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by a few females in the west of London in Aug. 1851; but, Drugs, sales regulated by Sale of Food and Drugs though recommended by some American ladies in popular act, passed 11 Aug. 1875; see Pharmacy. lectures, it was soon totally discontinued.

Druids. Dreux (N.W.France). Here Montmorenci defeated Gauls, and Britons, so named from their veneration for

Priests, among the ancient Germans, the Huguenots under Condé, 19 Dec. 1562. Here is the the oak (Brit. derw). They administered sacred things, burying-place of the Orleans family since 1816. The were the interpreters of the gods, and supreme judges. duke of Guise, aged 18, the last surviving child of the They headed the Britons who opposed Cæsar's tirst landduc d'Aumale, was buried here 27 July, 1872.. The ing, 55 B.C., and were exterminated by the Roman gorbodies of king Louis Philippe and others of his family ernor, Suetonius Paulinus, A.D. 61. were brought here from England and buried, 9 June, 1876.

Drum: the invention is ascribed to Bacchus, who, Drill Review of CHILDREN, see Education, 1870. cymbals and drums.” It was used by the Egyptians ;

according to Polyænus, “ gave his signals of battle with Drilling-machines, in agriculture. One was in- and brought by the Moors into Spain, 1713. The drum, vented by Jethro Tull, early in the last century. or drum capstan, for weighing anchors, was invented by

sir S. Morland in 1685.-Anderson, Drink, see Drunkards. Drinking - fountains. Several were erected in

Drumclog (W. Scotland). Here the covenanters Liverpool in 1857. The Metropolitan Drinking-fountain defeated Graham of Claverhouse on 1 June, 1679. An Association was formed in London in April, 1839, by lord account of the conflict is given by Walter Scott in “Old John Russell, the earl of Carlisle, Mr. S. Gurney, and

Mortality.” others. The first of the numerous fountains since erected Drumcondra, see Roman Catholic. is that near St. Sepulchre's church, Skinner street, 21 Drummond Light, see Lime-light. April, 1859. The magnificent fountain in Victoria park, London, was inaugurated by the donor, Miss (afterwards church, 59 (1 Cor. v. 11). In England, a canon law for

Drunkards were to be excommunicated in the early baroness) Burdett-Coutts, 28 June, 1862. A remarkable drinking-fountain (the gist of the maharajah of Viziani- bade drunkenness in the clergy, 747. Constantine, king

of Scots, punished it with death, 870. By 21 James I. gram) was inaugurated in Hyde park, 29 Feb. 1868; another in Regent's park, the gift of a Parsee, Aug. 1869. c. 7, 1623, a drunkard was liable to a penalty of five shil324 in the metropolis, June, 1877; 392 fountains, 404 lings, or six hours in the stocks; see Temperance and

Teetotaler. cattle-troughs, July, 1879; 437 fountains, 438 troughs, July, 1880.

A commission to inquire into the prevalence of intem

perance granted by the lords on the motion of the The fountain at the Royal Exchange, with the statue of Char.

archbishop of Canterbury, 30 June, 1876; report neuity (cost, by subscription, 15001.), tinished Oct. 1879.

tral respecting alcohol, recommends trial of modified In the United States, the first drinking-fountains were the Gothenburg system (which see) issued.......18 March, 1879 town pumps, maintained at the public expense. In New A society for promoting legislation for the control and York a number of ice-water drinking-fountains were estab- cure of habitual drunkards formed...........22 Sept. 1876 lished under the auspices of the Business Men's Moderation The establishment of an industrial home for intemperate Society in the summer of 1880.

females proposed at the Mansion House, London, 29 Oct. 1877

Habitual Drunkards bill, read second time in commons, Drogheda (E. Ireland), formerly Tredagh, a place 3 July, 1878; passed...

30 July, 1879 of great importance, having the privilege of coining Drink Bill.- Mr. William Hoyle computes that the na: money. Here was passed Poynings's law (which see) in

tion in 1860 spent in intoxicating liquors, 86,897,6831.;

in 1876, 147, 288, 7601.; in 1870, 128, 143,8631. In 1880, 1494. In the reign of Edward VI, an act was passed

for beer, 67,881,6731. ; British spirits, 28,457,4861. ; forfor the foundation of a university here. The town was eign spirits, 10,173,014l. ; wine, 14, 297, 1021. ; British besieged several times in the contests between 1641 and wines, etc., estimated 1,500,0001. ; total, 122,279,2751. 1691, and Cromwell took it by storm, and put the gov- on comparison, it was assorted that our drink bill does

1881 ernor, sir A. Aston, and the whole of the garrison, to the sword, 12 Sept. 1649. More than 3000 men, most

Drury-lane Theatre derives its origin from a of them English, perished. It surrendered to William cockpit which was converted into a theatre in the reign

of James I. It was rebuilt and called the Phænix; and III. in 1690.

Charles II. granted an exclusive patent to Thomas KilDromore, BISHOPRIC OF (N.E. Ireland), founded ligrew, 25 April, 1662. The actors were called "the by St. Coleman, first bishop, about 556. By an extent king's servants,” and ten of them, called “gentlemen of returned 15 James I., this see was valued in the king's the great chamber," had an annual allowance of ten books at 50l. Jeremy Taylor was bishop of Down and yards of scarlet cloth, with lace; see under Theatres. Connor in 1660, and of this see in 1661. In 1842 Dro- | Drury-lane Theatrical Fund established 1766. more was united to Down by the Irish Church Temporalities Act of 1833.

