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Authority of the six general councils re-established by of the shire. It increased the number of Tory voters,

715 VIL Second Nicene: 350 bishops attended; against Icono

and in

consequence several attempts were made to repeal clasts.

.24 Sept. to 23 Oct. 787 it. It was superseded by the Reform act of 15 Ang. VIII. Constantinople: the emperor Basil attended; against 1867. Iconoclasts and heresies..

.5 Oct. 869, to 28 Feb. 870 At Clermont, convened by Urban II. to authorize the cru.

By the Winter Assizes act, 1876, certain counties were united sades: 310 bishops attended.

1095 (by order in council, first time, 23 Oct. 1876) to facilitate IX. First Lateran: right of investiture settled by treaty

more speedy trials of prisoners. between pope Calixtus II. and the emperor Henry V.,

In the United States the division of the states into counties

18 March to 5 April, 1123 has existed from the colonial period. In Louisiana the X. Second Lateran: Innocent II. presided; preservation

counties are called parishes, and until 1868 those in South of temporalities of ecclesiastics the principal subject;

Carolina were called districts. 1000 fathers of the church attended.... ..20 April, 1139 XI. Third Lateran, against schismatics....5 to 19 March, 1179

Country Dance, see Contre Danse. XII. Fourth Lateran: ?00 bishops and 1000 abbots attended ; Innocent III. presided ; against Albigenses,

Country Party, see Court Party. etc.

...11 to 30 Nov. 1215 County Courts, or SCHYREMOTEs, in the time of the XIII. Lyons: under pope Innocent IV.; emperor Fred- Saxons, were important tribunals. Alfred is said to hare erick II. deposed...

- 28 June to 17 July, 1245 divided England into counties, and counties into bunXIV. Lyons : under Gregory X.; temporary union of

Greek and Latin churches. .7 May to 17 June, 1274 dreds; but county courts seem to have existed much
XV. Vienne in Dauphiné: Clement V. presided, and the earlier.

kings of France and Aragon attended; order of Knights
Teniplar suppressed... 16 Oct. 1311; 3 April and 6 May, 1312 County Courts, for the recovery of debts under 201., su-
XVI. Pisa : Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII. deposed;

perseding courts of requests, instituted by 9 & 10 Vict. Alexander elected..

...5 March to 7 Aug. 1409
c. 95..

... 26 Aug. 1846 XVII. Constance: Martin V. elected pope; and John Huss The counties of England and Wales are divided into sixty

and Jerome of Prague condemned to be burned.....1414-18 districts, each district having a county court, with a XVIII. Basel...

1431-43 barrister as judge, and juries when necessary. Their XIX. Fifth Lateran: begun by Julius II.

1512 jurisdiction extended by 13 & 14 Vict. c. 61, to sums Continued under Leo X. for the suppression of the prag.

not exceeding 501...

1850 matic sanction of France, against the council of Pisa,

Their proceedings facilitated in 1852 and 1851; 60 county etc., till.. 1517 courts in England and Wales.

.1868-72 XX. Trent: held to condemn the doctrines of the re- In 1850 plaints entered at the courts of the sixty circuits formers Luther, Zuinglius, and Calvin (sce Trent),

were 305,793, for 1,265, 115l. ; in 1857, 744,652 plaints

13 Dec. 1545, to 3 Dec. 1563 for 1,937,7151. ; of the 217,173 causes tried, 4297 were XXI. Rome: summoned by an encyclical letter, 8 Sept.

for sums between 201. and 501. 1868; met..

..8 Dec. 1869 From 1847 to 1858 judgment was obtained in these courts Present: 6 archbishop princes, 49 cardinals, 11 patriarchs,

for 8,309,2361. 680 archbishops and b.shops, 23 abbots, 29 generals of Equity powers, like those of the court of chancery, in orders-803 in all....

cases relating to sums under 5001., conferred on these There were held four public sessions, and between 90 and courts, to begin....

..1 Oct. 1865 100 congregations. New canons were issued 24 April,

Their jurisdiction still further enlarged.. .20 Aug. 1867 1870, and, after much discussion and opposition, the in. Admiralty jurisdiction conferred ou them by act passed fallibility of the pope as head of the Church was af.

July, 1868, amended.

.Aug. 1869 firmed by 547 placets against 2 non-placets, and pro- County Court acts amended by act passed. .2 Aug. 1875 mulgated. 18 July, 1870 A County Boards bill withdrawn..

..July, 1879
Many bishops withdrew from the discussion. The coun:
cil then adjourned to 11 Nov. (see Rome).

