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virtue ought to be commended only because it gave the Lacedæmonian feet under the command of Mindarus, pleasure.

assisted by Pharnabazus, the Persian, was encountered Cyrene (N.W. Africa), a Greek colony, founded by by the Athenians under Alcibiades, and defeated with Battus about 630 B.C. Aristæus, who was chief of the great slaughter, near Cyzicus, Mindarus being slain,

410 B.C.-Plutarch. colonists here, gave the city his mother's name. It was also called Pentapolis, on account of its five towns

Czar (the title of the emperor of Russia), probably namely, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Berenice, Apollonia, and Ar- derived from Cæsar, a title said to have been assumed sinoë. It was conquered by Ptolemy Soter I., who by Ivan Basilowitz after defeating the Tartars, about placed many Jews here (286 3.c.). Cyrene was left by 1482. The empress is termed czarina, and the eldest Ptolemy Apion to the Romans, 97 B.C.

It is now a

son czarewitch. desert. Some Cyrenaic sculptures were placed in the Czechs, the native race of Bohemia and Moravia British Museum in July, 1861.

(which see). The antagonism between the Germans and Cyropedium, see Corus.

Czechs is milder in Moravia than in Bohemia. Their

representatives entered the reichsrath at Vienna, 8 Oct. Cyzicus (Asia Minor). In the Peloponnesian war, 1879.

D.

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Dacca (N.E. India), a province acquired by the East lissier, afterwards duke of Malakoff. They had fired on India Company in 1765, and ruled under them by a a messenger bearing an offer of a truce. The massacre nawab till its annexation in 1845.- Thornton.

was condemned by marshal Soult, the minister of war, Dacia, a Roman province, part of Hungary, and the but justitied by marshal Bugeaud. adjoining provinces, after many contests, was subdued Daily News, liberal commercial newspaper, now by Trajan, 106, when Decebalus, the Dacian leader, was 1d., established 21 Jan. 1846. In the number for 23 killed. Dacia was abandoned to the Goths by Aurelian, June, 1876, the letter from Mr. MacGahan, its correin 270; subdued by the Huns, 376; by: Scythians, 566 ; spondent at Constantinople, first drew attention to the by Charlemagne, and by the Magyars, in the ninth cen- atrocities in Bulgaria. The first Bulgarian parliament tury.

expressed its gratitude for this, 4 April, 1879. Dacoits, hereditary robbers of North India, former- Daily Telegraph, penny paper, liberal, established ly employed in war by native sovereigns.

29 June, 1855. It became a conservative paper, 1876. It is stated that between 1818 and 1834, one tribe alone, in Average daily sale 242,215, May, June, 1877.

118 dacoitees," or expeditions, killed 172 persons, and obtained plunder valued at 115,0001.

Dairy Farmers' Association, British, estab

In 1838 lord Auckland lished 24 Oct. 1876. did much to suppress the dacoits, and many settlements

No. 1 of a journal published Sept. were broken up, but they are not quite extinct in Bengal 1877. Exhibitions at Agricultural Hall, 1877-80. and Burmah. Several dacoitees were suppressed in 1879.

Dakota (North America), organized as a territory Daghistan (S.W. Asia), was conquered by the czar of the United States, 2 March, 1861. Peter, 1723 ; restored to Persia, 1735; reannexed to

Dalecarlians (Sweden), revolted against Christian Russia by Alexander I., 1813.

of Denmark, 1521, and placed Gustavus Vasa on the Daguerreotype Process, invented by Daguerre, throne of Sweden. and published 1838; see Photography.

Dalmatia, an Austrian province, N.E. of the AdriDahlia, a flower brought from Mexico, of which it atic Sea, conquered and made a province by the Rois a native, about 1787, and cultivated by the Swedish mans, 34 B.C. The emperor Diocletian erected his palace botanist, Dahl. About 1814 it was introduced into France at Spalato or Spalatro, and retired there, A.D. 305. Daland England; André Thouine suggested improvements matia was held in turns by the Goths, Hungarians, and in its culture, and it soon became a favorite. Georgi Turks, till its cession to Venice in 1699. By the treaty introduced it at St. Petersburg; hence it is known in of Campo Formio in 1797 it was given to Austria, but Germany as the Georgina.

in 1805 it was incorporated with Italy, and gave the Dahomey, a negro kingdom, West Africa, became title of duke to marshal Soult. In 1814 it reverted to known to Europeans early in the last century, when Austria. An insurrection opposed to the new military Trudo Andati or Guadjor Trudo, a man of energy and law broke out at Bocche di Cattaro, and a conflict with talent, was king. He died in 1732, and was succeeded the troops at Dragali took place, 10 Oct. 1869. Several by a series of cruel tyrants, a large part of whose revenue regiments were sent there, but the insurgents obtained was derived from the slave-trade. Abbeokuta, a robbers' several successes during the month, A deputation of haunt in 1825, has, since 1829, become a strong-walled fered submission, 2 Nov., and the operations against them town, inhabited by free blacks; and was consequently were suspended about the end of the month. opposed by the king of Dahomey. His army has been

