be pursued by the party, and of compelling individual members to yield to the will of the majority of the caucus. The word is said to be derived from "ship"-caulkers' meetings. A 'caucus club" is mentioned by John Adams, in 1763. —Bartlett. Similar meetings are occasionally held in London by conservatives and liberals; one was held by Mr. Gladstone respecting the ballot bill, 6 July, 1871. Jealousy respecting the system was aroused in 1878.

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Caves are frequently mentioned in the Bible as dwellings, refuges, and burying-places. Mr. W. B. Dawkins's "Cave-hunting; Researches on the Evidence of Caves respecting the Early Inhabitants of Europe," was published 1874. The Mammoth Cave, in Kentucky, which is the largest in the world, discovered 1809; Weyer's Cave, Virginia, 1804; Wyandotte Cave, Indiana; Oreston Cave, Devon, 1816; Kirkdale, Yorkshire, 1821; Kent's Hole, Torquay, 1825; Brixham Cave, 1858; Wookey Hole, Somerset, 1859; and many others, have been well explored.

Cawnpore, a town in India, on the Doab, a penin sula between the Ganges and Jumna. During the mutiny in June, 1857, it was garrisoned by native troops under sir Hugh Wheeler. These broke out into revolt. An adopted son of the old Peishwa Bajee Rao, Nana Sahib, who had long lived on friendly terms with the British, came apparently to their assistance, but joined the rebels. He took the place after three weeks' siege, 26 June; and, in spite of a treaty, massacred great numbers of the British, without respect to age or sex, in the most cruel manner. Gen. Havelock defeated Nana Sa

Caudine Forks, according to Livy, the Furcule hib, 16 July, at Futtehpore, and retook Cawnpore, 17 Caudine (in Samnium, S. Italy), were two narrow defiles July. Sir Colin Campbell defeated the rebels here on or gorges, united by a range of mountains on each side. 6 Dec. following. A column was erected here, in memThe Romans went through the first pass, but found theory of the sufferers, by their relatives of the 32d regisecond blocked up; on returning they found the first similarly obstructed. Being thus hemmed in by the Samnites, under the command of C. Pontus, they surrendered at discretion, 321 B.C. (after a fruitless contest, according to Cicero). The Roman senate broke the treaty.

Cauliflower, said to have been brought from Cyprus to England about 1603.

Thibet; and in Dec. 1851 was incorrectly said to have ment. In Dec. 1860, Nana was said to be living at been captured at Kurrachee; see India, 1857.

Caxton Society, established for the publication of chronicles and literature of the middle ages, published sixteen volumes, 1844-54. Caxton Celebration, see under Printing, 1877.

Cayenne, French Guiana (South America), settled

by the French, 1604-35. It afterwards came successively into the hands of the English (1654), French, and Dutch. The last were expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne was taken by the British, 12 Jan. 1809, but was restored to the French in 1814. tal-baccatum, or cayenne pepper. Many French political Here is produced the Capsicum prisoners were sent here in 1848.

Caustic, IN PAINTING, a method of burning colors into wood or ivory, invented by Gausias of Sicyon. He painted his mistress Glycere sitting on the ground making garlands with flowers; the picture was hence named Stephanoplocon. It was bought by Lucullus for two ents, 335 B.C.-Pliny.

Cautionary Towns (Holland), (the Briel, Flushing, Rammekins, and Walcheren), were given to queen Elizabeth in 1585 as security for their repaying her for assistance in their struggle with Spain. They were restored to the Dutch republic by James I. in 1616.

Cavalier. The appellation given to the supporters of the king during the civil war, from a number of gentlemen forming themselves into a body-guard for the king in 1641. They were opposed to the Roundheads, or parliamentarians.

Cavalry. Used by the Canaanites in war, 1450 B.C. (Josh. ix. 4). Attached to each Roman legion was a body of 300 horse, in ten turma; the commander always a veteran. The Persians had 10,000 horse at Marathon, 490 B.C.; and 10,000 Persian horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 B.C.-Plutarch. In the wars with Napoleon I. the British cavalry reached to 31,000 men. Our cavalry force, in 1840, was 10,733. In 1867, horse guards, 1317; cavalry of the line, 10,023; in depots, 838; in India, 5421; total, 17,599; in 1880, total 17,245; see Horse Guards, etc.

