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termed circutores, a branch of the Donatists (which see) ciety (1749) gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland; its

origin is attributed to Mr. Prior of Rathdowney, Queen's in the fourth century. They preached with great bold

County, in 1731. The Bath and West of England Society ness, and incurred severe persecution.

established 1777; and the Highland Society of Scotland,

1793. County Agricultural Societies are now numerous. Agra (N.W. India), founded by Akbar in 1566, was London Board of Agriculture established by act of parliament, the capital of the Great Mogul; see Mausoleums. In 1793. 1658 Aurungzebe removed to Delhi.- The fortress of Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agriculture, Agra, “the key of Hindostan,” in the war with the American Institute of Agriculture, New York, incorporated Mahrattas surrendered to the British forces, under gen. 1829. Lake, 17 Oct. 1803, after one day's siege : 162 pieces of Royal Agricultural Society of England established in 1838 by ordnance and 240,0001. were captured.-In June, 1857,

noblemen and gentlemen, the chief landed proprietors in

the kingdom, and incorporated by royal charter, 26 March, the city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Euro

1840. It holds two meetings annually-one in London, the peans, who took refuge in the fort, from which they were other in the country. It awards prizes, and publishes a rescued by major Montgomery and colonel Greathed. valuable journal. Visit of the prince of Wales, 25 Jan. 1876.–Allahabad 1839. Oxford. 1854. Lincoln. 1868. Leicester, was made capital of the N.W. provinces of India, instead 1810. Cambridge. 1855. Carlisle. 1869. Manchester.

1841. Liverpool. 1856. Chelmsford. of Agra, in 1861.

1870. Oxford. 1842. Bristol. 1857, Salisbury. 1871. Wolverhamp

1858. Chester. Agram (formerly Zagrab), a city of Croatia, Hun- 1843. Derby.

1844. Southamp- 1859. Warwick. 1872. Cardifr. gary, residence of the ban; suffered much by earth

1860. Canterbury. 1873. Hull. quakes, 9-12 Nov. 1880.

1845. Shrewsbury. 1861. Leeds.

1874. Bedford.

1846. Newcastle. 1862. Battersea. 1875, Taunton. Agrarian Law (Agraria lex) decreed an equal 1847. Northampton. 1863. Worcester. 1876. Birming

1848. York.
1864. Newcastle-

ham. division among the Roman people of all the lands ac

1849. Norwich.

on-Tyne. 1877. Liverpool quired by conquest, limiting the acres which each per- 1850. Exeter. 1865. Plymouth 1878. Bristol. son should enjoy. It was first proposed by the consul 1851. Windsor. 1866. Bury St. Ed. 1879. London,

munds. 1880. Carlisle. Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and occasioned his judicial 1852. Lewes.

1853. Gloucester. 1867. No meeting. 1881. Derby. murder when he went out of office in 485.-An agrarian law was passed by the tribune Licinius Stolo, 376; and International Agricultural Exhibition, promoted by the Soci. for proposing further amendments Tiberius Gracchus in

ety, and held at Kilburn, London, N. W. Occupied 106 acres.

It was opened by the prince of Wales 30 June, visited by 133, and his brother Cornelius in 121, were murdered. the queen in July, and closed finally 10 July, 1879. Livius Drusus, a tribune, was murdered for the same Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland, instituted 1841. cause, 31. Julius Cæsar propitiated the plebeians by “Chambers of Agriculture” were established in France in

1851. passing an agrarian law in 59.-In modern times the

In Great Britain, 1868, they had increased from 36 to term has been misinterpreted to signify a division of the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, organized 1842;

70. A journal commenced early in 1868. lands of the rich among the poor, frequently proposed by

chartered, 1845. demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf, editor of the Tri. Suffolk Agricultural College at Bury St. Edmunds opened bun du Peuple, in 1794. In 1796 he conspired against 1874. Other colleges opened. the Directory with the view of obtaining a division of British Dairy Farmers Association. --Inaugurated; first show property, was condemned, and killed himself, 27 May,

opened at Agricultural Hall, London, 24-28 Oct. 1876.

Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution. It relieves farm1797.

ers and their widows and orphans; founded chiefly by Mr.

Mechi, 1860. Agricola's Wall, see Roman Walls.

The Associated Agriculturists of Great Britain, a limited comAgricultural Children Act prohibits employ

pany, proposed April, 1881. ment of children under eight years of age, and provides AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. - Sir Humphry Davy delivered for the education of older children, 5 Aug. 1873.

lectures on this subject (afterwards published), at the in

stance of the Board of Agriculture, in 1812; but it excited Agricultural Holdings Act, passed 13 Aug.

little attention till the publication of Liebig's work in 1840,

which made a powerful impression. Boussingault's " Eco1875, relates to compensations of landlords and tenants, nomie Rurale," an equally important work, appeared in 1844. for improvements, etc.

