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approved, the opinion of two counsel (Messrs. Fitzjames | tian, and was successfully tried in the bay of Naples, 26 to be illegal for the clergy of the English church to take Aug. 1871.-- Diving-dress, a close dress made by Mr. part in worship of dissenters, June, 1875.

Siebe about 1836; used by sir C. W. Pasley in 1838. M. Several Episcopal clergymen take part in the dedication ser. Cabirol, maker of one, died Dec. 1874. vices of Christ church (formerly Surrey chapel), Blackfriars, Mr. Fleuss invented a helmet with a monthpiece, into which middle of July, 1876.

he introduced enough oxygen to last five hours, and thus was enabled to remain under water several hours.

He exDissolving Views. Henry Langdon Childe, the

bibited his method at the Polytechnic Institution, London, alleged inventor, died 15 Oct. 1874, aged 92.

Nov. 1979, and at the Society of Arts, 6 May, 1880. Distaff (or Rock), the staff to which flax or any sub

Divining Rod (virgula divina, baculatorius),formed stance to be spun is fastened. The art of spinning with of wood or metal, was formerly believed, even by eduit at the small wheel first taught to English women by cated persons, to have the property of indicating the Anthony Bonavisa, an Italian.--Slow. St. Distaff's or position of minerals and springs of water. Instances Rock day, was formerly the first free day after the Epiph- were alleged in 1851 by Dr. H. Mayo, in his work on any (6 Jan.) because the Christmas holidays were over

“Popular Superstitions.” and women's work was resumed.

Divinity, see Theology. Distillation, and the various processes dependent

Divorce was permitted by the law of Moses (Deut. on it, are believed to have been introduced into Europe xxiv. 1), 1451 B.C., but forbidden by Christ except for by the Moors, about 1150; see Alcohol, Brandy. The unchastity (Matt. v. 31, 32). It was put in practice by distillation of spirituous liquors was in practice in Great Spurius Carvilius Ruga at Rome, 234 B.C. At this time Britain in the sixteenth century.—Burns. The processes were improved by Adam of Montpellier in 1801. M. morals were so debased that 3000 prosecutions for

adultery were enrolled.

Divorces are of two kinds; one, a Payen's work (1861) contains the most recent improve- rinculo matrimonii (total divorce); the other a mensâ et

An act to prevent the use of stills by unlicensed thoro (from board and bed). Divorces were attempted persons was passed in 1846. 118 licenses to distillers

to be made of more easy obtainment in England in 1539. were granted in the year ending 31 March, 1858, for the The Judicature act, 1873, constituted the probate, divorce, United Kingdom.

and admiralty division of the High Court of Justice, M. Raoul Pictet announces a method of distillation by use of with two judges; see Supreme Court and Probate.--In ice made by the air-pump, April, 1881.

the United States divorce is regulated by the several District Auditors Act, 42 Vict. c. 6 (28 March, states independently. As a consequence, the laws vary 1879), regulated their appointment, duties, and pay- greatly, and considerable confusion arises from their con

flict. A man may be the lawful husband of one woman District Churches Acts. By the one passed

in one state, while the law of another state may hold in 1865 certain new churches were constituted rectories

, him to be the husband of another. The necessity of and by another act, passed in 1868 (the Bishop of Ox- providing some uniform system was discussed, 1881. ford's act), the new parishes not rectories were ordered Connecticut, Indiana, Kansas, and some other states have to be styled vicarages.

become notorious for easy divorce laws, and many fraud

ulent divorces have been made in those states either by Ditch, see Expedition.

evasion of the law or by direct forgery. “Diversions of Purley” (Epea Pteroenta,” Bill to prevent women marrying their seducers brought flying words) a collection of grammatical treatises by

into parliament..... John Horne Tooke, published in 1786, named from the The commissioners on the law of divorce issue their first

report..

..April, 1857 residence at Purley, near Wandsworth, Surrey.

In 1857 there had been in England, since the ReformaDividends of Public STOCKS. By an act passed

tion, 317 divorces by act of parliament; in Scotland,

by the law, 174 divorces since 1846; 1858-67, 1279 dis11 Aug. 1869, these may be paid by post if the recipients solutions of marriage, 213 judicial separations. desire it, as railway dividends are.

From the establishment of the divorce court, to March,

1859, 37 divorces had been granted out of 288 petitions; Divination was forbidden to the Jews, 1451 B.C. from Nov. 1860, to July, 1861, 164. (Deut. xviii. 9.) It was common among their neigh-By 20 & 21 Vict. c. 85, the jurisdiction of the ecclesiasti

cal courts respecting divorce, etc., was abolished, and bors, and is described by Ezekiel (xxi. 21) 493 B.C. the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes court instituted, Divine Right of Kings, the absolute and unquali

to consist of three judges, the judge of the Probate

court to be one (if possible).. fied claim of sovereigns to the obedience of their sub- A full court sat—lord Campbell, chief-baron Pollock, sir jects, a doctrine totally foreign to the genius of the Eng- Cresswell Cresswell (judge of the Probate court)-when lish constitution, was defended by many persons of other. The act amended by acts passed in consequence of the

five marriages were dissolved...