County Franchise, a bill for giving votes to la-
Councils, French.
The Council of ANCIENTS, Trevelyan; see llousehold Suffrage.

borers and others, annually brought in by Mr. G. O.
consisting of 250 miembers, together with the Council of
FIVE HUNDRED, instituted at Paris, 1 Nov. 1795 : the

County Officers and Courts, Ireland : an act executive was a Directory of Five. Bonaparte dispersed to amend the law respecting them passed 14 Aug. 1877. the Council of Five Hundred at St. Cloud, 9 Nov. 1799,

Coup d'État, in France; Pronunciamiento in Spain: declaring himself, Roger Ducos, and Sieyès, consuls pro- Changes in the government effected by force, either by visoires ; see France.

the ruler, the army, or the populace. The speaker's Counsel are supposed to be coeval with the curia coup d'état, see Purliument, 2 Feb. 1881. regis. Advocates are referred to the time of Edward I., Couriers. Xenophon attributes the first to Cyrus; but are mentioned earlier. Counsel who were guilty of and Herodotus says that they were common among the deceit or collusion were punishable by the statute of Persians (see Esther iii. 15) about 510 B.C. The Greeks Westminster, 13 Edw. I. 1285. Counsel were allowed to and Romans had no regular couriers till the time of Aupersons charged with treason, by act 8 Will. III. 1696. gustus, when they travelled in cars, about 24 B.C. CouAn act to enable persons indicted for felony to make riers or posts are said to have been instituted in France their defence by counsel, passed Aug. 1836; see Barris- by Charlemagne about A.D. 800. Couriers for letters lers and King's Counsel.

were employed by Louis XI. of France, 1463.- llenault. Count, Latin comes, a companion; French comte ;

See Post-office. equivalent to the English earl (whose wife is still termed Courland, a duchy of Livonia, conquered by Danes, a countess), and to the German Graf; see Champagne 1218; by Teutonic knights, 1239 ; subjected to Poland and Toulouse.

in 1561; conquered by Charles XII. of Sweden in 1701;

Ernest Biren, duke, 1737; his son, Peter, 1769; annexed Counterpoint (in musie), writing the chords to a

to Russia, March, 1795. melody. The earliest known specimen of contrapuntal writing is by Adam de la llalle in the twelfth century.

Court Baron, an ancient court which every lord of Countess of Huntingdon's Connection, see and customs are received, and estates and surrenders are

a manor may hold by prescription. In it duties, heriots, Whitefieldites.

passed. Its jurisdiction was restricted in 1747 and 1833. Counties, or Shires. The division of this kingdom By the Small Debts act, 1856, lords of the manor may into counties began, it is sail, with king Alfred; but give up holding these courts. some counties bore their present names abore a century Court Circular, conservative weekly paper ; esbefore. The division of Ireland into counties took place tablished 26 April, 1856. in 1562. Lord-lieutenants were appointed in 1519 in England, and in 1831 in Ireland. Counties first sent

Court Dress, see Dress. members to parliament, before which period knights met

Court Journal, fashionable journal, established in their own counties, 1285. CHANDOS CLAUSE, sect, 20 1829. of the Reform act, 2 Will. IV.c. 45 (1832), inserted by the Court Leet, an ancient court of record, belonging motion of the marquess of Chandos. By it occupiers as to a hundred, instituted for punishing encroachments, tenants of land not situate in th, paying an an- nuisances, fraudulent weights and measures, etc. The mual rent of 501., became i

Coribe knight steward is judge, and all persons residing within the

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hundred (peers, clergymen, etc., excepted) are obliged to totally defeated the duc de Joyeuse and the royalists, 20 do suit within this court.

Oct. 1587. Court of Honor. In England the court of chir- Covenanters, those persons who, in the reign of alry, of which the lord high-constable was a judge, was Charles I., having signed the solemn league and covecalled Curia Militaris in the time of Henry IV., and nant, engaged to stand by each other in opposition to the subsequently the Court of Honor. In Bavaria, to pre- projects of the king in 1638. The Covenant or league vent duelling, a court of honor was instituted in April, between England and Scotland (the preceding one mod1819. Mr. Joseph Hamilton for many years ardently ified), solemnly adopted by the parliament, 25 Sept. 1643; labored to establish a similar institution in Britain. was accepted by Charles II. 16 Aug. 1650, but repudiated

Court of Justiciary, High, in Scotland, consti- by him on his restoration in 1661, when it was declared tuted by a commission under the great seal, 1671, ratified to be illegal by parliament, and copies of it ordered to be 1672. The present lord justice-general, the right hon. burned; see Cameronians and Bothwell Bridge. John Inglis, was appointed Feb. 1867, and the lord jus- The Covenant consisted of six articles: tice-clerk, the right hon. James Moncrieff, Nov. 1869; 1. The preservation of the reformed church in Scotland, and made lord Moncrieff, Dec. 1873. The procedure in this 2. The extirpation of popery, prelacy, schism, etc.

the reformation of religion in England and Ireland. court was amended by an act passed in 1868.

