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tiously termed the "who who administration," from the 1858. Beadsman.

1871. Faronius (24 May). 1859. Musjid.

1872. Cremorne (29 May). duke of Wellington's inquiry).

1860. Thormanby.

1873. Doncaster (28 May). FIRST ADMINISTRATION, 27 Feb. 1852.

1861. Kettledrum.

1874. George Frederick 1862. Caractacus.

(3 June). First lord of the treasury, Edward, earl of Derby. *

1863. Macaroni.

1875. Galopin (26 May). Lord chancellor, lord St. Leonards (previously sir Edward

1864. Blair Athol.

1876. Kisbér, or Mineral Col Sugden).

1865. Gladiateur (31 May), a (Hungarian owner, Alex. President of the council, earl of Lonsdale.

horse reared in France, ibe Baltazzi), 31 May. Lord privy seal, marquess of Salisbury.

property of the comte de la 1877. Silvio (30 May). Home, foreign, and colonial secretaries, Spencer Horatio Wal

Grange. He also won the St. 1878. Sefton (5 June). pole, earl of Malmesbury, and sir John Pakington.

Leger at Doncaster, 13 Sept. 1879. Sir Bevys (Baron Roths. Chancellor of the exchequer, Benjamin Disraeli.

1866. Lord Lyon (16 May). child's), 28 May. Board of control, John Charles Herries.

1867. Hermit (22 May). 1880. Bend Or (duke of WestBoard of trade, Joseph Warner Henley.

1868. Blue Gown (27 May). minster's), 26 May. Postmaster-general, earl of Hardwicke.

1869. Pretender (26 May). 1881. Iroquois (Mr. Lorillard's, Secretary-at-war, William Beresford.

an American), 1 Jupe. First commissioner of works and public buildings, lord John 1870. Kingeraft (1 June).

Robert Adam Christopher, lord Colchester, etc.

Derricks are lofty, portable, crane-like structures, [Defeated on the budget, 16 Dec.; resigned 17 Dec. 1852; used on land and water for lifting enormous loads, and succeeded by the Aberdeen administration.]

in some cases depositing them at an elevation. They SECOND ADMINISTRATION, 25 Feb. 1858.

are extensively used in the United States, and were inFirst lord of the treasury, earl of Derby.

troduced into England as floating-derricks for raising Lord chancellor, lord Chelmsford (previously sir F. Thesiger). sunken vessels, by their inventor, A. D. Bishop, in 1857. Chancellor of the exchequer, B. Disraeli. Secretaries-foreign, earl of Malmesbury; home, Spencer H.

Derry (N. Ireland), a bishopric first at Ardfrath; Walpole (resigned ch, 1859), T. Sotheron Estcourt; colo- thence translated to Maghera, and in 1158 to rry. nies, lord Stanley; in June, 1858, sir E. Bulwer Lytton; war, The cathedral, built in 1164, becoming ruinous, was recol. Jonathan Peel. Presidents of the council, marquess of Salisbury; of board of built by Londoners, who settled here in the reign of control (India), 1, earl of Ellenborough (who resigned in May, James I. The see is valued in the king's books at 2501. 1858; he had sent a letter, on his own authority, censuring sterling; but it has been one of the richest sees in Irethe proclamation of lord Canning to the Oude insurgents; land.--Beatson. The see was united to Derry, 1834; see the government hardly escaped a vote of censure) ; 2, in June, 1858, lord Stanley ; board of trade, Mr. Joseph'w. Bishops ; Londonderry. Henley (resigned in March, 1859), carl of Donoughmore;

Descent of Man, see Development. board of works, lord John Manners. Lord privy seal, earl of Hardwicke.

“Deserted Village," a poem, by Dr. Oliver GoldFirst lord of the admiralty, sir John S. Pakington. Postmaster, lord Colchester.

-smith, first published May, 1770. Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, duke of Montrose.

Design, SCHOOLS OF, established by government, [This ministry resigned in consequence of a vote of want of confidence, in June, 1859; it was succeeded by the Pal- began at Somerset House, London, 1 Jan. 1837. In 1852 merston-Russell cabinet (which see). ]

the head school was removed to Marlborough House, THIRD ADMINISTRATION, CONSTITUTED 6 July, 1866.

and became eventually “the department of science and First lord of the treasury, Edward, earl of Derby.

art,” transferred to South Kensington in 1857. It is unLord chancellor, Frederick, lord Chelmsford.

der the direction of the committee of council on educaPresident of council, Richard, duke of Buckingham; succeed- tion; see Copyright.

ed by John, duke of Marlborough, 8 March, 1867. Lord privy seal, James, earl of Malmesbury.

