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Subscription Lists published:

Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), a Roman city, now in 3d, 17 Aug.... 2,3771. 50th, 11 Oct.. .243, 4441. Rhenish Prussia. Sereral ecclesiastical councils held 10th, 25 Aug. 33,339 60th, 26 Oct.. 260,849

here (799–1165). Here Charlemagne was born, 742, and 20th, 6 Sept. 68,677

70th, 30 Nov..

. 280,598 30th, 17 Sept. .153, 214 78th, 7 Jan. (received to 31 died, 814; having built the minster (796-804), and con40th, 29 Sept........208,147 Dec.)............. 289,674 ferred many privileges on the city, in which fifty-five The society afforded much help during the Servian war, July emperors have since been crowned. The city was taken September, 1876, and the Russo-Turkish


1877-8. by the French in Dec., 1792; retaken by the Austrians, Ailantine, see Silk.

March, 1793; by the French, Sept. 1794; ceded to Prus

sia, 1814. Ainadin, see Ajnadin. Air, or ATMOSPHERE. Anaximenes of Miletus (530 First Treaty of Peace signed here was between France and

Spain, when France yielded Franche-Comté, but retained B.c.) declared air to be a self-existent deity, and the first

her conquests in the Netherlands, 2 May, 1668. cause of everything created. Posidonius (about 79 B.C.) The second celebrated treaty between Great Britain, France, calculated the height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia. Holland, Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it the treaties

of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1679, of The pressure of air, about 15 lbs. to the square inch, was

Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the discovered by Galileo, 1564, and demonstrated by Tor- Triple Alliance in 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 1718, ricelli (who invented the barometer) about A.D. 1643, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed.) and was found by Pascal, in 1647, to vary with the

Signed on the part of England by John, earl of Sandwich,

and sir Thomas Robinson, 7 Oct. 1748. height. Halley, Newton, and others up to the present Congress of the sovereigns' of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, time have illustrated the agency and influences of this assisted by ministers from England and France, met at Aixgreat power by various experiments, and numerous in

la-Chapelle, and a convention signed, 9 Oct. 1818, which led

to the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France. ventions have followed; among others, the AIR-GUN of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656; the AIR-PUMP, in- Aix Roads, see Rochefort. vented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about 1650;

Ajaccio, see Corsica. improved by Robert Boyle in 1657, by Robert Hooke about 1659;* and the AIR-PIPE, invented by Mr. Sutton, hometans defeated the army of the emperor Heraclius,

Ajnadin, or Aiznadin (Syria). Here the Maa brewer of London, about 1756. The density and elas- 13 July, 633. They took Damascus in 634. ticity of air were determined by Boyle; and its relation to light and sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The

Akerman (Bessarabia). After being several times extension of our atmosphere above the surface of the taken, it was ceded to Russia in 1812. Here the celeearth has been long considered as about 45 miles.-Its brated treaty between Russia and Turkey was concluded, composition, † about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, 4 Sept. 1826, which secured for the former the navigaand 2 of other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery tion of the Black Sea, recognized the Danubian princivapor, a trace of ammonia, etc.) was ascertained by palities, etc. Priestley (who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele Akhalzikh (Armenia). Near here prince Paskie(1775), Lavoisier, and Cavendish; and its laws of re-witch and the Russians defeated the Turks, 24 Aug., and fraction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1737. The gained the city, 28 Aug. 1828. researches of Dr. Schönbein, a German chemist of Basel,

Alabama, a Southern state of the United States of between 1840 and 1859, led to his description of two America; originally a part of Georgia; made a state states of the oxygen in the air, which he calls ozone and in 1819; commercial metropolis, Mobile. Passed an antozone. Dr. Stenhouse's Air - filters (in which pow-ordinance of secession, 11 Jan. 1861 ; was readmitted to dered charcoal is used) were first set up at the Mansion

representation in Congress, 1868. Pop. 1880, 1,262,794. house, London, in 1854. In 1858, Dr. R. Angus Smith

Alabama, a steam-vessel of 900 tons, with engines made known a chemical method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter in the air, and published his of 300 horse-power

, constructed by Messrs. Laird at Bir“ Air and Rain” in 1872; see Oxygen, Nitrogen, Ozone, At- kenhead, for the Confederate service; launched 15 May, mospheric Railway, Balloons, and Pneumatic Despatch.