10 May, 1858 wise opposite opinions, e.g., by Hobbes the free-thinker

increase of the business of the court..

1856-60 (1642), by Salmasius (1640), by sir Robert Filmer (about An act respecting divorces in Scotland passed 1653), in his “Patriarcha,” published in 1680, and by the Sir C. Cresswell died in July; sir James P. Wilde (afterHigh Church party generally about 1714; but opposed The Divorce Amendment act passed

.Sept. 1863

21 July, 1868 by Milton (1651), Algernon Sydney, and others.

Lord Penzance retired, Oct. ; succeeded by sir James
Hannen...

.Nov. 1872 Diving-Bell (first mentioned, though obscurely, by On appeal, the house of lords decide that proceedings Aristotle, about 325 B.C.) was used in Europe about A.D, may be taken for divorce from a wife insane (eee Mor1509. It is said to have been used on the coast of Mull, daunt case, Trials, 1870) ..

.22 June, 1874 in searching for the wreck of part of the Spanish Armada, Dizier, St. (N.E. France). Here a siege was susbefore 1662. Halley (about 1716) greatly improved this tained for six weeks against the army of the emperor machine, and was, it is said, the first who, by means of a Charles V., 1544. The allies here defeated Napoleon, 27 diving-bell, set his foot on the ground at the bottom of Jan. and 26 March, 1814. the sea. Smeaton made use of the diving-bell in improving Ramsgate harbor, 1779-88. Mr. Spalding and the scene of the earlier incidents of the Russo-Turkish

Dobrudscha, the N.E. corner of Bulgaria ; in 185+, his assistants going down in a diving-bell in Ireland war (which see). At the close of the war of 1877-8 it were drowned, 1 June, 1783. The Royal George manof-war, which was sunk off Portsmouth in 1782, was first Bessarabia restored to Russia, and occupied 26 Dec. 1878.

was given to Roumania in exchange for the part of surveyed by means of a diving-bell, in May, 1817. Latterly it has been employed in submarine surveys and

Docetæ, a sect of the first century, said to have held harbor works. The - talpa marina,” or sea-mole, a div- that Jesus Christ was God, but that his body was an ing machine for laying down torpedoes, etc., being a appearance, not a reality. cylinder provided with compressed air sufficient for two Docks of England. The following are the prinpersons for fifty hours, was invented by Toselli, a Vene- cipal commercial docks;

1801

1861

The party

1828.

1869.

Commercial Docks, Rotherhithe, originated about 1660.

Doctrinaires, a name given since 1814 to a class West India Docks commenced 3 Feb. 1800; opened 27 Aug; of politicians in France (Guizot, Molé, the duc de Broglie

entered them, decorated with the colors of the different na- and others), who upheld constitutional principles, in options of Europe.

position to arbitrary monarchical power. London Docks were commenced 26 June, 1802, and opened 20 came into office in 1830 under Louis Philippe, and fell

Jan. 1805.
East India Docks commenced 1803; opened 4 Aug. 1806.

with him in 1848. The term has been applied in this St. Katharine's Docks began 3 May. 1827; and 2500 men were country to the writers in the Westminster Review (1824 daily employed on them until they were opened, 25 Oct.

et seq.), Bentham, Molesworth, and others. Royal Victoria Docks (in Plaistow marshes) completed and Dodona, Epirus. The temple of Jupiter here, re

opened Nov. 1855; great enlargement proposed, July, 1876; completed and nained Royal Albert Docks by the duke and nowned for its ancient oracle, delivered by the sound of duchess of Connaught, 24 June, 1880.

wind in a grove of trees, was destroyed by the Ætolians, Magnificent docks at Liverpool and Birkenhead erected, 219 B.C.

1810-57. Milwall Docks, near London, formally opened, 14 March, 1868.

Dodson's Act (brought forward by Mr. John G. A great floating iron dry-dock, which cost 250,0001., was Dodson, and passed 1 Aug. 1861) provides that votes for launched at North Woolwich, 3 Sept. 1868, and towed from electing members of parliament for the universities may the Medway by two ships of war, 23 June, 1869, and arrived be recorded by means of polling-papers. The act was at the Bermudas (in thirty-six days), 30 July.

amended in 1868. ROYAL DOCK-YARDS.