3. The preservation of the liberties of parliament and the Court of Requests (or Court of ConsciencE), 4. The discovery and punishment of all malignants, etc.

king's person and authority. first instituted in the reign of Henry VII., 1493, and re- 5. The preservation of "a blessed peace between these kingmodelled by Henry VIII. in 1517.-Slow. Established for the summary recovery of small debts under forty shil- 6. The assisting all who enter into the covenant: This will

we do as in the sight of God." lings; but in the city of London the jurisdiction extended to debts of five pounds.—Ashe. The courts of requests

Covent Garden (London), corrupted from “Consuperseded in 1847 by the County Courts (which see).

vent Garden," having been the garden of St. Peter's conCourt of Session, the highest civil tribunal in

The square was built about 1633, and the piazza Scotland, was instituted by James V. by statute, 17 May, Jones. The fruit and vegetable markets were rebuilt in

on the north side and the church were designed by Inigo 1532. It consisted of fourteen judges and a president, 1829-30, from designs by Mr. Fowler (the ground belong. and replaced a committee of parliament. In 1830 the number of judges was reduced; and the court now consists ing to the duke of Bedford). of the lord president, the lord justice-clerk, and eleven or

Covent Garden Theatre sprang out of one in dinary judges. In 1867 the necessity of renovating this Lincoln’s-inn Fields, through a patent granted 14 Chas. court was asserted by high legal authority; and an act to I1. 1662, to sir William Davenant, whose company was amend its procedure was passed 31 July, 1868. The denominated the “ duke's servants," as a compliment to present lord president, the right hon. John Inglis, was the duke of York, afterwards James II. ; see under Theappointed, Feb. 1867.

utres.—The theatre was burned down 5 March, 1856, durCourt Party-Country Party, politicians in the the North. The present i beatre, by E. Barry, was opened

ing a bal musqué held by Mr. Anderson, the Wizard of parliaments of England, beginning about 1620. At the 15 May, 1858. The Floral Ilull adjoining it was opened end of the seventeenth century the latter embodied tory- 7 March, 1860, with the volunteers' ball. ism and high-church principles, maintained the rights of “ the land," as opposed to whiggism and the trading

Coventry (Warwickshire). Leofric, earl of Mercia, interests. Its most distinguished statesman was sir lord of Coventry, is said to have relieved it from heavy Thomas Hanmer (the Montalto of Pope's Satires), who taxes, at the intercession of his wife Godiva, on condition died in 1746.- Ashe.

of her riding naked through the streets, about 1057.

Processions in her memory took place in 1851; 23 June, Court Theatre, Sloane Square, Chelsea, opened 25 1862; 4 June, 1866; 20 June, 1870; and 4 June, 1877. Jan. 1871; Miss Litton first manager,

A parliament was held here in the reign of Henry IV., Courtrai (Belgium). Here Robert, count of Artois, called parliamentum indoctum, or the unlearned parliawho had defeated the Flemings in 1297, was defeated ment, because lawyers were excluded, 1404; and in the and slain by them, 11 July, 1302. The conflict was reign of Henry VI. another met, called parliamentum named the " Battle of Spurs,” from the number of gilt diabolicum, from the acts of attainder passed against the spurs collected.

duke of York and others, 20 Nov. 1459. The town was Courts of Justice were instituted at Athens 1507 surrounded with strong walls, three miles in circumferB.C. (see A reopagus); by Moses, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xviii. ence, and twenty-six towers, which were demolished by 25), and in Rome. For these realms, see Chancery, Com- order of Charles II. in 1662. The ribbon-makers here mon Pleus, Exchequer, King's Bench, etc. The citizens suffered much from want of work in the winter of 1860-1. of London were privileged to plead their own cause in An industrial exhibition here was opened by earl Granthe courts of judicature, without employing lawyers, ex- ville, 19 June; closed by the earl of Clarendon, 21 Oct. cept in pleas of the crown, 41 Hen. 111. 1257.Stow. 1867. The prince and princess of Wales were warmly The rights of the Irish courts were established by the received 7 Nov. 1874. The BISHOPRIC was founded by British parliament in April, 1783.