1862. During the judicial inquiries after her character,

she sailed from the Mersey, 28 July, the day before the The Aero-steam Engine, the invention of George Warsop, a British government telegraphed to detain her. Under

air united with steam, is said to have effected the saving of the command of capt. Semmes, she did great damage to 47 per cent of fuel. The plan was reported to the British the American mercantile shipping, until her destruction Association at Exeter in Aug. 1869, and was said to act by the federal iron-clad Kearsurge, capt. Winslow, off successfully in a tug steamer (for China) in the Thames, 26 Cherbourg, 19 June, 1864. Several of her crew were

March, 1870.
Col. Beaumont's air-engine for propelling railway-carriages, sared by Mr. John Lancaster in bis yacht. Admiral

tried at Woolwich, reported successful (a little steam is Semmes died Sept. 1877.
used), 6 Oct. 1880.
S'ictor Popp applies compressed air as a motive power to Discussion between the two governments respecting
clocks, 1881.

claims for damage by the Alabama..

1865 An Air-telegraph, in which the waves of air in a tube are em- A fruitless convention for their settlement by a commisployed instead of electricity, invented by sig. Guattari, was sion signed at London...

10 Nov. 1868 exhibited in London in 1870. It obtained a gold medal in Another convention, signed by the earl of Clarendon and Naples.

Mr. Reverdy Johnson, 14 Jan.; rejected by the United Isaac Wilkinson patented a method of compressing air by a

States senate..

.13 April, 1869 column of water in 1757, and William Mann patented stage. Joint commission (British, earl de Grey, sir Stailord pumping by compressed air in 1829. The force of com. Northcote, and others; American. secretary Fish, gen. pressed air was employed in boring the Cenis tunnel (which Schenck, and others) to settle fishery disputes, Alasee).

bama claims, etc. Announced, 9 Feb.; met at Wash.

ington, 27 Feb. ; signed a treaty at Washington..8 May, 1871 Air-Gas-light COMPANY: proposed to use hydro-Commission for Anglo-American claims met at Washingcarburetted air as a source of light; established 1872.


... 25 Sept.

Formal meeting of the arbitration commission at Geneva Air-tight Stove, designed to economize fuel, in- (adjourns to 15 June)...

...18 Dec. vented by Isaac Orr, 1836.

The British and American cases presented 20 Dec.

Great excitement in England at the introduction of Air-whistle. A shrill whistle worked by an air- enormous claims for indirect losses into the American pump, and audible at three or four miles distance, used case, loss by transfer of trade from American to British as a marine fog-signal; invented by C. Daboll, of New

ships, increased rates of marine insurance, and losses

incident to the prolongation of the war. ..Jan. 1872 London, Conn. 1850.

Correspondence between the governments; British de

spatch, 3 Feb.; reply, 1 March; continued; counter* Sprengel's excellent air-pump, in which water or mer. cases presented at Geneva ...

.......15 April, cury is employed, was invented in 1863.

Continued correspondence, draft for a supplementary † Air, as well as its gaseous components, has been com. treaty, by which both nations agree in future to abpressed into the liquid state by means of great pressure and stain from claims for indirect losses presented to Ameriintense cold, 1877-8. by Raoul Pictet of Genera, and Cailletet can senate; approved...

...25 May, of Paris, Dec. 1877, Jan. 1878.

The British government object to certain modifications;

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further correspondence; great excitement in parlia

killed by Romulus, who restores his grandfather Nument; proposed adjournment of the meeting of the


754 arbitration commission; differences about the mode of Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome). ......... 753 procedure ; congress adjourns, leaving the affair un. Alba conquered by Tullus Hostilius, and incorporated settled.. .10 June, 1872 with Rome (see Horatii)...

665 The Arbitration tribunal, consisting of count Frederic

Sclopis for Italy, president; baron Staempfli for Switzer- Albania, a province in European Turkey, formerly land; vicomte d'Itajuba for Brazil; Mr. C. F. Adams for United States, and sir Alexander E. Cockburn for

part of the ancient Epirus. The Albanians became inGreat Britain, meet at Geneva. The British govern

dependent during the decline of the Greek empire. • They ment presents a note of the existing differences; the were successfully attacked by the Turks in 1388. About conference adjourns..

..15 June, 1443, under George Castriot (Scanderbeg), they baffled Further adjournment, 17 June ; the arbitrators volun. tarily declare that the indirect claims are invalid, and

the efforts of Mahomet II, to subdue them till the siege contrary to international law, 19 June; president Grant of Scutari in 1478, when they submitted. Ali Pacha, of consents to their withdrawal.

...25 June, Janina, in 1812, defeated the Turkish pachas, and gove The British government withdraw their application for adjournment of the conference.

.27 June,

erned Albania ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. The Arbitration commission records its decision against

1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after surrenthe indirect claims, and the proposed long adjourn- dering under a solemn promise of safety. A revolt in ment, and adjourns to 15 July....

..28 June, Final meeting; all the arbitrators agree to award dam.

Albania was suppressed in 1843. ages for the injuries done by the Alabama; four for An Albanian league (favored by the Turks) formed to rethose done by the Florida, and three for those done

sist the cession of any part of the country to Austria by the Shenandoah. The judgment not signed by sir and Montenegro in April, said to have caused the death A. Cockburn, whose reasons were published; the dam. of Mehemet Ali..