Cavendish College, Cambridge (founded to give cheap university education to youths younger than those

Cecilian Society, see Cæcilian.

Cedar Creek AND Mountain (Virginia, U. S.). On 19 Oct. 1864, gen. Sheridan converted the defeat of the Federals by the Confederates under Longstreet into wall Jackson defeated Banks, 9 Aug. 1862. a complete victory. At CEDAR MOUNTAIN gen. Stone

Cedar-tree. The red cedar (Juniperus Virginiana) came from North America before 1664; the Bermudas cedar from Bermudas before 1683; the Cedar of Lebanon (Pinus Cedrus) from the Levant before 1683. In 1850 a grove of venerable cedars, about 40 feet high, remained on Lebanon. The cedar of Goa (Cupressus lusitanica) was brought to Europe by the Portuguese about 1683; see Cypress.

Celery is said to have been introduced into England by the French marshal, Tallard, during his captivity in England, after his defeat at Blenheim by Marlborough, 2 Aug. 1704.

Celestial Globe, see Globes.

Celibacy (from celebs, unmarried) was preached by St. Anthony in Egypt about 305. His early converts lived in caves, etc., till monasteries were founded. The

Cental, a new name given to the 100 lbs. weight, London Gazette, 7 Feb. 1879.

doctrine was rejected in the council of Nice, 325. Celi- | quires that a new census shall be made every ten years. bacy was enjoined on bishops only in 692. The decree The latest census year was 1880. For the latest census was opposed in England, 958-978. The Romish clergy of other countries, see Table facing page 1. generally were enjoined a vow of celibacy by pope Gregory VII. in 1073-85, and its observance was established by the council of Placentia, held in 1095. Marriage was restored to the English clergy in 1547. The marriage of the clergy was proposed, but negatived at the council of Trent (1563); also at a conference of the Old Catholics at Bonn, June, 1876. Sir Bartle Frere termed the Zulu army "a celibate man-slaying machine," 1878.

Cell Theory (propounded by Schwann in 1839) supposes that the ultimate particles of all animal and vegetable tissues are small cells. Some of the lowest forms of animal and vegetable life are said to be composed of merely a single cell, as the germinal vesicle in the egg and the red-snow plant.

Celtiberi, see Numantine War.

Celts, or KELTS, a group of the Aryan family; see Gauls. Above 8000l. subscribed to found a Celtic professorship at the university of Edinburgh, Oct. 1876; 11,9377. subscribed April, 1879. One was established at Oxford in 1876.

Cemeteries. The burying - places of the Jews, Greeks, Romans, were outside their towns (Matt. xxvii. CO). Many public cemeteries resembling "Père La Chaise,”* at Paris, have been opened in all parts of the kingdom since 1856; see Catacombs, Bunhill-fields.

Centennial Exhibition, an international exhibition, in celebration of the hundredth year of American independence, was held in Philadelphia, 1876. Thirtythree foreign countries were represented by their products. Five principal buildings, with "annexes," or supplementary buildings, were erected; and, including foreign and state buildings, the total number of structures five principal buildings, with their annexes, covered 75 The main building covered 21 acres, and the acres. Number of persons admitted to the exhibition, 9,910,966. Largest number admitted on one day, 274,919.

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Central America, see America. ican steamer of this name was wrecked during a gale in the gulf of Mexico, 12 Sept. 1857. Of about 550 persons only 152 were saved; several of these after drifting on rafts above 600 miles. The loss of about 24 million dolThe United States government has established national lars in specie aggravated the commercial panic in New cemeteries in various parts of the country for the burial York shortly after. The captain and crew behaved heof men who died in the naval or military service. In roically. 1878 there were 78 of these cemeteries, in which 310,356 men had been buried.


Mount Auburn cemetery, Cambridge, Mass., consecrated 1831
Kensal Green cemetery, 53 acres; consecrated....2 Nov. 1832
Laurel Hill cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa., consecrated.... 1835
South Metropolitan and Norwood cemetery, 40 acres;
.6 Dec. 1837
Highgate and Kentish town cemetery, 22 acres; opened
and consecrated..
20 May, 1839
Greenwood cemetery, Brooklyn, N. Y., consecrated..............
Abney Park cemetery, Stoke Newington, 30 acres; opened
by the lord mayor...
.20 May, 1840
Westminster or West London cemetery, Kensington
Road; consecrated...
15 June,

Nunhead cemetery; about 50 acres; consecrated. 29 July,
City of London and Tower Hamlets cemetery, 30 acres,

London Necropolis and National Mausoleum, at Woking, Surrey, 2000 acres; the company incorporated in July, 1852; opened...

