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1868. William Page Wood, lord Hatherley.

after a severe conflict on 3 and 4 May, with great loss to 1872. Roundell Palmer, lord Selborne. 15 Oct. 1874. Hugh Cairns, lord Cairns. 21 Feb.

both parties, the federals were compelled to recruss the 1880. Roundell Palmer, lord Selborne. 28 April

Rappahannock. The struggle was compared to that at

Hongomont during the battle of Waterloo. Jackson Chancellor of Ireland, LORD High. The ear- died 10 May. Hooker's loss was 17,000 men, of whom liest nomination was by Richard I., 1189, when Stephen 5000 were made prisoners. Lee's loss was about 13,000, Ridel was elevated to this rank. The office of vice- of whom 3000 were prisoners. The result of this battle chancellor was known in Ireland in 1232, Geoffrey Tur- has always been an enigma to military critics. Hookvillo, archdeacon of Dublin, being so named. The Chan- er's army, was composed of the best of material, was well cery and Common Law Offices (Ireland) act was passed equipped and full of spirit, and numbered 120,000, while 20 Aug. 1867.

Lee's force was 62,000. Hooker succeeded in turning

Lee's position, and in forcing him out of his fortitied Patent.

camp into the open field, where a complete victory for 1690. Sir Charles Porter. 29 Dec. 1697. Sir John Jeffreyson, Thomas Coote, and Nehemiah the national forces seemed so easy of attainment as to be Donellan, lord keepers. 12 Jan.

well-nigh certain. That it was not won, was due simJ. Methuen. 11 March.

ply to bad management. For a careful criticism of the Edward, earl of Meath, Francis. earl of Longford, and affair see · The Campaign of Chancellorsville" by lieut.

Murrough, viscount Blessington, lord keepers. 21 Dec. col. Theodore Dodge, U.S. A., published 1881. 1702. Lord Methuen, lord chancellor.

26 Aug 1705. Sir Richard Cox, bart., 6 Aug ; resigned in 1707.

Chancery, COURT OF, is said to have been insti1707. Richard Freeman. June. 1710. Robert earl of Kildare, archbishop (Hoadley) of Dublin, tuted either in 605, or by Alfred, 887; refounded by and Thomas Keightley, comin issioners. 28 Nov.

William I., 1067 (Stor) or 1070. This court had its 1711. Sir Constantine Phipps. 22 Jan. Resigned Sept. 1711.

origin in the desire to render justice complete, and to 1714. Alan Brodrick, afterwards viscount Middleton. 11 Oct. Resigned May, 1725.

moderate the rigor of other courts that are bound to the 1725. Richard West. Jube.

strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or against in1726. Thomas Wyndham, afterwards lord Wyndham of Finglas. fants, notwithstanding their minority; and to or against

21 Dec. 1739. Robert Jocelyn, afterwards lord Newport and viscount married women, notwithstanding their coverture; and Jocelyn. 7 Sept.; died 25 Oct. 1756.

all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confidence, for 1757. John Bowes, afterwards lord Bowes of Clonlyon. 22 which there is no redress at common-law, are relievable

March: died 1767. 1768. James Hewitt, afterwards viscount Lifford.

here. - Blackstone ; see Chancellors of England. The

9 Jan.; died 28 April, 1789.

delays in chancery proceedings having long giren dis1789. John, baron Fitzgibbon, afterwards earl of Clare. 20 satisfaction, the subject was brought before parliament

June; died 28 Jan. 1802. 1802. John, báron Redesdale. 15 March. Resigned Feb. 1806.

in 1825, and frequently since; which led to the passing 1806. George Ponsonby. 25 March. Resigned April, 1807.

of important acts in 1852, 1853, 1855, 1858, and 1867, to 1807. Thomas Manuers Sutton, lord Manners, previously an amend the practice the court of chancery ; see Ac

English baron of the exchequer. May. Resigned countant, County Courts, and Supreme Court.

Nov. 1827. 1827. Sir Anthony Hart, previously vice-chancellor of Eng consists of the ford chancellor and tire judges.

The Chancery division of the high court of justice now land. 5 Nov. Resigued Nov. 1830. 1830. William, baron Plunket. 23 Dec. Resigned Nov. 1834.

Chandos Clause, see Counties. 1835. Sir Edward Burtenshaw Sugden. 13 Jan. Resigned April, 1835.

Channel Steamers, see under Steam. William, baron Plunket, a second time. 30 April. Resigned June, 1841.

Channel Tunnel Company, registered, 15 Jan. 1841. John Campbell. June. Resigned Sept. 1841.

1872 ; see Tunnels, Sir Edward Sugden, afterwards lord St. Leonards, a second time. Resigned July, 1816.

Chanting the psalms was adopted by Ambrose from 1846. Maziere Brady. 16 July. Resigned Feb. 1852.

the pagan ceremonies of the Romans, about 350.-- Lenglet. 1852. Francis Blackburne, March. Resigned Dec.