..7 Sept. 1878 ages awarded (including interest), about 3, 229,1661. 138. The country semi-independent....

.. April, 1879 4d.; those claimed, 9,476,1661. 138. 4d. (Decision based Army formed rebel against Turkey...

... April, 1880 on the admission of a new ex-post-facto international The league forces defeated in an attack on Dervish Pacha in law, by Great Britain by the treaty of Washington.)

Uskub between Pristma and Prisend, 19 April; he reported

14 Sept. the country settled, but asked for reinforcements; more The judgment of sir A. Cockburn admitting the award fighting; Albaniaus said to be defeated, and struggle almost

for the Alabama; opposing the other awards; yet over, 12 May, 1881. counselling submission to the judgment, signed 14 Sept.,

See Dulcigno. and published in London Gazette with other documents..

..20 Sept. Albans, St. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman Veru3,200,0001. were voted; the receipt of 3,196,8741. ac- lam, derived its name from Alban, the British protomarknowledged by Mr. Secretary Fish .

.9 Sept.

tyr, said to have been beheaded during the persecution Aladja Dagh, near Kars, Armenia. Here the by Diocletian, 23 June, 286. A stately monastery to his Turks, under Ahmed Mukhtar, after severe conflicts, memory was erected about 795, by Offa, king of Mercia, were totally defeated by the Russians under the grand- who granted it many privileges. Its superior sat as duke Michael, and gens. Loris Melikoff, Lazareff, and premier abbot in parliament till the dissolution in 1539. Heimann, 14, 15 Oct. 1877.

A meeting was held 22 June, 1871, to raise a fund for the The Turkish army was divided and broken up, the strong camp restoration of the abbey, the ears of Verulam chairman.

taken with many prisoners, including 7 pashas and 38 guns. The results were favorable, and the work was confided to The Russian strategy was highly commended. This over. Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, who issued a report in June, 1872. whelming disaster, which led to the investment of Kars, was Verulam was built on the site of the capital of Cassiveattributed to Mukhtar's maintaining too extended lines, which were turned (20 miles with only 40,000 men; when launus, taken by Julius Cæsar, 54 B.C. It was retaken, 200,000 were required).

after much slaughter, by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen Alamo, a fort in Texas, near San Antonio. Here of the Iceni, A.D. 61. occurred the massacre of the Alamo, 6 March, 1836, on First battle of St. Albans, when the Lancastrians were defeatwhich day a Mexican force of 1500 or 2000 men, under

ed, their leader, Edmund, duke of Somerset slain, and king Santa Anna, after having in vain besieged and bombard

Henry VI. taken prisoner by the duke of York and his par

tisans, 22 or 23 May, 1455. ed its garrison of 140 Texans, under col. Travis, ever Second battle, queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists since the 23d of the preceding month, stormed the place under the earl of Warwick, and rescued the king, Shrove. and took it, after being twice repulsed. But six Texans St. Albans incorporated by Edward VI. 1553.

Tuesday, 17 Feb. 1461. were left alive after the assault, and these were murdered Disfranchised for bribery, 17 June, 1852. in cold blood in Santa Anna's presence, by his order, after Act passed to make arrangements for erecting a bishopric of surrender on promise of protection.

St. Albans, 29 June, 1875. See constituted, 30 April; made

a city, 28 Aug. 1877. Aland Isles (Gulf of Bothnia), taken from Sweden by Russia, 1809; see Bomarsund.

1877. Thomas Legh Claughton (trans. from Rochester). Alani, a Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. They St. Albans Raid, see United States, Oct. 1864.

St. Albans Murder, see Trials, 1880. joined the Huns in invading the Roman empire, and were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. They were sub- Alban's, St., Church, Holborn; see under Church dued by the Visigoths, 452, and eventually incorporated of England, 1867. with them.

Albany, or AlbAiNN, the ancient name of the ScotAlarcos (central Spain). Here the Spaniards, un- tish Highlands. Robert Stewart, the brother of king der Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were totally defeated by Robert III., was created the first duke of Albany in 1998, the Moors, 19 July, 1195.

and the title has ever since been connected with the Alaska, the name given to the Russian possessions crown of Scotland. The young pretender, prince Charles in North America, purchased by the United States by Edward, and his wife took the title of count and countess treaty, 13 March, 1867, for $7,200,000, received 1 Aug. of Albany; see York. 1868. Sitka is the principal station.

DUKES OF ALBANY. Alba Longa, an ancient city of Italy, said to have 1420. Murdoch, son; 'regent; executed for treason by king

1398. Robert; regent; 1406; died 3 Sept. 1420. been founded by Ascanius, son of Æneas, 1152 B.C. Its

James I., 1424. history is mythical.