Dog. Buffon considers the shepherd's dog as "the Woolwich, an extensive one in 1509; closed 1 Oct. 1869. Deptford dock-yard founded about 1513; closed 31 March, root of the tree," assigning as his reason that it possesses

from nature the greatest share of instinct. Dr. Gall Chatham dock-yard was founded by queen Elizabeth; much mentions that a dog was taken from Vienna to England; enlarged in 1870.

that it escaped to Dover, got on board a vessel, landed Portsmouth dock-yard established by Henry VIII. Plymouth dock, now Devonport, about 1689. Great fire here, at Calais, and, after accompanying a gentleman to Mentz,

by which the Talavera, of 74 guns, the Imogene frigate, of returned to Vienna. 28 guns, and immense stores, were destroyed; the relics and

1770

Statute against dog stealing, 10 Geo. III.. figure-heads of the favorite ships of Boscawen, Rodney, Dun

abolished in can, and other naval heroes, which were preserved in a Employment of dogs in drawing carts, etc., naval museum, were also burned; the loss was estimated at Dog.tax imposed, 1796; and again in 1808; 128. a year

1854 200,0001., 27 Sept. 1840.

1866 Sheerness dock-yard was built by Charles II. after the insult

realized 219,3131., in... of the Dutch, who burned our men-of-war at Chatham in

Assessed taxes on dogs repealed, 29 March, 1867; an an1667. A fire occurred at Sheerness dock yard, on board the

nual excise duty of 5s. imposed on all dogs more than six months old, to begin on..

.5 April, 1867 Camperdown, 9 Oct. 1840. Milford-Haven'dock-yard, 1790; removed to Pembroke in Dog shows held in London in 1861; since 1862 at the 1814; see Hull.

Agricultural Hall, Islington, at the Crystal Palace, and

other places.

“Dogs' temporary home” opened, Hollingsworth street, Doctor Doctor of the Church was a title given to

London, N., 1861; removed to Battersea in 1871; about Athanasius, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and Chrysostom 2200 animals have been sheltered in a year. in the Greek church; and to Jerome, Augustin, Am- As a nuisance, dogs at large unmuzzled in the metropolis brose, and Gregory the Great in the Latin church ; see

were ordered to be seized by the police..July to 27 Nov. 1868 A new act, more stringent, passed.

...24 July, 1871 Fathers. Afterwards the title was conferred on certain Master McGrath, an excessively fleet hound, the properpersons with distinguishing epithets – viz. : Thomas ty of Lord Lurgan, thrice won the Waterloo cup; was Aquinas (Angelicus), Bonaventura (Seraphicus), Alex

sent for the queen to see, 1 March, and died... 24 Dec.

Dog licenses (annual 5s.) issued in financial year 1871-2, ander de Hales (Irrefragabilis), Duns Scotus (Subtilis),

produced 279,425l. ; in 1875–6, 343, 2571. ; in 1876-7, Roger Bacon (Mirabilis), William Occam (Singularis), 349,6131. ; 1877-8, 372,6991. Joseph Gerson (Christianissimus), Thomas Bradwardine Number of dogs licensed in United Kingdom: in 1866,

445,656; in 1876, 1,362,176. (Profundus), and so on.-Doctor of the Law was a title of honor among the Jews. The degree of doctor was Dog-days. The canicular or dog days now comconferred in England, 8 John, 1207.-Spelman. Some mence on 3 July and end 11 Aug. The rising and setgive it an earlier date, referring it to the time of the ting of Sirius or the dog-star with the sun has been Venerable Bede and John de Beverley, the former of erroneously regarded as the cause of excessive heat and whom, it is said, was the first that obtained the degree of consequent calamities. at Cambridge in the eighth century.

Doge, or Duke. Venice was first governed by a doge Doctors' Commons, the college for the professors named Anafesto Paululio, or Paoluccio, 697; see Venice. of civil and canon law in the eighth century. In Feb. The Genoese chose their first doge, Simone Boccanegra,

in 1339,- Muratori. 1568, Dr. Henry Hervie, dean of the arches and master of Trinity Hall (a seminary founded at Cambridge chief- Dogger-bank (German Ocean). Here a gallant ly for the study of the civil and canon laws), procured but indecisive battle was fought between the British, from the dean and chapter of the diocese of London a under admiral sir Hyde Parker, and the Dutch, 5 Aug. lease of Montjoy House and buildings in the parish of 1781. St. Benet, Paul's wharf, for the accommodation of the

Doggett's Coat and Badge. Thomas Doggett, society. Other courts being held here, the whole place an eminent actor of Drury lane, at the first anniversary received the appellation of “ Doctors' Commons.” The of the accession to the throne of George I., 1 Aug. 1715, original college was destroyed in the great fire of 1666; gave a waterman's coat and silver badge to be rowed for in 1672 it was rebuilt on the old site. After the great by six young watermen in honor of the day, and befire, until 1672, the society held its courts at Exeter queathed at his death, in 1722, a sum of money to conHouse, in the Strand. It was incorporated by charter tinue the custom. in June, 1768.—Coote. The buildings of the College of Advocates, which included all the courts of Doctors'