About 602, Gregory the Great added tones to the Am1853. Maziere Brady, again. Jan. 1858. Joseph Mapier. Feb).

brosian chant, and established singing schools. Chant1859. Maziere Brady, again. June.

ing was adopted by some (lissenters about 1859. 1866. Francis Blackburne. July. Resigned March, 1867.

John Marbeck's Book of Common Praier noted” (1559) is the 1867. Abraham Brewster. 24 March

first adaptation of the ancient Latin music to the Reformed 1868. Thomas, lord O'Hagan. Resigued Feb. 1874.

Church; Clifford's “Common Tunes'' for chanting, 1604. 1874. In commiss on. John T. Ball, lord Merton. 16 Dec.

Chantrey Legacy, see Royal Academy. 1880. Thomas, lord O'Hagan. April.

Chantry, a chapel endowed with revenue for priests Chancellor of Scotland, LORD. The laws of

to sing mass for the souls of the donors; see Chuntiny. Malcolm II. (1004) say :-" The chancellar sall at al Chantries were abolished in England in 1545. tymes assist the king in giving him counsall mair se

Chapel. There are free chapels, chapels of ease, cretly nor the rest of the nobility. .. The chancellar


The gentlemen pensall be ludgit neir unto the kingis grace, for keiping of the chapel royal, etc. -his bodie, and the seill

, and that he may be readie, baith sioners (formerly poor knights of Windsor, who were inday and nicht, at the kingis command.” — Sir James stituted by the direction of Henry VIII. in his testament, Bulfour. Evan was lord chancellor to Malcolm III., 1546-7) were called knights of the chapel; see Poor Canmore, 1057; and James, earl of Seafield, afterwards Knights of Windsor. - The Private Chapels act passed Findlater, was the last loru chancellor of Scotland, the and the conference itself, are by them called a chapel

, it is

14 Aug. 1871. The place of conference among printers, office having been abolished in 1708; see keeper.

said, because the first work printed in England by Caxton Chancellor of the Exchequer, see Exchequer. was executed in a ruined chapel in Westminster Abbey.

Chancellor's Augmentation Act, passed 1863, Chaplain, a clergyman who performs divine service enabled the lord chancellor to sell the advowson of cer- in a chapel, for a prince or nobleman. About seventy tain livings in his gist for augmenting poor benefices. chaplains are attached to the chapel royal. The chief Chancellorsville, Virginia, U. S., a large brick personages invested with the privilege of retaining char

lains are the following, with the number that was origihotel, once kept by a Mr. Chancellor, was the site of severe sanguinary conflicts between the American federal nally allotted to each rank, by 21 Hen. VIII.c. 13 (1529): army of the Potomac under gen, Hooker, and the con


8 Knight of the Garter.

6 Duchess.. federates under gen. Lee. On 29 April, 1863, the federal


6 Marchioness army crossed the Rappabannock; on 2 May, gen.“ Stone- Marquess.

5 Countess. wall” Jackson furiously attacked and routed the right Earl.

5 Baroness

Viscount. wing, but was mortally wounded by his own party firing


3 Royal Almoner. on him by mistake. Gen. Stuart took liis comman, and Chancellor.

3 Chief justice.


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2 2 2


Master of the Rolls


of the Endowed School Commission ...


30 Oct. 1873

18 Feb. 1875

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Chaplets, the string of beads used by the Roman | John of God, and approved by pope Pius V. 1572; Catholics in reciting the Lord's prayer, Ave Maria, etc.; introduced into France, 1601; settled at Paris, 1602.see Beads.

Hénauli. Chapter. Anciently the bishop and clergy lived in Charitable Funds Investment Act passed, 1 the cathedral, the latter to assist the former in perform- Aug. 1870. ing holy offices and governing the church, until the Charitable Relief, society for organizing, estabreign of Ilenry VIII. The chapter is now an assembly lished 1869. There are 38 offices, where applications of the clergy of a collegiate church or cathedral.—Cowell. are received and inquiries made. Reported successful, The chapter-house of Westminster Abbey was built in 1881. 1250. By consent of the abbot, the commoners of Eng

Charitable Trustees' Incorporation Act land held their parliaments there from 1377 until 1547, passed, 27 June, 1872. when Edward VI. granted them the chapel of St. Stephen.