1452. Alexander, brother of king James II. ; acted treasonably;

exiled; killed accidentally at Paris, 1485. Ascanius, son of Æneas, 1152 B.C. ; Sylvius Posthumus, 1514. Jobn, son; regent; went abroad; died at Paris, 1526. 1143; Æneas Sylvius...

...B.C. 1114

See York and Albany, dukes. Reign of Latinus, 1048; Alba, 1038; Atys, or Capetus, 1881. Prince Leopold, fourth son of queen Victoria, was cre1002; Capys, 978; Capetus.


ated duko of Albany 24 May, 1881. Reign of Tiberinus, 903; being defeated in battle near

the river Albula, be throws himself into the stream, is Albany, the capital city of the state of New York;

drowned, and hence this river is called the Tiber... 895 founded by the Dutch, 1614; incorporated as a city, Agrippa: Romulus Silvius, 864; Aventinus, 815; Procas, 808; Numitor...


1686; made the capital, 1797 ; capitol built, 1807; act Amulius, the brother of Numitor, seizes the throne, 794; authorizing the building of a new capitol passed, 1865 ;


first appropriation for that purpose, 1867; corner-stone cert was given to the workmen 25 Feb., and the hall was laid 24 June, 1871. Dudley Observatory incorporated,

opened by the queen 29 March, 1871, when a grand concert

was given. 1852; dedicated, 1856. Except Jamestown, Va., Albany ALBERT BRIDGE, Chelsea, opened 23 Aug. 1873; freed from toll is the oldest settlement in the thirteen original states. 24 May, 1879. Henry Hudson visited the place in his ship the Half ALBERT EMBANKMENT, etc., see Thames, 1869; Docks. Moon, Sept. 1609. The town was originally named New ALBERT, INSTITUTE, Windsor, opened by the prince of Wales, Orange; name changed to Albany, 1664. First conven- ALBERT Medals, to be awarded to persons who endanger their tion for the union of the colonies (B. Franklin, presi

lives by saving others from shipwreck, appointed by royal

warrant, 3 March, 1866. The first was given to Samuel Popdent) assembled at Albany, 1754.

plestone on 14 May, 18 for saving life on 23 March preAlbert Memorials (see England, Queen). The

vious; medals awarded to Pontypridd miners and others for

saving men imprisoned in a mine through inundation (see Prince-consort died on 14 Dec. 1861, deeply lamented by Coal: Accidents), April, 1877. the whole civilized world. His remains were transferred ALBERT MEDAL (gold), awarded by the Society of Arts to sir to the mausoleum of Frogmore, 18 Dec. 1862. The sar

Rowland Hill, 1864; Napoleon III. 1865; Michael Faraday,

1866; Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke, cophagus is composed of the largest known block of

1867, Joseph Whitworth, 1868; Justus Liebig, 1869; Ferdigranite without flaw. A meeting to organize a method nand de Lesseps, 1870; Henry Cole, C.B., 1871; Henry Besof receiving contributions for a great national memorial semer, 1872; Michel Eugène Chevreul, 1873; C. William was held at the Mansion-house, 14 Jan. 1862; and a large

Siemens, 1874; Michel Chevallier, 1875; sir G. B. Airy, 1876;

Jean Baptiste Dumas, 1877; sir William G. Armstrong, 1878; sum was quickly subscribed. 36,0001. had been received sir William Thomson, 1879, James Prescott Joule, 1880. on 1 March ; 50,2201. on 11 June, 1862; and parliament Royal Albert Orphan Asylum, Bagshot; founded 1864. voted 50,0001., in addition to the 60,000l. received by voluntary contributions, 23 April, 1863.

Albigenses, a name given to various persons who

opposed the doctrines and corruptions of the Church of The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen herself. Rome, living at Albi, in Languedoc, and at Toulouse in

In a letter to the lord mayor, dated 19 Feb. 1862, sır Charles the 12th century. They were persecuted as Manichæans, Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, "It would be more in accordance with her own feelings, and she believes with 1163, and a crusade (proclaimed by pope Innocent III.) those of the country in general, that the monument should against them commenced in 1207. Simon de Montfort be directly personal to its object. After giving the subject commanded 500,000 men, and at Beziers, 1209, he and conclusion that nothing would be more appropriate, provided the pope's legate put friends and foes to the sword, sayit is on a scale of sufficient grandeur, than an obelisk to be ing, “God will find his own !"* At Minerba he burned erected in Hyde park on the site of the Great Exhibition of 150 of the Albigenses alive; and at La Vaur he hanged 1851, or on some spot immediately contiguous to it. would any proposal that could be made be more gratifying the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget the governor's wife, and murdering other women. He that the prince himself had highly approved of the idea of defeated Raymond, count of Toulouse, but was himself a memorial of this character being raised on the same spot killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and IX., kings of France, in remembrance of the Great Exhibition." In a second let. ter the queen expressed her intention of personally contrib- patronized the crusade; count Raymond was subdued, uting towards erecting the memorial, that "it might be re. and abdicated in 1229; and the heretics were given up corded in future ages as raised by the queen and people of to the Inquisition. They had little in common with the a grateful country to the memory of its benefactor. » Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's Waldenses (which see). desire. As a suitable block of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up.