The immoderate expectations from this study having been

somewhat disappointed, a partial reaction took place. Lie. Agriculture. “Abel was a keeper of sheep, but big's “Letters on Agriculture" appeared in 1859. Cain was a tiller of the ground," Gen. iv. 2. The Athe- AGRICULTURAL GANGS. - In the spring of 1867, most painful nians asserted that the art of sowing corn began with exposures were made of the prevalence of much cruelty and them; and the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians made

immorality in the gang system (in which boys and girls are

employed) in several of the eastern and midland counties; the same claim.

and, in consequence, an act was passed 20 Aug. for regu. Cato the Censor (died 149 B.C.) and Varro (diod 28 B.c.) were

lating these gangs, licensing gang-masters, etc. eminent Roman writers on agriculture.

A Union of Agricultural Laborers, managed chiefly by Joseph Virgil's Georgics, 30 B.C. Agriculture in England improved by

Arch, formerly a laborer, afterwards a Methodist preacher, the Romans after A.D. 44.

was inaugurated at Leamington, Warwickshire, 29 March, Fitzherbert's "Book of Husbandry," printed 1524.

1872 The movement spread, being countenanced by Au.

beron Herbert, M.P., and others. The Union met in Lon. Tusser's" Five Hundred Points of Husbandry," 1562. Blythe's • Improver," 1649.

don, Arch re-elected president, 16, 17 May, 1877. Hartlib's Legacy," 1650.

Lock-out of agricultural laborers belonging to the linion (last. Jethro Tull's - Horse-hoeing Husbandry," 1701.

ed 18 weeks, costing the Union much money), began at al. About the end of the eighteenth century, fallowing was grad. Dispute between Lincolnshire farmers and laborers settled,

derton, Suffolk, March, 1872. ually superseded by turnips and green crops. In Aug. 1855, a committee presented a report on the best mode

18-20 May; Suffolk and Norfolk farmers refuse compromise of obtaining accurate agricultural statistics. There were,

about 25 May; the Union ceased to support the locked-out in 1831, 1,055, 982 agricultural laborers in Great Britain, and

laborers, leaving them to emigration, or to seek employ. in Ireland 1,131,715.

ment, 27 July, 1872. Acreage of crops, and number of cattle, sheep, and pigs in The agitation subsided; the laborers were employed autumn, Great Britain and Ireland, beginning with 1866, published

1876; agricultural return for Great Britain, 1873; reported in the annual “Statistical Abstract," since 1869.

steady increase in prosperity, 1875. It was reckoned by the Agricultural Committee that the cul

A partial strike and lock-out of laborers in Kent and Sussex, tivation of waste lands would yield above 20,000,0001. a

Oct.-Dec. 1878. year. It was calculated in 1854 that there were in England The delegates of the National Agricultural Laborers' Union 32,160,000 acres in cultivation, of the annual value of 37,

met 26 Oct. 1876. 412,0001. Since that time, much land has been brought into Very great agricultural depression through bad seasons, and

foreign importations; many landlords remit large part of History of Agriculture and Prices in England (1259–1400),” Royal Commission of Inquiry appointed 4 July, 1879.

by prof. James T. Rogers, published June, 1866. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. — The earliest mentioned in the The following table, drawn up by Mr. William Couling, C.E.. British Isles was the Society of Improvers of Agriculture in 1827, is extracted from the Third Report of the Emigra in Scotland, instituted in 1723. A Dublin Agricultural So

tion Committee :

ACRES,

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ACRES.

Wastey Ca

Number of Number of
Products.

Value. Countries,

Bushels, etc.
Total.

Acres.
Cultivated. pable of lun. Unprofitable.
provement

Indian corn, bushels. 1,717, 434,543 62,317,842 $679,714, 499
Wheat,

498,549,868 37,986,717 474,201,850 England 25,632,000 3,454,000 3,256, 400 32,342, 400

Rye,

24,540,829 1,767,619 18,564,560 Wales 3,117,000 530,000 1,105,000 4,752,000 Oats,

417,855,380 16, 187,977 150.243,565 Scotland. 5,265,000 5,950,000 8,523,930 19,738,930 Barley,

45,165,346

1,843,329 30,090,742 Ireland.. 12,125,280 4,900,000 2,416,664 19,441,944 Buckwheat,

14,617,535 822,802 8,682,488 British Isles..

383, 690
166,000 569, 469 1,119,159

Potatoes,

167,659,570 1,842,510 81,062,214

Tobacco, pounds. 446,296, 889 602,516 36, 414,615 Totals.... 46,522,970 15,000,000 15,871, 463 77,394,433 Hay, tons.

31,925,233 25,863,955 371,811,084 Cotton, bales.

6,343, 269 15,475,300 280, 266, 242

Grand total.... At that period it was computed that the soil of the United

164,710,567 $2, 131,051,859 Kingdom was annually cropped in the following propor- In addition to these are the grass crop, market gardening, tions:

fruit products, sugar - cane, rice, and several minor crops.

The dairy industry is a manufacture founded on and mainly Wheat.

7,000,000 included in grass and grain production. Meat products are Barley and rye.

1,950,000 also secondary, giving increased value to the primary prod. Potatoes, oats, and beans..