Despard's Conspiracy. Colonel Edward MarSe relaries home, Spencer Horatio Walpole, resigned; Ga- cus Despard (a native of Ireland), Broughton, Francis, thorne Hardy, 17 May, 1867; foreign, Edward, lord Stanley; Graham, Macnamara, Wood, and Wratten conspired to colonies, Henry, earl of Carnarvon, resigned; Richard, duke of Buckingham and Chandos, 8 March, 1867; 'war, lieut. -gen. kill the king and establish a republic on the day of sir Jonathan Peel, resigned; sir John Somerset Pakington, opening parliament, 16 Nov. 1802. Above thirty per8 March, 1867; India, Robert, lord Cranborne, resigned; sir sons, including soldiers, were taken in custody; of those Stafford Henry Northcote, 8 March, 1867. Chancellor of the exchequer, Benjamin Disraeli.

tried, 20 Jan. 1803, Despard and six others were executed, First lord of the admiralty, sir John S. Pakington; succeeded 21 Feb. He had been a distinguished officer under Nel.

by Henry Thomas Corry, 8 March, 1867. Chief commissioner of works, etc., lord John Manners. President of board of trade, sir Stafford Northcote, succeeded Destitute Children's Dinner Society, estabby Charles Henry, duke of Richmond, March, 1867.

lished in 1867, to give weekly meat dinners. 16,822 dinChief secretary for Ireland, Richard, lord Naas (afterwards ners given in 1869; 147,858 dinners in 58 dining-rooms

earl of Mayo). President of poor-law board, Gathorne Hardy; succeeded by in 1870; 114,000 dinners in 42 dining-rooms, year 1876-7; William Reginald, earl of Devon (not in cabinet), 17 May, 170,000 dinners in 49 rooms, 1878-9.

1867. Horatio Spencer Walpole, without office.

Destructive Insects (to crops), an act passed to (The above formed the cabinet, Feb. 1868.)

prevent their introduction and spreading in Great BritPostmaster-general, James, duke of Montrose.

ain, 14 Aug. 1877; see Colorado. Lord chamberlain, Orlando, earl of Bradford. Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, William, earl of Devon; Detective Police, see Police and Trials, 1877.

succeeded by col. John Wilson Patten, June, 1867. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, James, earl (afterwards marquess)

Detroit (North America), the oldest city in the West, of Abercorn.

was built by the French about 1670. [The earl of Derby resigned through ill-health, 25 Feb. 1868, and Mr. Disraeli reconstituted the ministry; see Dis

Dettingen (Bavaria), BATTLE OF, 16 (or 27 o. s.) raeli.)

June, 1743, between the British, Hanoverian, and HesDerby Day (see Races), generally (not always) the England and the earl of Stair, and the French army (60,

sian army (52,000), commanded by king George II. of Wednesday in the week preceding Whitsunday, the sec- 000), under marshal Noailles and the duc de Grammont. ond day of the grand spring meeting at Epsom.

The French passed a detile, which they should have mereTHE DERBY

ly guarded. The duc de Grammont, with his cavalry, 1946. Pyrrhus.

1852. Daniel O'Rourke. charged the British foot with great fury, but was re1847. Cossack.

1853. West Australian. 1848. Surplice.

ceived with such intrepidity that he was obliged to give 1854. Andover. 1849. Flying Dutchman. 1855. Wild Dayrell.

way and to repass the Maine, losing 3000 men. Han1850. Voltigeur. 1856. Ellington.

del's “ Dettingen Te Deum” first performed 27 Nov. 1851. Tedd ton. 1857. Blink Bonny.

1743. * Born 1799; M. P. for Stockbridge (as hon. E. G. S. Stanley) Development (or Evolution). Wolff put forth a in 1820; chief secretary for Ireland, 1830–33 ; secretary for the theory of epigenesis in 1759; Lamarck, the naturalist, in colonies, 1833-4, and 1841-5; termed the “Rupert of debate," by lord Lytton. in “The New Timon," 1845; succeeded his ca. 1809, propounded a theory that all animals had been dether as earl of Derby, 30 June, 1851; resigned, 25 Feb. 1868; veloped from "monads," living minute particles; see died 25 Oct. 1869.

Species and Vestiges. Buffou held a similar doctrine.


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In 1827 Ernst von Baer of Königsberg demonstrated - Pliny. The first dial of the sun seen at Rome was that all mammals are developed from a minute egs placed on the temple of Quirinus by L. Papirius Cursor, not a hundredth of an inch in diameter. Mr. C. Darwin's | when time was divided into hours, 293 B.C.Blair. Dials views are given in his “ Origin of Species,” 1859; and set up in churches about A.D. 613--Lenglet. Mrs. Alfred “Descent of Man," 1871. He supposes that man was Gatty's “ Book of Sun-dials” was published in 1872. gradually evolved from the lowest created form of animal life. Haeckel , his most advanced follower, published depending on the different degrees of diffusibility of

Dialysis, an important method of chemical analysis, in German a “ History of Creation,” 1873 ; a translation substances in liquids, was made known in 1861, by its in English, 1875. Mr. Alfred Wallace published his discoverer, professor Thomas Graham, then master of the work on Natural Selection in 1870; see Evolution.

mint. The theory of the development of living beings out of the sub. stance of the earth was put forth by Lucretius in his “De

Diamagnetism, the property possessed by nearly Rerum Naturæ,” about 57 B.C.

all bodies of behaving differently to iron when placed "We cannot teach, we cannot pronounce it to be a conquest between two magnets. The phenomena, previously lit

of science, that man descends from the ape or from any tle known, were reduced to a law by Faraday in 1845, other animal. We can only indicate it as a hypothesis.'' – Professor Virchow, 1877.

and confirmed by Tyndall and others. “The primitive monads were born by spontaneous generation Diamond, a hamlet, Armagh, N. Ireland, where was in the sea.”Professor Haeckel, 1878.

fought the "battle of the Diamond," 21 Sept. 1795, leDevil-worship. Devil — Greek, diáßolos, false tween the “Peep-o'-day Boys” and the “ Defenders," accuser; Hebrew, sutan, an adversary; abaddon, de- and many of the latter were killed. To commemorate stroyer, etc.