Daltonism, see Color, note. severely defeated in its attacks on this place, and in one on 16 March, 1864, a great number of his Amazons were Damascus (Syria), a city in the time of Abraham, slain. During the last few years Dahomey has been 1913 B.C. (Gen. xiv.); now the capital of a Turkish pavisited by capt. Burton and other travellers, who have shalic. described the royal sanguinary customs.

Taken by David (1010 B.C.), but retaken shortly after; The king ordered to pay a fine (for an outrage on Mr.

made the capital of Syria under Benhadad and his sucTurnbull at Whydah, 23 Jan.)..

951

....B.C. ... March, 1876 He refuses in insulting terms, April; the coast about to

Recovered by Jeroboam II..

about 822 be blockaded...

... July,
Taken by Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria. .

740 The king threatens massacre of Europeans if attacked,

From the Assyrians it passed to the Persians, and from

them to the Greeks, under Alexander Aug.

To the Romans...... He makes concessions; blockade removed......12 May, 1877

about 64 Renewed massacres of natives ("* customs '') and out

Paul, converted, preaches here (Acts ix.).. rages on foreigners at Whydah; reported.....26 Sept. 1878 Taken by the Saracens, 633; by the Turks in 1075; de

stroyed by Tamerlane.

.Jan. 1401 Dahra (Algeria). On 18 June, 1845, abore 500 Taken by Ibrahim l'acha..

1832

The disappearance of a Greek priest, named father Tom. Kabyles at war with the French were suffocated in a

maso, from here, 1 Feb. 1840, led to the torture of a care, a fire having been kindled by order of gen, Pe- number of Jews suspected of his murder, and to a

cessors.

66

333

..A.D.

52

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783
787

798

851 867 871 876

873 882 894 897 900

22 656

992

cruel persecution of that people, which caused remon- seas of them. The tax was suppressed by Edward the strances from many states of Europe....

1840 Damascus restored to Turkey.

Confessor in 1051; revived by William I. 1068; and

1841
In consequence of a dispute between the Druses and formed part of the revenue of the crown, until abolished

Maronites, the Mahometans massacred above 3000 by Stephen, 1136. Every hide of land, i. e, as much as
Christians and destroyed the houses, rendering vast
numbers of persons homeless and destitute; a large

one plough could plough, or, as Bede says, as much as number were rescued by Abd-el-Kader, who held the

could maintain a family, was taxed at first 18., afterwards citadel...

..9, 10, 11 July: 1860 as much as 78. Camden says that once 24,3602. was raised. Justice executed for these crimes by Fuad Pacha: 160 persons executed, including the Turkish governor; and

Danes, or NORTHMEN; see Denmark. During their 11,000 persons made soldiers...

. Aug.-Sept. attacks upon Britain and Ireland they made a descent Damask LINENS AND Silks, first manufactured at

on France, where in 895, under Rollo, they received Damascus, have been beautifully imitated by the Dutch presents under the walls of Paris. They returned and and Flemish. The manufacture was brought to Eng- ravaged the French territories as far as Ostend in 896. land by artisans who fled from the persecutions of Alva, the king of France to Rollo and his Normans (North

They attacked Italy in 903. Neustria was granted by 1571-3. The DAMASK Rose was brought here from the south of Europe by Dr. Linacre, physician to Henry

VIII., men); hence Normandy, in 911. The invasions of Eng

land and Ireland were as follows: about 1540. Damiens's Attempt. Louis XV. of France was They land near Purbeck, Dorset.

First hostile appearance of the Danes. stabbed with a knife in the right side by Damiens, a na- Descend in Northumberland: destroy the church at Lintive of Arras, 5 Jan. 1757. The culprit endured the most disfarne; are repelled, and perish by shipwreck, 8 Jan. 794 excruciating tortures, and was then broken on the wheel, They enter Dublin with a fleet of 60 sail, and possess

They invade Scotland and Ireland...

..795, 796 28 March.

themselves of Dublin, Fingal, etc.. Damietta (Lower Egypt) was taken by the crusad. They take the Isle of Sheppey...

832 Defeated at Hengeston, in Cornwall, by Egbert.

835 ers, 5 Nov. 1219; lost 1221; retaken by Louis IX.5 June, They land in Kent from 350 vessels, and take Canterbury 1249; surrendered as his ransom when a prisoner, 6 May, and London..... 1250. The present town was built soon after. Here, it They descend on the north, and take York..