Albion Britain is so called by Aristotle (died 322 The queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for B.C.). Julius Cæsar and others are said to have given it

an Eleanor Cross, with a spire 150 feet high, accompanied the name (from albus, white) on account of its chalky by statues, etc., 22 April, 1863; work begun 13 May, 1864.

cliffs. The sculptors employed were M‘Dowell, Foley, Theed, John

Bell, and Armistead: material, Sicilian marble. (Jan. Albuera, or ALBÚHERA, Estremadura, Spain. Here 1865.) The gilt statue by Foley uncovered 9 March, 1876. The memorial, complete, except the statue by Foley (delayed ed by marshal Soult, and the British and Anglo-Span

a battle was fought between the French, commandthrough illness), was given up to her majesty privately, 1 July, 1872

ish army, under marshal (afterwards lord) Beresford, Doyne C. Bell's Descriptive and Illustrated Account of this 16 May, 1811. The allies obtained a brilliant victory. Inscription on the Memorial Cairn” on a high mountain The French loss exceeded 8000 men previously to their overlooking Balmoral Palace :-"To the beloved memory retreat; but the allies lost a large number. The chief of ALBERT, the great and good Prince-consort, erected by his brunt of the action fell on the British; colonel Inglis, 22 another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who had quotation: “He being made perfect in a short time, fulmounted a hill, fell-out of the 57th regiment alone; the filled a long time: for his soul pleased the Lord, therefore other regiments were scarcely better off, not one third

hasted he to take him away from among the wicked.”- being left standing: “1500 unwounded men, the remnant A statue of ihe prince-consort (by Theed) inaugurated at Rose- of 6000 unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant

nau, his birthplace, in the presence of the queen and the on this fatal hill."--Napier. royal family, 19 Aug. 1865. “Early Years of the Prince-consort," edited by the Hon.

Albufera (Spain, East Central), a lagoon near Charles Grey, published 6 July, 1867.

which the French marshal Suchet (afterwards duke of Another statue by Theed at Balmoral, inaugurated 15 Oct. Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under Blake, 4 Jan.

The statue at the Holborn Circus, uncovered by the prince of 1812: this led to his capture of Valencia on 9 Jan.

Wales, 9 Jan. 1874.
The Albert Memorial Chapel at Windsor opened to the public,

Alcala, Spain, near the Roman Complutum. At 1 Dec. 1875.

the university here was printed the Complutensian PolyLife, by Theodore Martin, 5 vols., published 1875-80.

glot Bible, at the expense of cardinal Ximenes, 1502–15. The Scottish National Memorial to the prince, Edinburgh, inaugurated by the queen, 17 Aug. 1876.

Alcantara,, a town on the Tagus, W. Spain. A Statue at Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, uncovered by the fine bridge was built here by Trajan about 104. The Many other memorials of the prince have been set up through the Portuguese army here, 24 June, 1580. The Spanish

duke of Alva acquired Portugal for Spain by defeating out the empire. Royal ALBERT HALL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES: The erection of military order of knighthood of Alcantara was establisha great building for congresses, concerts, etc., was proposed ed in 1156. The sovereign of Spain has been grandby the prince-consort at the close of the exhibition of 1851, and an estate at Kensington was purchased; a committee, master since 1495. with the prince of Wales at the head, to erect the building,

Alcazar - Quiver, near Fez, N.W. Africa, where was appointed 6 July, 1865; circulars soliciting subscriptions were issued April, 1866; and the first stone was laid by the Moors totally defeated the Portuguese, whose galthe queen, 20 May, 1867.

lant king Sebastian was slain, 4 Aug. 1578. The PortuThe building was erected by col. Scott, chiefly after designs by

capt. Fowke, and cost about 200,0001. The organ, by Willis, is said to be the largest in the world. An experimental con

* Now contradicted.

guese disbelieved his death and long expected his re- | 1120. The British man-of-war l'ictory, of 100 guns and turn; this led to the appearance of five impostors. 1160 men, was wrecked here, 5 Oct. 1744; the admiral,

Alchemy, the forerunner of chemistry; its chief sir John Balchen, and all his crew, perished. Through objects being the discovery of the philosopher's stone this strait the French escaped after their defeat at La (which was to effect the transmutation of metals into Hogue by admirals Russell and Rooke, 19 May, 1692. gold), an alkahest, or universal menstruum, and the elixir The construction of a breakwater, in order to make Alof life. * The alchemists assert that their founder was derney a naval station, was begun in 1852, and after Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest), an ancient Egyp- having cost 1,337,1001., was suspended by parliament in tian king.– Pliny says the emperor Caligula was the 1871. In 1874 the harbor and lands were transferred tirst who prepared natural arsenic, in order to make gold from the control of the board of trade to that of the adof it, but left it off, because the charge exceeded the miralty and the war department. profit.