The worship of devils is frequently men- this conflict the first Orange lodge was formed immeditioned in the Bible (Lev. xvii. 7; 2 Chron. xi. 15; 1 Cor. ately after; see Defenders. X. 20; Rev. ix. 20, etc.). Mr. Layard describes the Yezi

Diamonds were first brouglıt to Europe from the dees as recognizing one supreme being, yet reverencing East, where the mine of Sumbulpoor was the first known, the devil as a king or mighty angel, to be conciliated and where the mines of Golconda, the realm of diamonds, (1841).

were discovered in 1534. The mines of Brazil were disMr. Moncure Conway's " Demonology and Devil-lore” first covered in 1728. From these last a diamond weighing published, Dec. 1878.

1680 carats, or fourteen ounces, was sent to the court of Devizes, Wilts; at Roundway Down, near here, sir Portugal, and was valued by Mr. Romeo de l'Isle at 2:24 William Waller and the parliamentarians were defeated, millions; by others at 56 millions and at 3} millions; 13 July, 1643.

its true value (not being brilliant) was 400,0001. Devonport, see Dockyards and Plymouth.

The great Russiax diamond weighs 193 carats, or 1 oz. 12 d uts

4 gr. troy. The empress Catherine II. offered for it 104,Devonshire, the country of the Damnonii, or Dum

1661. 13s. 4d., besides an annuity for life to the owner, of nonii. Odun, earl of Devon, in 878 defeated the Danes, 10111. 133. 4d., which was refused; but it was afterwards slew Ubbo, or Hubba, their chief, and captured his magic

sold to Catherine's favorite, count Orloff, for the first-men

tioned sum, without the annuity, and was by him presented standard. A bishopric of Devonshire was founded in

to the empress on her birthday, 1772; it is now in the scep 909; see Exeter.

tre of Russia.

The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats, and, after cutting, 106 Richard de Redvers, first earl of Devon, son of Baldwin, sheriff

carats: it was sold to the king of France for 125,0001..n of Devonshire, died 1137.

1720. William Courtenay, the present earl, is descended from Robert The Pigott diamond (bought by Mr. Pitt, grandfather of Willde Courtenay and Mary de Redvers, daughter of William de

iam Pitt) was sold for 9500 guineas, 10 May, 1802. Redvers, earl of Devon, in 1184.

The diamond called the KOHINOOR, or MOUNTAIN OF LIGHT, William Cavendish, created first earl of Devonshire, 1618.

was found in the mines of Golconda, in 1550, and is said to William Cavendish (his great-grandson), created first duke of

have belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, Aurungzebe, Nadr Devonshire, 1684; from him is descended William Cavendish,

Shah, the Afghan rulers, and afterwards to the Sikh chief the present duke (1881).

Runjeet Singh. Upon the abdication of Dhuleep Singh, Devonshire and Pitt Administration, formed

the last ruler of the Punjab, and the annexation of his do

minions to the British empire, in 1849, the Kohinoor was 16 Nov. 1756; dismissed 5 April, 1757.

surrendered to the queen. It was accordingly brought over First lord of the treasury, William, duke of Devonshire.

and presented to her, 3 July, 1850. It was shown in the Chancellor of the erchequer, hon. Henry Bilson Legge.

Great Exhibition, 1851. Its original weight was nearly 200

carats, but it was reduced by the unskilfulness of the art'st, Lord president, earl Granville (lord Cartaret). Privy seal, ear) Gower.

Hortensio Borghese, a Venetian, to 279 carats. Its share

and size resembled the pointed half (rose cut) of a small Secretaries of state, earl of Holdernesse and William Pitt (afterwards earl of Chatham, the virtual premier).

The value is scarcely computable, thongh two George Grenville, earl of Halifax, dukes of Rutland and Graf

millions sterling have been mentioned as a justifiable price, ton, earl of Rochfort, viscount Barrington, etc.

The great

if calculated by the scale employed in the trade. This dia seal in commission.

mond was recut in 1852, and now weighs 1024 carats.

The SANCY diamond, which belonged to Charles the Bold, duke “Devout Life." “ Introduction à la Vie Dévote," of Burgundy, was bought by sir C. Jejeebhoy from the Demwritten by St. François de Sales, and published 1608, A diamond, termed the Star Or THE SOUTH, was brought from

idoff family for 20,0001. in Feb. 1865. He was born 21 Aug. 1567; bishop of Geneva, 1602; died

Brazil in 1855, weighing 254} carats, half of which was lost 28 Dec, 1622.

by cutting

Diamonds were discovered in Cape Colony, S. Africa, in March, Dew, the modern theory respecting it was put forth

1867. A fine one, termed the “Star of South Africa," by Dr. Wells in his book, 1814.

brought to England in 1869, was purchased by Messrs. Hunt

and Roskel! After cutting, it weighed 46} carats, and was Dewangiri, see India, 1865.

valued at 25,0001., in June, 1870. Diadem, the band or fillet worn by the ancients in Rich diamond-fields recently discovered near the Vaal and stead of the crown, and consecrated to the gods. At first Great intlux of diggers, and many fine diamonds found, Nov.