They defeat the Saxons at Merton. is said, dimity was first manufactured.

They take Wareham and Exeter.
Damon And Pythias (or Phintias), Pythagorean They take Chippenham; but 120 of their ships are

wrecked... philosophers.

877 Damon was condemned to death by the Defeated: Guthrum, their leader, becomes Christian, and tyrant Dionysius of Syracuse, about 387 B.C. He ob

many settle in England.... tained leave to go and settle some domestic affairs, prom- Alfred enters into a treaty with them.. ising to return at the appointed time of execution, and Their fiect destroyed by Alfred at Appledore..

Defeated near Isle of Wight..... Pythias became his surety. When Damon did not ap- They invade and waste Wales.... pear, Pythias surrendered and was led to execution ; but Defeated by Edward the Elder... at this critical moment Damon returned. Dionysius re- They defeat the people of Leinster.. mitted the sentence, and desired to share their friend. And ravage Essex and Suffolk...

Ravage Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset.

9990 ship.

Said to assume the title lord dane..

.about 991 Danai: an ancient name of the Greeks derived from Their fleet defeated after a breach of treaty, purchased

by money.. Danaus, king of Argos, 1474 B.C.

Anlaf and Sweyn ravage Kent and the south (erroneousDance of DEATH. The triumph of death over all A general massacre of the Danes, by order of Ethelred II.

ly said to have been paid 16,0001, for peace). ranks of men was a favorite subject with the artists of

13 Nov. 1002 the middle ages, and appears in rude carvings and pict- Sweyn revenges it, and receives 36,0001. (as an annual ures in various countries.

tribute) to depart...

1003 Their fleet anchors at Isle of Wight.

1006 The Chorea Machabæorum or Danse Macabre, the first They make fresh inroads, and defeat the Saxons in Suf

printed representation, published by Guyot Marchand, folk, 1010; sack Canterbury and kill the inhabitants, a bookseller of Paris..

1485 1011; receive 48,0001. as tribute, and murder Alphege, Holbein's Dance of Death (concerning the authorship of archbishop....

1012 which there has been much controversy), printed at Vanquished at Clontarf, Ireland (see Clontarf). Lyons in 1538, and at Basil.... 1594 Conquest of England completed; Canute king..

1017 Many editions have since appeared; one with an intro- They settle in Scotland..

1020 duction and notes published by Mr. Russell Smith... 1849 They land again at Sandwich, carrying off much plunder The term Dance of Death was also applied to the frenzied

to Flanders..

1047 movements of the Flagellants, who had sometimes Defeated by Harold II. at Stanford bridge........25 Sept. 1066 skeletons depicted on their clothing, about the end of They burn York and kill 3000 Normans.

1069 the fourteenth century.

Once more invade England to aid a conspiracy; but comDancing mania, accompanied by aberration of mind and pelled to depart....

1074 distortions of the body, was very prevalent in Germany in 1374, and in the sixteenth century in Italy, where it

Dangerous Associations (Ireland) Bill, see was termed Tarantism, and erroneously supposed to be Roman Catholic Association. caused by the bite of the Tarantula spider. The mu. sic and songs employed for its cure are still preserved.

Dangerous Goods: act regulating their deposit Dancing was invented by the Curetes, 153

and carriage passed 6 Aug. 1866. Eusebius. The Greeks combined the dance with their

Dangerous Performances, see Children. dramas, and pantomimic dances were introduced on the Dannewerke, or DANNAWIRKE, a series of earthRoman stage 22 B.C.- Usher. Dancing by cinque paces works, considered almost impregnable, stretching across was introduced into England from Italy, A.D. 1541. the long narrow peninsula of Schleswig, Holstein, and Dancing was the principal amusement of the North Jutland-said to have been constructed during the “stone American Indians. They had religious, martial, and so- age,” long before the art of metal-working. It was recial dances. In modern times the French introduced built in 937 by Thyra, queen of Gormo the Old, for which ballets analogues in their musical dramas. The country she was named “Dannabod," the pride of the Danes. dance (contre-danse) is of French origin, but its date is It was repaired by Olaf Tryggveson between 995 and not precisely known.-- Spelman. See Morice Dance, 1000. Near here the Prussians, helping the duchies, Quadrille, and Waltz.

defeated the Danes, 23 April, 1848. The retreat of the Establishment of a national training school for dancing,

Danes from it, 5 Feb. 1864, occasioned much dissatisfacby Mr. Mapleson; second annual distribution of prizes, tion at Copenhagen. etc.....