Oswy, king of Mercia, 656, and had the double name of Courts of Law Fees Act, passed 20 Aug. 1867, bishops. It was so wealthy that king Offa, by the favor

Coventry and Lichfield, which was reversed by later directs the application of surplus fees towards providing of pope Adrian, made it archiepiscopal; but this title new courts of justice. Acts for building these courts

was laid aside on the death of that king. In 1075 the were passed in 1865 and 1866. The plan for their erec

see was removed to Chester; in 1102 to Corentry; and tion by Mr. Street was approved of in 1871.

afterwards to its original foundation, Lichtield, but with Courts of Survey, consisting of a judge and two great opposition from the monks of Coventry. Coventry assistants, for appeals respecting unseaworthy ships, merged into the bishopric of Lichfield (which see). were directed to be appointed in certain ports and dis

Coventry Act passed to prevent malicious maimtricts by the Merchant Shipping Act, 39 & 40 Vict. c. 80 ing and wounding, 6 March, 1671, in consequence of sir (15 Aug. 1876). They sat in 1877.

John Coventry, K.B., M.P., being maimed in the streets Courts-martial are regulated by the Mutiny act, of London by sir Thomas Sandy's and others, adherents first passed in 1690. The powers of these courts were of the duke of Monmouth, 21 Dec. 1670. Repealed 1828. much discussed in 1867, in consequence of the measures

Cowpens, BATTLE AT THE. This battle-ground used to suppress the negro insurrection in Jamaica, Oct. is in Spartanburg district, South Carolina, among the 1866.

Thickety Mountains. There, on 17 Jan. 1781, a very Coutras (S.W. France). Here Henry of Navarre severe battle was fought between the Americans under gen. Daniel Morgan, and the British under col. Tarleton. Craonne (N. France). Here Victor and Ney deThe combat continued more than two hours, with mutual feated the Prussians under Blücher after a severe conskill and bravery. The British were defeated, with a test, 7 March, 1814. loss of almost 300 men killed and wounded, 500 men

Crape. It is said some crape was made by Ste. made prisoners, and a large quantity of ammunition, Badour, when queen of France, about 680. It is said to stores, and baggage. The Americans lost 70 men, only have been tirst made at Bologna. 12 of whom were killed. Congress gave Morgan a gold medal in commemoration of his brilliant victory.

Cravant, see Crevant. Cow-pock Inoculation, see Smallpox and Vac

Crayford (Kent). Hengist the Saxon is said to cination.

have defeated the Britons here, 457. Cracow, a city in Austrian Poland. The Poles

Crayons, colored substances made into paste, and elected Cracus for their duke, who built Cracow with the dried into pencils, were known in France about 1422, and spoils taken from the Franks about 700. It was their improved by L'Oriot, 1748. capital, 1320–1609. Cracow was taken by Charles XII. Creasote, or KREASOTE (discovered by Reichenin 1702, and taken and retaken several times by the Rus- bach about 1833), a powerful antiseptic and coagulator sians and other confederates. The sovereign was crowned of albuminous tissue, is obtained by the destructive disat Cracow until 1764. The Russians, who had taken it, tillation of wood and other organic matters. It has 1768, were expelled by Kosciusko, 24 March, 1794; but been used for the preservation of meat, timber, etc. it surrendered to the Prussians, 15 June, same year, and

Creatine (from the Greek kpéas, flesh), the chemiin 1795 was awarded to Austria. Cracow was formed cal principle of tlesh, was discovered in 1835 by E. Cheinto a republic, June, 1815. Occupied by 10,000 Rus- vreul, and has been investigated by Liebig, Gregory, and sians, who followed here the defeated Poles, Sept. 1831.

others. Its independence was extinguished, and it was seized by the emperor of Austria and incorporated with his em

Creation of THE WORLD. The date given by the pire, 16 Nov. 1846, which was protested against by Eng- English Bible, and by Usher, Blair, and some others, is

There are about 140 different dates assigned land, France, Sweden, and Turkey: see Polund. A dread- 4004 B.C. ful tire laid the greater part of the city in ashes, 18 July, to the Creation, varing from 3616 to 6984 B.C. Dr. IIales 1850. The discovery on 22 July, 1869, of Barbare Abryk, gives 5411; see Eras. a nun, secluded for 21 years in a convent cell, led to vio- Haydn's Creation (oratorio), composed 1796–8; first performed

(in London, at Covent Garden Theatre), 28 March, 1800; in lent rioting

Paris, 24 Dec. same year. Cranes are of very early date, for the engines of Crèches, establishments for temporarily receiving Archimedes may be so called. In 1857 a crane had been the young children of working mothers; begun at Paris erected at Glasgow capable of lifting 50 tons; see Der- about 1844; in London (in Rathbone place, etc.) about ricks.