Aldershot Camp, on a moor near Farnham, about Zosimus wrote on the subject about 410.

35 miles from London. In April, 1854, the War-office, The Arabians cultivated alchemy and were followed (in the having obtained a grant of 1,000,0001., purchased 4000 thirteenth century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Aqui. acres of land for a permanent camp for 20,000 men. nas, Raymond Lullius, Basil Valentine (born 1394), Paracel. sus (died 1541), and others.

Additional land purchased in 1856. In 1401 the craft of multiplying gold and silver was made fel. Barracks since erected for 4000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and ony by 5 Hen. IV. c. 4, which act was repealed in 1689.

several batteries of artillery. Great improvements in miliA license for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and tary cookery introduced (see Cookery) under the superinminerals was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476. -Rymer's

tendence of capt. John Grant, 1857. Federa.

Visited by the queen, 18, 19 April, 1856. Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 published an account of his The troops returned from the Crimea, reviewed by her, 7, 16 experiments, and brought specimens of gold to the king,

July, 1856. affirming that they were made by means of a red and white About 15,000 men were stationed here, 1859. powder. Being a fellow of the Royal Society, he was re- Cost of the camp, said to be 1,291,5311. up to Feb. 1860. quired, under pain of expulsion, to repeat his experiments An industrial and fine-art exhibition, furnished by officers before Messrs. Kirwan and Wolfe (some say Higgins); but

and men and their wives, opened 29 June; closed 14 July, after much equivocation and delay he took poison and died, Camp set up for 40,000 men to execute military manæuvres, Aug. 1783.

Aug., Sept. 1871. Many horses broke away through a fright, Alcohol. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated alcohol 30 Aug. 1871. is said to have been obtained by the distillation of fer- Review of 14,000, etc., by the queen, 5 July, 1872. mented liquors by Abucasis in the twelfth century; and Review by the queen, 13 May, 1878.

Summer manœuvres here, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877. the dehydration of this liquor to have been partially effected by Raymond Lullius in the thirteenth century by tius) at Venice, where were printed many of the first

Aldine Press, that of Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Manucarbonate of potassium. Alcohol has never been re-editions of the Greek, Latin, and Italian classics, comduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low temperatures. In 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained mencing in 1494 with Musæus. traces of alcohol by passing olefiant gas (bicarburetted

Ale, BEER, AND WINE are said to have been invented hydrogen) through sulphuric acid; and in 1862 this by Bacchus. Ale was known as a beverage at least in

404 B.C. process was examined and confirmed by Berthelot; see

Herodotus ascribes the first discovery of the Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. 'About 250 med- art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the wife of Osiris

, ical men, including the president of the Royal College and a beverage of this kind is mentioned by Xenophon, of Physicians, and many hospital officials, issued a cau- 401 B.C. The Romans and Germans very early learned tionary declaration concerning the use of alcohol in med- from the Egyptians the process of preparing a liquor icine, Dec. 1871; see Temperance.

from corn by means of fermentation.— Tacitus. AleAlcolea (Andulasia, S. Spain). Near the bridge a Booths were set up in England, 728, when laws were

houses are mentioned in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex. sharp engagement took place between the royalists un, passed for their regulation. None but freemen were alder gen. Pavia y Lacy, marquis de Novaliches, and lowed to keep ale-houses in London, 13 Edw. I. 1285. the insurgents under marshal Serrano, 27 Sept. 1868. They were further subjected to regulation by 5 & 6 Edw. The former was defeated, and, being severely wounded, VI. c. 25, 1551. By 1 James I. c. 9, 1603, one full surrendered 28 Sept. About 600 were killed on both quart of the best, and two quarts of small ale, were to be sides.

sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was Al-coran, or AL-KORAN, see Korun, Mahometanism, imposed by the parliament in 1643, and continued by etc.