......21 Sept. 1878

Dante's Divina Commedia was first printed in Dane-geld, or DANEGELT, a tribute paid to the 1472. He was born 14 May, 1265; died at Ravenna, 14 Danes to stop their ravages in England; first raised by Sept. 1321. A festival in his honor, at Florence, was Ethelred II. in 991, and again in 1003; and levied after opened by the king, 14 May, 1865, when a large statue the expulsion of the Danes to pay fleets for clearing the l of Dante by Pazzi of Ravenna was uncovered.

994

1014

B.C.

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June, 1897

Dantzic (N. Germany), a commercial city in 997; Darien, ISTHMUS OF (Central America), discovered according to some authorities, built by Waldemar I. in by Columbus, 1494. In 1694 William Paterson, founder 1165. Poland obtained the sovereignty of it in 1454. of the Bank of England, published his plan for colonizing It was seized by the king of Prussia, and annexed in Darien. A company was formed in 1695, and in 1698-9 1793. It surrendered to the French, May, 1807; and three expeditions sailed thither from Scotland, where by the treaty of Tilsit was restored to independence, un- 400,0001. had been raised. The first consisted of 1200 der the protection of Prussia and Saxony, July, 1807. young men of all classes, besides women and children. Dantzic was besieged by the allies in 1812; and surren- The enterprise not having been recognized by the Engdered 1 Jan. 1814. By the treaty of Paris it reverted to lish government, the settlements were threatened by the the king of Prussia. By the Vistula breaking through Spaniards, to whom they were finally surrendered, 30 its dykes, 10,000 head of cattle and 4000 houses were de- March, 1700. Paterson and a few survivors from famine stroyed, and many lives lost, 9 April, 1829.

and disease had set off shortly before the arrival of the Danube (German, Donau ; anciently Ister, in its second expedition. Several years after, 398,085l. were lower part), the largest river in Europe, except the Wol- voted by parliament to the survivors as “equivalent ga, rises in the Black Forest and falls into the Black Sea. money.” 18,000). were also voted to Paterson; but the Trajan's bridge at Gladova was destroyed by Adrian, to bill was rejected in the house of lords ; see Panama. prevent the barbarians entering Dacia. Steam naviga

The average breadth 40 miles; least breadth 30 miles. tion was projected on this river, by count Szechenyi, in Dark Ages, a term applied to the Middle Ages; 1830; and in that year the first steamboat was launched according to Hallam, comprising about 1000 years—from at Vienna, and the Austrian company was formed short- the invasion of France by Clovis, 486, to that of Naples ly after. The Bavarian company was formed 1836. A by Charles VIII., 1495. During this time learning was canal between the Danube and the Maine was completed at a low ebb. by Louis I. of Bavaria. Charlemagne, in the eighth cen

Darlington, see under Railways, 1825 and 1875. tury, contemplated uniting the Danube and Rhine by a canal. At the peace of 30 March, 1856, the free naviga

Darmstadt, see Hesse Darmstadt. tion of the Danube was secured, and an independent Dartford (Kent). Here commenced the insurrecEuropean commission appointed to make it navigable tion of Wat Tyler, 1381. A convent of nuns, of the from Isaktchi to the sea, which has worked with good order of St. Augustin, endowed here by Edward III., effect. The British government, in 1868, lent 135,000!. 1355, was converted by Henry VIII. into a royal palace. to complete the works. The treaty respecting the navi- The first paper-mill in England was erected at Dartforul gation of the Danube renewed for twelve years, 13 March, by sir John Spielman, a German, in 1590 (Stow), and 1871. The river suddenly took possession of a new bed, about the same period was erected here the first mill for near Vienna, 17 April, which was formally opened 30 splitting iron bars. The powder-mills here were blown May, 1875.

up four times between 1730 and 1738. Various exploIn the Russo-Turkish war the Russians crossed the Dan- sions have since occurred, in some cases with loss of life

ube and entered Bulgaria (see Russo-Turkish War, II.), to many persons : 12 Oct. 1790; 1 Jan. 1795; and others The navigation of the Danube was regulated by Articles

recently. 50-54 of Berlin treaty.........

.13 July, 1878 Dartmoor Prison, founded March, 1806. Seven Danubian Principalities. WALLACHIA and prisoners of war were shot 6 April, 1815, after an insurMOLDAVIA (capitals, Bucharest and Jassy) were united rection. The autumn military manæuvres at Dartmoor, and named ROUMANIA, 1859. Population of the two, Aug. 1873, were unsuccessful through bad weather. 1860, 3,864,848; 1866, 4,424,961; 1873, 5,073,000. These A mutiny here was checked with loss of life of one provinces formed part of the ancient Dacia (which see). prisoner..