6,500,000 ucts from which they are made. An exact estimate of all Turnips, cabbages, and other vegetables.

1,150,000 farm production has never been made and is diMcult to calCloser, rye-grass, etc.....

1,750,000 culate with close precision, but it is probable that the fig. Fallow

2,800,000 ures given above are about two-thirds of the real value of Hop-grounds.

60,000 the primary products of American agriculture. Nursery-grounds..

20,000 Enclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and other gardens. 110,000

Agricultural Hall, Islington, N. London, chiefly Pleasure-grounds.

100,000 for the meetings of the Smithfield Club. The foundaLand depastured by cattle.

21,000,000 tion-stone was laid by the president, lord Berners, 5 Nov. Hedge-rows, copses, and woods.

2,000,000

1861. The hall has been much used for industrial exWays, water, etc...

2,100,000

hibitions, public meetings, equestrian and pedestrian perCultivated land....... 46,640,000 formances, concerts, etc.

It was opened for an exhibition of dogs, 24 June, 1862; horses CROPS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND:

and donkeys exhibited, July, 1864, and annually since.

First Smithfield annual cattle show here, 6 Dec. 1862.
Corn
Green Grasses,

A great reform demonstration was made here, 30 July, 1866.
Crope. Crops.

etc.

Grand ball to the Belgian visitors, volunteers, and garde

civique; prince of Wales present, 18 July, 1867.

Excellent horse-shows held here, May, 1868 et seq. 1860. Great Britain.... 9,252,784 | 3,562,434 15,964,553

Theatrical bull-fights here stopped, on account of cruelty, 28 Ireland.. 2,174,033 1,481,525 12,006,191

March, 1870. 1870. Great Britain 9,548,011 3,586, 730 16,577,740 Workmen's International Exhibition opened by the prince of Ireland ... 2,173, 109 | 1,498,719

Wales, 16 July, 1870. 1876. Great Britain. 9,194,669 3,571,874 18,056, 217 National Exhibition of machinery, appliances, manufactures, Ireland., 1,848, 487 1,363, 224

and produce, opened 29 Sept. 1879. 1879. Great Britain. 8,985,234 | 3,554,318 18,740,097 Exhibition by the building trades, opened 12 April, 1880. Ireland... 1,761,800 1,294,636

International food exhibition, opened 13 Oct. 1880.

Milling exhibition (under direction of National Association of AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.-Cattle first carried to

British and Irish Millers), 10–18 May, 1881. America by Columbus in bis second voyage, 1493.

Agrigentum (now Girgenti), a city of Sicily, Swine brought into the present territory of the United States built about 582 B.C. It was governed by tyrants from

by De Soto, 1538. First slave labor within present territory of the United States Bull); Alcamanes; Theron, who, with his stepfather

566 to 470; among these were-Phalaris (see Brazen at the founding of St. Augustine, 1565. Tobacco carried to England from America by Raleigh, Gelon, defeated the Carthaginians at Himera, 480; and

1586. First cattle and swine brought to Massachusetts, 1624.

Thrasydæns, his son, expelled in 470, when a republic Hops tirst brought to present territory of the United States, was established. It was taken by the Carthaginians in 1628

405 B.C., and held, except during short intervals, till First horses in Massachusetts, 1629-30.

gained by the Romans in 262 B.C. From A.D. 825 till First apples picked in present territory of the United States 1086 it was held by the Saracens.

in Boston, 1639. Sugar-cane brought into Louisiana, 1751.

Ahmednuggur (W. India), once capital of a state First improved cattle brought into the United States, 1783. South Carolina and Philadelphia Agricultural Societies found founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1493.

After having ed, 1784.

fallen into the hands of the Moguls and the Mahrattas, it (Most of the other states now have them.]

was taken from the latter by Arthur Wellesley, 12 Aug. Firsi cotton (8 bales) sent from the United States to England, 1803, and restored to the British dominions, June, 1817. and seized by custom-house on the ground that the United States cannot have produced so much, 1784.

Aid, see A yde.
First recorded United States thresher patent, 1791.
Thence to 1810 were granted in the United States 30 patents

Aid to the Sick and Wounded, NATIONAL for reapers; from 1810 to 1835, 240 more; and many have SOCIETY FOR, On 4 Aug. 1870, soon after the breakingbeen granted since.

out of the Franco-German war, a meeting was held in Whitney's cotton-gin invented, 1793. First cast-irou plough patent issued to Newbold of New Jersey, London, which established this society under the rules

of the Geneva Convention (which see). Jefferson investigates scientifically the Mould Ward question, The queen, patron; the prince of Wales, president; col. 1798

Loyd-Lindsay, chairman of committees; active supFirst Agricultural Exhibition in the United States at George. porters, duke of Manchester, earl of Shaftesbury, lords town, D.C., May 10, 1810.

Overstone and Bury, sir Harry Verney, gen. sir John First useful 'mowing - machine (Manning's) patented in the Burgoyne, surgeon-gen. Longmore, and capt. Douglas United States, 1831.