City of London cemetery, Ilford; opened..
Acts respecting burials passed.......
National cemeteries first provided for by act of con-

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..Jan. 1855 ..24 June, 1856 1850-57 gress. ..17 July, 1862 Act of congress allowing all soldiers and sailors honorably discharged from service, dying destitute, to be buried in national cemeteries .......1 June, 1872

Cenis, MOUNT, see under Alps. Censors, Roman magistrates, to survey and rate the property, and correct the manners of the people. The two first censors were appointed, 443 B.C. Plebeian censors were first appointed, 131 B.C. The office, abolished by the emperors, was revived by Decius, A.D. 251; see Press.

Census. The Israelites were numbered by Moses, 1490 B.C.; and by David, 1017 B.C.; Demetrius Phalereus is said to have taken a census of Attica, 317 B.C. Servius Tullius enacted that a general estimate of every Roman's estate and personal effects should be delivered to the government upon oath every five years, 566 B.C. The proposal for a census in 1753 was opposed as profane. In the United Kingdom the census is now taken at decennial periods since 1801; 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851, 1861 (7 April), 1871 (3 April), 1881 (3 April); act passed 7 Sept. 1880; see Population. The first United States census was made in 1790. The constitution re

Pre La Chaise was the favorite and confessor of Louis XIV., who made him superior of a great establishment of the Jesuits on this spot, then named Mont Louis. The house and grounds were bought for a national cemetery, which was laid out by M. Brongn:art, and first used on 21 May, 1804.

Central Criminal Court, established in 1834. Commissions are issued to the fifteen judges of England (of whom three attend in rotation at the Old Bailey) for the periodical delivery of the jail of Newgate, and the trial of offences of greater degree, committed in Middlesex and parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey; the new district is considered as one county.

Central Hall of Sciences, see under Albert. Centurion, the captain, head, or commander of a subdivision of a Roman legion, which consisted of 100 men, and was called a centuria. By the Roman census each hundred of the people was called a centuria, 556


Century. The Greeks computed time by the Olympiads, beginning 776 B.C., and the Roman church by Indictions, the first of which began 24 Sept., A.D. 312. The method of computing time by centuries commenced from the incarnation of Christ, and was adopted in chronological history first in France.-Dupin.

Century, a New York club, founded 1847.

Cephalonia, one of the Ionian islands, was taken from the Etolians by the Romans, 189 B.C., and given to the Athenians by Hadrian, A.D. 135; see Ionian Isles. Cephisus, a river in Attica, near which Walter de Brienne, duke of Athens, was defeated and slain by the Catalans, 1311.

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'Cerbere," a French gun-brig, with a crew of 87 men, and seven guns, in the harbor of L'Orient, within pistol-shot of three batteries, was captured in a most daring manner by lieut. Jeremiah Coghlan, in a cutter with 19 companions aided by two boats, one of which was commanded by midshipman Paddon. The prize was towed out under a heavy but ineffectual fire from the batteries, 26 July, 1800.-Nicolas.

Ceremonies, MASTER OF THE, an office instituted for the more honorable reception of ambassadors and persons of quality at court, 1 James I. 1603. The order maintained by the master of the ceremonies at Bath, "Beau Nash," the "King of Bath," led to the adoption of the office in ordinary assemblies; he died in his 88th year, 1761.—Ashe.

Ceres, a planet, 160 miles in diameter, was discovered by M. Piazzi, at Palermo, 1 Jan. 1801; he named it

after the goddess highly esteemed by the ancient Sicil- | and sale of chain-cables and anchors were passed in ians. 1864, 1871, and 1874.-CHAIN-SHOT, to destroy the rigging of an enemy's ship, were invented by the Dutch admiral, De Witt, in 1666.-CHAIN-PUMPs were first used on board the Flora, British frigate, in 1787.