Charles II., 1660; repealed, 1 Will. IV. c. 51, 1830; see Alderman. The Saxon ealdorman was next to the Porter, Wine, Victuallers. king and frequently a viceroy; but after the settlement Alemanni, or All Mex (i. e. men of all nations), of the Danes the title was gradually displaced by that hence Allemand, German. A body of Suevi, who took of earl. Aldermen in corporations are next in dignity this name, were defeated by Caracalla, 214. After seyto the mayor, They were appointed in London (where eral repulses, they invaded the empire under Aurelian, there are twenty-six) in 1242; and in Dublin (where who subdued them in three battles, 271. They were there are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen chosen for again vanquished by Julian, 356, 357; by Jovinus, 368. lise, instead of annually, 17 Rich. II. 1394. Present mode They were defeated and subjugated by Clovis at Tol. of election established, 11 Geo. I. 1725. Aldermen made biac (or Zulpich), 496. The Suabians are their descendjustices of the peace, 15 Geo. II. 1741. London aldermen are elected by the wards.

Alençon (N. France) gave title to a count and of aldermen exercised their ancient right of veto against sir

duke. John Bennett (thrice chosen alderman for the ward of Cheap), and chose Mr. Edgar Breflitt, 23 Oct. 1877.

1268–82. Peter, made Count by his father, king Louis IX.

Charles I. of Valois, made Count by his brother, king Alderney (English Channel), with Jersey, etc., was Philip the Fair. acquired by William the Conqueror, 1066. The “Race" 1325. Charles II. (his son), killed at Creoy.

1346. Charles III. (his son), became a priest. is celebrated for two fatal occurrences; William of Nor- 1361. Peter, his brother. mandy, son of Henry I. of England, and many young no- 1404. John (his son), made DUKE in 1414; killed at Agincourt,

1415. bles (140 youths of the principal families of France and Britain), were overtaken by a storm, and all lost, 25 Nov. 1415. John II. (his son), prisoner in England, 1424–9; in.

trigued against the French king; died in prison, M. Martin Ziegler patented a method of producing a vital 1476. Charles IV. fled after the battle of Pavia in 1525, and fluid” by combining nitrogen and carbon in a porous cell con

died shortly after of chagrin. Tho duchy was an. taining ammonia, immersed in a vessel filled with molasses.

nexed by the crown. The current was to flow through silk threads attached to the vessel: about 1868.

Aleppo (N. Syria), a large town named Beræa by


In 1877 the court








363 365




nou ..


Seleucus Nicator, about 299 B.C. The pachalic of Alep-dence of the Greek sovereigns of Egypt, the Ptolemies. po is one of the five governments of Syria. It was taken 323. Seventeen councils were held bere, A.1). 231-633. by the Saracens, A.D. 638, who restored its ancient Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Serapeum, thie name Haleb, or Chaleb; by Saladin, 1193; and sacked Pharos, and other edifices, and begins the library about by Timour, Nov. 1400. Its depopulation by the plague These works completed by his son, P. Philadelphus, and

B.C. 298 has been frequent : 60,000 persons were computed to

his grandson, P. Euergetes ..

283-222 have perished by it in 1797 ; many in 1827. The chol- Alexandria taken by Julius Cæsar; when a library is

burned era raged here in 1832. Aleppo suffered severely from the terrible earthquakes in 1822 and 1830, and has often Which Antony replaces by one brought from Pergamus.

The city restored by Adrian..

122 been the scene of fanatical massacres. On 16 Oct. 1850, Massacre of the youth by Caracalla in revenge for an inthe Mahometans attacked the Christians, burning everything. Three churches were destroyed, five others Alexandria, supporting the usurper Achilleus, is taken

297 plundered, and thousands of persons slain. The total Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the Athanaloss of property amounted to about a million sterling; no sians and Arians.. interference was attempted by the pacha.

George of Cappadocia was killed, 362, and Athanasius

finally restored. Alessandria, a city of Piedmont, built in 1168 un- 50,000 persons perish by an earthquake. der the name of Cæsar by the Milanese and Cremonese, Paganism suppressed by Theodosius, when a second li.

390 to defend the Tanaro against the emperor, and after- Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia. wards named after pope Alexander III. It has been And by Amrou, the general of the caliph Omar, * who or. frequently besieged and taken. The French took it in

dered the library to be burned, whereby the baths were supplied with fuel for six months..

.22 Dec. 1796, but were driven out by Suwarrow, 21 July, 1799. Recovered by the Greeks; retaken by Amrou

644 They recovered it after the battle of Marengo, 14 June, Cairo founded by the Saracens; which tends to the decay 1800, and held it till 1814, when the strong fortifications

of Alexandria..

1365 erected by Napoleon were destroyed. These have been Alexandria plundered by the Crusaders.

The French capture Alexandria....

..July, 1798 restored since June, 1856.

Battle of Alexandria, or Canopus: the British under gen.

sir Ralph Abercromby defeat the French under MeAleutian Isles, in the N. Pacific Ocean, discov

.....21 March, 1801 ered by Behring, 1741; visited by Cook, 1778; and set- Abercromby dies of his wounds, 28 March; Menou and tled by Russians, 1785.