Charitable Trusts Acts amended in 1869. Chapultepec, BATTLE OF. Chapultepec is a lofty hill, strongly fortified, and the seat of the Military School passed “ to redresse the misemployment of landes, goodes,

Charitable Uses, statute of, 43 Eliz. c. 4 (1601), of Mexico. It was the last place to be defended outside and stockes of money, heretofore given to charitable the city of Mexico towards the middle of Sept. 1847, the uses.” The law respecting the conveyance of land for invading Americans, under Scott, having taken every charitable uses was amended in 1861. other stronghold from Vera Cruz to Chapultepec. Scott brought four heavy batteries to bear upon it on the

Charities and Charity Schools, see Educanight of the 11th of Sept., and on the 12th commenced a tion. The Charity Commission reported to parliament heavy cannonade. On the 13th the Americans made that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain a furious assault, routed the Mexicans, and unfurled the amounted to 1,500,0001. annually, in 1840. Charity stars and stripes over the shattered castle of Chapulte- schools were instituted in London to prevent the seducpec. On the following day Scott and his army entered tion of the infant poor into Roman Catholic seminaries, the city of Mexico in triumph.

3 James II., 1687-8. Mr. Low's "Charities of London"

was published 1862. Newest edition, 1880. Char-Asiab, the heights before Cabul; held by Afghan mutineers, were gallantly carried by gen. Baker, First charity commission, originated by Mr. (afterwards with the 72d Highlanders and 5th Ghoorkas, 6 Oct. 1879.

lord) Brougham, in 1816, appointed in 1818; issued re.

ports in 38 vols. (income of charities, 1,209,3951.).... 1819-40 The enemy was totally defeated with severe loss. Capt. New commissioners appointed, 1853; office, Gwydyr Young, Dr. Duncan, and lieut. Fergusson were killed, and House, Whitehall; powers increased.... about 70 of the British force killed and wounded. The Additional commissioners appointed through abolition British were falsely accused of cruelty after the victory. A meeting was held at the Mansion House, London, to Charcoal Air-filters were devised by Dr. John

consider objections to charity clectioneering, without

immediate result. Stenhouse, F.R.S., in 1853. About the end of the last The Charity Voting Association held its first annual century Löwitz, a German chemist, discovered that char- meeting cual (carbon) possessed the property of deodorizing pu

The Metropolitan charities received about 3,195,1811.,

1874; 4,114,4891.. trid substances, by absorbing and decomposing offensive The Charity Commissioners' scheme for the Campden gases. Air-filters, based on this property, have been suc- estates, Kensington; much opposed; confirmed by cessfully applied to public buildings, scwers, etc. Dr. Chancery..

27 May, 1881 Stenhouse also invented charcoal respirators; see Fire

Charity Children of London ; meetings began at man's Respirators.

St. Andrew's, Holborn, 1701; held at other churches in Charing Cross. At the village of Charing stood following years; in 1801 and since at St. Paul's, with the last of the memorial crosses erected in memory of intermissions; 10 meeting in 1878, and since, the erecEleanor, queen of Edwarı I., in conformity with her tions interfering with the ordinary services. will. She died 28 Nov. 1290. The cross remained till

Ch rivari (French “clattering of pots and pans,” 1647, when it was destroyed as a monument of popish etc., noise made to annoy obnoxious persons), the name superstition. The present cross was erected for the South- assumed by the French illustrated satirical journal, tirst eastern Railway Company in 1865 by Mr. E. M. Barry: published i Dec. 1832, edited by Louis Desnoyers, AltaThe houses at Charing-cross were built about 1678; al- roche, and Albert Clerc. Among the artists was terations began in 1829. The first stone of Charing- “ Cham," a name taken by the comte de Noë, who concross hospital was laid by the duke of Sussex, 15 Sept. tributed from 1842 till his death, 6 Sept. 1879. See 1831. Hungerford-bridge (or Charing-cross bridge) was Punch, " the London Charivari." opened 1 May, 1845; taken down July, 1862, and the materials employed in erecting Clifton suspension bridge,

Charleroi, in Belgium; fortified and named by the beginning March, 1863 ; see Clifton.-CHARING-CROSS Spanish governor Rodrigo, 1666. Several great båttles Railway. The tirst train passed over it 2 Dec. 1863, have been fought near this town, especially in 1690 and and it was opened to the public on 11 Jan. 1861. The 1794; see Fleurus. Charleroi was besieged by the new railway bridge, built of iron with brick piers, was

prince of Orange, 1672 and 1677; but lie was soon constructed by Mr. (afterwards sir John) Hawkshaw. obliged to retire. Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon at

tacked the Prussian line, making it fall back upon The foot-bridge was opened, toll free, 5 Oct. 1878.

Wavres, 16 June, 1815. Chariots. Chariot racing was a Greek exercise.

Charles-et-Georges, a French vessel, professedly The chariot of an Ethiopian officer is mentioned, Acts conveying free African emigrants (but really slaves), viii. 27. Cæsar relates that Cassivelaunus, after dis- seized by the Portuguese, in Conducia bay, 29 Nov. missing his other forces, retained no fewer than 4000 1857, sent to Lisbon, and condemned as a slaver. The war-chariots about his person; see Carriuges, etc.