Ceresuola (N. Italy). Here Francis de Bourbon, count d'Enghien, defeated the imperialists under the marquess de Guasto, 14 April, 1544.

Cerignola (S. Italy). Here the great captain Gonsalvo de Cordova and the Spaniards defeated the duc de Nemours and the French, 28 April, 1503.

Cerinthians, followers of Cerinthus, a Jew, who

lived about A.D. 80, are said to have combined Judaism with pagan philosophy.

Cerium, a very rare metal, discovered by Klaproth

and others in 1803.

Cerro Gordo, BATTLE OF. With about 8500 men, gen. Scott, after capturing Vera Cruz (which see), marched towards the Mexican capital. At Cerro Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the foot of the eastern chain of the Cordilleras, he found Santa Anna strongly posted and fortified, with 12,000 men. Scott attacked him 18 April, 1847, drove him from his position, and dispersed his army. Santa Anna narrowly escaped on the back of a mule. More than 1000 Mexicans were killed or wounded, and 3000 were made prisoners. The Americans lost in killed and wounded 431. Scott pushed on towards the Mexican capital. See Contreras, Cherubusco, El Molino del Rey, Chapultepec.

Ceuta (the ancient Septa), a town on N. coast of Africa, stands on the site of the ancient Abyla, the southern pillar of Hercules. It was taken from the Vandals by Belisarius for Justinian, 534; by the Goths,

618; by the Moors about 709, from whom it was taken by the Portuguese, 1415. With Portugal, it was annexed in 1580 to Spain, which power still retains it.

Ceylon (the ancient Taprobane), an island in the Indian Ocean, called by the natives the seat of paradise. It became a seat of Buddhism, 307 B.C., and was known to the Romans about A.D. 41. Population 1873, 2,323,760. Invaded by the Portuguese Almeyda...


The Dutch landed in Ceylon, 1602; and captured the capital, Colombo...


Frequent conflicts; peaceful commercial relations established


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A large portion of the country taken by them in 1782; was restored..

1783 The Dutch settlements seized by the British; Trincomalce, 26 Aug.; Jaffnapatam.. ..Sept. 1795 Ceylon was ceded to Great Britain by the peace of Amiens 1802 British troops treacherously massacred or imprisoned by the adigar of Candy, at Colombo (see Candy), 26 June, 1803 Complete sovereignty of the island assumed by England 1815 Bishopric of Colombo founded....... 1845

The gov., lord Torrington, absolved from a charge of undue severity in suppressing a rebellion..... .May, 1851 Prosperity of Ceylon greatly increased under the administration of sir H. Ward..

.1855-60 1859 March, 1865 .April, 1870 ..9 Jan. 1872 .1 Dec. 1875 ......Nov. 1876 Chæronea (Boeotia). Here Greece was ruined by Philip; 32,000 Macedonians defeating 30,000 Thebans, Athenians, etc., 6 or 7 Aug. 338 B.C. Here Archelaus, lieutenant of Mithridates, was defeated by Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians were slain, 86 B.C.; see Coronea.

Sir J. E. Tennent's work, "Ceylon," appeared..
Sir Hercules G. Robinson appointed governor..7
The duke of Edinburgh visited Ceylon......
Wm. H. Gregory, M. P., appointed governor..
Visit of the prince of Wales..

Sir J. R. Longden appointed governor..

Chain-bridges. The largest and oldest chainbridge in the world is said to be that at Kingtung, in China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of one mountain to the top of another. Mr. Telford constructed the first chain-bridge on a grand scale in England, over the strait between Anglesey and the coast of Wales, 1818-25; see Menai Straits.

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Chaldæa, the ancient name of Babylonia, but afterwards restricted to the S.W. portion. The Chaldæans were devoted to astronomy and astrology; see Dan. ii. etc.-The CHALdæan Registers of celestial observations, said to have commenced 2234 B.C., were brought down to the taking of Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C. (1903 years). These registers were sent to Aristotle by Calisthenes.-CHALDEAN CHARACTERS: the Bible was transcribed from the original Hebrew into these characters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra, about 445 B.C.

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Chalgrove (Oxfordshire). At a skirmish here with prince Rupert, 18 June, 1643, John Hampden, of the parliament party, was wounded, and died 24 June. umn was erected to his memory, 18 June, 1843. "Challenger," see Deep-sea Soundings. Chalons-sur-Marne (N.E. France). Here the emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, the last of the pretenders to the throne, termed the Thirty Tyrants, 274; and here in 451 Aëtius defeated Attila the Hun, compelling him to retire into Pannonia.