Doit. A silver Scottish penny, of which twelve were Commons (arches, admiralty, consistory, etc.), were pur- equal to a penny sterling. Some of those struck by chased by the Metropolitan Board of Works, and were Charles I. and II. are in the cabinets of the curious. The pulled down in April, 1867, for the new Qucen Victoria circulation of “doydekyns” (small Dutch coins) was prostreet; some new buildings were erected. Till 1857 hibited by statute in 1415. the causes taken cognizance of here were blasphemy, Dollar, the German thaler. Stamped Spanish dollars divorces, bastardy, adultery, penance, tithes, mortuaries, (value 4s. 9d.) were issued from the mint in March, 1797, probate of wills, etc. The building in Knightrider but called in Oct. following. The dollar is the customary street being dilapidated and too small, the wills were unit in calculations of United States money. It is coined removed to Somerset (iouse, where the office was opened both in gold and in silver. It is worth about 4s. 4d. 24 Oct. 1874. See Ecclesiastical Courts, Civil Law, etc. English money.

Dolly's Brae, see Riots, 1849.

Dominion of Canada, see Canada. Dom and Duomo, see Cologne and Milan,

Dominoes, " a sport imported from France a few Dom-boc or DOOM - BOOK (Liber Judicialis), the years back.”—Strutt's Sports, 1801. code of law compiled by king Alfred from the West- Don Quixote, by Saavedra Miguel de Cervantes Saxon collection of Ina and other sources. Alfred reigned (born 1547; died 1616). The first part of this work apfrom 871 to 901.

peared in 1605, and the second part in 1608. It is said Dome's-day (or Doom's-day) Book [Domus that upwards of 12,000 copies of the first part were cirDei book, Stow] (Liber Censualis Angliæ), a book of the culated before the second was printed.— Watts. general survey of England, commenced in the reign of Donatists, an ancient strict sect, formed about 313William I., 1080 (some say 1085), and completed in 1086. 318, by an African bishop, Donatus, who was jealous of It was intended to be a register to determine the right Cæcilian, bishop of Carthage: it became extinct in the in the tenure of estates ;* and from it the question seventh century. The Donatists held that the Father whether lands be ancient demesne or not is sometimes was above the Son, and the Son above the Holy Ghost. still decided. The book, formerly kept in the Chapter Their discipline was severe, and those who joined them house of Westminster, is now in the Public Record Of were rebaptized. fice. It consists of two volumes, a greater and less, Donauwerth (Bavaria). Here the French and wherein all the counties of England, except Northum- Bavarians were defeated by the duke of Marlborough, berland, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, are after a severe conflict, 2 July, 1704. surveyed. “This Dome's-day Book was the tax-book of kinge William.”—Camden. The taxes were levied Saxon Donne ceastre. The races here (held annually in

Doncaster (Yorkshire), the Roman Danum, the according to this survey till 13 Hen. VIII., 1522, when a more accurate survey was taken, called by the people the September) began about 1703 ; see Races. New Doom's-day Book. It was printed in four vols.

Donkey Show. An exhibition of donkeys and folio, with introductions, etc., 1783-1816. Photo-zinco- mules took place at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, 9 graphic copies of various counties have been published Aug. 1864; and since. since 1861. In Sept. 1872, government ordered a return Doom's-day Bock, see Dome's-duy Book. of all the owners of land in England and Wales--in fact, Dorado, see El Dorado. a new Dome's-day Book; the work to be done by the Local Government Board.

Dorchester (Oxfordshire) was once a bishopric,

founded about 636. The first bishop, Birinus, the apostle The return for Scotland, 1872-3, was published by government, of the West Saxons (which see), was succeeded in 650 by

April, 1874; for England and Wales (exclusive of the me. tropolis) in 1875; for Ireland, 1876.

Agilbert. In 659 the see was divided by the king. DorDomestic Economy, or the study of food and at Winchester, in 660 obtained the whole. The see of

chester remained with Agilbert, and Wina, established clothing, was introduced into the government educa- Dorchester was revived about 764. In 1072 the bishop tional department in 1874; the congresses began at Bir- Remigius de Feschamp removed the see to Lincoln. mingham, 16 July, 1877; Manchester, 26 June, 1878; London (Society of Arts), 26 June, 1879; 21 June, 1881.

Dorchester (Dorsetshire), the Roman Durnoraria,

the Saxon Dornceaster. Here are found remains of a Domingo, Sr., see Hayti.

Roman theatre and of a British camp. Here Jeffries Dominica (West Indies), discovered by Columbus in held his "bloody assize" (after Monmouth's rebellion), his second voyage, on Sunday, 3 Nov. 1493. It was 3 Sept. 1685. Much excitement was caused by six lataken by the British in 1761, and confirmed to them by borers of Dorchester being sentenced to transportation, the peace of Paris, Feb. 1763. The French took Do- 17 March, 1834, for administering illegal oaths. minica in 1778, but restored it at the subsequent peace in 1783. Their admiral Villeneuve ineffectually attacked

Dorians, Greeks, who claimed descent from Dorus, it in 1805. It suffered great damage by a hurricane in son of Hellen; see Greece. The return of the Dorians,

named Heraclidæ, to the Peloponnesus is dated 1104 B.C. 1806.