Druses, a warlike people dwelling among the moun

tains of Lebanon, derive their origin from a fanatical Drontheim, capital of Norway, founded by Olaf I. Mahometan sect which arose in Egypt about 996, and about 998.

fled to Palestine to avoid persecution. They now retain Drowning, an ancient punishment. The Britons hardly any of the religion of their ancestors: they eat inflicted death by drowning in a quagmire, before 450 pork and drink wine, and do not practise circumcision, B.C.–Stow. It is said to have been inflicted on eighty pray, or fast. In the middle of 1860, in consequence of intractable bishops near Nicomedia, A.D. 370, and to disputes (in which doubtless both parties were to blame), have been adopted as a punishment in France by Louis the Druses attacked their neighbors the Maronites (which XI. The wholesale drownings of the royalists in the see), whom they massacred, it was said, without regard Loire at Nantes, by command of the brutal Carrier, Nov. to age or sex. Peace was made in July; but in the 1793, were termed Noyades. 94 priests were drowned meantime a religious fury seized the Mahometan popuat one time. He was condemned to death in Dec. 1794. lation of the neighboring cities, and a general massacre Societies for the recovery of drowning persons were first of Christians ensued. Fuad Pacba with Turkish troops, instituted in Holland in 1767. The second society is and gen. Hautpoul with French auxiliaries, invaded said to have been formed at Milan in 1768, the third at Lebanon in Aug. and Sept. The Druses surrendered, Hamburg in 1771, the fourth at Paris in 1772, and the giving up their chiefs, Jan. 1861; see Damascus and fifth in London in 1774. The motto of the Royal Hu- Syria. mane Society in England is Lateat scintillula forsan“ A small spark may perhaps lie hid.” François Texier, four to ten times more powerful than gunpowder), com

Dualin, a new explosive substance (said to be from of Dunkerque, after saving 50 lives at different times, posed of varying proportions of cellulose (woody fibre), was drowned in a storm, Oct. 1871.

nitro-starch, nitro-mannite, and nitro-cellulose; invented Drowned in inland waters in England and Wales, 1877, 2662. I by Carl Ditmar, a Prussian, and made known in 1870.

64

.26 May,

myn first

This name is also given to another explosive compound, I Poor law bill passed..

.31 July, 1838

...6 Jan. 1839 invented by Mr. Nobel, composed of ammonia and saw- O'Connell's arrest (see Trials).

14 Oct. 1843 dust, acted on by nitro-sulphuric acid.

He is found guilty, 12 Feb.; liberated .n. Sept. 1844

His death at Genoa... Dualism, a term applied to the principles of the Arrest of Mitchel, of the United Irishman newspaper,

..15 May, 1847 advocates for a separate government of Hungary under

13 May, 1848 the emperor of Austria; effected in 1867.

State-trial of Wm. Smith O'Brien and Meagher in Dublin,

15 May, Dublin, capital of Ireland, anciently called Ashcled, [These persons were afterwards tried at Clonmel, and said to have been built 140. Auliana, daughter of Alpi

found guilty

Trial of Mitchel; guilty... nus, a lord or chief among the Irish, having been drowned Irish Felon newspaper first published..

.1 July, at the ford where now Whitworth bridge is built, he Nation and Irish Felon suppressed.

.29 July, changed the name to Auliana, by Ptolemy called Eblana Conviction of O'Doherty.

..1 Nov. (afterwards corrupted into Dublana). Alpinus is said to Royal Exchange opened as a city hall.

.6 Aug. 1849

..30 Sept. 1852 have brought “ the then rude hill into the form of a Dublin industrial exhibition, which owed its existence town,” about 155; see Ireland and Trinity Colleges. to Mr. Dargan, who advanced 80,0001. for the purpose,

was erected by Mr. (afterwards sir) John Benson, in Christianity established by St. Patrick, and St. Patrick's the Dublin society's grounds, near Merrion square. It cathedral founded...

.. about 448 consisted of one large and two smaller halls, lighted Dublin environed with walls by the Danes.

798 from above. It was opened by earl St. Germains, the Named by king Edgar in the preface to his charter" No.

lord-lieutenant.

.12 May, 1853 bilissima Civitas'.

964 Visited by the queen and prince Albert 30 Aug.; and Battle of Clontarf (which see) 23 April, 1014 closed on...

...1 Nov. Dublin taken by Ramond le Gros, 1170, for Henry II., Acts passed to establish a national gallery, museum, etc., who soon after arrives...

1171

10 Aug. 1854, and 2 July, 1855 Charter granted by this king..

1173 British Association meet here (second time)..... 26 Aug 1857 Christ church built by the Danes, 1038; rebuilt about 1180-1225 Arrival of lord Eglinton-disgraceful contest between the Slaughter of 500 British by the Irish citizens near Dub. Trinity College students and the police; the latter selin (see Cullen's Wood)..

1209 verely blamed...

12 March, 1858 Assemblage of Irish princes, who swear allegiance to king Fine-art exhibition proposed, 20 July, 1860; opened by John

1210 the lord lieutenant, the earl of Carlisle, 24 May, 1861; Foundation of Dublin castle laid by Henry de Loundres, visited by the prince of Wales, 1 July; and by the 1205; finished.. 1213 queen and prince consort...