1863. Craney Island, DEFENCE OF. This island, about

Crecy, or Cressy (N. France), where Edward III. and five miles below Norfolk, Va., was attacked by the Brit- his son, Edward the Biack Prince, and an army of about ish 22 June, 1813; and was defended by col. Beatty and 36,800, obtained a great victory over Philip, king of maj. Faulkner. The British were repulsed with a luss France, with about 130,000, 26 Aug. 1346. John, king of about 200 men, the Americans losing none.

of Bohemia (nearly blind); James, king of Majorca; Craniology (or PHRENOLOGY), the study of the Ralph, duke of Lorraine (sovereign princes); and a numexternal form of the human skull, as indicative of men- ber of French nobles, together with 30,000 private men, tal powers and moral qualities. Dr. Gall, the propound were slain, while the loss of the English was very small. er, was a German physician, born March, 1758, and his The crest of the king of Bohemia (three ostrich-feathers, first observations were among his schoolfellows. After- with the motto Ich dien— in English, “I serve") has wards he studied the heads of criminals and others, and since been adopted by princes of Wales. eventually reduced his ideas to a system, marking out

Crédit Foncier, etc. A plan of providing loans the skull like a map. His first lecture was given at to land-owners was introduced by Frederick the Great of Vienna in 1796; but in 1802 the Austrian government Prussia in 1763, in some of the Prussian provinces, as the prohibited his teaching. In 1800 he was joined by Dr. best. method of alleviating the distresses of the landed Spurzheim; and in 1810-12 they published at Paris their interest caused by his wars. The system consists of work on the “ Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous lending money to land-owners on the security of their System, and of the Brain in particular.” Gall died in estates, and providing the loan capital by the issue of 1828. The researches of Gall and Spurzheim led to in- debentures charged upon the aggregate mortgaged escreased study of the brain. Combe's “ Phrenology," first tates. There are two modes of carrying out this scheme: published in 1819, is the popular English work on this (1) by means of an association of land-owners; (2) by subject. Phrenological societies were formed early in means of a proprietary public company. The former London and Edinburglı.

obtains in Eastern Prussia, but the latter is exclusively Phrenology was refuted by lord Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Re- found in Western Europe.

view in 1826, and more recently by Dr. W. B. Carpenter. Crédit Foncier companies have been founded in Hamburg Professor Ferrier reported the results of researches tending (1782), Western Prussia (1787), Belgium (1841), France (1852), to prove localization of certain faculties in the brain to the

England (1863). Similar companies were formed in all the British Association, Sept. 1873.

states of Europe, in India, and in our colonies and dependen.

cies. - Henriques. Cranmer, Latiner, and Ridley, martyrdom of; see Protestants, note.

Crédit Mobilier: a joint-stock company with this

name was established at Paris by Isaac and Emile PéCrannoges, see Lake-dwellings.

reire and others, 18 Nov. 1852. Crannon or CRANON, Thessaly, N. Greece. Near It took up or originated trading enterprises of all kinds, apply. here the Macedonians, under Antipater and Craterus, ing to them the principle of commandité, or limited liab li. defeated the confederated Greeks, twice by sea and once ties; and was authorized to supersede or buy in any other by land, 322 B.C. The Athenians demanded peace, and

companies (replacing their shares or bonds with its own

scrip), and also to carry on the ordinary business of bankAntipater put their orators to death, among whom was ing. The funds were to be obtained by a paid-up capital of Hyperides, who, that he might not betray the secrets of 23 millions sterling, the issue of obligations at not less than his country when under torture, cut out his tongue, and

45 days' date or sight, and the receipt of money on deposit

The society apparently prospered; but Demosthenes is said to have taken poison shortly after.

was considered by experienced persons a bear approach to

Law's bank of 1716. Cranworth's Act, Lord, to simplify the practice several of the directors failed, Sept. 1857; no dividend of conveyancers, 23 & 24 Vict. c. 145 (1860).


..May, 1858

or current account.


Many companies based on its principles established in Crete, now CANDIA (which see).

1863 Emile and Isaac Péreire withdrew from the management; Crevant-sur-Yonne (N. France) was besieged by

the company failed, and the capital was said to have John Stuart, earl of Buchan, with a French army, July, disappeared..