They sent out many colonies. To them we owe the Dominical Letter, noting the Lord's day, or Sun- Doric architecture, the second of the five orders. day. The seven days of the week, reckoned as beginning on 1 Jan., are designated by the tirst seven let

Dorking, Surrey, an ancient town; the manor harters of the alphabet, A (i Jan.), B, C, D, E, F, G; and ing been given by the Conqueror to earl Fitzwarren. An the one of these which denotes Sunday is the Dominical imaginary battle of Dorking, in which the German inletter. If the year begin on Sunday, A is the Dominical vaders totally defeat the British army, is the subject of letter; if on Monday, G; on Tuesday, F; and so on.

a clever article, attributed to col. George Chesney, in Generally, to find the Dominical letter call New-year's

Blackwood's Magazine for May, 1871. It provoked day A, the next B, and go on thus until you come to the much controversy, and caused the publication of several first Sunday, and the letter that answers to it is the Do- pamphlets. minical letter; in leap-years count two letters. The let- Dormans (N.E. France). The Huguenots and their ter for 1881, B; 1882, A; 1883, G; 1884, F-E; 1885, D. allies, under Montmorency, were here defeated by the Dominicals, see Exeter.

duke of Guise, 10 Oct. 1575. Dominican Republic, see Hayti, 1844-61.

Dort, or DORDRECHT, an ancient town in Holland.

Here happened an inundation of the Meuse in 1421, Dominicans, formerly a powerful religious order through the breaking-down of the dikes. In the terri(called in France Jacobins, and in England Black friars), tory of Dordrecht 10,000 persons perished; and more founded to put down the Albigenses and other heretics than 100,000 round Dollart, in Friesland, and in Zealand. by St. Dominic, approved by Innocent III. in 1215, and The independence of the thirteen provinces was declared confirmed by Honorius III. in 1216, under St. Augustin's here in 1572, when William Prince of Orange was made rules and the founder's particular constitution. In 1276 stadtholder. A Protestant synod sat at Dort 13 Nov. the corporation of London gave the Dominicans two 1618, to 25 May, 1619; to which deputies were sent from streets near the Thames, where they erected a large con- England, and from the reformed churches in Europe, to vent, whence that part is still called Blackfriars. A Do- settle the difference between the doctrines of Luther, minican establishment at Haverstock hill, near London, Calvin, and Arminius, principally upon points of justifwas consecrated 10 Oct. 1867.

cation and grace. This synod condemned the tenets of

Arininius. * Sir Martin Wright says, " to discover the quantity of every man's fee, and to fix his homage,'' i.e., the question of mili

Dorylæum (Phrygia). Soliman, the Turkish sultan tary aid he was bound to furnish.

I of Iconium, having retired from the defence of Nicæa his capital, was here defeated with great loss by the Downs, see Naval Battles, 1652–3. crusaders, 1 July, 1097.--Michuud.

Draco's Laws (enacted by him when archon of “Doterel," H.M.S., destroyed by explosion, 26 Athens, 621 B.C.), on account of their severity, were said April, 1881 ; see under Navy.

to be written in blood. Idleness was punished as severeDouay (N. France), the Roman Duacum, was taken ly as murder. This code was set aside by Solon's, 594 B.C. from the Flemings by Philip the Fair in 1297; restored by Charles V. in 1368. It reverted to Spain, from which banker's name were made payable only to or through

Drafts (or cheques). In 1856, drafts crossed with a it was taken by Louis XIV. in 1667. It was captured the same banker. This act was passed in consequence by the duke of Marlborough in June, 1710; and retaken of a decision to the contrary in the case of Carlon v. by the French 8 Sept. 1712. This town gives its name Ireland, 12 Dec. 1855. to the Roman Catholic English version of the Bible au- material part of a cheque; but bankers are not held re

In 1858 the crossing was made a thorized by the pope, the text being explained by notes sponsible when the crossing does not plainly appear, and of Roman divines. The Old Testament was published

a penny stamp was ordered to be affixed to drafts on by the English college at Donay in 1609; the New had bankers

, commencing 25 May. In the case of Simmonds been published at Rheims in 1582. The English college for Roman Catholics was founded in 1568 by William ing formed no part of the draft. The crossing had been

v. Taylor, May, 1858, it had been decided that the crossAllen, afterwards cardinal.- Dodd.

erased, and the money paid to the holder of the draft, Douro, a river (separating Spain and Portugal) who had stolen it. which, after a desperate struggle between Wellington's The "Cheque Bank,” established for issuing drafts for advanced guard under Hill, and the French under Soult, limited amounts, opened...