Orange rivers, Sept. 1870. it was made of silk or wool, set with precious stones, and Value of 141 diamonds found in 1869, 74051. ; of 5661 found was tied round the temples and forehead, the two ends in 1870, 124,9101. ; about 2,000,0001. said to have been exbeing knotted behind, and let fall on the neck. Aurelian DIAMOND NECKLACE AFFAIR. - In 1785, Bæhmer, the court jew

ported in 1877. was the first Roman emperor who wore a diadem, 272.- eller of France, offered the queen, Marie Antoinette, a diaTillernont.

mond necklace for 56, 0001. The queen desired the neck

lace, but feared the expense. The countess de la Motte (of Dialectical Society, London, for the philosoph- the ancient house of Valois) forged the queen's signature, ical consideration of all subjects, with a view to the dis- and, by pretending that the queen had an attachment for covery and elucidation of truth, was established in 1865.

him, persuaded the cardinal de Roban, the queen's almoner.

to conclude a bargain with the jeweller for the necklace for The report of their committee on spiritualism was pub

56,0001. De la Motte thus obtained the necklace and made lished in Nov. 1871.

away with it. For this she was tried in 1786, and sentenced Dials. “ The sun-dial of Ahaz," 713 B.C. (Isa.

to be branded on the shoulders and imprisoned for life. She

accused in vain the celebrated Italian adventurer Cagling. xxxviii. 8). A dial invented by Anaximander, 550 B.C. tro of complicity in the atsuir, be being then intimate with

hen's egg



the cardinal. She made her escape and came to London, | A Latin diction:ry was compiled by Varro, born....B.C. 116 where she was killed by falling from a window-sill, in at. Varro's work “De Linguâ Latinâ;" he died.. tempting to escape an arrest for debt. - De Rohan was tried The “Onomasticon,” a collection of vocabularies in and acquitted, 14 April, 1786. The public in France at that Greek, by Julius Pollux, was published about..... A.D. 177 time suspected the queen of being a party to the fraud. The “Catholicon," an attempt at a Latin Lexicon, by Talleyrand wrote at the time, that he should not be surprised Friar Johannes Balbus Januensis, printed at Mentz... 1460 if this miserable afair overturned the throne.

The first noted polyglot dictionary, perhaps the first, is Diamond Robbery; see Trials, 1871.

by Ambrose Calepini, a Venetian friar, in Latin; he Diamonds valued at 50,000!. stolen from the post-office at wrote one in eight languages. -- Niceron... ....about 1500 Cape Town about 20 March, 1880.

John E. Avenar's “ Dictionarium Hebraicum" was pub. Artificial Diamonds : those prepared by Mr. Maclear of Glas- lished at Wittenberg in 1589. Buxtorf's great work, gow examined by Mr. Story Maskelyne, and declared not to ** Lexicon Hebraicum," etc., appeared...

1621 be diamonds, 30 Dec. 1879; acknowledged by Mr. Maclear, The “ Lexicon Heptagloiton ” was published by Edmund Jan. 1880.

Castell in...

1669 Diamonds said to have been made by J. Ballantine Hannay at The great English dictionary by Samuel Johnson appearGlasgow, announced in Times, 20 Feb. 1880.

ed in..

1755 Diamonds said to have been made at Paris, 1880.

Francis Grose's “ Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue?' was compiled in....


The following academies bave published large dictionaries Boetius de Boot conjectured that the diamond was inflamma- of their respective languages: the French Academy

ble, 1609. When exposed to a high temperature it gave an (the first, edited by Vaugelas), 1694; new editions, 1718,

acrid vapor, in which a part of it was dissipated, 1673. - Boyle. 1740, 1762, 1835, and 1878; the Spanish, 1726; the Ital. Sir Isaac Newton concluded, from its great refracting power, ian Academy (della Crusca), 1729; and the Russian..1789-94 that it must be combustible, 1675.

Schwan's great Gerinan- French dictionary appeared.... 1782 Averani demonstrated, by concentrating the rays of the sun Webster's American dictionary was first published in.. 1828 upon it, that the diamond was exhaled in vapor, and entire. Smart's dictionary, published...

1831 ly disappeared, while other precious stones merely grow Richardson's English dictionary appeared..

1836 soster, 1695.

Lemprière's Classical dictionary, which first appeared in It has been ascertained by Guyton, Dary, and others, that 1788, is now superseded by Dr. W. Smith's classical diamonds contain nothing but pure charcoal, or carbon. series.

1842-57 Diamonds were charred by the intense heat of the voltaic Worcester's dictionary...

1860 battery-by M. Dumas, in Paris, and by prof. Faraday, in The Philological Society of London issued “ proposals for London, in 1848.

a new English dictionary,'' 1859; after some delay the

work has been vigorously revived; editor, Dr. Murray 1879 Diana, TEMPLE OF (at Ephesus), accounted one of The great Germany dictionary, by Jacob and Wilhelm the seven wonders of the world, was built at the common


1854 et seq. charge of all the Asiatic states, 552 B.C.; the chief archi- Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood's “ Dictionary of English Ety.