Cham, see Charivari.

Chamberlain, early a high court officer in France, Germany, and England. The office of chamberlain of the exchequer was discontinued in 1834.

HEREDITARY LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN OF ENGLAND. -The sixth great officer of state, whose duties, among others, relate to coronations and public solemnities. The office was long held by the De Veres, carls of Oxford, granted by Henry I in 1101. On the death of John De Vere, the sixteenth earl, Mary, his sole daughter, marrying lord Willoughby De Eresby, the right was established in that nobleman's family by a judgment of the house of peers, 2 Charles I. 1625. On the death of his descendant, unmarried, in July 1779, the house of lords and twelve judges concurred that the office devolved to lady Willoughby De Eresby, and her sister lady Georg na Charlotta Bertie, as heirs to their brother Robert, duke of Ancaster, deceased; and that they had powers to appoint a deputy to act for them, not under the degree of a knight, who, if his majesty approved of him, might officiate accordingly.-Beatson. This dignity was for some time held jointly by the lord Willoughby De Eresby and the marquis of Chol mondeley, descendants of John De Vere, earl of Oxford. Lord Willoughby De Eresby died without issue, 27 Aug. 1870, and lord Aveland, his sister's son, was appointed to act.


The title is from the French Chambellan, in Latin Camerarius. chamberlain, 1 Henry VII. 1485. A vice-chamberlain acts in Sir William Stanley, knt., afterwards beheaded, was lord the absence of the chief; the offices are coexistent.-Beatson The chamberlain of London is an ancient office.

Chambers, see Commerce, Agriculture.

Chambers's Journal was first published at Edinburgh in Feb. 1832.

Chambre Ardente (fiery chamber), an extraor dinary French tribunal so named from the punishment frequently awarded by it. Francis I. in 1535, and HenChain-cables, PUMPS, AND SHOT. Iron chain-ry II. in 1549, employed it for the extirpation of heresy, cables were in use by the Veneti, a people intimately which led to the civil war with the Huguenots in 1560; connected with the Belge of Britain in the time of and in 1679 Louis XIV. appointed one to investigate Cæsar, 57 B.C. These cables came into use, generally the poisoning cases which arose after the execution of in the navy of England, in 1812. Acts for the proving the marchioness Brinvilliers.

Chambre Introuvable, a name given to the chamber of deputies elected in France in 1815, on account of its ignorance, incapacity, and bigoted reactionary spirit.

1591. The great seal in commission.
1592. Sir John Puckering, lord keeper.
1596. Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper.
1603. Sir T. Egerton, lord Ellesmere, chancellor.
1617. Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper.
1618. Sir Francis Bacon, or. lord Verulam, lord chancellor.
1621. The great seal in commission.

1625. John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper.



Champ de Mars, an open square in front of the military school at Paris, with artificial embankments on each side, extending nearly to the river Seine. The ancient assemblies of the Frankish people, the germ of parliaments, held annually in March, received this name. In 747 Pepin changed the month to May. Here was held, 14 July, 1790 (the anniversary of the capture of the Bastile), the "federation," or solemnity of swearing fidelity to the "patriot king" and new constitution: great rejoicings followed. On 14 July, 1791, a second great meeting was held here, directed by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on the "altar of the country," praying for the abdication of Louis XVI. A commemoration meeting took place, 14 July, 1792. Another constitution was sworn to here, under the eye of Napoleon I., 1 May, 1815, at a ceremony called the Champ de Mai. The prince president (afterwards Napoleon III.) had a grand review in the Champ de Mars, and distributed eagles to the army, 10 May, 1852. Here also was held the International Exhibitions opened 1 April, 1867, 1690. and 1 May, 1878; see Paris.

Champagne, an ancient province, N.E. France, once part of the kingdom of Burgundy, was governed by counts from the 10th century till it was united to Navarre, count Thibaut becoming king in 1234. The countess Joanna married Philip IV. of France in 1284; and in 1361 Champagne was annexed by their descendant king John. The effervescing wine, termed Champagne, became popular in the latter part of the 18th century.