23 July, 1873 was successfully crossed by the former on 12 May, 1809. The payment of a stolen draft crossed on one banker and So sudden was the movement that Wellington at 4 o'clock

presented by another banker declared legal; Smith v.

Union Bank of London: verdict for defendants, sat down to the dinner prepared for the French general.

29 Nov. 1875 -Alison.

Crossed Cheques act passed ......

.15 Aug. 1876 Dover (Kent), the Roman Dubris. Near here Ju

Dragonnades. The fierce persecution of the Protlius Cæsar is said to have first landed in England, 26 estants in the reign of Louis XIV. by dragoons, by the Aug. 55 B.C., and its original castle to have been built minister Louvois, 1684, was consummated by the revocaby him soon after; but this is disputed. The works tion of Henry IV.'s edict of Nantes, 22 Oct. 1685, which were strengthened by Alfred and succeeding kings, and drove 50,000 families from France.Duruy. rebuilt by Henry II. The earliest-named constable is Leopoldus de Bertie, in the reign of Ethelred II., follow

Dragoons. The name is supposed to have been ed by earl Godwin, Odo the brother of William I., etc. derived from dragon, “because mounted on horseback In modern times, this office, and that of warden of the with lighted match he seemeth like a fiery dragon.”_ Cinque Ports, have been frequently conferred on the Meyrick. The DRACONARII were horse-soldiers who prime-minister for the time being-e.g., lord North, Mr. bore dragons for ensigns. The first regiment of dragoons Pitt, lord Liverpool, and the duke of Wellington. The was raised in England, it is believed, in 1681. “King earl of Dalhousie, late governor-general for India, ap

Charles II., at the Restoration, established a regiment of pointed in Jan. 1853, died 19 Dec. 1860. Lord Palmer- Life Guards, to which he added a regiment of Horse ston, appointed constable March, 1861, died 18 Oct. 1865. Guards, and two regiments of Foot Guards; and a third Earl Granville appointed Dec. 1865; see Tunnels.

regiment of Foot Guards was raised at Coldstream, on

the borders of Scotland.”—Cupt. Curling. The priory was commenced by archbishop Corboyl, or Corbois..

.about 1130

Drainage of Land, in England, is of early dateAt Dover, king John resigned his kingdom to Pandolf, the pope's legate..

.13 May, 1213 remains of British works being still extant in the Fens The pier projected by Henry VIII..

1533 district. Cornelius Vermuyden, the Dutch engineer, was Charles II. landed here from his exile. 26 May, 1660 invited to England in 1621, and, amidst much opposition, The foot barracks burned by accident... Admiralty pier commenced.

he and his successors drained the districts termed the Railway to London opened...

7 Feb. Great Levels; see Levels. In the present century great A submarine telegraph laid down between Dover and progress has been made in drainage. In 1861 was Calais by Brett

Aug. A telegraph between Dover and Calais opened...13 Nov. 1851 passed “ An act to amend the laws relative to the drainPart of the cliff fell.. .27 Nov. 1810; and 13 Jan. 1853 age of land for agricultural purposes ;" see Sewers. Easter volunteer review here...

.22 April, 1867 Suffragan bishop, Edward Parry, D.D.

Drake's Circumnavigation. Sir Francis Drake

1870 Dover College inaugurated by earl Granville......4 Oct. 1871 sailed from Falmouth 13 Dec. 1577, circumnavigated the Dover and Deal railway begun by earl Granville, 29 June, globe, and returned to England after many perils, 3 Nov. 1878; opened.

..June, 1881 1580. He was vice-admiral under lord Howard; high Dower, the gifts of a husband to a wife before mar- admiral of England, in the conflict with the Spanish Arriage (Gen. xxxiv. 12). The portion of a man's lands or mada, 19 July, 1588. He died at Panama, 28 Jan. 1596, tenements which his wife enjoys for life after her hus- during an expedition against the Spaniards. band's death. By the law of king Edmund, a widow

Drama, ANCIENT. Both tragedy and comedy bewas entitled to a moiety of her husband's lands or tene- gan with the Greeks. ments for her life, 941. The widows of traitors, but not the first comedy performed at Athens, by Susarion and those of felons, are debarred their dower by statute 5 Dolon, on a movable scaffold.

.....B.C. 562 Edw. VI. 1551. By the Dower Act passed in 1833, the The chorus introduced. power of the wife over her dower was much diminished. Tragedy first represented at Athens by Thespis, on a

Down (N.E. Ireland), an ancient see, first bishop St. Thespis of Icaria, the inventor of tragedy, performed at Cailan, in 499. At the instance of John de Courcy, the

Athens “Alcestis," and was rewarded with a goat

(tragos).- Pliny... conqueror of Ulster, the cathedral, consecrated to the Æschylus introduced dresses and a stage.....

