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The khedive leaves for Naples..

.30 June, 1879 | Provence, 1 March, and soon after recovered the crown; Tewfik succeeds as khedive..

.8 Aug. Mr. Baring and M. de Blignières appointed comptrollers

see France, 1815. Elba was resumed by the grand-duke general.

,4 Sept.

of Tuscany, July, 1815. New ministry, Riaz Pacha, etc., announced.. ...9 Sept. Col. Gordon negotiating with Abyssinia to prevent war,

Elchingen, Bavaria. Here Ney beat the Austrians, reported successful..


14 Oct. 1805, and was made duke of Elchingen. He resigns governorship of the Soudan, Oct. 1879; accepted...

Jan. 1880

Elcho Shield, see under Volunteers. Peace with Abyssinia announced.. ..end of June, Elders (in Greek, apkoßútepoi), in the early church New ministry appointed, the khedive president, 18 Aug. Public festivities at Cairo on anniversary of the khe

equivalent with TINKOF01, or bishops (see 1 Tim. iii. and dive's accession...

about 26 June,

Titus i.), who afterwards became a distinct and superior Law of liquidation faithfully carried out. ...Aug.

order. Elders in the Presbyterian churches are layGeneral prosperity reported..

.. Oct. Military revolt (for pay) at Cairo vigorously checked by

English and French consuls, Mr. Mallet and baron de Elders' Widows Fund, established by the East India Company Ring..

.........1-11 Feb. 1881

in 1820, to provide for widows and orphans of some of its Decree for abolition of slavery.. .....end of July, servants, was closed in 1860. In 1878 an act was passed to

transfer the surplus money to the provident fund, etc. KHEDIVES, OR HEREDITARY VICEROYS (nearly independent).

Eldon's Act, see Bankrupts. 1806. Mehemet Ali Pacha; abdicated Sept. 1848; dies 2 Aug.

El Dorado (the “Gilded Man"). When the Span1849. 1848. Ibrahim (adopted son), Sept. ; dies 9 or 10 Nov. 1848. iards had conquered Mexico and Peru, they began to Abbas (his son), 10 Nov. ; dies 14 July, 1854.

look for new sources of wealth; and, having heard of a 1854. Said (brother), 14 July; dies 18 Jan. 1863. 1862. Ismail (nephew), 18 Jan. (born 31 Dec 1830); deposed by golden city ruled by a king or priest smeared in oil and

the sultan at the request of England, France, and oth rolled in gold-dust (which report was founded on a mereer powers, 26 June, 1879.

ly annual custom of the Indians), they organized various 1879. Mechmet Tewtik, born 10 Nov., 1852, invested with the expeditions into the interior of South America, which

Star of India by the prince of Wales, 25 Oct. 1875; pro-
claimed 26 June, invested 14 Aug.

were accompanied with disasters and crimes, about 1560. Heir : Abbas, bord 14 July, 1874.

Raleigh’s expeditions in search of gold in 1596 and 1617 Egyptian Era, etc. The old Egyptian year was

led to his fall. identical with the era of Nabonassar, beginning 26 Feb. Eleasa, Palestine. Here Judas Maccabæus was de747 B.C., and consisted of 365 days only. It was re- feated and slain by Bacchides and Alcimus and the Syrformed 30 B.C., at which period the commencement of ians, about 161 B.C. (1 Macc. ix.). the year had arrived, by continually receding to 29 Eleatic Sect, founded at Elea, in Sicily, by XenophAug., which was determined to be in future the first day anes of Colophon, about 535 B.C., whither he had been of the year. To reduce to the Christian era, subtract banished on account of his wild theory of God and nat746 years 125 days. The canicular or heliacal period of

ure. He supposed that the stars were extinguished the Egyptians and Ethiopians (1460 years) began when every morning and rekindled at night; that eclipses Sirius, or the dog-star, emerged from the rays of the sun, were occasioned by a partial extinction of the sun; that on 20 July, 2785 B.C., and extended to 1325 B.C. This there were several suns and moons for the convenience year comprised 12 months of 30 days, with 5 supplement of the different climates of the earth, etc.-Strabo. Zeno ary days.

(about 364) was an Eleatic. Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, erected in 1812 by G. F. Elections Petitions. The laws respecting them Robinson for Bullock's natural-history collections, which were consolidated in 1828, 1839, and 1844. An act passed were sold in 1819; since used for exhibitions, concerts, in 1848 was amended in 1865. By the act of 1868, three

new judges were appointed, and thțee to be selected from Ehrenbreitstein (Honour's broad stone), a strong all the judges to try election cases; justices Willes and Prussian fortress on the Rhine, formerly belonged to the Blackburn and baron Martin were first appointed, Nov. clectors of Treves. It was often besieged. It surren- 1868. dered to the French general Jourdain, 24 Jan. 1799. The Elector Palatine, see Palatinate. fortifications were destroyed on its evacuation, 9 Feb.

Electors for members of parliament for counties 1801, at the peace of Luneville. The works have been restored since 1814.

were obliged to have forty shillings a year in land, 8

Hen. VI, 1429. Among the acts relating to electors are Eider, a river separating Schleswig from Holstein, the following: Act depriving excise and custom-house was passed by the Austrians and Prussians, 4 Feb. 1864. officers and contractors with government of their votes, Eidograph, see Pantograph.