French government sent two ships of war to the Tagus, Charitable Bequests, etc. Boards for their re- and the vessel was surrendered under protest; but the covery were constituted in 1764 and 1800, and a boarı emperor of France gave up the free emigration scheme. for Ireland (chiefly prelates of the established church)

Charleston (South Carolina), founded by people in 18:23. The Roman Catholic Charitable Bequests act from old Charlestown, 1680. The English fleet here passed in 1814, and an act for the better administration

was repulsed with great loss, 28 June, 1776. The place of Charitable Trusts in 1853, when commissioners were

was besieged by the British troops at the latter end of appointed, who have from time to time publisheil volui- March, 1780, and surrendered 12 May following, with 6000 minous reports. Amendment acts were passed 1855 prisoners; it was evacuated, 14 Dec. 1782. Great comand 1871.

motion arose here in Nov. 1860, through the election of Charitable Brethren, an order founded by St. Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, he being opposed to slavery. On 12, 13 April, 1861, the war began by the committed great outrages at Birmingham, 15 July, 1839, confederates bombarding Fort Sumter; see United and at Newport (which see), 4 Nov. 1839. They held States. In Dec. 1861, the federals sank a number of for some time a sort of parliament, called the “ National vessels laden with stone in order to choke up the en- Convention,” the leading men being Feargus O'Connor, trance to Charleston harbor. The city was besieged Henry Vincent, Mr. Stephens, etc. On 10 April, 1848, from the sea-side throughout the war. The principal they proposed to hold a meeting of 200,000 men on operations of this nature were those of gen. Gillmore Kennington Common, London, to march thence in proand admirals Dupont and Dahlgren, 7 April-7 Sept. cession to Westminster, and present a petition to parlia1863, resulting in the occupation by the national troops ment; but only about 20,000 came. The bank and of the whole of Morris Island. When gen. Sherman other establishments were fortified by military, prevencaptured Columbia, Charleston became untenable, and tive measures adopted, and not less than 150,000 persons the confederates retired, 17 Feb. 1865. The national of all ranks (including Louis Napoleon, afterwards emstandard was replaced upon Fort Sumter, 14 April, 1865. peror) were voluntarily sworn to act as special constables. A great fire, the result of accident, occurred in Dec. The chartists dispersed after slight encounters with the 1861, destroying a large part of the city. The city was police, and the monster petition, in detached rolls, was nearly destroyed by fire, 1 Feb. 1865, when the con- sent in cabs to the house of commons. From this time federates evacuated it.

the proceedings of the chartists became insignificant. Charlestown (Massachusetts) was burned by the Chartreuse, LA GRANDE, chief of the monasteries British forces under gen. Gage, 17 June, 1775. Charles- of the Carthusian order, situated among the rugged town was taken by the British, 7 May, 1779.

mountains near Grenoble, in France, was founded by "Charte Constitutionnelle," the French polit- Bruno of Cologne, about 1084. At the revolution in ical constitution acknowledged by Louis XVIII., 4-10 1792, the monks were expelled and their valuable June, 1814. The infraction of this constitution led to library destroyed. They returned to the monastery the revolution of 1830. The amended “ Charte” was after the restoration of 1815. In Nor. 1880, they depromulgated by Louis Philippe, 14 Aug. 1830, and set clined to accept indulgence from the decrees fur expelaside by the Revolution of 1848.

ling the religious orders from France. Charter-house (a corruption of Chartreuse, which

Charts And Maps. Anaximander of Miletus is see), London, formerly a Carthusian monastery, founded said to have been the inventor of geographical and cein 1371 by sir Walter de Manny, one of the knights of lestial charts, about 570 B.C. Modern sea-charts were Edward III., now an extensive charitable establishment. brought to England by Bartholomew Columbus to illusThe last prior, John Houghton, was executed as a trai- trate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, tor, for denying the king's supremacy, in May, 1535. 1489. The first tolerably accurate map of England was After the dissolution of monasteries in 1539, the Charter- drawn by George Lilly, who died in 1559. Gerard Merhouse passed through various hands till 1 Nov. 1611, cator published an atlas of maps in 1595; see Mercator. when it was sold by the earl of Suffolk to Thomas Sut- | The daily papers published in their columns maps illuston for 13,0001., who obtained letters-patent directing trating the wars of 1870-1, 1876-7, etc. that it should be called “the hospital of king James, Chassepot Rifle, a modified needle-gun, and a founded in the Charter-house," and that "there should breach-loader (named after its inventor, Alphonse Chasbe for ever 16 governors," etc. On the foundation are sepot), adopted by the French government in 1866. 80 poor brothers and 44 poor scholars. Sutton died In April, 1867, 10,000 had been issued to the troops. 12 Dec. 1611. The expenditure for 1853-4 was 22,396.; In his report on the battle of Mentana (which see), 3 the receipts, 28,908l. This school was affected by the Nov. 1867, gen. De Failly said, "the chassepot has done Public Schools Act, 1868. In Sept. 1872, the school was wonders." It was generally considered successful in the opened in new buildings, at Godalming, Surrey. The war, 1870-1. “The range of the chassepot being 1800 old buildings, adapted for the Merchant Taylors' (day) paces, and that of the needle-gun only between 600 and School, were opened by the prince of Wales, 6 April, 700, the Germans in all their charges had to traverse 1875. The buildings for the poor" brethren ” were also 1200 paces before their arms could be used to purpose.” modified, and in Nov. entirely new arrangements for Many Germans were armed with the chasse pot after the them were proposed. The “Charter-House, Past and surrender of the French army at Sedan, 2 Sept. 1870. Present," by Dr. Wm. Haig Brown, heal-master, pub