486 Trinity, was re-dedicated to St. Patrick about 1183. The The drama was first introduced into Rome on occasion of sepulchre of St. Patrick (buried here in 493, in the abbey

a plague which raged during the consulate of C. Sulpi

cius Peticus and C. Licinius Stolo; the magistrates, to of Saul, founded by himself) brought this place into appease the deities, instituted games called the "Sceni. great repute. The see was united with that of Connor ci;' actors from Etruria danced, after the Tuscan manin 1441 (see Connor); and the see of Dromore was united

ner, to the flute ...

364

Anaxandrides, first dramatic poet who introduced in. to both by the Irish Church Temporalities act, 3 & 4

trigues upon the stage; composed about 100 plays, of Will. IV. c. 37, Aug. 14, 1833. The cathedral of Down- which 10 obtained the prize; died. patrick was destroyed by lord Grey, lord-deputy of Ire- Plays were represented by Livius Andronicus, who, abanland; for this and other crimes he was impeached and

doning satires, wrote plays with a regular and connect

ed plot; he gave singing and dancing to different perbeheaded in 1541.-Beatson,

formers.

.30 July,

1800
1844

66

556

536

340

240

The greatest ancient dramatic writers were-Greek, Æs- Hospital Society, established 1821. The old ressel was

chylus, Sophocles, Euripides (tragedy), and Aristophanes (comedy), 525–427; Latin, Plautus and Terence

replaced by others. The removal of the men to Green(comedy), 184-160; Seneca (tragedy)........7 B.C.-A.D. 65 wich hospital was proposed in 1867; effected April, 1870.

Drama, Modern, arose early in the rude attempts Dreams are mentioned in Scripture-e. 9., Joseph's of minstrels and buffoons at fairs in France, Italy, and and Pharaoh's, 1715 B.C. (Gen. xxxvii. and xli.), and England, and also in the performance of classical plays Nebuchadnezzar's, 603 and 570 B.C. (Dan. ii. and iv.). at the universities, still represented by the Westminster The first attempt to interpret dreams and omens is asplay. Stories from the Bible (Mystery Plays), repre- cribed to Amphictyon of Athens, 1497 B.C. sented by the priests, were the origin of sacred comedy, Thomas, lord Lyttelton, dreamed that a young female, - Warton.

dressed in white, solemnly warned him of his dissolution in

three days from that time. On the third day, his lordship Gregory Nazianzen, father of the Church, is said to have constructed a drama on the Passion of Christ to coun

had a party to spend the evening with him, and about the

time predicted he observed to the company present that "he teract heathen profanities...

. about 364

believed he should jockey the ghost ;' but in a few minutes Ancient Nahometan miracle-play of “Hasan and

afterwards he was seized with a sudden faintness, carried to Husan," sons of Ali; published by sir L. Pelly.. 1879

bed, and rose no more. He died 27 Nov. 1779, aged 35. The Fitzstephen, in his Life of Thomas à Becket,'' asserts that London had for its theatrical exhibitions holy

whole story is now discredited.) plays, and the representation of miracles, wrought by Dred Scott Case, see United States, 1857. holy confessors;" he died...

....about 1190 The Chester Mysteries performed.

.... about 1270 Dredging, see Deep-sea Soundings. The Coventry, Chester, Townley, and other mysteries have been printed during the present century.

Drepanum (Sicily). Near this place the CarthaPlays performed at Clerkenwell by the parish clerks, and ginian admiral Adherbal totally defeated the Roman * miracles" represented in the fields..

1397 feet under Publius Claudius, 249 B.C. The “Passion of Christ," a miracle-play, still frequently

performed at Ober- Ammergau, in Bavaria, is said to Dresden, termed the German Florence, became the have had its origin after a pestilence in..

1633 capital of Saxony in 1548.* This play was witnessed by the prince of Wales and oth

er distinguished persons in the summer and autumn.. 1871 Alliance of Dresden between Saxony and Denmark and Performance, 17-26 May.....

Russia... ....... 25 Sept. 1880

28 June, 1709 Its proposed performance at the Westminster aquarium,

Peace of Dresden between Hungary, Prussia, and Sax4 Nov., was stopped by the disapprobation of many,

ony.

25 Dec. 1745 Oct. 1878 Taken by Frederick of Prussia in 1756; by the Austrians, 1759 [The Passion-play" is still performed in Spain, with

Bombarded in vain by Frederick...

...July, 1760 painful realism, 1873.)

Held by Austrians..

June-July, 1809 Allegorical characters introduced in the fifteenth cen

Severe contests between the allied army under the prince tury.

of Schwarzenberg and the French commanded by Na. Skelton and others wrote “Moralities"). ..about 1500 poleon..

. 26, 27 Aug. 1813 The first regular drama acted in Europe was the “Sopbo

The allies, 200,000 strong, attacked Napoleon in his posinisba” of Trissino, at Rome, in the presence of pope

tion at Dresden, and the event had nearly proved fatal Leo X.-- Voltaire..