Champion of the King of ENGLAND (most honorable), an ancient office, since 1377 has been attached to the manor of Scrivelsby, held by the Marmion family. Their descendant, sir Henry Dymoke, the seventeenth of his family who held the office, died 28 April, 1865; succeeded by his brother John; he died, and his son Henry Lionel succeeded, who died Dec. 1875. At the coronation of the English kings, the champion used to challenge any one that should deny their title. Champlain, see Lake Champlain.

Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coventry, lord
Sir John Finch, afterwards lord Finch.

Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttelton, lord
1643. The great seal in the hands of commissioners.
1645. Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper.
1646. In the hands of commissioners.
1649. In commission for the commonwealth.
1653. Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper.
1654. In commission during the commonwealth.
1660. Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards created
lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon.
1667. Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper.
1672. Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord chancellor.
1673. Sir Heneage Finch, lord keeper.
1675. Heneage, now lord Finch, lord chancellor, afterwards
Sir Francis North, created lord Guilford, lord keeper.
earl of Nottingham.
Francis, lord Guilford; succeeded by



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George, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor. 1689. In commission.

Sir John Trevor, knt., sir William Rawlinson, knt., and

sir George Hutchins, knt., commissioners or keepers. 1693. Sir John Somers, lord keeper. 1697. Sir John Somers, created lord Somers, chancellor. 1700. Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief justice, C. P., and chief baron sir Edward Ward, lord keepers. Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper.

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Right hon. William Cowper, lord keeper, afterwards lord

1707. William, iord Cowper, lord chancellor.
1710. In commission.

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Sir Simon Harcourt, created lord Harcourt, keeper. 1713. Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor.

1714. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor.

1718. In commission.

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Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor; afterwards carl of Macclesfield.

1725. In commission.

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1733. Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor.

Sir Peter King, created lord King, chancellor.

1737. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor.
1756. In commission.

1757. Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, last lord


Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards earl of Northington.

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Chancellor of England, LORD HIGH, the first lay subject after the princes of the blood royal. Anciently the office was conferred upon some dignified ec1771. clesiastic termed Cancellarius, or doorkeeper, who ad- 1783. 1778. mitted suitors to the sovereign's presence. Arfastus or Herefast, chaplain to the king (William the Conqueror) and bishop of Elmham, was lord chancellor in 1067.Hardy. Thomas à Becket was made chancellor in 1154. The first person qualified by education to decide causes upon his own judgment was sir Thomas More, appointed in 1529, before which time the officer was rather a state functionary than a judge. Sir Christopher Hatton, appointed lord chancellor in 1587, was very ignorant, on which account the first reference was made to a master in 1588. The great seal has been frequently put in commission; in 1813 the office of Vice-chancellor was established; see Keeper and Vice-chancellor. — Salary, 1875, 6000l.; as speaker of house of lords, 40007.

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1806. Hon. Thomas Erskine, created lord Erskine.
1807. John, lord Eldon, again.
1827. John Singleton Copley, created lord Lyndhurst.
1830. Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham.
1834. Lord Lyndhurst, again.

Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, master of the rolls, vice-
chancellor Shadwell and Mr. justice Bosanquet, C. P.,

1836. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord Cottenham,
1841. Lord Lyndhurst, a third time.
lord chancellor. 16 Jan.
3 Sept.
1846. Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor, 6 July.

[His lordship on signifying his intention to retire, 19
June, 1850, was created earl of Cottenham.]

1850. Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, sir Launcelot Shadwell, vice-chancellor of England, and sir Robert Monsey Rolfe, B. E., commissioners of the great seal. June.

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1533. Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor, afterwards lord Audley. 1852. Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonard's. 1544. Thomas, lord Wriothesley.

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27 Feb. Robert Monsey Rolfe, lord Cranworth. 28 Dec. 1858. Sir Frederic Thesiger, lord Chelmsford. 26 Feb. 1859. John, lord Campbell, 18 June; died 23 June, 1861. 1861. Richard Bethell, lord Westbury. 26 June. Resigned 4

July, 1865.

1865. Thomas, lord Cranworth, again. 6 July. Resigned June,


1866. F. Thesiger, lord Chelmsford, again. 6 July. Resigned

Feb. 1868.

1868. Hugh Cairns, lord Cairns. 29 Feb.

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