...1859-67 tect being Ctesiphon. Pliny says that 220 years were Smith's “ Dictionary of the Bible was published. .... 1860-3 occupied in completing it. It was 425 feet long, 225 The earliest known EnglishLatin dictionary is the

* Promptorium Parvulorum, broad, and was supported by 127 columns (60 feet high,

.” compiled by Galfridus

Grammaticus, a preaching friar of Norfolk, in 1410; each weighing 150 tons) of Parian marble, furnished by

and printed by Pynson, as .Promptorius Puerorum,” in so many kings. It was set on fire, on the night of the 1499. A new edition, carefully edited by Mr. Albert birth of Alexander the Great, by Herostratus or Erato

Way, from MSS., was publisbed by the Camden So. ciety..

.1843-65 stratus, who confessed that his sole motive was the de- The great French dictionary, by E. Littré, 1863–72; supsire of transmitting his name to future ages, 356 B.C. plement...

1877 The temple was rebuilt, but again burned by the Goths The “ Bona fide French and English Dictionary

1873 in their naval invasion, A.D. 256 or 262. In April, 1869, Harper's Latin Dictionary (founded upon Andrews's

inches by 27, weight 4 oz.), printed by Bellows. Mr. J. T. Wood discovered the site of the second temple; translation of Freund's Latin-German Lexicon), adopt. and since then sculptured marble columns have been re- ed as the standard authority in English and American

1879 moved to the British Museum. Diana was the Roman

universities, published...... name of the Greek Artemis.

Didymium, a rare metal, discovered by Mosander Dice. The invention of dice is ascribed to Pala- in 1841. It appears to be always associated with lanmedes, of Greece, about 1244 B.C. The game of tali and thanum and cerium. tessera among the Romans was played with dice. Stow Dieppe (N. France). This town was bombarded mentions two entertainments given by the city of Lon- by an English tleet, under admiral Russell, and laid in don, at which dice were played. Act to regulate the ashes, July, 1694. It was again bombarded in 1794; licenses of makers, and the sale of dice, 9 Geo. IV. 1828. and again, together with the town of Granville, by the In 1357, the kings of Scotland and France being prisoners. British, 14 Sept. 1803.

and the king of Cyprus on a visit to Edward III., a great “Dies Iræ" (" Day of Wrath "), a Latin mediæval tournament was held in Smithfield, and afterwards Henry Picard, mayor of London, " kept his hall against all comer's hymn on the day of judgment, is ascribed to various that were willing to play at dice and hazard. The lady authors, among others to pope Gregory the Great (died Margaret, his wife, did keepe her chamber to the same in about 604); St. Bernard (died 1153); but is generally

The mayor restored to the king of Cyprus 50 marks considered to have been composed by Thomas of Celano which he had won from him, saying, "My lord and king, be not aggrieved; for I covet not your gold, but your play," (died 1255), and to have been used in the Roman seretc. - Stow.

vice of the mass before 1385. Dichrooscope, an optical apparatus, described by Diet oF THE GERMAN EMPIRE (in which the suthe inventor, prof. Dove of Berlin, in 1860, who in- preme court of authority of the empire may be said to tended it to represent interferences, spectra in colored have existed) was composed of three colleges: one of lights, polarization of light, etc.

electors, one of princes, and one of imperial towns, and Dictators were supreme and absolute magistrates Golden Bull; Würzburg (1180); Nuremberg (1467);

commenced with the edict of Charles IV. 1356; see of Rome, appointed to act in critical times. Titus Lar- Worms (1521); Spires (1529); Augsburg (1530); Rattius Flavius, the first dictator, was appointed 501 B.C. isbon (1541); Frankfort (1806 et seq.); and Germany. Caius Marcius Rutilus was the first plebeian dictator, 356 B.c. This office became odious by the usurpations

Dietheroscope, an apparatus for geodesy and of Sylla and Julius Cæsar; and after the death of the teaching optics, constructed by G. Luvini, of Tunis, and latter the Roman senate, on the motion of the consul announced April, 1876. Antony, passed a law forbidding a dictator to exist in Dieu et mon droit ( God and my right"), the Rome, 44 B.c.

royal motto of England, was the parole of the day, given Dictionary. A standard dictionary of the Chinese by Richard I. of England to his army at the battle of language, containing about 40,000 characters, most of Gisors, in France, 20 Sept. 1198, when the French army them hieroglyphic, or rude representations, somewhat like was signally defeated. ** Dieu et mon droit" appears to our signs of the zodiac, was perfected by Pa-out-she, have been tirst assumed as a motto by Henry VI. (1422who lived about 1100 B.C. - Morrison, See Encyclopædias, 61); see Semper Eaulem. Music, etc,

Dieu-donné," the name given in his infancy to

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Louis le Grand, king of France, the qneen, his mother, fore. In England the principal dioceses are coeral with having been barren for twenty-three years previously, the establishment of Christianity; of 28 dioceses, 20 are 1638. Also to the present comte de Chambord, son of suffragan to the diocese of Canterbury, and six to that the duchess of Berri, born 29 Sept. 1820. His father was of York; see Bishops, and the sees severally. Diocesan assassinated 14 Feb. 1820. One of the popes (672) was conferences of the clergy and laity now frequent. named Adeodatus, or God's gift.