22 Aug. 1861 John de Decer first provost; Richard de St. Olave and National Association for Social Science met..14-22 Aug. John Stakebold first bailiffs (see Mayor). .

1308 Demonstration at the funeral of the rebel M Manus, Thomas Cusack first mayor.

1409

10-12 Nov. Besieged by the son of the earl of Kildare, lord deputy.. 1500 Lord Rosse installed as chancellor of the university, Christ church made a deanery and chapter by Henry

17 Feb. 1863 VIII. (see Christ Church).

1541 Archbishop Whately dies, 8 Oct.; succeeded by Richard Bailiff changed to sheriffs; John Ryan and Thomas Co

Chenevix Trench..

.Nov. 1548 Statue of Oliver Goldsmith inaugurated by the lord lieu. Trinity College founded.

1591 tenant, 5 Jan. ; who opens the National Gallery of IreCharter granted by James I.

1609 land

30 Jan. 1864 Convocation which established the Thirty-nine Articles New Richmond hospital, to be called the Carmichael of religion...

1614 School of Medicine,” founded by lord Carlisle (Mr. Besieged by the marquess of Ormond, defeated at battle Carmichael, the surgeon, bequeathed 10,000!. to it), of Rathmines (which see)... .2 Aug. 1649

29 March, Cromwell arrives in Dublin with 9000 foot and 400 horse, Industrial exhibition opened by the lord chancellor, Aug.

25 May, Chief magistrate styled lord mayor..

1665 The O'Connell monument founded.

...8 Aug. Blue-coat Hospital incorporated..

1570 St. Patrick's cathedral restored by Mr. Benjamin L. GuinEssex bridge built by sir H. Jervis,

1676 ness; reopened..

24 Feb. 1865 Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, founded..

1683 The international exhibition opened by the prince of James II. arrives in Dublin, 24 March; proclaimed, 4 May, 1689 Wales ..

..9 May, Great gunpowder explosion

1693 The newspaper The Irish People seized, and several Lamps first erected in the city

1698 Fenians taken in custody (see Fenians and Ireland), Infirmary, Jervis street, founded.

1728

15 Sept. Parliament-house begun..

1729 International exhibition closed..

.9 Nov. Foundling Hospital incorporated

1739 Great fire: Mrs. Delany and five others burned; fireSt. Patrick's spire erected (see St. Patrick)..

1749 brigade blamed.

..7 June, 1866 Royal Dublin Society originated, 1731; incorporated

Great banquet to John Bright..

...30 Oct. Hibernian Society.

1765 Meeting of Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland. 27 Aug. 1867 Marine Society..

1766 Two policemen shot (probably by Fenians) 31 Oct. Queen's bridge first erected, 1684; destroyed by a flood, Funeral demonstration for Allen, Gould, and Larkin, the 1763; rebuilt..

1768 Fenians..

....8 Dec. Act for a general pavement of the city

1773 Visit of prince of Wales (see Ireland). ......15 April, 1868 Royal Exchange begun, 1769; opened.

1779 Sir Benjamin L. Guinness, benefactor, died. .....19 May, " Order of St. Patrick instituted.

1783 Church congress held.

.29 Sept. -2 Oct. Bank of Ireland instituted (see Bank)

Public entry of earl Spencer as lord-lieutenant...16 Jan. 1869 Police established by statute

1786 | Smith O'Brien's statue unveiled...

..26 Dec. 1870 Royal Academy incorporated

State funeral of lord mayor Bullin (died in office), Custom-house begun, 1781; opened.

1791

16 June, 1871 Dublin Library instituted..

Fine-art and industrial exhibition opened by the duke Fire at the parliament-house..

1792 of Edinburgh...

....5 June, 1872 Carlisle bridge erected..

1794 Closed by the lord lieutenant, earl Spencer ..30 Nov. City Armed Association..

1796 Spencer dock inaugurated by the lord lieutenant, New Four law-courts opened

15 April, 1873 The rebellion: arrest of lord Edward Fitzgerald in Thom- Great fire; rioting suppressed by the military...7 June, as street..

.19 May, 1798 | Conference on " Home Rule” in the Rotondo, 18-21 Nov. Union with England (see Union).

...1 Jan. 1801 | International rifle match, Irish and Americans; Ameri. Emmett's insurrection. 23 July, 1803 cans won...

...... 29 June, 1875 Hibernian Bible Society..

1806 Statue of Henry Grattan unveiled.

....6 Jan. 1876 Bank transferred to College green..

1808 Entry of the duke of Marlborough, new lord lieutenant, Dublin Institution founded..

1811

10 Jan. 1877 Riot at the theatre .....

.16 Aug. 1814 Freedom of city given to Mr. W. E. Gladstone..... 7 Nov. Visit of George IV...

.12 Aug. 1821 Christ Church cathedral thoroughly restored by Mr. G. E. Theatre Royal opened.

Street, at the expense of Mr. Henry Roe (above The “Bottle riot”. 14 Dec. 1822 250,0001.), reopened

......1 May, 1878 Hibernian Academy

.16 Aug. 1823 British Association meet here (third time)......14 Aug. Dublin lighted with gas..

.5 Oct. 1825 Death of cardinal Paul Cullen, Roman Catholic archbishop Richard Whately made archbishop (very active in edu.

of Dublin (since 1851), 24 Oct.; successor, monsignor cation). 1831 McCabe, elected

28 Nov. Great custom house fire..

..9 Aug. 1833 Centenary of birth of Thomas Moore celebrated. .28 May, 1879 Railroad to Kingstown..