.12 Nov. 1880 Part of Moldavia ceded to Russia

1812

Dartmouth (Devon). Burned by the French in The provinces having participated in the Greek ipsurrec- the reigns of Richard I. and Henry IV. In a third

tion in 1821, were severely treated by the Turks; but by the treaty of Adrianople were placed under the pro

attempt (1404), the invaders were defeated by the intection of Russia...

1829

habitants, assisted by the valor of the women. The The Porte appointed as hospodars prince Stirbey for French commander, Du Chastel, three lords, and thirty

Wallachia, and prince Ghika for Moldavia.. June, 1849 two knights, were made prisoners. In the war of the They retire from their governments when the Russians

enter Moldavia (see Russo- Turkish War). .......2 July, 1853 parliament, Dartmouth was taken after a siege of four The Russians quit the provinces and the Austrians enter,

weeks, by prince Maurice, who garrisoned the place for Sept. 1854; retire....

March, 1857 the king (1643); but it was retaken by General Fairfax The government of the principalities finally settled at the Paris conference (there were to be two hospodars,

by storm in 1646. elected by elective assemblages, and the suzerainty of Darwinism, see Development and Species. Turkey was to be preserved)...

.19 Aug. 1858 Aleraniler Couza elected hospodar of Moldavia, 17 Jan.; Dates were affixed to grants and assignments, 18 of Wallachia....

..5 Feb! 1859 Edw. I. 1290. Before this time it was usual, at least, to The election acknowledged by the allies. .......6 Sept. The detinitive union of the provinces (under the name

pass lands without dating the deed of conveyance.-of Roumania) proclaimed and acknowledged by the

Lewis. Numerous instruments of assignment enrolled Porte..

.Dec. 1861 among our early records establish this fact. The date (For continuation, see Roumania.)

is determined by the names of the parties, particularly Dardanelles. Two castles (Sestos, in Roumania, that of the grantor: the possession of land was proof of and Abydos, in Natolia), built by the sultan Mahomet IV. the title to it.- Hardie. A useful glossary of the dates in 1659, commanding the entrance of the strait of Gallip given in old charters and chronicles will be found in oli, named Dardanelles from the contiguous town Dar- Nicolas's “ Chronology of History.” J.J. Bond's “ Handanus.—The passage of the strait was achieved by the dy-book for Verifying Dates," published 1866. British squadron under sir John Duckworth, 19 Feb. Dauphiné * (S.E. France), successively held by the .1807; but he repassed them with great loss, 3 March, Allobroges, Burgundians, and Lombards; was, about the castles of Sestos and Abydos hurling down stone shot 732-4, delivered from the invading Saracens by Charles upon the British ships. The allied English and French Martel. After forming part of the kingdom of Arles, it fleets passed the Dardanelles, at the sultan's request, Oct. was much subdivided among counts. One of these, 1853 ; see Hellespont and Xerxes.

Humbert II., ceded Dauphiné and the Viennois to Daric, a Persian gold coin, issued by Darius, hence Philip VI. in 1343, for his eldest son, on the condition its name, about 538 B.C. About $5,56.-Knowles. It that the prince should be styled dauphine, which took weighed two grains more than the English guinea.-

* One of the counts of Vienne placed a dolphin (dauphin) ip Dr. Bernard.

his coat of arms, and assumed the title of dauphin.

1773

BISHOPS.

1793

1875.

effect in 1319, when Humbert became a monk. Louis Deacons (literally, servants), an order of Christian Antoine, duke of Angoulême, son of Charles X., the last ministers, began with the Apostles, about 53. (Acts vi.) dauphin who assumed the title at his father's accession, Their qualifications are given by St. Paul (65), 1 Tim. 16 Sept. 1824, died 3 June, 1844.

iii. 8-14. Daventry, Northamptonshire. Near here Lambert, Dead. Prayers for their benefit were probably having escaped from the Tower, was defeated and re offered up in the second century, being referred to by taken in his attempt to enkindle the war, by Monk, 21 Tertullian, who died 220. The practice was protested April, 1660. The dissenting academy removed here against by Aerius, and defended by Epiphanius, who from Northampton in 1752, was transferred to Wymond- died 403. It is renounced by the church of England. ley in 1789, thence to London as Coward College, and finally united with Homerton and Highbury Colleges as

Dead Weight Loan acquired its name from its New College, in 1850.

locking up the capital of the Bank of England, which in

1823 advanced 11,000,000l. to the government (to conDavid's, St. (S.W. Wales), the ancient Menapia, struct new ordnance, etc.). The latter engaged to give now a poor decayed place, but once the metropolitan see

an annuity of 585,7401. for 44 years, which ceased in of Wales, and archiepiscopal. When Christianity was

June, 1867. planted in Britain, three archbishops' seats were appointed—viz., London, York, and Caerleon upon Usk, in

Deaf and Dumb. The first systematic attempt Monmouthshire. That at Caerleon, being too near the to instruct the deaf and dumb was made by Pedro de dominions of the Saxons, was removed to Mynyw, and Ponce, a Benedictine monk of Spain, on Jerome Cardan's called St. David's, in honor of the archbishop who re- system, about 1570. moved it, 522. St. Sampson was the last archbishop of Bonet, a monk, published a system at Madrid...