10,000 French surrender it to Hutchinson.....2 Sept.

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, 20 March; Alexander, ERA OF, dated from the death of Alex- evacuated by them.

.23 Sept. 1807 ander the Great, 12 Nov. 323 B.C. In the computation By the convention of Alexandria, Egypt was guaranteed of this era, the period of the Creation was considered to Railway to Cairo formed....

to Mehemet Ali and his successors..

1851 be 5502 years before the birth of Christ, and, in conse- New port, first stone laid by the khedive ....... 15 May, 1871 quence, the year 1 A.D. was equal to 5503. This compu

Alexandrian Codex, a MS. of the Septuagint tat continued the year A.I

284, which was called 5786. In the next year (A.D. 285), which should have translation of the Bible in Greek, said to have been tranbeen 5787, ten years were discarded, and the date be- scribed by a lady named Thecla, in the sixth century, came 5777. This is still used in the Abyssinian era

and to have belonged to the patriarch of Alexandria in (which see). The date is reduced to the Christian era 1098. It was presented to Charles I. of England in 1628 by subtracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that by Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch of Constantinople, and was

placed in the British Museum in 1753. It was printed time by subtracting 5492.

in fac-simile, 1786-1821. “Alexandra Case," see Trials, 1862-4.

Alexandrian Era, see Mundane. Alexandra Park, Muswell Hill, London, N., pur- Alexandrian Library, see under Alexandria. chased by a company, and named after the princess of Wales, was opened with a flower-show, 23 July, 1863. portion of the Exhibition building of 1862 was to be first school arose soon after the foundation of Alexan

It flourished under the patronage of the erected here. The work proceeded rapidly in 1864, was dria, 332 B.C.

It included Euclid (300), suspended in 1865, recommenced in 1866, and completed Ptolemies till about 100 B.C. in 1873,

Archimedes (287-212), Apollonius (250), Hipparchus

(150), and Hero (150). The second school arose about Horse-racos first held here

.80 June, 1 July, 1868 The prospectus of a scheme to organize an institution re.

A.D. 140, and lasted till about 400. Its most eminent sembling the South Kensington Museum and the Cryg. members were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic tal Palace by means of a tontino (to cease 30 June, system (150), Diophantus the arithmetician (200), and 1886) was issued.

.22 July, 1871 Pappus the geometer (350). The affairs were to be managed by “The Alexandra Pal. ace and Maswell Hill Estate Management Company Alexandrines, verses of twelve syllables, first writ

(Limited)." Public lectures on the subject, Aug. 1871;
the company's affairs were wound up.... .Feb. 1872

ten by Alexander of Paris, about 1164, and since called The purchase of the land and buildings for the public

after him. The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an proposed by the lord mayor and others..........July, Alexandrine. In Pope's “Essay on Criticism" this verse The palace was opened with a grand concert, eto., 24 is thus happily exemplified :May; destroyed by fire.

.9 June, 1873 Two women, incautiously viewing the ruins, buried, 25

" A needless Alexandrine onds the song, June; bodies found..

.21 Aug.

That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along." The new building (386 by 184 feet) opened.May, 1875 The longest English poem wholly in Alexandrine verse 94, 125 persons said to have entered the park, Whit-Monday.

is Drayton's " Polyolbion," published 1612-22, Balfe memorial festival.

.29 July, 1876 Petition for winding-up, 24 Oot. 1876; carried out..Jan. 1877

Alexinatz, a town in Servia. Severe fighting The palace reopened (annual subscription, 108. 6d.) took place here between the Turks and Servians, Aug.

10 May,

Sept. 1876. The town, headquarters of the Servians, Arrival of Nubian hunters with elephants, rhinoceroses,

was captured 31 Oct. This led to an armistice and camels, dromedaries, buffaloes, zebras, ostriches, etc.

(imported by Carl Hagenbeck)... .7 Sept. -13 Oct. peace; see Turkey. Opened by new proprietors (Mr. Willing and others) with Alford (N. Scotland), BATTLE OF. Gen. Baillie, new attractions.

.17 May, 1880 107,852 visitors (bank holiday)

.2 Aug.

with a large body of covenanters, was defeated by the Taken by Jones and Barber.

Nov. marquess of Montrose, 2 July, 1645. Put up for sale; unsold..

.11 Feb. 1881 Varied entertainments..........

...June, * The saying of Omar—"That if the books agreed with the Alexandria (Egypt), the walls whereof were six book of God, they were uselesa; if they disagreed, they were miles in circuit, was founded by Alexander the Great, to Theophilus, archbishop of Alexandria (390), and to cardinal

It is also attributed 332 B.C., who was buried here 322. It became the resi- Ximenes (1500).

Alexandrian Schools of Philosophy. The

.17 May,


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