1834 Theatre Royal burned down; Mr. Egerton, the manager, British Association meet here. ..6 Aug. 1835 and 5 others, perish..

.9 Feb. 1880 Dublin new police act...

.4 July, 1836 Cemetery, Mount Jerome, consecrated ..19 Sept.

Dublin, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF. It is supposed that Royal Arcade burned.

25 April

, 1837 | the bishopric of Dublin was founded by St. Patrick in

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448. Gregory, bishop in 1121, became archbishop in 1152. Baron Hompesch wounded Mr. Richardson .....21 Sept. 1806 It was united to Glandalagh in 1214. George Browne, Sir Francis Burdett and Mr. Paull; both wounded,

Gen. Jackson and col. Dickenson, in America. . an Augustine friar of London (deprived by queen Mary

5 May, 1807 in 1554), was the first Protestant archbishop. Dublin Mr. Alcock killed Mr. Colclough; and lost his reason, has two cathedrals, Christ church and St. Patrick's. M. de Granpré and M. Le Pique, in balloons, near Paris,

8 June, The revenue was valued, in the king's books, 30 Henry

and the latter killed..

..3 May, 1808 VIII., at 5341. 15s. 2d. Irish. Kildare, on its last avoid- Major Campbell and capt. Boyd; latter killed (former ance, was annexed to Dublin, 1846; see Bishops.

hanged, 2 Oct. 1808)..

.23 June,

Lord Paget and capt. Cadogan; neither wounded.30 May, 1809 Ducat, a coin so called because struck by dukes.-- Lord Castlereagh wour Geo. Canning. ...21 Sept. Johnson. First coined by Longinus, governor of Italy.- Mr. Clarke killed Geo. Payne...

.6 Sept. 1810

Ensign de Balton killed capt. Boardman. 4 March, 1811 Procopius. First struck in the duchy of Apulia, 1140.- Lieut. Stewart killed lieut. Bagnal... ...7 Oct. 1812 Du Cange. Coined by Robert, king of Sicily, in 1240. Col. Benton and gen. Jackson, in America..

1813

Mr. Edward Maguire killed lieut. Blundell. .9 July, Ducking-stool; see Cucking-stool.

Captain Stackpole (of Statira frigate) and lieut. Cecil;

the captain killed (arose on account of words spoken Duelling took its rise from the judicial combats of

four years previously)....

. April, 1814 the Celtic nations. The first formal duel in England, Mr. D. O'Connell killed Mr. D'Esterre... .31 Jan. 1815 between William count d’Eu and Godfrey Baynard, Col. Quentin and col. Palmer....

.7 Feb. took place 1096. Duelling in civil matters was forbid- Mr. O'Connell and Mr Peel; an affair, no meeting, 31 Aug.

Major Greene and Mr. Price, in America; the latter killed, den in France, 1305. Francis I. challenged the emperor greatly lamented

1816 Charles V. 1528 without effect. The fight with small- Lieut. Conroy killed lieut. Hindes.

.8 March, 1817

..10 Dec. swords was introduced into England, 1587. Proclama- Major Lockyer killed Mr John Sutton....

Mr. O'Callaghan killed lieut. Bayley

12 Jan. 1818 tion that no person should be pardoned who killed an

Commodore Decatur and commodore Barron (Decatur other in a duel, 1679.* Duelling was checked in the killed), in America..

1820 army, 1792; and has been abolished in England by the

Mr. Grattan and the earl of Clare.

.7 June,

Mr. Henshaw and Mr. Hartinger ; both desperately influence of public opinion, aided by the prince consort.

wounded

18 Sept. A society "for the discouraging of duelling” was estab- Mr. Christie killed Mr. Scott..

..16 Feb. 1821 lished in 1845. “ The British Code of Duel” published M. Manuel and Mr. Beaumont.

, in 1824, was approved by the duke of Wellington and Mr. James Stuart killed Sir Alexander Boswell

, 26 March, 1822

The duke of Buckingham and the duke of Bedford; no others ; see Battle, Wager of; Combat; and Jarnac.

fatality..

.2 May, Gen. Pepe wounded gen. Carascosa...

..28 Feb. 1823 MEMORABLE DUELS. Mr. Westall killed capt. Gourlay..

1824 First duel in America, between two servingmen, Plym- Henry Clay and John Randolph, in America

1826 outh, Mass.

1621

Mr. Beaumont and Mr. Lambton: no result... .1 July, Between the duke of Hamilton and lord Mohun, fought Mr. Hayes killed Mr Bric..

26 Dec. 15 Nov. 1712 Rev. Mr. Hodson wounded Mr. Grady.

.... Aug. 1827 (This duel was fought with small-swords, in Hyde Duke of Wellington and the earl of Winchelsea; no inPark. Lord Mohun was killed upon the spot, and the jury.

.21 March, 1829 duke expired of his wounds as he was being carried to Capt. Helsham killed lieut. Crowther,

.1 April, his coach.)

Mr. W. Lambrecht killed Mr. O. Clayton.. .8 Jan. 1830 Woodbridge and Phillips, on Boston common. ......... 1728 Capt Smith killed Mr. O'Grady..

18 March, Capt. Peppard and Mr. Hayes; latter killed..

Mr. Storey wounded Mr. Matthias.

...22 Jan. 1833 Messrs. Hamilton and Morgan; former killed..