1620 the Welsh; for he, withdrawing himself on account of Dr. Wallis published a work in England on the subject.. 1050 a pestilence to Dôle, in Brittany, carried the pall with The first regular academy for the deaf and dumb in him. In the reign of Henry I. the archbishops sub- In modern times the abbé de l'Epée (1712-89), and his

Britain opened in Edinburgh... mitted to the see of Canterbury.—Beatson. Present friend and pupil the abbé Sicard of Paris (1742-1822); income, 45001.

the rev. Mr. Townsend and Mr. Baker, of London; Mr. Thos. Braidwood of Edinburgh; and surgeon Orpen of

Dublin, have labored with much success in promoting 1800. Lord George Murray, died 3 June, 1803.

the instruction of the deaf and dumb. 1903. Thomas Burgess, transl. to Salisbury, June, 1825. Dr. W. Thornton, of Philadelphia, U. S., published an 1825. John Banks Jenkinson, died 7 July, 1840.

essay on Teaching the Deaf to Speak 1940. Connop Thirlwall; resigned June, 1874; died 27 July, Unsuccessful attempis made by Braidwood to establish

schools for the deaf in New York and Virginia

1811 1874. Wm. Basil Jones, consecrated 24 Aug.

The asylum for deaf and dumb children opened in Lon.

don through the exertions of Mr. Townsend in 1792; David's Day, St., 1 March, is annually commem- one in Edinburgh by Mr. J. Braidwood, in 1810; and orated by the Welsh, in honor of St. David. Tradition one in Birmingham by Mr. T. Braidwood..

1815 states that on St. David's birthday, 540, a great victory First institution for the instruction of deaf mutes in

America, opened under the control of Dr. T. H. Gallau. was obtained by the Welsh over their Saxon invaders ;

det, at Hartford, Conn....

15 April, 1817 and that the Welsh soldiers were distinguished, by order New York institution chartered 15 April

, 1817; Pennsylof St. David, by a leek in their caps.

vania institution, 1820; Kentucky institution, 1823.

Provision for the education of deaf mutes is now mado Davis's Strait (North America), discovered by in every state.

1816 John Davis, 11 Aug. 1585, on his voyage to find a north- The asylum at Claremont, Dublin, opened. west passage, 1585-87. He made two more voyages for a deaf and dumb debating club (Wallis club) closed its

third

April, 1869 the same purpose, and five voyages to the East Indies. The foundation stone of St. Saviour's church, near OxIn the last he was killed by Japanese pirates, on the ford street, London, for the deaf and dumb, laid by the coast of Malacca, 27 or 29 Dec. 1605.

prince of Wales.

.5 July, 1870

In 1851, there were in Great Britain 12,553 deaf and dumb Davy Lamp, etc., see Safety Lamp.

out of a population of 20,959, 477.

Oral Teaching.-Mr. Wm. Van Praagh introduced the so. The Davy Medal, furnished by the sale of sir Humphry Davy's called German system into this country in July, 1867;

plate, was first awarded by the Royal Society to professors Bunsen and Kirchholl for their discovery of spectrum anuly.

published his “Plan for the Establishment of Day

Schools in preference to boarding houses) for the Deaf sis (which see).

and Dumb" (in which they are to be taught by speech Davyum, a new metal, discovered by Sergius Kern,

and lip teaching only; the finger alphabet and artificial

signs being rigidly excluded), in 1971. By the help of 28 June, 1877, in the residuum of platinum ore; said to the baroness Meyer de Rothschild and others, the be hard, infusible, and rather ductile. It has been sus- " Association for the Oral Instruction of the Deaf and pected to be ruthenium.

Dumb" was founded in 1871, and a day school opened at 12 Fitzroy square....

..16 July, 1872 Day. Day began at sunrise among most of the International congress at Milan; great majority in favor northern nations, at sunset among the Athenians and

of oral teaching of deaf mules..

...Sept. 1880 Jews; and among the Romans at midnight as with us.