Galton. The operations were chiefly directed by capt. First useful reaper patents in the United States, Schnebley's Henry Brackenbury at the seat of war, and by Mr.John and Hussey's, both of Maryland, granted, 1833.

Furley and gen, sir Vincent Eyre. Gaano begins to come into use about 1840.

A fruitless meeting to promote the incorporation of the Yale College Agricultural Department established, 1852.

society. It was then reported that 296, 2981. had been World's Fair, New York, promotes use of agricultural ma. received, together with stores valued at 45,0001.. 1 Aug. 1871 chinery, 1853.

Col. Loyd 'Lindsay conveyed to Versailles and Paris Great trial of threshing, reaping, and mowing machines in from the society 40,0001., equally divided between

France - the American machines gaining a complete vic- the Germans and French' (gratefully acknowledged) tory, 1855.

about 11 (ct. 1870 The Ünited States Government Agricultural Department cs- The crown-prince of Prussia wrote to col. Loyd Lindsay: tablished by an act of Congress, May 15, 1862.

“In this, as on other occasions of distress, the help of First great cotton fair held at Atlanta, Ga., 1881.

the English public has been poured out with a liberal The following lable, furnished by the Department of Agricult- and an impartial hand. The gifts which have been

ure at Washington, shows the acreage, quantity, and money offered in a truly Christian spirit have excited a feel. value of the principal crops of the United States for the ing of heart-felt gratitude among those on whose beyear 1890.

ball I speak.'

2 Nov.

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Subscription Lists published:

Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), a Roman city, now in 3d, 17 Aug...

2,3771. 50th, 11 Oct.. .243,4441. Rhenish Prussia. Several ecclesiastical councils held 10th, 25 Aug. 33,339 60th, 26 Oct.. 260,849

here (799–1165). Here Charlemagne was born, 742, and 20th, 6 Sept. 68,677 70th, 30 Nov.. 280,598 30th, 17 Sept.

..153, 214 78th, 7 Jan. (received to 31 died, 814; having built the minster (796–804), and con40th, 29 Sept........ 208,147 Dec.)............

...289,674 ferred many privileges on the city, in which fifty-five The society afforded much help during the Servian war, July emperors have since been crowned. The city was taken -September, 1876, and the Russo-Turkish war, 1877-8. by the French in Dec., 1792; retaken by the Austrians, Ailantine, see Silk.

March, 1793; by the French, Sept. 1794; ceded to Prus

sia, 1814. Ainadin, see Ajnadin. Air, or ATMOSPHERE. Anaximenes of Miletus (530 First Treaty of Peace signed here was between France and

Spain, when France yielded Franche-Comté, but retained B.C.) declared air to be a self-existent deity, and the first

her conquests in the Netherlands, 2 May, 1668. cause of everything created. Posidonius (about 79 B.C.) The second celebrated treaty between Great Britain, France, calculated the height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia.

Holland, Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it the treaties

of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1679, of The pressure of air, about 15 lbs. to the square inch, was

Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the discovered by Galileo, 1564, and demonstrated by Tor- Triple Alliance in 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 1718, ricelli (who invented the barometer) about A.D. 1643,

and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed.) and was found by Pascal, in 1647, to vary with the

Signed on the part of England by John, earl of Sandwich,

and sir Thomas Robinson, 7 Oct. 1748. height. Halley, Newton, and others up to the present Congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, time have illustrated the agency and influences of this assisted by ministers from England and France, met at Aixgreat power by various experiments, and numerous in

la-Chapelle, and a convention signed, 9 Oct. 1818, which led

to the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France. ventions have followed; among others, the AIR-GUN of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656; the AIR-PUMP, in- Aix Roads, see Rochefort. vented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about 1650; Ajaccio, see Corsica. improved by Robert Boyle in 1657, by Robert Hooke about 1659;* and the AIR-PIPE, invented by Mr. Sutton,

Ajnadin, or Aiznadin (Syria). Here the Ma

hometans defeated the army of the emperor Heraclius, a brewer of London, about 1756. The density and elasticity of air were determined by Boyle; and its relation 13 July, 633. They took Damascus in 634. to light and sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The

Akerman (Bessarabia). After being several times extension of our atmosphere above the surface of the taken, it was ceded to Russia in 1812. Here the celeearth has been long considered as about 15 miles.-Its brated treaty between Russia and Turkey was concluded, composition, † about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, 4 Sept. 1826, which secured for the former the navigaand 2 of other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery tion of the Black Sea, recognized the Danubian princivapor, a trace of ammonia, etc.) was ascertained by palities, etc. Priestley (who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele Akhalzikh (Armenia). Near here prince Paskie(1775), Lavoisier, and Carendish; and its laws of re-witch and the Russians defeated the Turks, 24 Aug., and fraction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1737. The gained the city, 28 Aug. 1828. researches of Dr. Schönbein, a German chemist of Basel,

Alabama, a Southern state of the United States of between 1840 and 1859, led to his description of two America; originally a part of Georgia; made a state states of the oxygen in the air, which he calls ozone and in 1819, commercial metropolis, Mobile. Passed an antozone. Dr. Stenhouse's Air - filters (in which pow-ordinance of secession, 11 Jan. 1861 ; was readmitted to dered charcoal is used) were first set up at the Mansion- representation in Congress, 1868. Pop. 1880, 1,262,794. house, London, in 1854. In 1858, Dr. R. Angus Smith

Alabama, a steam-vessel of 900 tons, with engines made known a chemical method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter in the air, and published his of 300 horse-power, constructed by Messrs. Laird at Bir“ Air and Rain” in 1872; see Oxygen, Nitrogen, Ozone, At- kenhead, for the Confederate service; launched 15 May, mospheric Railway, Balloons, and Pneumatic Despatch.