....Oct. 1867

1423, and relieved by the earl of Salisbury with an army The high court of appeal decided that MM. Péreire and

other directors were responsible for their acts, and that of English and Burgundians. After a severe contest, damages should be given to the shareholders... 1 Aug. 1868 the French were totally defeated. Emile Péreire died 6 Jan. 1875; Isaac died......12 July, 1880

Creveldt, near Cleves (W. Prussia). Here, on 23 Crédit Mobilier or AMERICA. A joint - stock June, 1758, prince Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated the company under this name was organized May, 1863, French under the count of Clermont. with a capital of $2,500,000. The charter was purchased, Jan. 1867, by a company interested in construct- tical with the “ club ball” of the fourteenth century.

Cricket, an ancient English game, said to be idening the Union Pacific Railroad, and the stock, which Rules were laid down in 1774 by a committee of noblewas increased to $3,750,000, rose to a high price, paying men and gentlemen, including the duke of Dorset and enormous dividends, earned in connection with Pacific Railroad construction. In 1872, in the course of certain sir Horace Mann. In 1861 the All England Eleven legal proceedings, it was made to appear that several gained and lost games in Australia ; in Sept. 1868, they members of congress and the vice-president of the beat the New York Twenty-two. In 1873-4 they were

beaten at Melbourne. United States were more or less secret holders of this

Eleven Australians visited England, and, after guiding stock, a fact which caused great scandal, inasmuch as

ten games and losing five, gained one against * Players the profits of the company and the value of the stock of All England”

3 Sept. 1878 largely depended upon the legislative action of con- Thirteen Australians visited England in May, 1880; they gress. The conviction was general that some, at least,

won 21 out of 37 matches, and lost 4; the others were

drawn or indecisive; they were victors in a match of the members of congress who held the stock had re

with the Players of England" at the Crystal Palace, ceived it as an indirect bribe, and a prolonged investiga

27, 28, 29 Sept. 1880 tion followed during the session of congress for 1872-3. Crime. About 1856 it was computed that a fifteenth The senate committee reported, 27 Feb. 1873, recom- part of the populatiou of the United Kingdom lived by mending the expulsion of one implicated senator; but crime. The increase in education and manufactures is no action was taken, and his term expired five days gradually reducing this proportion. From 1848 to 1865 later. The house of representatives passed resolutions there bad been no commitment for political offences, such censuring two of its members.

as treason or sedition. The returns of thirty-two years Creeds, see Confessions of Faith. J. R. Lumby's showed that crime absolutely and relatively diminished “History of the Creeds” appeared 1874.

(Sept. 1866); see Murder, Executions, Trials, Poisoning,

France, 1871, etc. Creek War. In 1813, while the United States were at war with Great Britain, the Creek Indians of CONVICTIONS (BY TRIAL) IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

Persons. Alabama were incited to hostility by Tecumseh, who

Cap. Of Executed.

21,542 visited them for that purpose, and by British agents in

21,001 Florida. A fierce war followed, in which the Creeks, 1850


1851 led by William Weatherford (Red Eagle), were over


21,304 come by gen. Jackson. The war seriously endangered

20,756 the integrity of the nation; and, the Creeks being an

23,047 intelligent and partly civilized people, many well-planned


14,734 and stoutly contested battles were fought; see Battles,


15,307 Indians, and United States, 1813-14.


12, 470 Cremation, see Burning the Dead. Cremation

12,068 halls have been erected at Milan and Gotha.


15,312 Cremera, BATTLE OF, see Fabii.


14,726 Cremona (N. Italy), a city founded by the Romans,

14,740 221 B.C. It became an independent republic in 1107, but 1866

14,254 1867

14,207 was frequently subjugated by its neighbors, Milan and


15,033 Venice, and partook of their fortunes. In Nov. 1859, it

14,340 became part of the kingdom of Italy. Cremona was

12,953 eminent for violin-makers from about 1550 to 1750.



11 Crescent, a symbol of sovereignty among the

11,089 1874

11,509 Greeks and Romans, and the device of Byzantium, now


10,954 Constantinople, whence the Turks adopted it. The cres

12,195 cent has given name to three orders of knighthood;


12, 473 founded by Charles I. of Naples, 1268 ; by René of Anjou,

12,525 in 1448; by the sultan Selim, in 1801. The last is still

16 (3 fm.)

Convictions in 1847: Scotland, 3558; Ireland, 15,233. In 1861: in existence.

Scotland, 2428; Ireland, 3271. Crespy (N. France). Here was signed a treaty be- Convictions in the United States: 1850, 26,679; 1860, 98,836; tween Charles V. of Germany and Francis I. of France, Act for improving the administration of criminal justice

1870, 36,562 18 Sept. 1544. The former renounced Burgundy and the passed 7 Aug. 1851. latter Italy.