1782; see Customs. Act to regulate polling, 1828. Great Eikon Basilikē (" The Portraiture of His Sacred changes were made by the Reform acts of 1832, 1867, Majesty in his Solitudes and Sufferings "), a book of de- and 1868. County Elections act, 1836; see Bribery. The votion formerly attributed to king Charles I., but now

forty-shilling freeholders in Ireland lost their privilege generally believed to have been written partially, if not in 1829. By Dodson's act, passed in 1861, university wholly, by bishop Gauden, and possibly approved by the electors are permitted to vote by sending balloting paking; it was published in 1648, and sold quickly.

pers. Hours of polling in metropolitan boroughs ex

tended (from 8 A.M. to 8 P.m.) by act passed 25 Feb. Eisenach Declaration, sce Germany, 1859. 1878. Eisteddfod, see Bards.

Electors OF GERMANY. In the reign of Conrad I., Elam, see Persia.

king of Germany (912-918), the dukes and counts, from

being merely officers, became gradually independent of El Arisch (Egypt), captnred by the French under the sovereign, and subsequently elected him. In 919 Reynier, 18 Feb. 1799. A convention was signed here they confirmed the nomination of Henry I., duke of Saxbetween the grand-vizier and Kleber for the evacuation ony, by Conrad as his successor. In the thirteenth cenof Egypt by the French, 28 Jan. 1800. He beat the tury seren princes (the archbishops of Mentz, Treves, Turks at Heliopolis on 20 March, and was assassinated and Cologne, the king of Bohemia, the electors of Branon 14 June following.

denburg and Saxony, and the elector Palatine) assumed Elba, ISLE OF (on the coast of Tuscany), taken by the exclusive privilege of nominating the emperor.admiral Nelson in 1796, but abandoned 1797. Elba was Robertson. An eighth elector (Bavaria) was made in conferred upon Napoleon (with the title of emperor) on 1648, and a ninth (Hanover) in 1692. The number was his relinquishing the throne of France, 5 April

, 1814. reduced to eight in 1777 (by the elector palatine acquirHe secretly embarked hence, with about 1200 men in ing Bavaria), and increased to ten at the peace of Lunehired feluccas, on the night of 25 Feb. 1815, landed in / ville in 1801. On the dissolution of the German empire,


the crown of Austria was made hereditary, 1804-6); see coiled keeper from a permanent magnet (see Magneto

electricity, next page)...

1831 Germany.

Wheatstone calculated the velocity of electricity, on the Electors, UNITED STATES. By a provision of the double-fluid theory, to be 288,000 miles a second; on

1834 constitution (Art. II., Sec. 1), the president and vice- Armstrong discovered, and Faraday explained, the elec

the single fluid theory, 576,000 miles a second.. president are chosen every four years by electors. These

tricity of high-pressure steam, which produces the are appointed by each state " in such manner as the hydro-electric machine..

1849 legislature thereof may direct,” their number for the ELECTRIC MACHINES. –Otto von Guericke obtained sparks

by rubbing a globe of sulphur, about 1647; Newton, said state being equal to the whole number of repre

Boyle, and others used glass, about 1675; Hawksbee sentatives and senators to which the state may be en- improved the machine, about 1709; Bose introduced a titled in congress. The electors meet in their respec

metallic conductor, 1733; Winckler contrived the cush

ion for the rubber, 1741; Gordon employed a glass cyltive states and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom

inder, 1742; for which a plate was substituted about one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state 1770; Canton introduced amalgam for the rubber, 1751; with themselves. The result, duly certitied, is then trans

Van Marum constructed an electric machine at Haar mitted to the president of the United States senate, who,

lem, said to have been the most powerful ever made,

1785; Dr. H. M. Noad set up at the Panopticon, Leices. upon the meeting of congress in December, in the pres

ter square, London, a very powerful electric machine ence of both houses, opens the certificates, and the votes and Leyden battery (in possession of Mr. Edwin Clark,


1855 are counted. The person having the greatest number

The hydro-electric machine, by Armstrong, was conof votes is declared president, “ if such number be a ma- structed.

1840 jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and Holiz's induction machine.

1805 if there be more than one who have such majority, and The ELECTROPHORUS, a useful apparatus for obtaining

frictional electricity, was invented by Volta in 1775, have an equal number of votes," then the house of rep

and improved by him in....

1782 resentatives chooses one of them for president, the votes C. F. Varley's " reciprocal electrophorus" invented. 1862 being taken by states. After this vote, the person har. Sir William Thomson's "clectric replenisher” described,

Jan. 1868 ing the greatest number of electoral votes is declared Mr. App's great inductorium, or induction coil, giving vice-president. If the house in such a case should not

the largest sparks ever seen, exhibited at the Royal before 4 March following choose a president, then the Polytechnic Institution......

.29 March, 1869 former vice-president becomes acting president. In case ELECTROSCOPE and ELECTROMETER, as the terms signify

are apparatus for ascertaining the presence and quan. there is no majority of electoral votes for vice-president, tity of electrical excitation. Pith-balls were employed he is, in like manner, chosen by the senate.

in various ways as electroscopes by Gilbert, Canton,

and others. Dr. Milner invented an electrometer sim. Electric Clock; see p. 239.

ilar to Peltier's, 1783. The gold-leaf electrometer was

invented by rev. A. Bennet, 1789, and improved by Electricity (from the Greek ijdertpos, electrum, am- Singer, about 1810; Lane's discharging electrometer ber). The electrical properties of rubbed amber are said is dated 1767; Henley's 1772; Bohnenberger's electroto have been known to Thales, 600 B.C.; and Pliny, 70

scope, 1820; Peltier's induction electrometer....about 1848 A.D.; see Magnetism.