1862. During the judicial inquiries after her character,

she sailed from the Mersey, 28 July, the day before the The Aero-steam Engine, the invention of George Warsop, a British government telegraphed to detain her. Under mechanic of Nottingham, who, by employing, compressed the command of capt. Semmes, she did great damage to air united with steam, is said to have effected the saving of 47 per cent. of fuel. The plan was reported to the British the American mercantile shipping, until her destruction Association at Exeter in Aug. 1869, and was said to act by the federal iron-clad K'eursurge, capt. Winslow, off successfully in a tug steamer (for Chinu) in the Thames, 26 Cherbourg, 19 June, 1864. Several of her crew were

March, 1870.
Col. Beaumont's air-engine for propelling railway-carriages, saved by Mr. John Lancaster in bis yacht. Admiral

tried at Woolwich, reported successful (a little steam is Semmes died Sept. 1877.

used), 6 Oct. 1880. Victor Popp applies compressed air as a motive power to

Discussion between the two governments respecting clocks, 1881.

claims for damage by the Alabama..

1865 An Air-telegraph, in which the waves of air in a tube are em- A fruitless convention for their settlement by a commisployed instead of electricity, invented by sig. Guattari, was sion signed at London..

10 Nov. 1868 exhibited in London in 1870. It obtained a gold medal in Another convention, signed by the earl of Clarendon and Naples.

Mr. Reverdy Johnson, 14 Jan.; rejected by the United Isaac Wilkinson patented a method of compressing air by a

States senate..

13 April, 1869 column of water in 1757, and William Mann patented stage.

Joint commission (British, earl de Grey, sir Stafford pumping by compressed air in 1829. The force of com- Northcote, and others; American, secretary Fish, gen. pressed air was employed in boring the Cenis tunnel (which Schenck, and others) to settle fishery disputes, Alasee).

bama claims, ete. Announced, 9 Feb.; met at Wash

ington, 27 Feb. ; signed a treaty at Washington..8 May, 1871 Air-Gas-light COMPANY: proposed to use hydro- Commission for Anglo-American claims met at Washingcarburetted air as a source of light; established 1872.

...25 Sept.

Formal meeting of the arbitration commission at Geneva Air-tight Stove, designed to economize fuel, in- (adjourns to 15 June)..

18 Dec. vented by Isaac Orr, 1836.

The British and American cases presented 20 Dec.

Great excitement in England at the introduction of Air-whistle. A shrill whistle worked by an air- enormous claims for indirect losses into the American pump, and audible at three or four miles distance, used case, loss by transfer of trade from American to British as a marine fog-signal; invented by C. Daboll, of New

ships, increased rates of marine insurance, and losses

incident to the prolongation of the war.. .Jan. 1872 London, Conn. 1850.

Correspondence between the governments; British de

spatch, 3 Feb.; reply, 1 March; continued; counter. * Sprengel's excellent air pump, in which water or mer. cases presented at Geneva

..15 April, cury is employed, was invented in 1863.

Continued correspondence, draft for a supplementary t Air, as well as its gaseous components, has been com- treaty, by which both nations agree in future to abpressed into the liquid state by means of great pressure and stain from claims for indirect losses presented to Ameriintense cold, 1877-8. by Raoul Pictet of Genera, and Cailletet can senate; approved...

.25 May, of Paris, Dec. 1877, Jan. 1878.

The British government object to certain modifications;

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further correspondence; great excitement in parlia- killed by Romulus, who restores his grandfather Nument ; proposed adjournment of the meeting of the

mitor...

75+ arbitration commission; differences about the mode of Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome).

753 procedure ; congress adjourns, leaving the affair un. Alba conquered by Tullus Hostilius, and incorporated settled. .....10 June, 1872 with Rome (see Horatii)....

665 The Arbitration tribunal, consisting of count Frederic

Sclopis for Italy, president; baron Staempfl: for Switzer- Albania, a province in European Turkey, formerly land; vicomte d'Itajuba for Brazil; Mr. C. F. Adams

part of the ancient Epirus. The Albanians became infor United States, and sir Alexander E. Cockburn for Great Britain, meet at Geneva. The British govern

dependent during the decline of the Greek empire. • They ment presents a note of the existing differences; the were successfully attacked by the Turks in 1388. About conference adjourns...