Chastity. The Roman laws justified homicide in lished 1879.

desence of one's self or relatives; and our laws justify a Charter-party, a covenant between merchants and woman for killing a man in defence of her chastity; masters of ships relating to the ship and cargo, said to and a husband or a father in taking the life of him who have been first used in England about 1243.

attempts to violate his wife or daughter. In 1000 years Charters, granted to corporate towns to protect from Numa, 710 B.C., to Theodosius, A.1). 394, only eightheir manufactures by Henry I. in 1132; modified by teen Roman vestals had been condemned for incontiCharles II. in 1683; the ancient charters restored in bence. See Vestals, Acre, and Collingham. 1698. Alterations were made by the Municipal Reform Chat Moss (Lancashire), a peat bog, twelve miles Act in 1835. See Magna Charta and Boroughs. square, in most places so soft as to be incapable of supAncient Anglo-Saxon charters are printed in Kemble's porting a man or horse, over which George Stephenson, * Codex Diplomaticus,” 1829.

the railway engineer, carried the Liverpool and ManChartists, the name assumed by large bodies of chester railway, after overcoming difficulties considered the lower classes, shortly after the passing of the Re- invincible. The road (literally a floating one) was form Bill in 1832. from their demanding the people's completed by 1 Jan. 1830, when the first experimental Charter,* the six points of which were Universal Suf- train, drawn by the Rocket locomotive, passed over it; fruge, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Payment of see Bogs. the Members, the A bolition of the Property Quulification Châteaudun, an old city, N. C. France, the resi(which was enacted, June, 1858), and Equal Electoral dence of the heroic Dunois, who died 1468. Here were Districts. In 1838 the chartists assembled in various massacred, 20 July, 1183, about 7000 Brabançons, fanatic parts of the country, armed guns, pikes, and other mercenaries who had been hired to exterminate the Alweapons, and carrying torches kd flags. A proclama- bigenses by the cardinal Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, in tion was issued against them, 12 Dec. Their petition 1181. They had become the scourge of the country, (agreed to at Birmingham, 6 Aug. 1838) was presented and the “ Capuchons" were organized for their destructo parliament by Mr. T. Attwood, 14 June, 1839. They tion. Châteaudun was captured by the Germans after

a severe conflict of about nine hours, 18 Oct. 1870. * Wm. Lovett, its alleged author, died Aug. 1877.

Barricades had been erected in the town, and the Garde

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Mobile fought bravely. The town was reoccupied by is supposed by Camden and others that the English the French, 6 Nov.

learned cheese-making from the Romans about the

Christian era. Chatham (Kent), a principal station of the royal

Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire make navy; the dockyard, commenced by Queen Elizabeth, vast quantities; the last alone, annually, about 31,000

In 1840 we imported from abroad about 10,000 has been recently much extended (1872). The Chatham tons. Chest, for the relief of the wounded and decayed seamen, tons; in 1855, 384,192 cwt.; in 1866, 872,342 cwt.; in originally established here by the queen and admirals 1870, 1,041,281 cwt.; in 1876, 1,531,204 cwt.; in 1879, Drake and Hawkins in 1588, was removed to Greenwich 1,789,721 cwt. The duty on foreign cheese, producing in 1803. On 10 June, 1667, the Dutch fleet, under annually about 50,0001., was taken off in 1860. Large admiral De Ruyter, sailed up to this town, and burned quantities are imported from the United States. The several men-of-war; but the entrance into the Medway exports of cheese from the United States for 1879 is now defended by Sheerness and other forts, and addi- amounted to $12,569,968. tional fortifications were made at Chatham. On 8-11 Chelsea (Middlesex). A council held here 27 July, Feb. 1861, a violent outbreak of the convicts was sup- 816.-Nicolas. A theological college here founded by pressed by the military, and many rioters flogged. James I. in 1609 was converted by Charles II. in 1682 About 10001. worth of property was destroyed, and many to an asylum for wounded and superannuated soldiers. persons were seriously hurt. New docks and a basin, The erection was carried on by James II., and completed said to be the largest and finest in the world, opened by by William III. in 1690. The projector was sir Stephen Mr. Göschen, 21 June, 1871.