(See Electro-physiology, p. 240.) Gilbert records that other bodies besides amber generate Sulzer noticed a peculiar sensation in the tongue when

electricity when rubbed, and that all substances may silver and lead were brought into contact with it and be attracted. 1600 each other..

1762 Ollo von Guericke constructed the first electric machine Madame Galvani observed the convulsion in the muscles (a globe of sulpbur)...

.about 1647 of frogs when brought into contact with two metals, in Boyle published his electrical experiments

1676 1789; and M. Galvani, after studying the phenomena, Stephen Gray, aided by Wheeler, discovered that the hu

laid the foundation of the galvanic battery.

1791 man body conducts electricity, that electricity acts at Volta announced bis discovery of the “Voltaic pile. a distance (motion in light bodies being produced by composed of disks of zinc and silver, and moistened frictional electricity at a distance of 668 feet), the fact


1800 of electric induction, and other phenomena.........1720-36 By the voltaic pile, Nicholson and Carlisle decomposed Dufay originated his dual theory of two electric fluids: water, anl Dr. Henry decomposed nitric acid, ammoone vitreous, from rubbed glass, etc., the other resinous,

nia, etc.... from rubbed amber, resin, etc.; and showed that two Transfer of acids and alkalies by Hisinger and Berzelius, 1803 bodies similarly electrified repel each other, and attract Behrens formed a dry pile of 80 pairs of zinc, copper, bodies oppositely electrified....

..about 1733
and gilt paper..

1805 The Leyden jar (vial or bottle) discovered by Kleist, 1745, By means of a large voltaic battery in the Royal Instituand by Cunæus and Muschenbroek, of Leyden; Winck

tion, London, Davy decomposed the alkali potash, and ler constructed the Leyden battery..

1746 evolved the metal potassium (soda and other subDésaguliers classified bodies as electrics and non-electrics, 1742 stances soon after)..

.6 Oct. 1807 Important researches of Watson, Canton, Beccaria, and Zainboni constructed a dry pile of paper disks, coated Nollet.

1740-7 with tin on one side and peroxide of manganese on the Franklin announced his theory of a single fluid, term

other ....

1809 ing the vitreous electricity positive, and the resinous Children's battery fused platinum, etc.. negative, 1747; and demonstrated the identity of the J. W. Ritter constructed his "secondary pile'

....about 1812 electric spark and lightning, drawing down electricity Davy exhibited the voltaic arc...

1813 from a cloud by means of a kite...

..June, 1752 Wollaston's thimble battery ignited platinum wire..... 1815 At a picnic, he killed a turkey by the electric spark, Multipliers or rheometers, popularly termed "galvanom

and roasted it by an electric jack before a fire kindled eters," invented by Ampère and by Schweigger. 1820; by the electric bottle".


by Cumming, 1821; De la Rive, 1824; Ritchie (torsion), Prof. Richman killed at St Petersburg while repeating 1830; Joule (magnetic), 1843. Franklin's experiments..

.. Aug. 1753 Faraday described his discovery of electro-magnetic ro. Beccaria published his researches on atmospheric elec.


...Jan. 1822 tricity, 1758; and Æpinus his mathematical theory... 1759 Ohm enunciated his formulæ relating to the galvanic Electricity developed by fishes investigated by Ingen


1827 housz, Cavendish, and others.

.about 1773 Improvement in constructing the voltaic battery made Lichtenberg produced his electrical figures..

1777 by Wollaston, 1815; Becquerel, 1829; Sturgeon, 1830; Electro-statics: Coulomb applied the torsion balance to J. F. Daniell, 1836; Grove (nitric acid, etc.), 1839; Jathe measurement of electric force...

1785 cobi, 1840; Smee. '1840; Bunsen (carbon, etc.), 1842; Electro - chemistry: water decomposed by Cavendish, Grove (gas battery), 1842. Fourcroy, and others...

,1187-90 Faraday read the first series of his "Experimental ReDiscoveries of Galvani and Volta (see Voltaic Electricity, searches on Electricity" at the Royal Society..21 Nov. 1831 below)....

1791-3 Faraday demonstrated the nature of electrochemical Oersted, of Copenhagen, discovered electro - magnetic decomposition, and the principle that the quantity and action (see Electro-magnetism, next page)..

1819 intensity of electric action of a galvanic battery depend Thermo-electricity (currents produced by heat) discov. on the size and number of plates employed...

1834 ered by Seebeck: it was produced by heating pieces of Wheatstone invented his electro-magnetic chronoscope.. 1840 copper and bismuth soldered together, 1821. The Ther- Copper-zinc Couple (which see) constructed by Dr. J. H. mo-electrometer invented by William Snow Harris, Gladstone and Mr. A. Tribe..

1872 1827; the Thermo-multiplier constructed by Melloni Balleries : Bichromate of potash battery, -a modification and Nobili, 1831. (Marcus constructed a powerful ther. of Dr. Leeson's; very powerful; now much used. mo-electric battery in 1865.]