15 June 1443, under George Castriot (Scanderbeg), they baffled Further adjournment, 17 June ; the arbitrators voluntarily declare that the indirect claims are invalid, and

the efforts of Mahomet II. to subdue them till the siege contrary to international law, 19 June; president Grant of Scutari in 1478, when they submitted. Ali Pacha, of consents to their withdrawal..

.25 June, Janina, in 1812, defeated the Turkish pachas, and gove The British government withdraw their application for

erned Albania ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. adjournment of the conference

.27 June, The Arbitration commission records its decision against

1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after surrenthe indirect claims, and the proposed long adjourn. dering under a solemn promise of safety. A revolt in ment, and adjourns to 15 July...,

28 June, Albania was suppressed in 1843. Final meeting; all the arbitrators agree to award dam:

ages for the injuries done by the Alabama; four for An Albanian league (favored by the Turks) formed to rethose done by the Florida, and three for those done

sist the cession of any part of the country to Austria by the Shenandoah. The judgment not signed by sir and Montenegro in April, said to have caused the death A. Cockburn, whose reasons were published; the dam.

of Mehemet Ali.

.7 Sept. 1878 ages awarded (including interest), about 3, 229, 1661. 138. The country semi-independent..

. April, 1879 4d. ; those claimed, 9,476,1661. 138. 4d. (Decision based Army formed rebel against Turkey...

.. April, 1880 on the admission of a new ex-post-facto international The league forces defeated in an attack on Dervish Pacha in law, by Great Britain by the treaty of Washington.)

Uskub between Pristma and Prisend, 19 April; he reported 14 Sept.

the country settled, but asked for reinforcements; more The judgment of sir A. Cockburn admitting the award fighting; Albaniaus said to be defeated, and struggle almost for the Alabama; opposing the other awards; yet

over, 12 May, 1881. counselling submission to the judgment, signed 14 Sept.,

See Dulcigno. and published in London Gazette with other documents..

. 20 Sept.

Albans, St. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman Veru3,200,0001. were voted; the receipt of 3,196,8741. ac- lam, derived its name from Alban, the British protomarknowledged by Mr. Secretary Fish

.9 Sept.

tyr, said to have been beheaded during the persecution Aladja Dagh, near Kars, Armenia. Here the by Diocletian, 23 June, 286. A stately monastery to his Turks, under Ahmed Mukhtar, after severe conflicts, memory was erected about 795, by Offa, king of Mercia, were totally defeated by the Russians under the grand- who granted it many privileges. Its superior sat as duke Michael, and gens. Loris Melikoff, Lazareff, and premier abbot in parliament till the dissolution in 1539. Heimann, 14, 15 Oct. 1877,

A meeting was held 22 June, 1871, to raise a fund for the The Turkish army was divided and broken up, the strong camp restoration of the abbey, the earl of Verulam chairman.

taken with many prisoners, including 7 pashas and 38 guns. The results were favorable, and the work was confided to The Russian strategy was highly commended. This over- Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, who issued a report in June, 1872. whelming disaster, which led to the investment of Kars, was Verulam was built on the site of the capital of Cassiveattributed to Mukhtar's maintaining too extended lines, which were turned (20 miles with only 40,000 men; when launus, taken by Julius Cæsar, 54 B.C. It was retaken, 200,000 were required).

after much slaughter, by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen Alamo, a fort in Texas, near San Antonio. Here of the Iceni, A.D. 61. occurred the massacre of the Alamo, 6 March, 1836, on First battle of St. Albans, when the Lancastrians were defeatwhich day a Mexican force of 1500 or 2000 men, under

ed, their leader, Edmund, duke of Somerset slain, and king

Henry VI. taken prisoner by the duke of York and his parSanta Anna, after having in vain besieged and bombard

tisans, 22 or 23 May, 1455. ed its garrison of 140 Texans, under col. Travis, ever Second battle, queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists since the 230 of the preceding month, stormed the place

under the earl of Warwick, and rescued the king, Shrove. "and took it, after being twice repulsed. But six Texans St. Albans incorporated by Edward VI. 1553.

Tuesday, 17 Feb. 1461. were left alive after the assault, and these were murdered Disfranchised for bribery, 17 June, 1852. in cold blood in Santa Anna's presence, by his order, after Act passed to make arrangements for erecting a bishopric of surrender on promise of protection.

St. Albans, 29 June, 1875. See constituted, 30 April; made

a city, 28 Aug. 1877. Aland Isles (Gulf of Bothnia), taken from Sweden by Russia, 1809; see Bomarsund.

1877. Thomas Legh Claughton (trans. from Rochester). Alani, a Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. They St. Albans Raid, see United States, Oct. 1864.

St. Albans Murder, see Trials, 1880. joined the Huns in invading the Roman empire, and were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. They were sub- Alban's, St., Church, Holborn; see under Church dued by the Visigoths, 452, and eventually incorporated of England, 1867. with them.