Fox, grandfather of the orator C. J. Fox; the architect Chatham Administration,* succeeded the first was sir Christopher Wren; and the cost 150,0001. In Rockingham administration in Aug. 1766 ; after several 1850 there were 70,000 out- and 539 in-pensioners. The changes, it terminated Dec. 1767; see Grafton.

body of the duke of Wellington lay here in state, 10-17

Nov. 1852.–The physic garden of sir Hans Sloane, at Earl of Chatham, first minister and lord privy seal.

Chelsea, was given to the Apothecaries' Company, 1721. Duke of Grafton. first lord of the treasury. Lord Camden, lord chancellor.

-The Chelsea water-works were incorporated 1722.Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer.

The first stone of ihe Military Asylum, Chelsea, was laid Earl of Northington, lord president.

by Frederick, duke of York, 19 June, 1801.—The bridge, Earl of Shelburne and general Conway, secretaries of state. Sir Chirles Saunders (succeeded by Sir Edward Hawke), ad constructed by Mr. T. Page to connect Chelsea with mirally.

Battersea Park, was opened March, 1858. The Albert Marquis of Granby, ordnance.

bridge was opened #1 Dec. 1872; both freed from toll, Lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade. Viscount Barrington, secretary at war.

24 May, 1879. The parliamentary borough of Chelsea, Lord North and sir George Cooke, joint paymasters.

created by the Reform act, 15 Aug. 1867, consists of Viscount Howe, treasurer of the navy.

Chelsea, Kensington, Fulham, and Hammersmith. The Duke of Ancaster, lord de Despenser, etc.

Chelsea embankment was opened by the duke and duchChatillon (on the Seine, France). Here a congressess of Edinburgh, 9 May, 1874; see Trials, July, 1870 was held by the four great powers allied against France, and 1872. Cremorne public gardens closed, 1877. at which Caulaincourt attended for Napoleon, 4 Feb. 1814: the negotiations for peace were broken off on 19 eral spring was discovered in 1718. The King's well was

Cheltenham (Gloucestershire). Its celebrated minMarch following.

sunk in 1778; and other wells by Mr. P. Thompson in Chattanooga (Tennessee). Here generals Sher- 1806. Magnesian salt was first found in the waters in man, Thomas, and Hooker (under Grant) defeated the 1811. The theatre was erected in 1804. Grammarconfederate general Bragg, capturing Lookout Mountain school and almshouses, endowed by Richard Pates, 1574. (24 Nov.), and storming Missionary Ridge, 25 Nov. 1863. Cheltenham was incorporated, 1876. Grant had engaged about 65,000 nen; Bragg from 40,

Chemical Societies. One formed in London in 000 to 45,000. The national loss was 5616; the confeder- 1780, did not long continue. The present Chemical Soate about 10,000, of whom 6142 were prisoners.

ciety of London was established in 1841; that of Paris Chaumont (on the Marne, France), I'REATY OF, in 1857; that of Germany at Berlin, 1867. The Instientered into between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and tute of Chemistry of Great Britain formed; professor Prussia, 1 March, 1814. This treaty was succeeded by Edward Frankland first president, 1877; first meeting, 1 that of Paris, 11 April, by which Napoleon renounced his Feb. 1878. Chemical Industry Society founded 4 April, sovereignty; see Paris.

1881. Chauvinism, a term said to be derived from Chau- Chemical Works. Royal commission appointed vin, the principal character in Scribe's “ Soldat Labour- to inquire into the management of chemical works, to eur," a veteran soldier of the first empire, filled with in- ascertain the effect of gases and vapors given off, and tense admiration for Napoleon and for all that belonged the means of prevention. The commissioners are lord to him. Seribe was born 24 Dec. 1794, died 20 Feb. Aberdare, earl Percy, professors Abel, A. Williamson, Ros1861.

coe, and others, 18 July, 1876. In their report, issued Cheap Trains Act, 7 & 8 Vict. c. 85, 1814; see Aug. 1878, they recommend increased inspection, and Railways.

more stringent regulations; see Alkalies. Cheats were punishable by pillory, imprisonment,

Chemistry was introduced into Spain by the Moors, and tine, and a rigorous statute was enacted against about 1150. The Egyptians and Chinese claim an early them in 1542. Persons cheating at play, or winning at acquaintance with chemistry. The first chemists were any timo more than 101. or any valuable thing, were the Alchemists (see Alchemy); but chemistry was not a deemed infamous, and were to suffer punishment as in science till the seventeenth century; during which its cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 1711.-Blackstone.

study was promoted by Bacon, Hooke, Mayow, and Boyle. Chee-foo Convention, see China, 1876.