(Gaston Plante's lead battery, powerful, 1860.) Chlo. Faraday produced a spark by the sudden separation of a ride of silver battery (14,400 cells)-results of its dis



charge published by Drs. Warren de La Rue and Hugo Mr. Cooke set up the telegraph line on the Great Western Müller. Powerful results exhibited at Royal Institu

Railway, from Paddington to West Drayton, 1838–9; on tion, London... .21 Jan. 1881 the Blackwall line, 1840; and in Glasgow..

1841 Dr. Byrne's pneumatic battery (air blown in), very ef- Wheatstone's alphabetical printing telegraph patented.. fective, announced...

1878 The first telegraph line in America set up froni WashingELECTRIC ACCUMULATOR, a modification by M. Faure of

ton to Baltimore.

1844 Gaston Plante's powerful lead battery of 1860, was ex- The murderer Tawell apprehended by means of the telehibited at Paris, May, 1881. In June a box, one cubic


1845 foot in size, containing four cells, enclosing thin sheets The clectric telegraph company established (having purof lead surrounded with felt saturated with dilute acid,

chased Cooke's and Wheatstone's telegraphic invenetc., was conveyed from Paris to London. Sir William


1646 Thomson found it to possess the electric energy of Gutta-percha suggested as an insulator by Faraday 1847 one million foot-pounds; and said, in a letter to the Prof. Charles Wheatstone drew plans of a projected subTimes of 9 June, 1881, *. This solves the problem of

marine telegraph between Dover and Calais..

1840 storing electricity in a manner and in a state useful Mr. John Watkins Brett (on behalf of his brother, Jacob for many important applications

.6 June, 1881 Brett, the inventor and patentee), submitted a similar ELECTRO-MAGNETISM began with Oersted's discovery of plan to Louis Philippe without success.

1847 the action of the electric current on the magnetic He obtained permission from Louis Napoleon to make a needle, 1819; proved by Ampère, who exhibited the trial, 1847; took pluce..

....28 Aug. 1850 action of the voltaic pile upon the magnetic needle, The connecting wires (27 miles long) were placed on the and of terrestrial magnetism upon the voltaic current; government pier in Dover harbor, and in the Goliath he also arranged the conducting wire in the form of a

steamer were coiled about 30 miles in length of tele. helix or spiral, invented a galvanometer, and imitated graphic wire, enclosed in a covering of gutta percha, the magnet by a spiral galvanic wire..

1820 half an inch in diameter. The Goliath started from Arago magnetized a needle by the electric current, and Dover, unrolling the telegraphic wire as it proceeded, attracted iron filings by the connecting wire of a gal

and allowing it to drop to the bed of the sea. In the vanic battery

evening the steamer arrived on the French coast, and The tirst electro-magnet..

1825 the wire was run up the cliff at cape Grisnez to its terInduction of electric currents discovered by Faraday an

minal station, and messages were sent to and fro benounced..

1831 tween England and the French coast. But the wire Becquerel invented an electro-magnetic balance.

in settling into the sea-bottom, crossed a rocky ridge, Faraday discovered the electro-magnetic rotative force and snapped in two, and thus the enterprise for that developed in a magnet by voltaic electricity, 1831; ex

time failed. periments on the induction of a voltaic current, etc..1834–5 New arrangements were soon made, and on a scale of Sturgeon made a bar of soft iron magnetic by surround

greater magnitude; and the telegraph was opened; the ing it with coils of wire, and sending an electric current opening and closing prices of the funds in Paris were through the wire...


known on the London stock exchange within business Induction coil made by prof. G. C. Page, of Salem, Mass..

hours, and guns were fired at Dover by communicaJoseph Henry announced his discovery of secondary cur

tion from Calais....

13 Nov. 1851 rents.

.2 Nov. 1838 Duplex Telegraphy-two messages transmitted along a Breguet used electro-magnetic force to manufacture single wire at the same time in opposite directions first mathematical instruments.

... about 1854 accomplished by Dr. Gintl, Austrian, 1853; by Messrs. MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY (the converse of Oersted's discov.

Siemens, 1857; in the same direction, by Stark, of ery of electro-magnetism) discovered by Faraday, who

Vieuna, 1855; apparatus perfected by Stearns, an produced an electric spark by suddenly separating a American; applied to British telegraphs...

1873 coiled keeper from a permanent magnet; and found Quadruplex Telegraphy-four messages along one wire; that an electric current existed in a copper disk rotated successful experiments between London and Liver: between the poles of a magnet... 1831 pool..

25 Sept. 1877 The Magneto-electric machine arose out of Faraday's dis

covery, and was first made at Paris by Pixii, 1832; and Communications complete between Dover and Ostend in London by Saxton...

1833 and between Portpairick and Donaghadee....... May, 1853 “Faraday as a Discoverer," by prof. Tyndall, published, Holyhead and Howth...

June, 1854 March, 1868 Paris and Bastia....

Nov. Magneto-electricity applied to electro-plating by Wool- London and Constantinople.

. May, 1858 wich..

1812 Cromer and Emden.. Ruhnkorff''s magneto-electric induction coil constructed, Aden and Suez....

May, 1859 about 1850 Malta and Alexandria.