Diocletian Era (called also the era of Martyrs, on Differential Engine, see Calculating Machine. account of the persecution in his reign) was used by

Diffusion of Gases. In 1825, Döbereiner observed Christian writers until the introduction of the Christian the transmission of hydrogen gas through a crack in era in the sixth century, and is still employed by the a glass vessel, and prof. Thomas Graham discovered Abyssinians and Copts. It dates from the day on wbich

Diocletian was proclaimed emperor at Chalcedon, 29 Aug. of gases through porous porcelain, graphite,

284. and other substances, and established laws in 1832, and to him we are indebted for the discovery of Atmolysis

Dioptric System (from the Greek diá, through, and Dialysis. He died 16 Sept. 1869.

and ontáw, I see), an arrangement of lenses for refractDiffusion of USEFUL KNOWLEDGE Society, which based on the discoveries of Buffon, Condorcet, Brewster,

ing light in light-houses, devised by Fresnel about 1819, published a number of books relating to history, science, and others; see Light-houses. and literature, and an atlas, in a cheap form, ridiculed as the “ Sixpenny Sciences,” was established by Lord

Diorama. This admired exhibition was first opened Brougham, Mr. William Tooke, Mr. Charles Knight, and by MM. Bouton and Daguerre in Paris, 11 July, 1822; in others. It published its “ Library ” 1827-48, and patron- London, 29 Sept. 1823. It was not successful commerized the publication of the Per Magazine and the cially here, and was sold in 1848. The building in RePenny Cyclopædia. Its proceedings were suspended in gent's Park was purchased by sir M. Peto in 1855, to be 1846. The Royal Institution of Great Britain was es used as a Baptist chapel. tablished in 1799, for “the Promotion, Diffusion, and Diphtheria (from the Greek òiphépa, leather), a Extension of Science and Useful Knowledge.”

disease resembling croup which bas the essential charDigest. The first collection of Roman laws under acter of developing a false membrane on the mucous this title was prepared by Alfrenus Varus, the civilian, membrane connected with the throat. It was named of Cremona, 66 B.C.-Quintil. The “ Digest,” so called diphtheritis by Bretonneau of Tours in 1820. From its by way of eminence, was the collection made by order prevalence in Boulogne, it has been termed the Bouof the emperor Justinian, 529: it made the first part of logne sore-throat; many persons were affected with it in the Roman law and the first volume of the civil law. England at the beginning of 1858. The princess Alice, Quotations from it are marked with a ff.- Pardon. The grand-duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt, died of this disease, “ Digest of Law” commissioners signed their first report 14 Dec. 1878, after nursing her husband and children. 13 May, 1867, recommending the immediate preparation Diplomacy, the art of managing the relations of of a digest of the English common-law, statute law, and foreign states by means of ambassadors, enroys, consuls, judicial decisions.

chargés (l'affaires, etc. ; see Ambassadors and Consuls. Digits, any whole number under 10: 1, 2, etc., are New regulations for the British diplomatic service wore the nine digits. Arithmetical figures were known to the issued 5 Sept. 1862. Arabian Moors about 900, and were introduced by them Diplomas. The wholesale fraudulent sale of diplointo Spain in 1050, and thence into England about 1253. mas of M.D., etc., for 101., by a Dr. Buchanan, dean of In astronomy, the digit is a measure used in the calcu- the American University of Philadelphia, and others, lation of eclipses, and is the twelfth part of the luminary was detected in 1880. He attempted escape by a sham eclipsed; see Figures.

suicide, but was captured, prosecuted, and imprisoned. Dijon (E. France), the ancient capital of Burgundy, Diplomatics, the foreign term for the science of is said to have been founded by Julius Cæsar, fortified palæography or ancient writings. Valuable works on by the emperor Marcus Aurelius, and named Divio, this subject have been compiled by Mabillon (1681), De about 274. It has been several times captured in war; Vaines (1774), Astle (1781), De Wailly (1838), and other and a castle was erected here by Louis XI. Dijon be- antiquaries. came the capital of the dukes of Burgundy about 1180. “ Directory FOR THE Public WORSHIP OF Gop" It was attacked by the Germans, under gen. Beyer, 30 was drawn up at the instance of the parliament by an Oct. 1870. The heights and suburbs were taken by assembly of divines at Westminster in 1644, after the prince William of Baden, and the town surrendered on suppression of the Book of Common Prayer. The gen31 Oct.

eral hints given were to be managed with discretion; for Dilapidations, see Ecclesiastical.

the Directory prescribed no form of prayer or manner of Dilettanti, SOCIETY OF, established in 1734 by the

external worship, and enjoined the people to make no viscount Harcourt, lord Middlesex, duke of Dorset, and ment of Scotland in 1645, and many of its regulations

responses except A men. It was adopted by the parliaothers who had travelled and who were desirous of en

are still observed by Presbyterians. couraging a taste for the fine arts in Great Britain. The society published, or aided in publishing, Stuart's “ Ath