Deal, a cinque port with Sandwich, 1229; a fishing The Italians in some places reckon the day from sunset village in the reign of Henry VIII.; its strong castle to sunset, making their clocks strike twenty-four hours built 1539 by Henry VIII Deal was incorporated and round. The Chinese divide the day into twelve parts made independent of Sandwich, 1699. of two hours each. The astronomical day begins at noon, is divided into twenty-four hours (instead of two

Dean (decanus), a name commonly given to the parts of twelve hours), and is the mode of reckoning arch-presbyter, or eldest presbyter, in the twelfth cenused in the Nautical Almanac. Thus the astronomical tury; originally a military title, an oflicer over ten solday 8 Dec. begins at noon of 8 Dec. and ends at noon 9 diers. In the church of England, the dean and chapter Dec.

of a cathedral nominally elect the bishop and form his Deaconesses, or ministering widows, have their council. By 13 & 14 Car. II. (1662), a dean must be in qualifications given in 1 Tim. v. 9, 10 (65). Their du- priest's orders; previously the oflice had occasionally ties were to visit the poor and sick, assist at the agape ancient office of * rural dean” has been much revived

been held by a layman, with special dispensation. The or love-feasts, admonish the young women, etc.

The office was discontinued in the Western church in the since 1850., The Deans and Canons' Resignation act fifth and sixth centuries, and in the Greek church about passed 13 May, 1872. The Fire Deans' memorial, and the twelfth, but has been recently revived in Germany. counter-memorial, see Church of Englund, 1881. The appointment of deaconesses, subject to the parochial Dean, FOREST OF, Gloucestershire, anciently wooded clergy, was advocated by the bishop of Ely about 1853, quite through, and in the last century, though much and some were appointed. The Diocesan Deaconess In- curtailed, was twenty miles in length and ten in breadih. stitution, London, was established in 1861.

It was famous for its oaks, the material of our ships of

war.

594

Riots in this district, when more than 3000 per- Debusscope, an instrument of French origin, somesons assembled in the forest, and demolished upwards of what similar to the kaleidoscope, said to be useful for tifty miles of wall and fence, throwing open 10,000 acres devising patterns for calico-printers, etc., made its apof plantation, took place on 8 June, 1831. The Dean pearance in 1860. Forest (mines) act passed 16 Aug. 1871.

Decamerone (10 days), see Boccaccio.
Death, ordained as the punishment for murder, 2348

Decapitation, see Beheading.
B.C. (Gen. ix. 6).
The Jews generally stoned their criminals (Lev. xx. 2),

Deccan (Dekhan or Dakhan) (S. India) was invaded

B.C. 1490 by the Mahometans in 1294. The first independent Draco's code punished every offence with death. 621 sultan was Alaudin. The natives revolted, and the dyIt was limited to murder by Solon..

nasty of Bahmani was founded by Hasan Ganga in 1347. Drowning in a quaginire was a punishment among the Britons (Slow)..

about 450

About 1686–90, Aurungzebe I. recovered the Deccan, but Mithridates, a Persian soldier, who boasted that he had soon lost great part of it to the Mahrattas. The Nizam al killed Cyrus the Younger, at the battle of Cunaxa, was by

Mulk, his viceroy, became independent in 1717. A large order of Artaxerxes exposed to the sun for eighteen days. 401 Maurice, the son of a nobleman, was hanged, drawn, and

part of the Deccan was ceded to the English in 1818. quartered, for piracy, the tirst execution in that man. December (from decem, ten), the tenth month of ner in England, 25 Hen. III ..

....A.D. 1241 Capital punishment abolished in Russia by Catherine II.,

the year of Romulus, commencing in March. In 713 except for treason

1767 B.C. Numa introduced January and February before The punishment of death was abolished in a great num- March, and thenceforward December became the twelfth

ber of cases by sir Robert Peel's acts, 4 to 10 Gco. IV. 1824-9 of the year. In the reign of Commodus, Ad, 181–192, By the Criminal iaw Consolidation acts, death was confined to treason and wilful murder..

1861 December was called, by way of flattery, Amazonius, in The commission on capital punishment (appointed 1864) honor of a courtesan whom that prince had loved, and

issued their report (recommending that penal servi. had had painted like an Amazon. The English comtude be substituted for death in some cases where murder was unpremeditated, and that executions should menced their year on the 25th December, until the not be public)...

... Dec. 1865 reign of William I.; see Year, Capital punishment restricted in Italy.

.. April, Its proposed abolition in Belgium was negatived. . 18 Jan. 1857

Decemviri, or Ten Men, appointed to draw up a "Capital Punishment within Prisons Bill” passed May, code of laws, to whom for a time the whole government 183. First case, 13 Aug. 1868; see Erecutions.

of Rome was committed, 451 B.C. The laws they drew Capital punishment abolished in Saxony. 1 April, 1868 Vote for its abolition in Switzerland, 1874; for its res

up were approved by the senate and general assembly toration (191, 197-177,263)....