The Criminal Justice act authorizes justices, with the consent

of prisoners, to pass sentence for short periods, instead of Crests are ascribed to the Carians. Richard I. committing them to trial, 1855. (1189) had a crest on the helmet resembling a plume of In 1856 the expenses for criminal prosecutions in England and feathers. The English kings had generally crowns 15 persons were executed for 'murder in 1856 (four foreigners),

Wales were 194,9121. 45. 8d. ; in 1878, 148, 1031. Os. 8d. above their helmets; that of Richard II., 1377, was sur- 13 in 1857, 11 in 1858 (four foreigners), and 9 (four for wifemounted by a lion on a cap of dignity; see Crecy. Alex- murder) in 1859. 2666 persons were liberated on tickets-ofander III. of Scotland, 1249, had a plume of feathers; On 17 Feb. 1857, of 126 persons thus liberated, 68 were believed the helmet of Robert I. was surmounted by a crown, to be living honestly. 1306; and that of James I. by a lion, 1424. In the fif- In 1861, 1862, and 1863 the system was considered to have teenth and sixteenth centuries, the crest was described failed through the numerous crimes committed by ticket-ofto be a figure placed upon a wreath, coronet, or cap of Sentences' to penal servitude, in 1869, 2006; 1870, 1788; 1879,

leavers ; it was modified by the Penal Servitude act in 1864. maintenance.-Gwillim.


8 12 15

6 10

1852 1853 1854 1855 1856

66 49 70 61 55 49 50 69 54 53 52 48 50 29 29 32 20

1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865

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1869 1870




18 26 33 32 34 20 34

23 23

Criminal classes in England and Wales: estimated number, I crin, hair) is the modern name of the "fardingale” of

1872-3, 76,531; 1873-4, 76,219; 1874–5, 73,963; 1875-6, 74,706. By return (known) 1877-8. 41,049; 1878-9, 54, 249.

the time of queen Elizabeth, hoop-like petticoats made The Judicial Statistics” of crime, police, and law, with a re- of whalebone, etc., revived in France and England since

port, have been annually published by government; com. 1855. They have frequently occasioned loss of life by menced with 1856. Statistical Criminal act passed..

coming in contact with fire and machinery. In No. 116

11 Aug. 1869 Prevention of Crimes act passed.

:: 21 Aug. 1871 of the Tatler, published 5 Jan. 1710, is an amusing trial Great decrease in crimes of violence in relation to the of the hoop-petticoat then in fashion. increase of population...

..1861-1871 Reported felonies: 1871, 10,653 ; 1877, 12,573; burglaries, 1871,

Cripplegate (London) was so called from the lame 614; 1877, 1344.

beggars who sat there, so early as the year 1010. The CRIME-International Congress for the prevention and

gate was newly built by the brewers of London in 1244; repression of crime met in the Middle Temple, London,

3 July, 1872 and was pulled down and sold for 911. in July, 1760. The Prevention of Crime act passed.....

.15 Aug. 1879 poet Milton was buried in the church near it, 12 Nov. Crimea, or Crim Tartary, a peninsula in the Eux- 1674; see London. ine or Black Sea, the ancient Taurica Chersonesus, colo- Cripples' Home, Marylebone Road, established nized by the Greeks about 550 B.C. The Milesians 1851, for crippled girls to be taught suitable trades. The founded the kingdom of Bosporus, now Kertch, which, Cripples' Nursery, Old Quebec street and Margate, was about 108 B.C., formed part of the dominion of Mithri- established 1862. dates, king of Pontus, whose descendants continued to Crispin and Crispianus are said to have been two rule the country, under Roman protection, till the irrup- saints, born at Rome, whence they travelled to Soissons, tion of the Goths, Huns, etc., about A.D. 258. Aboutin France, to propagate the Christian religion. They 1237 it fell into the hands of the Mongols under Genghis worked as shoemakers; but the governor of the town, Khan; soon after the Venetians established commercial discovering them to be Christians, ordered them to be stations, with a lucrative trade, but were supplanted by beheaded, about 288. Their day is 25 Oct. the Genoese, who were permitted to rebuild and fortify Kaffa about 1261. In 1475 Mahomet II. expelled the opened by Spiers and Pond, 21 March, 1874.