Albany, or ALBAINN, the ancient name of the ScotAlarcos (central Spain). Here the Spaniards, un- tish Highlands. Robert Stewart, the brother of king der Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were totally defeated by Robert III., was created the first duke of Albany in 1398, the Moors, 19 July, 1195.

and the title has ever since been connected with the Alaska, the name given to the Russian possessions crown of Scotland. The young pretender, prince Charles in North America, purchased by the United States by Edward, and his wife took the title of count and countess treaty, 13 March, 1867, for $7,200,000, received 1 Aug. of Albany; see York. 1868. Sitka is the principal station. Alba Longa, an ancient city of Italy, said to have 1420. Murdoch, son; 'regent; executed for treason by king

1398. Robert; regent; 1406; died 3 Sept. 1420. been founded by Ascanius, son of Eneas, 1152 B.C. Its

James I., 1424. history is mythical.

1452. Alexander, brother of king James II. ; acted treasonably;

exiled; killed accidentally at Paris, 1485. Ascanius, son of Æncas, 1152 B.C.; Sylvius Posthumus, 1514. John, son; regent; went abroad; died at Paris, 1526. 1143; Eneas Sylvius...

....B.C. 1114

See York and Albany, dukes. Reign of Latinus, 1048; Alba, 1038; Atys, or Capetus, 1881. Prince Leopold, fourth son of queen Victoria, was cre1002; Capys, 976; Capet118.....

916

ated duke of Albany 24 May, 1881. Reign of Tiberinus, 90:3; being defeated in battle near

the river Albuia, he throws himself into the stream, is Albany, the capital city of the state of New York;

drowned, and hence this river is called tho Tiber.. 895 founded by the Dutch, 1614; incorporated as a city, Agrippa: Romulus Silvius, 864; Aventinus, 815; Procas, 808 ; Numitor..

795

1686; made the capital, 1797; capitol built, 1807; act Amulius, the brother of Numitor, seizes the throne, 794; authorizing the building of a new capitol passed, 1865 ;

BISHOP.

DUKES OF ALBANY.

first appropriation for that purpose, 1867; corner-stone cert was given to the workmen 25 Feb., and the hall was laid 24 June, 1871. Dudley Observatory incorporated,

opened by the queen 29 March, 1871, when a grand concert

was given. 1852; dedicated, 1856. Except Jamestown, Va., Albany ALBERT BRIDGE, Chelsea, opened 23 Aug. 1873; freed from toll is the oldest settlement in the thirteen original states. 24 May, 1879. Henry Hudson visited the place in his ship the Half ALBERT EMBANKMENT. etc., see Thames, 1869; Docks. Moon, Sept. 1609. The town was originally named New ALBERTO INSTITUTE, Windsor, opened by the prince of Wales,

10 Jan. 1880. Orange; name changed to Albany, 1664. First conven- ALBERT MEDALS, to be awarded to persons who endanger their tion for the union of the colonies (B. Franklin, presi

lives by saving others from shipwreck, appointed by royal

warrant, 3 March, 1866. The first was given to Samuel Popdent) assembled at Albany, 1754.

plestone on 14 May, for saving life on 23 March preAlbert Memorials (see England, Queen). The

vious; medals awarded to Pontypridd miners and others for

saving men imprisoned in a mine through inundation (see Prince-consort died on 14 Dec. 1861, deeply lamented by Coal: Accidents), April, 1877. the whole civilized world. His remains were transferred ALBERT MEDAL (gold), awarded by the Society of Arts to sir to the mausoleum of Frogmore, 18 Dec. 1862.

The sar

Rowland Hill, 1864; Napoleon III. 1865; Michael Faraday,

1866; Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke, cophagus is composed of the largest known block of

1867; Joseph Whitworth, 1868; Justus Liebig, 1869; Ferdigranite without flaw. A meeting to organize a method nand de Lesseps, 1870; Henry Cole, C.B., 1871; Henry Besof receiving contributions for a great national memorial semer, 1872; Michel Eugène Chevreul, 1873; C. William

Siemens, 1874; Michel Chevallier, 1875; sir G. B. Airy, 1876; was held at the Mansion-house, 14 Jan. 1862; and a large

Jean Baptiste Dumas, 1877; sir William G. Armstrong, 1878; sum was quickly subscribed. 36,0001. had been received sir William Thomson, 1879; James Prescott Joule, 1880. on 1 March ; 50,2201. on 11 June, 1862; and parliament Royal Albert Orphan Asylum, Bagshot; founded 1864. voted 50,0001., in addition to the 60,0001. received by vol

Albigenses, a name given to various persons who untary contributions, 23 April, 1863.