Directory, The FRENCH, established by the conens" (1762-1816), Chandler's "Travels” (1775-6), and stitution of the 5th of Fructidor, an III. (22 Aug. 1795), several other finely illustrated works. The members and nominated 1 Nov., was composed of five members dine together from time to time at the Thatched house (MM. Lépeaux, Letourneur, Rewbel, Barras, and Cartavern, St. James's. Mr. R. P. Pullan, on behalf of this not). It ruled in conjunction with two chambers, the society, excavated the temple of Bacchus at Teos, of Council of Ancients and Council of Five Hundred (which Apollo Smintheus in the Troad, and of Minerva Polias see), at the revolution of the 18th of Brumaire (9 Nov. at Priene, between 1861-70. Published “ Antiquities of 1799). It was deposed by Bonaparte, who, with CamIonia,” 4 parts, 1769–1881.

bacérès and Lebrun, assumed the government as three

consuls, himself the first, 13 Dec. 1799; see Consuls. Dimity, see Damietta.

Directory, the first London, is said to have been Dinas, see Accidents under Coal and Mansion House. printed in 1677. The “Post-office Directory” tirst apDinners, see Destitute.

peared in 1800. Diocese. The first division of the Roman empire "Disciples of Christ" (also called CAMPBELLinto dioceses, at that period civil governments, is as- ITES*) profess adherence to pure Scriptural doctrine cribed to Constantine, 323; but Strabo remarks that the

* The term Campbellite originated through their first church Romans had the departments called dioceses long be- I at Brush Run, in America, having been set up by a Scotch and practice, reject human creeds and formularies, and First lord of admiralty, Henry Thomas L. Corry. admit to their communion all who recognize Christ's Chief commissioner of works, lord John Manners.

President of board of trade, Charles Henry, duke of Richmond. obedience and death as “the only meritorious cause of Chief secretary for Ireland, Richard, earl of Mayo; made vicethe sinner's acceptance with God;" and are baptized (by roy of Iudia, Oct.; succeeded by col. J. Wilson Patten, 7

Nov. 1868. immersion) in his name.

President of poor-law board, Wm. Reginald, earl of Devon. Discipline, ecclesiastical, originally conducted spir

(The above formed the cabinet.) itually according to the divine commands in Matt. xviii. Postmaster-general, James, duke of Montrose. 15, 1 Cor. v., 2 Thess. iii. 6, and other texts, was gradu- Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, col. John Wilson Patten;

Lord great chamberlain, Orlando, earl of Bradford. ally changed to a temporal character, as it now appears succeeded by col. Thos. E. Taylor, 7 Nov. 1868. in the Roman, Greek, and other churches. The “First Lord lieutenant of Ireland, James, earl (afterwards marquis)

of Abercorn. Book of Discipline" of the Presbyterian church of Scotland was drawn up by John Knox and four ministers in MR. DISRAELI'S LETTER of 30 Oct. 1873, to lord Grey de Wilton,

severely censuring the Gladstone ministry as having “har. Jan. 1560-1. The more important "Second Book” was assed every trade, worried every profession, and assailed prepared with great care in 1578 by Andrew Melville and or menaced every class, institution, and species of property a committee of the leading members of the general as

in the country;'' and also stating that the country has

"made up its mind to close this career of plundering and sembly. It lays down a thoroughly Presbyterian form

blundering '' --was published 7 Oct. 1873; see Gladstone Adof government, defines the position of the ecclesiastical ministration. and civil powers, etc.

SECOND ADMINISTRATION, received seals 21 Feb. 1874. Discount, see under Bank of England.

First lord of the treasury, Benjamin Disraeli (earl of Beacons.

field, 16 Aug. 1876); and lord privy seal, Aug. 1876 to Jan. Disestablishment, see Church of Ireland.


Lord chancellor, Hugh, lord Cairns. Dispensaries, to supply the poor with medical Lord president of the council, Charles Henry, duke of Richadvice and medicines, began in London. The Royal Lord privy seal, James, earl of Malmesbury; resigned, 12 Aug; General Dispensary, London, was established in St. Bar

1876; earl of Beaconsfield, Aug. 1876; Algernon, duke of tholomew's Close in 1770. It relieved about 20,000 per- Northumberland, 4 Feb. 1878. sons in 1861; about 17,000 in 1866. Western Dispensary, Secretary of state for foreign affairs, Edward, earl of Derby; 1789. Garth's satiric poem, “ The Dispensary,” pub- Secretary of state for India, Robert, marquis of Salisbury;

resigned; Robert, marquis of Salisbury, 28 March, 1878. lished 1699.

Gathorne Hardy, created viscount Cranbrook, 2 April, 1878.

Secretary of state for the colonies, Henry, earl of Carnarvon; Dispensations, ecclesiastical, were first granted by

resigned, 24 Jan. 1878; sir Michael Hicks-Beach, 4 Feb. pope Innocent III. in 1200. These exemptions from the 1878. discipline of the church, with indulgences, absolutions, Secretary of state for war, Gathorne Hardy; col. Fred Arthur etc., led eventually to the Reformation in Germany in Secretary' of state for home department, Richard Assheton

Stanley, 2 April, 1878. 1517.