Criterion Theatre, Regent's Circus, Piccadilly, Genoese, and subjected the peninsula to the Ottoman yoke; permitting the government to remain in the

Crith (from the Greek kpion, a barleycorn, or small hands of the native khans, but closing the Black Sea to weight), a term suggested by Dr. A. W. Hofmann (about Western Europe. In 1774, by the intervention of the 1864) to express the volume-weight of gases; a cube empress Catherine II., the Crimea recovered its inde containing 1 litre of hydrogen (0.0896 gramme) to be pendence; but on the abdication of the khan in 1783 the unit. Hydrogen being one crith, oxygen will be 16, the Russians took possession of the country, after a war

nitrogen 14 crithis. with Turkey, and retained it by the treaty of Jassy, 9 Critics. The first society of them was formed 276 Jan. 1792. The Crimea (now Taurida) was divided into B.C.Blair. Varro, Cicero, Apollonius, and Aristarchus eight governments in 1802. War having been declared were ancient critics. In modern times the Journal des against Russia by England and France, 28 March, 1854, Sçavans was the earliest periodical critical work. It large masses of troops were sent to the East, which, after was originated by Denis de Sallo, ecclesiastical councilremaining some time at Gallipoli and other places, sailed lor in the parliament of France, and was first published for Varna, where they disembarked 29 May. An expe- at Paris, 30 May, 1655, and is still continued. Jean Le dition against the Crimea having been determined on, Clerc's “ Ars Critica,” published 1696, is said to be the the allied British, French, and Turkish forces, amount- earliest systematic treatise. The first work of this kind ing to 58,000 men (25,000 British), commanded by lord in England was the Review of Daniel Defoe (the term Raglan and marshal St. Arnaud, sailed from Varna 3 being invented by himself), published in Feb. 1703. The Sept., and landed on the 14th, 15th, and 16th, without Works of the Learned began 1710, and the Waies of Litopposition, at Old Fort, near Eupatoria, about 30 miles erature in 1714; discontinued in 1722 ; see Rerieus. from Sebastopol. On the 20th they attacked the Rus. The legality of fair criticism was established in the English sians, between 40,000 and 50,000 strong (under prince courts in Feb. 1794, when an action that excited great at.

tention, brought by an author against a reviewer for a severe Menschikoff), intrenched on the heights of Alma, sup

critique upon his work, was determined in favor of the de. posed to be unassailable. After a sharp contest the Rus- fendant, on the principle that criticism is allowable, however sians were totally routed; see Alma and Russo - Turkish sharp, if just, and not malicious; see Trials, 1875. War. Peace was proclaimed in April, 1856, and the al- Croatia, conquered by Coloman, king of Hungary, lies quitted the Crimea 12 July following.

in 1102, was with that country united to Austria in

1526. The Croatian diet was abolished in Nov. 1861. Criminal Laws of England. Their great severity, pointed out by sir Samuel Romilly, sir James Mack- The Croats protested against incorporation with Hunintosh, and others about 1818, was considerably mitigated gary, 25 May, 1867, and their diet (including Croatia by sir Robert Peel's acts, passed 1826-8. The criminal and Slavonia) at Agram was dissolved 27 May. The law was consolidated by 24 and 25 94-100, 1861. union of Croatia with Hungary was recognized by a Some defects were amended by an act passed in 1867.

Croatian deputation 27 May, 1868, and Croatian delegates

entered the Hungarian diet 24 Nov. The emperor and Sir J. E. Stephen's "Digest of the Criminal Laws” pub

empress visited Agram 9-10 March, 1869. lished...

1877 Bill for amending law relating to indictable offences (re- Crockery-ware, see Pottery.

sembling a digest and code) brought in by sir John Holker, attorney-general. .

Crocodiles were reverenced as divinities by the

..14 May, 1878 Referred to royal commission (justices Blarkburn and Egyptians. The emperor Augustus is said to have col

Lush and sir James F. Stephen); announ ed...8 July, lected twenty-five at one time in his amphitheatre, where The bill brought in and withdrawn..

they were killed by gladiators. Crimisus, a river in Sicily, near which Timoleon

Croix, St., a West India island, purchased from the defeated the Carthaginians, 339 B.C.

French by Christian VI., king of Denmark, in 1733; Crimping - houses were used to entrap persons taken by sir Alexander Cochrane, 22 Dec. 1807; restored into the army; hence the name of “crimp-sergeant.” in 1814. Some of them in London were destroyed by the popu- Cromlechs, ancient monuments, formerly considered lace, in consequence of a young man who had been en- to be Druidical altars, but now believed to be connected ticed into one being killed in endeavoring to escape, 16 with burials. One still exists in Anglesey: similar Sept. 1794.

structures have been found in Ireland, India, Arabia, and Crinan Canal, Argyleshire, cut through Kintyre other countries. peninsula, 1793-1801 : 15 locks; saves about 115 miles.

Cronstadt, Russia, founded by Peter the Great, Crinoline (a French word, meaning stuff made of | 1710, and received its name (Crown-town) in 1721. It

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