1748 Sir John W. Jeffcott and Dr. Hennis; the latter wounded S. Martin wounded Mr. Wilkes, M.P..

16 Nov. 1763
(and died on the 18th).

10 May, Lord Byron killed Mr. Chaworth...

.26 Jan. 1765 Lord Alvanley and Mr. Morgan O'Connell; 2 shots each, Lord Townsend wounded lord Bellamont.. .1 Feb. 1773

4 May, 1835 Button Gwinnett and gen. McIntosh, in America.. 1777 Sir Colquhoun Grant and lord Seymour; no fatality, Gen. Conway and gen. Cadwallader, in America.. 1778

29 May, Comte d'Artois wounded by duc de Bourbon, at Paris, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., and Mr Black, editor of the Morning 21 March, Chronicle; 2 shots each

.....19 Nov. Mr. Donovan and capt. Hanson; the latter killed, 13 Nov. 1779 Capt. Dickson wounded gen. Evans

8 April, 1836 Charles James Fox wounded by Mr. Adam.... .30 Nov.

Mr. Ruthven and Mr. Scott; and Mr. Rithren and Mr. Col. Fullerton wounded lord Shelburne .22 March, 1780 Close (Mr. Scott's second); the latter wounded, 23 May, Rev. Mr. Allen killed Lloyd Dulany.

.18 June, 1782 Emile de Girardin killed Armand Carrel (both journalists) Col. Thomas killed by col. Gordon...

...4 Sept. 1783 Lord Macartney wounded by major.gen. Stuart..8 June, 1786 Graves and Cilley, in America..

.1838 Mr. M.Keon killed George N. Reynolds, 1787; executed The earl of Cardigan and capt. Tuckett; 2 shots each; the

16 Feb. 1788 latter wounded (the earl was tried in the house of lords Mr. Purefoy killed col. Roper.......

and acquitted, 16 Feb. 1841)....

......12 Sept. 1840 Duke of York and col. Lennox, afterwards duke of Rich- Capt. Boldero and hon. Craven Berkeley; no fatality, mond (for an insignificant cause). 26 May, 1789

15 July, 1842 Sir George Ramsay and capt. Macrea; sir George killed. 1790 Lieut. Monroe killed col. Fawcett.. .1 (died 3) July, 1843 Mr. Curran and major Hobart..

..1 April,
Lieut. Hawkey killed lieut. Seton.

...20 May, 1845 Mr. Macduff and Mr. Prince; latter killed. 4 June, Duc de Grammont Caderousse kills Mr. Dillon at Paris, Mr. Harvey Aston and lieut. Fitzgerald; the former se

for a newspaper attack..

... Oct. 1862 verely wounded.

25 June, Col. Calhoun and major Rhett (Confederate officers); Cal. Mr. Anderson killed Mr. Stevens

.20 Sept.

houn killed, at Charleston, S. C... Mr. Julius killed Mr. Graham.

19 July, 1791 (Gen. Beauregard refused to enforce the military law Mr. John Kemble and Mr Aiken, no fatality....1 March, 1792 against Rhett, who was promoted to Calhoun's place.) Earl of Lonsdale and capt. Cuthbert; no fatality, 9 June, Paul de Cassagnac and M. Lissagaray, journalists (latter M. de Chauvigny wounded Mr. Lameth.. ..8 Nov.

run through)..

.4 Sept. 1868 Wm. Pitt and George Tierney....

27 May, 1796 Don Enrique de Bourbon killed by the duc de MontpenLord Valentia wounded by Mr. Gawler..

.28 June,

sier, near Madrid, after much provocation... 12 March, 1870 Mr. Carpenter killed by Mr. Pride..

20 Aug. Paul de Cassagnac (wounded) and M. Ranc, Paris, 7 July, 1873 Henry Grattan wounded Isaac Corry

15 Jan. 1800 Prince Soutza kills N. Ghika at Fontainebleau...27 Nov. Lieut. Willis killed major Impey ..

.26 Aug. 1801 MM. Gambetta and De Fortou; neither hit.......21 Nov. 1878 De Witt Clinton and John Swartwout, in America..... 1802 Duels (often nominal) still frequent in France...... .1875-81 George Ogle and Barnard Coyle; no fatality.. Sir Richard Musgrave and Mr. Todd Jones; sir Richard Duke, from Latin, dux, a leader. In England, durwounded..

..8 June, ing Saxon times, the commanders of armies were called DeWitt Clinton and Gen. Dayton, in America.

1803 Capt. MacNamara killed col. Montgomery... ..6 April,

dukes, duces.-Camden. In Gen. xxxvi, some of Esau's Gen. Hamilton and col. Aaron Burr (in America); the

descendants are termed dukes. Duke-duke was a title general killed..

1804 given to the house of Sylvia, in Spain, on account of its Capt. Best killed lord Camelford......6 (died 10) March,

possessing many duchies. Surgeon Fisher killed l'orrens.. ..22 March, 1806

Edward the Black Prince made duke of Cornwall, *"As many as 227 official and memorable duels were fought

17 March, 1337 during my grand climacteric."-Sir J. Barrington. A single Robert de Vere was created marquess of Dublin and duke writer enumerates 172 duels, in which 63 individuals were of Ireland, 9 Rich. II. ......

1385 killed and 96 wounded; in three of these cases both the com- Robert III. created David, prince of Scotland, duke of batants were killed, and 18 of the survivors suffered the sen- Rothsay, a title which afterwards belonged to the king's tence of the law.-Hamilton.

eldest son, 1398, and is now borne by the prince of Wales.