In the early part of the eighteenth century, Dr. Stephen

Hales laid the foundation of Pneumatic Chemistry, and Cheese is mentioned by Aristotle, about 350 B.c. It his contemporary Boerhaave combined the study of

chemistry with medicine. These were succeeded by * William Pitt, earl of Chatham (the "great commoner »), Bergman, Stahl, Black, etc. In 1772, Priestley published born 15 Nov. 1708, entered parliament in 1735; became secretary of state (virtually the premier) in the Devonshire ad

his researches on air, having discovered the gases oxyministration, Nov. 1756; secretary in the Newcastle adminis- gen, ammonia, etc.; and thus commenced a new chemtration, Jan. 1767. In 1766 he became premier, lord privy ical era. He was ably seconded by Cavendish, Scheele, seal

, and afterwards earl of Chatham, which lord Chesterfield Lavoisier, Chaptal, and others. The nineteenth century called a fall upstairs. He opposed the taxation of the Ameri. can colonies, but protested against the recognition of their opened with the brilliant discoveries of Davy, continued independenco, 7 April, 1778, and died 11 May following. by Dalton, Faraday, Thomson, etc. Organic Chemistry

It was

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has been very greatly advanced by Berzelius, Liebig, "CHESAPEAKE,'' an American frigate, commanded by capt. Dumas, Laurent, Hofmann, Cahours, Frankland,* and

Lawrence (50 guns, 376 men), struck to the Shannon, Brit sh

frigate (38 guns, 330 men), commanded by capt. Philip Perc others, since 1830; see Pharmacy, Electricity, Galrunism.

Broke, after a severe action of eleven minutes, 1 June, 1813. For the analytical processes termed “Spectrum analysis," Eleven minutes elapsed between the firing of the first gun invented by Kirchhoff and Bunsen (1861), and Dialysis"

and the boarding, and in four minutes more the Chesapeake

was the Shannon's prize. Capt. Lawrence died of his wounds. (1861), and “ Atmolysis " (1863), invented by Mr. T. Graham, see those articles.—The Royal College of Chemistry,

Cheshunt College, Herts, founded by Selina, Oxford Street, London, was established in 1845 (now at countess of Huntingdon, for the education of ministers South Kensington)-Henry Watts's great“ Dictionary of of her “ connection,” Calvinistic Methodists. The colChemistry,” begun 1863, has supplements. M. Ad. Wurtz's lege was first opened at Trevecca House, Talgarth, near equally great “Dictionnaire de Chimie," 1868.

Brecon, by the countess and George Whitfield, 1768. It

was removed to Cheshunt in 1792. The countess died 17 Cheque Bank, opened in Pall Mall East, 23 July, June, 1791. 1873. It issued cheques for fixed sums (down to il.)

Chess, a game attributed to Palamedes, 680 B.C.; available for paying and transmitting small sums, and is Hyde and sir William Jones refer the origin of chess to suited for persons not having a bunker. The plan, due the lindoos. to Mr. James Hertz, a director, has been moditied.


Caxton printed “the Game and Playe of the Chesse". 1474 died 23 Feb. 1880.

A chess-club formed at Slaughter's coffee-house, St Mar. tin's Lane..

1747 Cheques, see Drafts.

The automaton chess player (a piece of machinery) exhibited in England...

1769 Cherbourg, the great naval fortress and arsenal of M. F. A. Danican, known as Philidor, played three France on the coast of Brittany, about 60 or 70 miles matches blindfolded at the Salopian; he died.

1795 equidistant from Portsmouth and Plymouth.

The London Chess-club founded in 1807, and St. George's. 1833 captured by our Henry V. in 1418, and lost in 1450. Un- Chess congress in New York, 1857, which brought Paul

Morphy, the most remarkable of chess players, into der the direction of Louis XIV., some works were erected public notice.

1858 here by the great Vauban, which, with some shipping, Morphy won a match with Löwenthal in London.. etc., were destroyed by the British, 6, 7 Aug. 1758." The Morphy played eight games simultaneously, without see.

ing the boards, winning six of them, at Birmingham, works, resumed by Louis XVI., were interrupted by the England..

...26 Aug. revolution. The breakwater, commenced in 1783, re- Morphy defeated Harrwitz in Paris..

. . Sept. sumed by Napoleon I. about 1803, and completed in 1813, All efforts to induce Staunton, the English chess player,

Morphy defeated Anderssen..

20 Dec. forms a secure harbor, affording anchorage for nearly the

to meet Morphy failed... whole navy of France, and protected by strong fortifica- Herr Paulsen played ten games at once, of which he won tions. On 4, 5 Aug. 1858, the railway and the Grand

five, and lost one; three were drawn, and one not play. ed out....