28 Sept. 1861 Siemens's armature produced..

1854 England and Bonibay, opened..

.1 March, 1865 H. Wilde's description of his machine (a powerful gen. Marsala, Sicily, and La Calle, Algeria.. ...21 June,

erator of dynamic electricity, by means of permanent magnets) and the magneto-electric machine (construct

Over-house electric telegraphs (first crected at Paris) set ed in 1865) sent to the Royal Society by prof. Faraday up between their premises in the City and West End and reported..

. 26 April, 1866

by Messrs. Waterlow, in 1857, extended throughout The light (resembling bright moonlight) exhibited on the


.1859-73 top of Burlington House.

....2 March, 1867 House's printing telegraph, 1846; Bain's electro-chemi. Principle of accumulation by successive action discover

cal telegraph, 1846; Hughes's system, 1855; the Ameried by Wilde, 1865, by mutual action (by which perma

can combination system (of the preceding), which can nent steel magnets are dispensed with); independently

convey 2000 words an hour, adopted by the American by Wheatstone and Siemens..

telegraph company...

Jan. 1859 Mr. W. Groves's electro-induction balance.

1879 Wheatstone's automatic printing telegraph patented.... 1860 Proposed International Electrical Congress at Paris with It was stated that there are in work 15,000 miles of elecexhibition .......

.1 Aug. -15 Nov. 1881

tric telegraph wire in Great Britain ; 80,000 on the Dynamo magneto-electric machines, by Wheatstone and

continent of Europe; and 48,000 in America; and alloSiemens, described at the Royal Society, 14 Feb. ; by gether about 150,000 miles laid down in the world. July, 1862 Ladd..

.14 March, 1867 Bonelli's typo-electric telegraph, made known and comTrial of Siemens's dynamo-magneto-electric light in the

pany established, 1860 ; and tried between Liverpool torpedo service at Sheerness reported successful, 18 Dec. 1871

and Manchester, 1863; promised revival.........June, 1864 Two of Siemens's machines ordered for the Lizards, an- An“ electric telegraph” conference, at which 16 states nounced


(not Great Britain) were represented, met at Paris, Gramme's magneto-electric machine described.


Marih, 1865 The Telegraph act (see Telegraph) passed.... 13 July, 1868 APPLICATIONS-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPII.

It enabled 11. M.'s postmaster-general to acquire, work, The transmission of electricity by an insulated wire was and maintain electric telegraphs; postal telegraphy shown by Watson and others. 1747 began..

..5 Feb. 1872 Telegraphic arrangements were devised by Lesarge, 1744; Messages rise from 6,000,000 to 20,000,000 a year.......

175 Betancourt, 1787; Cavallo, 1795; Salva, 1796; Soemmer- The shilling telegraph” said not to pay.. July, ing, exhibited 29 Aug. 1809; Ronalds..

1816 Society of Telegraph Engineers established...... 28 Feb. 1872 Ampère invents his telegraphic arrangement, employing Result of the “ Derby” race sent to Calcutta in five min. the magnetic needle and coil, and the galvanic battery, 1820 utes.

24 May, 1871 F. Ronalds publishes an account of his electric telegraph Statue of Morse at New York uncovered........10 June, (died, aged 85, 8 Aug. 1873)...

1823 Fourth international telegraph conference opened at Rome Prof. Wheatstone constructs an electro-magnetic appa

under the auspices of the Italian government.. 18 Dec. ratus, by which 30 signals are conveyed through nearly The fifth international telegraph conference opened at four miles of wire.

.June, 1836
St. Petersburg..

1 June, 1875 Telegraphs invented by Schilling, Gauss, and Weber A new international telegraphic convention came into (magneto-electric), 1833; by Steinheil and by Masson,


.....1 Jan. 1876 1837; by Morse (died 1872)...

1837 Direct line between New Zealand and London, completed The magnetic needle telegraph patented by Mr. (aft. sir)

18 Feb. ; communication between lord mayor and William F. Cooke and Mr. (aft sir) Charles Wheatstone. mayors of Wellington and Dunedin...........:23 Feb. (The Society of Arts Albert gold medal was awarded to them in June, 1867.)...

... 12 June, ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. --The project of the Atlantic cable

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was originally conceived in 1853, when the magnetic sa'ls to lay the "Direct United States Company's" telegraph bad been in operation but ten years. The cable, 16 May; laid shore-end in Nova Scotia, 31 May; original projectors were American capitalists, embrac- in New Hampshire, 8 June; connected with Newing Peter Cooper, Cyrus W. Field, Moses Taylor, Mar


..July, 1874 shal O. Roberts, and others, including prof. Morse. This The sixth Anglo-American telegraph laid by the Great company succeeded in building the line from St. John's


Aug. -Sept. across Newfoundland, and under the Gulf of St. Law E. A. Cowper's Writing telegraph : quick plain writing renco to the mainland. They have obtained subsidies (36 miles), exhibited at Royal Institution, etc..., May, 1879 from the British and United States governments. These The Sixth International telegraph conference opened in have since expired.


.18 June, 2500 miles of wire were manufactured, and tested in South African line laid between Mozambique and Natal,

March, 1857 23 Aug.; connected with Cape Town; telegrams sent The laying it down commenced at Valentia, in Ireland, by the queen to sir Bartle Frere and others, 25 Dec.; ou...