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1 Nov. 1873

. 20 Dec.

Cosmo de' Medici created grand-dule of Tuscany, the first The Albert Institution opened by the earl of Dalhousie, of the rank, by pope Pius V.

1569

The Queen-street calendering works burned; loss beDulcigno, a port in Albania on the Adriatic.

tween 15,0001. and 20,000L.... Taken by Turks....

1571 New wet-dock (Victoria) opened by lord Strathmore, In the seventeenth century a den of pirates, and the

16 Aug. 1875 residence of Sabbatai Zewi, a Smyrnese Jew, who de. The Tay bridge (which see) completed Aug. 1977; opened clared himself to be the Messiah, became Mahometan;

31 May, 1878; destroyed by a gale (between eighty and and died

1676
ninety lives lost), 7.15 P.m...

.28 Dec. 1879 Taken by Venetians; and held for a short time. 1722 Statue of Burns unveiled.......

. 16 Oct. 1880 The Montenegrins take it by storm; but give it up..... 1878 Assigned to them by the Berlin conference. .June, July, 1880

Dunes, see Dunkirk. Seized by 8000 Albanians, who expelled the Turks about Dungan-hill (Ireland). Here the English army,

18 Sept. After much delay the Sultan signed the decree for its

commanded by col. Jones, signally defeated the Irish, of cession to Montenegro..

...12 Oct. whom 6000 are said to have been slain, wbile the loss on After a slight conflict with Albanians 22 Nov., occupied the side of the English was inconsiderable, 8 Aug. 1647.

by Dervish Pacha 24 Nov., and surrendered to the Montenegrins...

..26, 27 Nov.

Dunkeld (Perthshire) was made a bishopric by Dulwich College (Surrey), called God's-gift Col- David I. in 1127; the ancient Culdee church, founded by lege, founded by Edward Alleyn, an eminent comedian, king Constantine III., becoming the cathedral. The was completed and solemnly opened 13 Sept. 1619. Al- beautiful bridge over the Tay, erected by Thomas Telleyn was its first master, and died in 1626. In 1686 ford, was opened in 1809. Wm. Cartwright, an actor, gave a library and some por- Dunkirk (N. France), founded in the serenth centraits, and on 20 Dec. 1810 sir Francis Bourgeois be- tury, was taken by the Spaniards, Sept. 1652, and retaken queathed his collection of pictures, the gallery for which from them by the English and French after Turenne's was erected by sir John Soane, and opened in 1812. Sir victory over them under Condé on the dunes (or sands), Francis died 8 Jan. 1811. In 1857 an act was passed by 14 June, 1658, and put into the hands of the English, 25 which the college was reconstituted. Two schools were June following. It was sold by Charles II. for 500,0001. established; and the number of the almspeople increased. to Louis XIV., 17 Oct.; restored 1662, and was one of Iu 1860 the annual income was 11,4821. The new school the best-fortified ports in the kingdom; but the works buildings, founded 26 June, 1866, were opened by the were demolished in conformity with the treaty of Umrecht prince of Wales, 21 June, 1870. The Endowed Schools in 1713. The works were ordered to be demolished at Commissioners put forth a draft scheme for remodelling the peace of 1763; but in 1783 they were again resumed. the charity about Oct. 1872; and another scheme was The English attempted to besiege Dunkirk; but the issued in 1881. Four parishes are benefited by the char- duke of York was defeated by Hoche and forced to reity: St. Luke's, Middlesex; St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate; tire with loss, 7 Sept. 1793. It was made a free port in St. Saviour's, Southwark; and St. Giles's, Camberwell. 1816. Dumb, see Deaf and Dumb.

Dunmow (Essex), famous for the tenure of the Dumblane, or DUNBLANE (Perth), an ancient city, manor (made by Robert Fitz-Walter, 1244), “ that whatnear which took place a conflict called the battle of Sher- ever married couple will go to the priory, and, kneeling iffmuir, between the royalist army under the duke of on two sharp-pointed stones, will swear that they have Argyll, and the Scots rebels under the earl of Mar, 13 not quarrelled nor repented of their marriage within a Nov. 1715. Both claimed the victory.

year and a day after its celebration, shall receive a flitch Dunbar (Haddington). Here the Scottish army

of bacon.” and king John Baliol were defeated by Warrenne, earl The earliest recorded claim for the bacon was in 1445, since of Surrey, 27 April, 1296, and Scotland was subdued.

when, to 1855, it is said to have been demanded only five Near bere, also, Cromwell obtained a signal victory over the last claimants, previous to 1855, were John Shakeshanks the Scots, in arms for Charles II., 3 Sept. 1650.

and his wife, 20 June, 1751; they made a large sum by sell

ing slices of the flitch to witnesses of the ceremony (5000 Dunciad, the celebrated satirical poem by Alexan- persons). der Pope, was published in 1728.

Flitches were awarded to Mr. and Mrs. Barlow of Chipping

Ongar, and the Chevalier Chatelaine and his lady, 19 July, Duncombe Park, N. Riding of Yorkshire, the mag- 1855. niticent mansion of thc earl of Feversham, with valuable The lord of the manor opposed the revival; but Mr. W. Harri. treasures (really a museum open to the public), was de

son Ainsworth, the novelist, and some friends, defrayed the

expense and superintended the ceremonials. stroyed by fire, 11 Jan. 1879.