opposed the doctrines and corruptions of the Church of The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen herself. Rome, living at Albi, in Languedoc, and at Toulouse in In a letter to the lord mayor, dated 19 Feb. 1862, sır Charles the 12th century. They were persecuted as Manichæans, Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, “It would be more in accordance with her own feelings, and she believes with 1163, and a crusade (proclaimed by pope Innocent III.) those of the country in general, that the monument should against them commenced in 1207. Simon de Montfort be directly personal to its object. After giving the subject commanded 500,000 men, and at Beziers, 1209, he and her maturest consideration, her majesty has come to the conclusion that nothing would

be more appropriate, provided the pope's legate put friends and foes to the sword, sayit is on a scale of suficient grandeur, than an obelisk to be ing, "God will find his own!"* At Minerba he burned erected in Hyde park on the site of the Great Exhibition of 150 of the Albigenses alive; and at La Vaur he hanged 1851, or on some spot immediately contiguous to it. would any proposal that could be made be more gratifying the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget the governor's wife, and murdering other women. He that the prince himself had highly approved of the idea of defeated Raymond, count of Toulouse, but was himself a memorial of this character being raised on the same spot killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and IX., kings of France, in remembrance of the Great Exhibition." In a second let. ter the queen expressed her intention of personally contrib. patronized the crusade; count Raymond was subdued, uting towards erecting the memorial, that "it might be re. and abdicated in 1229; and the heretics were given up corded in future ages as raised by the queen and people of to the Inquisition. They had little in common with the a grateful country to the memory of its benefactor. Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's Waldenses (which see). desire. As a suitable block of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up.

Albion. Britain is so called by Aristotle (died 322 The queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for B.C.). Julius Cæsar and others are said to have given it

an Eleanor Cross, with a spire 150 feet high, accompanied the name (from albus, white) on account of its chalky by statues, etc., 22 April, 1863; work begun 13 May, 1864. cliffs. The sculptors employed were M‘Dowell, Foley, Theed, John

Bell, and Armistead: material, Sicilian marble. (Jan. Albuera, or ALBUHERA, Estremadura, Spain. Here 1865.) The gilt statue by Foley uncovered 9 March, 1876.

a battle was fought between the French, commandThe memorial, complete, except the statue by Foley (delayed

through illness), was given up to her majesty privately, i ed by marshal Soult, and the British and Anglo-SpanJuly, 1872.

ish army, under marshal (afterwards lord) Beresford, Doyne C. Bell's Descriptive and Illustrated Account of this 16 May, 1811. The allies obtained a brilliant victory.

Monument, published by Mr. John Murray, 1873.
Inscription on the " Memorial Cairn", on a high mountain The French loss exceeded 8000 men previously to their
orerlooking Balmoral Palace :-"To the beloved memory retreat; but the allies lost a large number. T'he chief
of ALBERT, the great and good Prince-consort, erected by his brunt of the action fell on the British; colonel Inglis, 22
broken-hearted widow, VICTORIA R., 21 Aug. 1862." Upon
another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who had
quotation: "He being made perfect in a short time, ful mounted a hill, fell-out of the 57th regiment alone; the
filled a long time: for his soul pleased the Lord, therefore other regiments were scarcely better off, not one third
hasted he to take him away from among the wicked."- being left standing: “1500 unwounded men, the remnant

Wisdom of Solomon, iv. 13, 14.
A statue of the prince-consort (by Thecd) inaugurated at Rose- of 6000 unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant

nau, his birthplace, in the presence of the queen and the on this fatal hill.”—Napier.
royal family, 19 Aug. 1865.
“Early Years of the Prince - consort," edited by the Hon.

Albufera (Spain, East Central ), a lagoon near Charles Grey, published 6 July, 1867.

which the French marshal Suchet (afterwards duke of Another statue by Theed at Balmoral, inaugurated 15 Oct. Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under Blake, 4 Jan.

1867. The statue at the Holborn Circus, uncovered by the prince of

1812: this led to his capture of Valencia on 9 Jan. Wales, 9 Jan. 1874. The Albert Memorial Chapel at Windsor opened to the public, the university here was printed the Complutensian Poly

Alcala, Spain, near the Roman Complutum. At 1 Dec. 1875. Life, by Theodore Martin, 5 vols., published 1875–80.

glot Bible, at the expense of cardinal Ximenes, 1502-15. The Scottish National Memorial to the prince, Edinburgh, in. augurated by the queen, 17 Aug. 1876.

Alcantara,, a town on the Tagus, W. Spain. A Statue at Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, uncovered by the fine bridge was built here by Trajan about 104. The

prince of Wales, 22 Jan. 1878. Many other memorials of the prince have been set up through. duke of Alva acquired Portugal for Spain by defeating out the empire.

the Portuguese army here, 24 June, 1580. The Spanish Royal ALBERT HALL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES: The erection of military order of knighthood of Alcantara was establish

a great building for congresses, concerts, etc., was proposed ed in 1156. The sovereign of Spain has been grandby the prince-copsort at the close of the exhibition of 1851, and an estate at Kensington was purchased; a committee,

master since 1495. with the prince of Wales at the head, to crect the building,

Alcazar - Quiver, near Fez, N.W. Africa, where was appointed 6 July, 1865; circulars soliciting subscriptions were issued April, 1866; and the first stone was laid by the Moors totally defeated the Portuguese, whose galthe queen, 20 May, 1867.

lant king Sebastian was slain, 4 Aug. 1578. The PortuThe building was erected by col. Scott, chiefly after designs by

capt. Fowke, and cost about 200,0001. The organ, by Willis, is said to be the largest in the world. An experimental con

* Now contradicted.

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