1515

to them but for an error in the conduct of gen. VanFirst royal license for the drama in England (to master

damme. They were defeated with dreadful loss, and Burbage, and four others, servants to the earl of Leices

were obliged to retreat into Bohemia; but Vandamme ter) to act plays at the Globe, Bankside...

1574

pursuing them too far, his division was cut to pieces, Shakespeare began to write..

.about 1590

and himself and all his staff made prisoners. In this A license granted to Shakespeare and others..

1603

battle, gen. Moreau received his mortal wound, while Plays opposed by the Puritans in 1633; suspended during

in conversation with the emperor of Russia... 27 Aug. the commonwealth, 1649; restored.

1660

Marshal St. Cyr and 25,000 French troops surrendered Two companies of regular performers were licensed by

Dresden to the allies.........

11 Nov. Charles II., Killigrew's and sir William Davenant's.

During a political commotion the king abdicated, and The first was at the Bull, Vere street, Clare market,

prince Frederick, his nephew, was declared regent, which was immediately afterwards removed to Drury

9 Sept. et seq. 1830 lane; the other in Dorset gardens, 1662. Till this time, An insurrection, 3 May; suppressed.............6 May, 1849 boys performed women's parts; but Mrs. Coleman (the

Dress. The attire of the Hebrew women is censured first female on the stage) had performed Ianthe in Davenant's "Siege of Rhodes" in..

1666 in Isaiah iii., about 760 B.C. Excess in dress among the Sir William Davenant introduced operas, and both com- early Romans was restrained by sumptuary laws; and panies united, 1684, and continued together till 1694,

also in England by numerous statutes, in 1363, 1465, when a schism under Betterton led to the opening of a theatre in Lincoln's-inn-fields, the parent of Covent

1570, etc. (see Cap).-Stow. F. W. Fairholt's Costume garden.....

1695 in England” (1846) contains a history of dress, with nuAct for the revision of plays and for licensing them pre

merous illustrations derived from MSS., the works of viously to being performed..

1737 Authors' Dramatic Copyright Protection act, 3 Will. IV.

Strutt, etc. J. R. Planché's elaborate “Cyclopædia of c. 15, 10 June, 1833; extended to operas, .1 July, 1842 Costume” first appeared in 1876. A "dress-making (See Theatres, Covent Garden, Drury Lane, and Copyright.)

company" was established in London, 6 Feb. 1865, with Dramatic College, for the benefit of distressed the view of improving the condition of the workwomen. actors and their children, was proposed 21 July, 1858, at Sir Walter Raleigh wore a white satin-pinked vest, closethe Princess's theatre, by Messrs. C. Dickens, Thackeray, sleeved to the wrist, and over the body a doublet finely C. Kean, B. Webster, and others. Mr. Henry Dodd's offer

flowered, and embroidered with pearls, and in the feather of land and money, with certain stipulations, was de

of his hat a large ruby and pearl-drop at the bottom of the

sprig in place of a button. His breeches, with his stockings clined Jan. 1859. The first stone of the buildings at and ribbon garters, fringed at the end, all white; and buff Maybury, near Woking, was laid by the prince-consort, shoes, which, on great court-days, were so gorgeously cor. 1 June, 1860, and on 29 Sept. 1862, seven annuitants

ered with precious stones as to have exceeded the value of

66001. ; and he had a suit of armor of solid silver, with sword were installed. The central hall was opened by the and belt blazing with diamonds, rubies, and pearls. prince of Wales, 5 June, 1865. The queen is the patron. King James's favorite, the duke of Buckingham, had his diaThe viceroy of Egypt was present at the annual fête at

monus tacked so loosely on that when he chose to shake a

few off on the ground, he obtained all the fame he desired the Crystal Palace, July, 1867, and gave 5001. to the col

from the pickers - up, who were generally les dames de la lege. The scheme was unsuccessful. On 12 Nov. 1877, it was determined to close the college, and provide for the court-dress of civilians, previously that of the time of tho the inmates. The buildings were sold by private con

Georges, was modified by the lord chamberlain, lord Sydney,

in 1869. tract about 23 July, 1880.

The BLOOMER Costume, introduced into America in 1849 by Dramatic Reform Association, started at

Mrs. Ann Bloomer, and worn there by many of the women.

It resembled male attire, being an open-fronted jacket and Manchester, Jan. 1878.

loose trousers, the latter wide like those of the Turk, but Drapier's Letters, by dean Swist, published in

gathered in at the ankles. The Bloomer dress was adopted 1723-4 against Wood's Halfpence (which see).

* Dresden china was invented by John Frederick Böttger "Dreadnought.” In this ship, which was engaged (or Böttcher), an apothecary's boy, about 1709. He died 13 in the battle of Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 1805, was established March, 1719." A costly service, each piece exquisitely painted,

with battles, etc., was presented to the duke of Well ngtou by a hospital for the seamen of all nations by the Seamen's the king of Prussia in 1816.

cour.

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