A flitch was awarded in 1860 and 9 July, 1873; on 17 July, Dundalk (Louth, Ireland). On 5 Oct. 1318, at

1876, to James Henry and Mary Boosey; to others, 23 July,

1877. Foughard, near this place, was defeated and slain Edward Bruce, who had invaded Ireland in 1315. The Dunse (S. Scotland). Here, on 18 June, 1639, by walls and fortifications of Dundalk were destroyed in treaty between the Scots commission and Charles I., 1641. It was taken by Cromwell in 1649. The first their demands were acceded to, and they agreed to discambric manufacture in Ireland was established in this band their army. Disputes arose, and the treaty was town by artisans from France in 1727.

not carried into effect. Dundee (E. Scotland), on the Tay. The site was

Dunsinane (Perthshire). On the hill was fought given by William the Lion (reigned 1165-1214) to his the battle between king Macbeth, formerly the thane of brother David, earl of Huntingdon, who built or strength- Glamis, and Siward, earl of Northumberland, 27 July, ened the castle, and erected a large church, the tower of 1054. Edward the Confessor had sent Siward on behalf which, 156 feet high, still remains. The town was taken of Malcolm III., whose father, Duncan, the usurper had by the English in 1385; pillaged by Montrose, 1645; murdered. Macbeth was defeated, and it was said was stormed by Monk in 1651; and visited by queen Victoria pursued to Lumphanan, in Aberdeenshire, and there slain, in 1844. "It has thriven since 1815, through its exten- 1056 or 1057. sive linen manufactories; at one of these (Edwards's) Duomo, see Milan, a steam explosion took place on 15 April, 1859, when twenty persons were killed. Claverhouse, viscount Dun-ergetically and adroitly frustrated the plan for his ruin,

Dupes, Day OF, 11 Nor. 1630, when Richelieu endee (killed 1689), had a house here. Population in 1861, formed by the queen Marie de Médicis and Gaston, duke 90,425; in 1871, 118,974.

of Orleans, and others, during the king's illness. The Baxter park, the gift of sir David Baxter, opened by earl Russell..

Duplex Telegraphy, see under Electric Telegraph.

.9 Sept. 1863 The British Association met here.

.4 Sept. 1867 Düppel, or DYBBöl, see under Denmark, 1864. While preparing for building the great Tay bridge of the

N. British railway six men were killed.. .27 Aug. 1873 Dupplin (Perthshire). Here Edward Balliol and

times.

6 Oct. 1868

crown...

his English allies totally defeated the Scots under the about 330 B.C., as a poet and grammarian, was said to earl of Mar, 11 Aug. 1332, and obtained the crown for have carried weights in his pockets to prevent his being three months.

blown away.

He was preceptor to Ptolemy PhiladelDurbar, an East Indian term for an audience-cham-phus.---Ælian. Julia, niece of Augustus, had a dwarf ber or reception. On 18 Oct. 1864, a durbar was held named Coropas, two feet and a hand’s-breadth high; at Lahore by the viceroy of India, sir John Lawrence, at and Andromeda, a freed-maid of Julia's, was of the same which 604 of the most illustrious princes and chieftains height.-Pliny. Aug. Cæsar exhibited in his plays a of the northwest province were present, magniticently andria, a logician and philosopher, was but one foot tive

man not two feet in stature.-Sueton. Alypius of Alexclothed. Similar ones were held in 1866, 1867, and on inches and a half high; he seemed to be consumed into 27 March, 1869, at Umballah.

a kind of divine nature."-Vos. Instit. Sir Seymour Fitzgerald, governor of Bombay, held a great durbar of the princes of Western India at Poona, MODERN DWARFS.-John D’Estrix of Mechlin was brought to

the duke of Parma, in 1592, when he was 35 years of age, The earl of Mayo, the viceroy, held a solemn durbar at having a long beard. He was skilled in languages, and not Ajmere in Rajpootana...

..22 Oct. 1870 more than three feet high. The marquess of Ripon's grand durbar (as viceroy) at La- Geoffrey Hudson, an English dwarf, when a youth, 18 inchhore (after Afghan war).

..15 Nov. 1880 es high, was served up to table in a cold pie, before the king

and queen, by the duchess of Buckingham, in 1626. He Durham, an ancient city, the Dunholme of the Sax- challenged Mr. Crofts to fight a duel; but the latter came ons, and Duréme of the Normans. The BISHOPRIC was

armed with a squirt. At another meeting the dwarf shot rémoved to Durham from Chester-le-street in 995, whither Count Borowlaski, a Polish gentleman of great accomplish

his antagonist dead, 1653. it had been transferred from Lindisfarne, or Holy Isl- ments and elegant manners, well known in England, where and, on the coast of Northumberland, in 875, in conse- he resided for many years, was born in Nov. 1739. His quence of the invasion of the Danes. The bones of St.

growth was at one year of age, 14 inches; at six, 17 inches;

at twenty, 33 inches; and at thirty, 39. He had a sister, Cuthbert, the sixth bishop, were brought from Lindis

named Avastasia, seven years younger than himself, and so farne and interred in Durham cathedral. This see, much shorter that she could stand under his arm. He visdeemed the richest in England, was valued in the king's

ited many of the courts of Europe, and died in England in

1837. books at 28211. Present income 80001.