5 Aug.
opened to the public...

..29 Dec. The vessels employed wero the Niagara and Susquehanna The new French Transatlantic Cable to be laid from Brest

(American vessels), and the Leopard and Agamemnon to St. Pierre by the Faraday, sailed June; connected (British vessels). After sailing a few miles the cable with Halifax, Oct. 1879; line from Paris to New York snapped. This was soon repaired; but on 11 Aug, after opened...

1 June, 1880 300 miles of wire had been paid out, it snapped again International Congress of Electricians to be opened at (and the vessels returned to Plymouth)....

.11 Aug
Paris, 15 Sept. ; exhibition on..

11 Aug. 1881 A second attempt to lay the cable failed through a vio. lent storm...

20-21 June, 1858 ELECTRIC CLOCK, etc. Prof. Wheatstone invented an The third voyage was successful. The junction between

electro-magnetic telegraph clock in 1840. Clocks the two continents was completed by the laying down

worked by electricity, invented by Mr. Alexander Bain, of 2050 miles of wire from Valentia, in Ireland, to New

Mr. Shepherd, and others, appeared in the exhibition foundland. The first two messages, on 6 Aug., were

of 1851. An electric clock, with four dials, illuminated from the queen of England to the president of the

at night, was set up for some time in front of the office United States, and his reply.

...5 Aug

of the electric telegraph company, in the Strand, Lon. This event caused great rejoicing in both countries; but,

don, July, 1852. A lime-ball was set up by Mr. French, unfortunatcly, the insulation of the wire gradually be

in Cornhill, in 1856. In 1860, Mr. C. V. Walker so concame more faulty, and the power of transmitting in

nected the clock of the Greenwich observatory with telligence utterly ceased on..

4 Sept.

that of the Southeastern station, London, that they A new company was formed...


could be controlled by electricity. The Great Eastern steamer, engaged to lay down 2300 miles of wire, with 25,000 tons burden, sailed for Va

ELECTRIC LIGHT. lentia, Ireland, from the Thames, commanded by capt. Anderson, accompanied by prof. Wm. Thomson and Humphry Davy produced electric light with carbon Mr. Cromwell F. Varley, to superintend the paying out points..

1802 the cable.....

15 July, 1865 Apparatus for regulating the electric light were devised After connecting the wire with the land, the Great East- in 1846, and shown by W. Staite's patents, 1846, 1849; ern sailed from Valentia. ....

. 23 July, Staite (at Sunderland, 25 Oct. 1847), and Petrio in 1848; Telegraphic communication with the vessel (interrupted by Foucault soon after.

by two faults, due to defective insulation, caused by Jules Duboscq's Electric Lamp (the most perfect of the pieces of metal pressed into the gutla-percha coating, kind) appeared at the Paris exhibition in 1855; and which were immediately repaired) finally ceased on 2 was first employed by prof. Tyndall, at the Royal InAug. The apparatus for raising the wire proving in

stitution, London, for illustrating lectures on light and suficient, the vessel returned, and arrived at the Aled.


1856 way...

19 Aug The works of new Westminster bridge were illuminated Atlantic Telegraph Company reconstituted as the Anglo. by Watson's electric light..

1858 American Telegraph Company limited. . .. March, 1866 The Magneto- Electric light (the most brilliant artificial The Great Eastern, with a new cable, sailed from the light yet produced), devised by prof. Holmes, success.

Medway, 30 June; the shore - end at Valentia was fully tried at the South Foreland lighthouse, Dover, spliced with the main cable, and the Great Eastern

1858 and 1859 sailed, 13 July; 1200 miles of cable had been laid, 22 The French government ordered eight light-houses to be July ; the cable was completely laid at Heart's Con. illuminated by electric light...

. April, 1861 tent, Newfoundland, and a message sent to lord Stan- M. Serrin, of Paris, exhibited h's improved electric lamp 1862 ley, 27 July; message from the queen to president of Electric Candle, invented by Paul Jablochkoff (an electric the United States sent, 28 July, “From the queen, Os

current passed through two carbons side by side with borne, to the president of the United States, Washing- a slip of kaolin between them, produces a steady, soft, ton. The queen congratulates the president on the noiseless light; the carbons burn like wax); reported successful completion of an undertaking which she to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, by M. Dénayrouze, hopes muy serve as an additional bond of upion be

Oct. 1876 tween the United States and England." To which he The electric light successfully employed for photography replied....

...30 July,

by Mr. H. Van der Weyde... The lost cable of 1865 recovered, 2 Sept. ; and its laying Head, Wrightson, & Co., of Stockton - on - Tees, use Siecompleted at Newfoundland.

.8 Sept.

mens's electric light for bridge building. The Great Eastern arrived at Liverpool.. .....19 Sept. At the Magasin du Louvre, 8 electric lights replaced 100 Messrs. Samuel Canning, Daniel Gooch, and capt. Ander- Carcel gas burners; as manageable as coal-gas supply; son knighted....

tried at West India docks...

...15 June, 1877 [It was stated in Sept. 1866) that the engineer of the Tyndall's experiments at South Foreland, demonstrate

cable passed signals through 3700 miles of wire by superiority of Siemens's dynamo - electric machine, means of a battery formed in a lady's thimble.)

Aug. 1876-July, The United States congress voted a gold medal to Cyrus Gramme's machine (light equal to 758 candles)...

Field, for his exertions connected with Atlantic tele- Serrin's and Jablochkoff's lights improved by Rapieff, a graphs...