... May, 1879 of the people, written on ten metallic tables, and set up in Abolition of the punishment of death in Great Britain the place where the people met (comitium). Two more proposed by Mr. Gilp n in the commons; negatived (127

tables were added, 450 B.C. The Decemviri at first ruled to 23), 21 April, 1868; negatived (118 to 58), 29 July, 1869; negatived (167-54), 24 July, 1872; (155-50), 12 well, but the conduct of Appius Claudius towards VirJune, 1877; (263-64), 13 March, 1878; proposed by Mr. ginia occasioning an insurrection, they were forced to Pease, negatived (175-79).

22 June, 1881 resign; and consuls were again appointed, 449 B.C. Practically ceased in Belgium, Prussia, Bavaria, Dep. mark, and Sweden, though not abolished.

Decennalia, festivals instituted by Augustus, 17 In France, 126 convictions for murder-4 executed in

B.C., celebrated by the Roman emperors every tenth one year; similar proportion in Italy. Abolished in some of the United States. Maine, 1976;

year of their reign, with sacrifices, games, and largesses. Rhode Island, Michigan, and Wisconsin, since; in oth- -Livy. Celebrated by Antoninus Pius, A.D. 148.

ers virtually ceased. (Sco B:healing, Ravaillac, Damiens, Boiling, Burning, Hang

Decimal System of Coinage, WEIGHTS, etc. In ing, Forgery, and Campbell's Acts.)

1782 Gouverneur Morris, the able assistant fiscal agent Deaths, Registers of, see Bills of Mortality, Pub- of the continental congress (United States), reported a lic Health, and Registers.

decimal currency system, in which he attempted to harDebating Societies; several formed in the last cen- that the one thousand four hundred and fortieth part of

monize the moneys of all the states. He ascertained tury. The celebrated Oxford Union Society was founded a Spanish dollar was a common divisor for the various in 1823, and many orators have been trained by it.

currencies. Starting with this fraction as a unit, he Debtors have been subjected to imprisonment in proposed the following table of moneys: Ten units to almost all countries and times. In the eighteen months be equal to one penny; ten pence to one bill; ten bills subsequent to the panic of Dec. 1825, as many as 101,000 one dollar (about seventy-five cents of the present curwrits for debt were issued in England. In the year end- rency); ten dollars one crown. In 1784 Mr. Jefferson, ing 5 Jan. 1830, there were 7114 persons sent to the as chairman of a committee of congress, proposed to several prisons of London; and on that day 1547 of the strike four coins upon the basis of the Spanish dollar, as number were yet confined. On 1 Jan. 1810, the num- follows: A golden piece of the value of ten dollars; a ber of prisoners for debt in England and Wales was dollar in silver; a tenth of a dollar in silver; a hun1732; in Ireland the number was under 1000; and in dredth of a dollar in copper. The congress adopted his Scotland under 100. The operation of statutes of relief, proposition, and this is the origin of the cent, dime, doland other causes, considerably reduced the number of lar, and eugle of the United States currency; see Metric imprisoned debtors. When the new Bankruptcy act System. (abolishing imprisonment for debt except when fraudulently contracted) came into operation in Nov. 1861, a in the same earth with Philippium (which see); an

Decipium, a new metal found by M. Delafontaine number of debtors who had been confined were released.

nounced Nov. 1878. “ Arrest of Absconding Debtors Bill,” 14 & 15 Vict. c. 52, 1852. In 1863 nearly 18,000 persons were imprisoned

Declaration of Independence, UNITED STATES. by order of the county courts: average time, 15 days; On 2 July, 1776, the American congress resolved “ that amount of debt, 31. 108. By an act passed 9 Aug. 1869, these united colonies are, and of right onght to be, free the imprisonment of fraudulent debtors was abolished, and independent states; and that all political connection with certain exceptions, and nearly a hundred debtors between us and the state of Great Britain is, and ought were released by a judge's order in Jan. 1870. An act to be, totally dissolved.” On the 4th a declaration, setto facilitate the arrest of absconding debtors, passed 9 ting forth the causes which impelled the colonies to a Aug. 1870. Imprisonment for debt in Ireland was abol- separation, was adopted, signed by John Hancock, the ished by an act passed 6 Aug. 1872, and in Scotland president of congress, and sent forth to the world. At (after 31 Dec.) by Dr. Cameron's act, passed 7 Sept. the beginning of August (it having been engrossed on 1880 ; see Arrest, King's Bench, Bankrupts, Insolvents, parchment) it was signed by all the members of conand National Debt.

gress then present, and subsequently by two others, mak7978 persons were committed to jail by the county courts ing the whole number of signers fifty-six. That parchin 1871; 4438 in 1874.

ment is preserved at Washington city.

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