Charles Stratton (termed general Tom Thumb), an American, College founded (abolished at the Reformation)

1290

was exhibited in England, 1846. In Feb. 1863, in New York, Near Durham was fought the decisive battle of Neville's when 25 years old and 31 inches high, he married Lavinia Cross (see Strikes)...

.17 Oct. 1346 Warren, aged 21, 32 inches high. He, his wife and child, Durham ravaged by Malcolm of Scotland, 1070; occupied

and commodore Nutt, another dwarf, came to England in by the Northern rebels...

1509 Dec. 1864, and remained here some time. By the Scots..

1640 Mr. Collard, aged 22, smaller than Stratton, sang at concerts in Cromwell quartered his Scotch prisoners in the cathe

London, and was termed the "Pocket Sims Reeves," May, dral...

1650

June, 1873. Cromwell established a college, 1657; which was sup

Several dwarfs (said to be smaller than the preceding) exhibpressed at the Restoration.

1660

ited at the Westminster Aquarium, July, 1878. The palatine privileges, granted to the bishop by the Che-mah, a Chinese, 42 years old, 25 inches high, exhibited Danish Northumbrian prince Guthrum, taken by the

at the Westminster Aquarium, 11 June, 1880.

June, 1836 Lucia Zarate, born 2 Jan. 1863, in Mexico; height 20 inches, Present University established in 1831; opened Oct. 1833;

weight 44 lbs.; and chartered..

..June, 1837 General Mite, born 2 Oct. 1864, in New York State; height 21 Certain new ordinances recommended by a commission, inches, weight 9 lbs.; exhibited in Piccadilly, 22 Nov. 1880 1862, set aside.....

Exhibited in New York in company with the Cathedral renovated; reopened...

...18 Oct. 1876 preceding, under the collective term of “The Midgets,"

1879 et seq. RECENT BISHOPS. 1791. Hon. Shute Barrington, died in 1826.

Dyeing is attributed to the Tyrians, about 1500 B.C. 1826. William Van Mildert (the last prince bishop), died 21 The English are said to have sent fine goods to be dyed

Feb. 1836. 1836. Edward Maltby, resigned in 1856; died 3 July, 1859, 1608. “Two dyers of Exeter were flogged for teaching

in Holland till the art was brought to them, probably in aged 90. 1856. Charles Thomas Longley; became archbp. of York, May, their art in the north” (of England), 1628. A statute

1860. 1860. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers (translated from Carlisle); died been greatly improved by chemical research. A discov

against abuses in dyeing passed in 1783. The art has 10 Aug. 1861. 1861. Charles Baring, resigned 3 Feb. 1879; died 14 Sept. 1879. ery of Dr. Stenhouse, in 1848, led to M. Marnas procuring 1879. Joseph Barber Lightfoot.

mauve from lichens; and Dr. Hofmann's production of

aniline from coal-tar has led to the invention of a numDurham Letter, see Pupal Aggression.

ber of beautiful dyes (mauve, magenta, red, green, black, Dust and Disease. A controversy respecting the etc.); see Aniline. connection between them originated with a lecture on the subject by professor Tyndall at the Royal Institution, of 25 parts of silicious earth saturated with 75 parts of

Dynamite, a new explosive compound, consisting 21 Jan. 1870, when he demonstrated the presence of or- nitro-glycerine (which see). It is suitable for mining ganic matters in the dust of the atmosphere in conformity with the experiments of Pasteur and other eminent purposes, and was tried and approved at Merstham 14

July, 1868. It was invented by A. Nobel to obviate philosophers; see Germ Theory.

danger. Its manufacture is very dangerous. Dutch Plays, “ Annie Mie," by Rosier Faassen, and Thirteen men killed by explosion of dynamite in a railway others, were performed at the Imperial Theatre, West- tunnel at Cymmer, S. Wales, 21 April, 1876. minster, 7 June et seq. 1880. Madame Catherine Beers- A man named Thomson, Thomassin, or Thomas, consigned a

cask of dynamite to Bremerhafen, to be conveyed by the man's acting was much approved.

North German Lloyd's steamer Mosel. With it he sent a Dutch Republic, see Holland.

clockwork machine, which would in eight days give the

cask a blow powerful enough to explode the dynamite and Duties, see Customs, Excise, etc.

destroy the ship. From some cause the machine went off

and exploded in the dock, killing above 80 and wounding Duty, see Whole and Deontology.

about 200 persons, chiefly emigrants and their friends, 11

Dec. 1875. Thomson committed suicide, dying 16 Dec. 1875, Duumviri, two Roman patricians appointed by Tar- after confessing his crime, his object being to obtain the quin the Proud, 520 B.G., to take care of the books of the

paltry sum for which he had insured his goods. It appears

that similar machines were known in 1873. Sibyls, which were supposed to contain the fate of the Use of dynamite for killing oxen tried and advocated, sumRoman empire. The books were placed in the Capitol,

mer, 1877. and secured in a chest under the ground. The number its use in fisheries prohibited by parliament, 14 Aug. 1877. of keepers was increased to ten (the Decemviri) 365 B.C.

, A parcel containing 27 cartridges of dynamite placed on the

London and N. W. Railway, between Bushey and Watford afterwards to fifteen; the added five called quinque viri. (perpetrators not discovered), night 12-13 Sept. 1880. Dwarfs, ANCIENT. Philetas of Cos, distinguished Dzoungaria, a region of Central Asia, N. of China,

1863

et seq.

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