7 March, 1867 Russian ; taken up by Mr. E. J. Reed, M.P.; a small Al a dinner given to Cyrus Field at Willis's Rooms, Lon

magneto-electric machine, worked by steam; conductdon, telegraphic messages were exchanged between the ing wires replace the gasworks and pipes........July, 1878 company and lord Monck, viceroy of Canada, and presi. Mr. Stayton reports that the light is much dearer than dent Johnson...

... 1 July, 1868 gas, and not suitable for street lighting in London.Sept. French Atlantic Telegraph Company formed ; French Electric light tried at Westminster palaco.....28 March,

government grant concession for 20 years, from 1 Sept. Two of Siemens's dynamo-magneto-electric machines or1869, to Julius Reuter and baron Emile d'Erlangen,

dered for the Lizards light-housos...

8 July, The Gaiety theatre lit by light from Lontin's machine Anglo-Danish telegraph (Newbiggin to Copenhagen) com

and modification of Jablochkofls..

Aug. pleted...

.31 Aug

Hippolyte Fontaine's treatise on Electric Lighting, 1877; European end of the French Atlantic cable laid at Brest, translated by Paget Biggs, published. 17 June; the American end at Duxbury, Massachusetts, Mr. T. E. Edison announces at New York his discovery

23 July. 1869 of a method of producing a great number of lights and Reported union between the Anglo-American and French much mechanical power from a Ritchie inductive coil, Atlantic telegraph companies...

.Jan. 1870 a dynamo - electric machine, which he terms “tele. Telegraph between Bombay and Suez completed..

machon," which may be worked by water-power or Telegraph between Adelaide and Port Darwin, Australia, steam; this causes a panic among gas companies in completed..

.22 Aug. 1872 London, and depression in value of shares..Sept., Oct. Message from the mayor of Adelaide received by the lord Edison's plans of subdividing lights filed at patent office, mayor of London, and replied to. .21 Oct,

23 Oct. The fourth Atlantic telegraph cable laid by the Great National Electric Light Company forming. .. Nov.

Eastern, from Valentia, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Richard Werdermann's electric light subdivided; a numNewfoundland...

..8 June-3 July, 1873 ber of jets lit simultaneously; shown by British tele. The Brazil telegraph cable completely laid......22 Sept. graph company...

.2 Nov. Faraday, a great electric-cable ship, built for Siemens Electric light used for large workshops at Woolwich, etc., Brothers, launched at Newcastle (see Steam), 17 Feb.; throughout the country..






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Times machine-room lit by six lights from one current; An Electric safety - lamp made by MM. Dumas and Be-
Rapieff system..
..Oct., Nov. 1878 noit; exbibited at Paris..

.8 Sept. 1862 Three systems trying at New York by Edison, Sawyer, The Electro-block Company established, 1860; by their and Brush...


processes the enlargement and reduction of engrav. Wallace lamp (American), introduced by Mr. Ladd, ings, obtained by india-rubber, can be immediately


transferred to a lithographic stone, and multiplied. Jablochkoff candle tried at Westgate-on-Sea, by Mr. E. F. Leech's engravings, so enlarged, were colored by him. Davis, 2-26 Dec.; light successful; difficulty in prac

sell, and exhibited in.. tice; given up..

Dec. Ozone, generated by a current produced by Wild's magFormation of nitric acid in the air by electric light; an

neto-electric machine, employed to bleach sugar, at nounced by Mr. T. Wills, 13 Dec. 1878; of hydrocyanic Whitechapel (Edward Beane's patent). ..Aug. 1868 or prussic acid by prof. J. Dewar..

..autumn, 1879 Electric furnace, formed in the electric are, by C. Wm. Machines of Farmer & Wallace, Lontin, De Meritens, Siemens, fuses platinum, iridium, ctc., shown at Royal Browning, Carré, and others in use in London..


12 March, 1880 Light given up at Billingsgate market, about. ... 30 Jan. Electric light applied by him to grow vegetables and Siemens's light successful at the Albert Hall. ....13 Feb.

fruit in greenhouses.. Edison obtains beautiful light from platinum which ELECTRIC RAILWAY, by Werner Siemens and Halske, fuses; used 600 horse-power to obtain 20,000 lights at opened near Berlin...

.12 May, 1881 one station; failure announced, March; his patent ELECTRO-PHYSIOLOGY. Aristotle and Pliny refer to the registered

23 April, 1879 powers of the torpedo; Walsh and Ingenhousz, the Exhibition of lights at Royal Albert Hall opened by the discoveries of Galvani in 1790, and the researches of prince of Wales...

.7 May, Matteucci about 1830, have greatly advanced the sciM. Jamin's electric candle exhibited at Academy of

ence. Sciences, Paris...

..about 17 March, Fowler experimented on animals with galvanism, 1793; A dynamo-magneto-electric machine patented by lord and Aldini, 1796, who produced muscular contractions Elphinstone and C. W. Vincent...

in a criminal recently executed, 1803; Ure did the A committee of the house of commons appointed “to

1818 consider whether it is desirable to authorize municipal Du Bois-Reymond lectured on animal electricity at the corporations or other local authorities to adopt any

Royal Institution, and showe the ence of an schemes for lighting by electricity” (Dr. Lyon Playfair, electric current, developed by action of the human chairman), reports: “The energy of one-horse power

muscles, in...