Cross. Dispensing Power of the Crown (for setting

First lord of the admiralty, George Ward Hunt, died 29 July,

1877; Wm. Henry Smith, 7 Aug. 1877. aside laws or their power) asserted by some of our sov- President of board of trade, sir Charles Adderley, res gned, ereigns, especially by Charles II. (in 1672 for the relief created băron Norton, April, 1878; Dudley Ryder, viscount of nonconformists), and by James II. in 1786, was abol-Chancellor of the exchequer, sir Stafford Northcote.

Sandon. ished by the bill of rights, 1689. It has been on certain Postmaster-general, lord John Manners. occasions exercised, as in the case of embargoes upon Lord lieutenant of Ireland, James, duke of Abercorn; resigned

(The above formed the cabinet.) ships, the Bank Charter act, etc.; see Indemnity.

Dec. 1876; John, duke of Marlborough, Dec. 1876. Disraeli Administrations.* On the resigna- Chief secretary for Ireland, sir Michael Edward Hicks- Beach tion of the earl of Derby through ill-health, 25 Feb.

(entered the cabinet, Nov. 1876); succeeded by James Low.

ther, Feb. 1878. 1868, Mr. Disraeli reconstituted the ministry, 29 Feb. Vice-president of council (education), Dudley, viscount San(see Derby Administrations, III.).

As the elections gave

don; lord George Hamilton, April, 1878. a large majority to the liberal party, Mr. Disraeli's min- Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, col. Thos. E. Taylor. istry resigned 2 Dec. He declined to take office with Commissioner of woods and forests, lord Henry Lennox, re

signed July, 1876; Gerard James Noel, 14 Aug. 1870. the then house of commons when Mr. Gladstone re

Dissection, see Anatomy. signed, 12 March, 1873, and the latter resumed office.

Dissenters, the modern name of the Puritans and FIRST ADMINISTRATION, 29 Feb. 1868.

Nonconformists (which see). In 1851, in London, the First lord of the treasury, Benjamin Disraeli. Lord chancellor, Hugh MacCalmont, lord Cairns.

number of chapels, meeting-houses, etc., for all classes Lord president of the council, John, duke of Marlborough. of dissenters amounted to more than 55t. (The church Lord privy seal, James, carl of Malmesbury.

of England had 458; Roman Catholics, 35.) The great Secretaries-home, Gathorne Hardy; foreign, Edward, lord

Stanley; colonies, Richard, duke of Buckingham and Chan act (9 Geo. IV. c. 17) for the relief of dissenters from dos; war, sir John S. Pakington; India, sir Stafford Henry civil and religious disabilities was passed 9 May, 1828. Northcote.

By this act, called the Corporation and Test Repeal act, Chancellor of the exchequer, George Ward Hunt.

so much of the several acts of preceding reigns as im

posed the necessity of receiving the sacrament of the Presbyterian preacher from Ireland, named Thomas Camp- Lord's Supper as a qualification for certain offices, etc., bell, and his son Alexander. In 1812 they renounced infant baptism, and were rebaptized by immersion. Their number in

was repealed. By 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 85 (1836), dissentAmerica is said to be about 600,000; and in the United Kingers acquired the right of solemnizing marriages at their dom, where the movement began independently and simul- own chapels, or at a registry office; see Worship. taneously, about 5000. They have also churches in the British colonies.

A burials bill to permit the ministers of dissenters to officiate * Benjamin Disraeli (son of Isaac Disraeli, author of the at funerals in churchyards several times rejected; in tho “Curiosities of Literature," etc.), born 21 Dec. 1805; pub. commons 218 to 234, 21 April, 1975; 279 to 248, 3 March, lished "Vivian Grey," 1825; M.P. for Maidstone, 1837-11; 1876; earl Granville's resolution in the lords rejected, 148 to Shrewsbury, 1841-7; Bucks, 1847-76. Chancellor of ex- 92, 15 May, 1876. chequer (seo Derby administrations), Feb. 1852; Feb. 1858; Lord Harrowby's additional clause to the government burials July, 1866; installed lord rector of Glasgow university, 19 bill (permitting dissenters to have religious services in Nov. 1873; created earl of Beaconsfeld, Aug. 1876; plenipo- churchyards), was supported by the archbishops, and tentiary at the Berlin Congress, 13 June-13 July, 1878; K.G. carried against government (127–111), 18 June; the bill invested by the queen, 22 July, 1878; received freedoin of withdrawn, 25 June, 1877. London, 3 Aug. 1878 (**at the pinnacle of ministerial renown; Mr. Osborne Morgan's resolution for reforming burial laws the favorite of his sovereign, and the idol of society."'-— Times, (ie., permitting other services), rejected (212–227), 15 Feb. 8 Aug. 1878); see People's Tribute ; resigned (through liberal 1878. majority in elections), 22 April, 1880; published Endym- Act to amend the burial laws, permitting dissenters to have ion,” Dec. 1880; died 19 April, 1881; buried at Hughenden; their own service or no service in churchyards; passed prince of Wales and many present, 26 April; monument in commons (258-791, 13 Ang; royal assent, 7 Sept. 1880. Westminster abbey voted, 9 May, 1881. Mrs. Disraeli cre. The Rev. W. H. Fremantle having proposed to preach at Dr. ated viscountess Beaconsfield, 28 Nov. 1863; died 16 Dec. 1872. Parker's city temple, and the bishop of Loudon having dis

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