.......Dec. 1861 Napoleon docks were opened, the latter in the presence International chess congresses : 1, 2, London (winner, M. of the queen of England and court. The British fleet

Anderssen, of Breslau), 1851, 1862; 3, Paris (M. Kol. visited Cherbourg, 15–17 Aug. 1865, receiving much hos- isch), 1867; 4. Paris (M. Anderssen), 1870; 5, Vienna pitality. Presidents Grévy, Léon Say, and Gambetta Automaton chess player at the Crystal Palace (a youth

(M. Steinmetz)..

... Aug. 1873 visit Cherbourg; launch of a man-of-war, etc., 8-11 Aug. concealed in box perforated with holes) exhibited.... 1880.

Howard Stannton, a great player, died..

June, 1874

J.J. Löwenthal, eminent Hungarian player, died, 20 July, 1876 Cheriton Down (Hants). Here sir Wm. Waller J. H. Zukkertort of Riga gains first prize at the Interdefeated the royalists under lord Hopton, 29 March, 1644.

national Chess Congress, Paris... ..June, July, 1878

" Mephisto,'' a mechanical chess player, exhibited at the Cherry, the Prunus Cerasus (from Cerasus, a city of Westminster Aquarium.. Pontus, whence the tree was brought by Lucullus to

Chess Congress at New York...

...Jan. 1880 Chess tournament at Wiesbaden.

..9 July, Rome, about 70 B.c.), first planted in Britain, it is said, about 100. Fine kinıls were brought from Flanders, in

Chester (England, N. W.), the British Caerleon and 1540, and planted in Kent.

the Roman Deva, the station of the twentieth legion,

Valeria l'ictrix, quitted by them about 406. The city Cherson, see Kherson.

wall was first built by Edelfeda, about 908; and Hugh Chersonesus, see Crimea.

Lupus, the earl, nephew of William I., rebuilt the Saxon Cherubusco, BATTLE OF. Cherubusco was a castle in 1084, and the abbey of St, Werburgh. Chester strongly fortified place near the city of Mexico. Tow- was incorporated by Henry III. and made a distinct ards this the Americans advanced afier the battle at Con- county. The palatine jurisdiction was abolished by treras; see Contreras. Santa Anna, who commanded parliament, 23 July, 1830. The SEE, anciently part of 12,000 men near the walls of the city of Mexico, now Lichfield, one of whose bishops, Peter, removing the seat advanced, and the whole region became a battle-field. bither in 1075, occasioned his successors to be styled This was on: 21 Aug. 1847. Cherubusco was taken, and bishops of Chester; but it was not made a distinct bishSanta Anna abandoned the field and fled towards the city. opric until Henry VIII. in 1541 raised it to this dignity, He immediately sent a flag asking for an armistice of and allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for three days, preparatory for negotiations for peace.

It the cathedral. After extensive repairs, the cathedral was granted, but the treacherous Mexican violated the was reopened, 25 Jan. 1872. This see is valued in the agreement, and hostilities were reopened ; see El Jolino king's books at 4201. 1s. 8d. per annum. Present income del Rey and Chupultepec.


Chester ravaged by Danes. Chesapeake. At the mouth of this bay a contest Nearly destroyed by fire.

1471 took place between the British admiral Graves and the Taken, after three months' siege, for the parliament. ... 1645 French admiral De Grasse, aiding the revolted states of

Fatal gunpowder explosion...

1772 America; the former was obliged to retire, 5 Sept. 1781. A projected attack of Fenians on Chester castle was de.

Exchange and town ball burned..

.30 Dec. 1862 The Chesapeake and Delaware were blockaded by the feated by the vigilance of the authorities and the arBritish fleet in the American war of 1812, and the bay

rival of ihe military..

..11, 12 Feb. 1867 was, at that period, the scene of great hostilities of vari New town hall opened by the prince of Wales....15 Oct. 1869

Cathedral reopened after restorat.on by sir Gilbert G. ous results,


7 Aug. 1976 Ancient tower of St. John's Church fell.

........15 April, 1881 * In 1828 Wöhler produced artificially urea, a body hitherto

RECENT BISHOPS OF CHESTER. known only as a product of the animal organism. Since then, 1800. Henry William Majendie, transl. to Bangor, 1809. acetic acid, alcohol, grape-sugar, various essential oils, similar 1810. Bowyer Edward Sparkie, transl. to Ely, 1812. to those of the pineapple, pear, garlic, etc., have been formed 1812. George Henry Law, transl. to Bath, 1824. by combinations of the gascs oxygen, hydrogen, and carbonic ! 1824. Charles J. Blomfield, transl. to London, Aug. 1828.

The barrier formed by chemists between organic and 1828. Jobin Bird Sumner, transl. to Canterbury, 1848. inorganic bodies is thus broken down. Indigo artificially 1848. John Graham, died 15 June, 1865. formed by Bayer, 1878.

.2 (ct.


1865. William Jacobsou.


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