..May, 1855 may be converted into gaslight, and yields a luminosity Dr. Burdon Sanderson announced his discovery of clecequal to 12-candle power. But the same amount of

tricity in plants to the British Association at Bradford, energy transformed into electric light produces 1,600

Sept. 1873 candle power. . . . Scientific witnesses considered that in the future the electric current might be extensively

Electrolysis, see Electricity, p. 270. used to transmit power as well as light to considerable

Elegy. Elegiac verse (consisting of a hexameter distances, so that the power applied to mechanical purposes during the day might be made available for and pentameter alternately) was the first variation from light during the night. . . . There seems to be no rea- the hexameter or epic measure, used by Tyrtæus and son to doubt that the electric light has established it

other early poets. The elegies of Ovid and Catullus are self for light house illumination, and is fitted to illumine large symmetrical places, such as squares, public balls,

celebrated. Gray's “Elegy, written in a Country Churchrailway stations, and workshops. ... Compared with yard," was published in 1749. gas, the economy for equal illumination does not yet appear to be conclusively established. ... Gas com- Elementary Education Act, 33 & 34 Vict. c. panies, in the opinion of your committee, have no 75, passed 9 Aug. 1870; amended in 1872. Clause 25, special claims to be considered as the future distributors of electric light. . . . Your connittee, however,

which authorizes payments to support denominational do not consider that the time has yet arrived to give

schools, much objected to by dissenters; bill to repeal it general powers to private electric companies to break rejected by the commons (373–128), 10 June, 1874. Anup the streets, unless by consent of the local authori

other act (for agricultural districts, etc.), brought in by ties."'--- T'imes...

.19 June, Electric light placed on Thames Embankment, in British

lord Sandon, 18 May, 1876; royal assent, 15 Aug. 1876. Museum, at Victoria Station, etc...

..Dec. System of C. F. Brush (American), exhibited in London,

Elements were formerly reckoned as four: earth, said to be simple and trustworthy..

23 Dec. air, fire, and water. Lavoisier enunciated the principle Dr. C. William Siemens reports to Royal Society that that all bodies which cannot be proved to be compound

electric light acts like solar light on vegetation. 2 March, 1880 ed are elements, and to be treated as such; see table Electric lights set up for trial on Thames Embankment,

north side (Jablochkoff system), 13 Dec. 1878; Waterloo below, and separate articles. The chemical elements now Bridge, 10 Oct. 1879; continued...

. April, are stated to be about 77 (1881).* Mr. J. W. Swan exhibits his system of dividing light, etc., at Newcastle on-Tyne (afterwards in London)..20 Oct.

LIST OF 63 ELEMENTS, 1872 (Odling). Trial of three systems in London: Lontin's, Southwark

Gold.. bridge, etc. ; Brush, Blackfriars bridge, etc.; Siemens's,

Silver. Guildhall, etc..

.31 March, 1881

ELECTRIC LOOM. M. Bonelli, of Turin, in 1854, devised a


8 plan of employing magnets and electro-magnets in


21 weaving, thereby superseding the tedious and costly

His loom was set up in

5 Jacquard system of cards.

1490. Antimony

B. Valentine. London in 1859, and lectured upon at the Royal Insti


Bismuth. tution by prof. Faraday.

Agricola ?
..8 June, 1860
1541. Zinc

Electric Pen (for copying, etc.), invented by Mr. T. Edi-

Carbon son, an American; an electric writing company was

Sulphur established; active in. ....

1669. Phosphorus.

Lamp-lighting by Electricity. - Mr. St. George Lane Fox's
invention iried at Fulham, and reported successful,

1702. Borax, boron.


Arsenic autumn, 1877; doubtful..

1879 1733

G. Brandt ELECTROPHONE, invented by Dr. Strethill Wright, for pro.

Cobalt) 1741. Platinum

Woods. ducing sound by electric currents of high tension: one

1751. Nickel.

Cronstedt. laid before the Royal Scottish Society of Arts (see Tel

Soda ium.

Duhamel, ephone)

.25 April, 1864

ELECTRO-TINT. Mr. Palmer, of Newgate street, London,


Marggraf. patented inventions by which engravings may not only


Silex be copied from other engraved plates, but the engrav.


and ing itself actually produced, by electrical agency, and


Scheele. one process he termed glyphography..

1766. Hydrogen.

ELECTROTYPE OR DEPOSIT. Mr. Spencer, in England, and

1771. Fluorine

Scheele. professor Jacobi, in Russia, made the first successful

1772. Nitrogen,

experiments in this art in 1837 and 1838. Since then,
Mr. A. Smee and others have perfected the processes.

1774. Chlorine
Ş (doubtful; see


Chlorine. In 1840, Mr. Rob. Murray applied black lead to nonmetallic bodies as a conducting surface. In 1840, Mr. Ruolz and Mr. Elkington applied it to gilding and silver- * Mr. Joseph Norman Lockyer, in a paper read at the Royal plating. Since 1850, printing - types and wood-cuts, Society, 12 Dec. 1878, expressed doubts of the elementary and casts from them, have been electrotyped with cop- character of some of the following substances based on his

per, and the process is now largely adopted in the arts. spectroscopic experiments. His views were not supportert liv Messrs. C. Wheatstone and F. A. Abel experiment on the the researches of professors Dewar and Liveing, 1580-1, see

application of electricity to military purposes. ........ 1861 Chlorine.

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