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guese disbelieved his death and long expected his re- | 1120. The British man-of-war Victory, of 100 guns and turn; this led to the appearance of five impostors. 1160 men, was wrecked here, 5 Oct. 1744; the admiral,

Alchemy, the forerunner of chemistry; its chief sir John Balchen, and all his crew, perished. Through objects being the discovery of the philosopher's stone this strait the French escaped after their defeat at La (which was to effect the transmutation of metals into Hogue by admirals Russell and Rooke, 19 May, 1692. gold), an alkahest, or universal menstruum, and the elixir The construction of a breakwater, in order to make Alof life.* The alchemists assert that their founder was derney a naval station, was begun in 1852, and after Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest), an ancient Egyp- having cost 1,337,1001., was suspended by parliament in tian king.- Pliny says the emperor Caligula was the 1871. In 1874 the harbor and lands were transferred first who prepared natural arsenic, in order to make gold from the control of the board of trade to that of the adof it, but left it off, because the charge exceeded the miralty and the war department. profit.

Aldershot Camp, on a moor near Farnham, about Zosimus wrote on the subject about 410.

35 miles from London. In April, 1854, the War-office, The Arabians cultivated alchemy and were followed (in the having obtained a grant of 1,000,0001., purchased 4000 thirteenth century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Aqui. acres of land for a permanent camp for 20,000 men. nas, Raymond Lullius, Basil Valentine (born 1394), Paracel. sus (died 1541), and others.

Additional land purchased in 1856. In 1401 the craft of multiplying gold and silver was made fel. Barracks since erected for 4000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and

ony by 5 Hen. IV. c. 4, which act was repealed in 1689. several batteries of artillery. Great improvements in miliA license for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and tary cookery introduced (see Cookery) under the superinminerals was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476.Rymer's

tendence of capt. John Grant, 1857. Fædera.

Visited by the queen, 18, 19 April, 1856. Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 published an account of his The troops returned from the Crimea, reviewed by her, 7, 16 experiments, and brought specimens of gold to the king,

July, 1856. affirming that they were made by means of a red and white About 15,000 men were stationed here, 1859. powder. Being a fellow of the Royal Society, he was re- Cost of the camp, said to be 1,291,5311. up to Feb. 1860. quired, under pain of expulsion, to repeat his experiments An industrial and fine-art exhibition, furnished by officers before Messrs. Kirwan and Wolfo (some say Higgins); but

and men and their wives, opened 29 June; closed 14 July, after much equivocation and delay he took poison and died, Camp set up for 40,000 men to execute military maneurres, Aug. 1783.

Aug., Sept. 1871. Many horses broke away through a fright, Alcohol. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated alcohol 30 Aug. 1871. is said to have been obtained by the distillation of fer- Review of 14,000, etc., by the queen, 5 July, 1872. mented liquors by Abucasis in the twelfth century; and Review by the queen, 13 May, 1878.

Summer maneuvres here, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877. the dehydration of this liquor to have been partially effected by Raymond Lullius in the thirteenth century by tius) at Venice, where were printed many of the first

Aldine Press, that of Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Manncarbonate of potassium. Alcohol has never been re- editions of the Greek, Latin, and Italian classics, comduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low temperatures. In 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained mencing in 1491 with Musæus. traces of alcohol by passing oletiant gas (bicarburetted

Ale, BEER, AND WINE are said to have been invented hydrogen) through sulphuric acid; and in 1862 this by Bacchus. Ale was known as a beverage at least in

404 B.C.

Herodotus ascribes the first discovery of the process was examined and confirmed by Berthelot; see Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. `About 250 med- art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the wife of Osiris, ical men, including the president of the Royal College and a beverage of this kind is mentioned by Xenophon,

401 B.C. of Physicians, and many hospital officials, issued a cau

The Romans and Germans very early learned tionary declaration concerning the use of alcohol in med- from the Egyptians the process of preparing a liquor icine, Dec. 1871; see Temperance.

from corn by means of fermentation.— Tacitus. Ale

houses are mentioned in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex. Alcolea (Andulasia, S. Spain). Near the bridge a Booths were set up in England, 728, when laws were sharp engagement took place between the royalists un, passed for their regulation. None but freemen were alder gen. Pavia y Lacy, marquis de Novaliches, and lowed to keep ale-houses in London, 13 Edw. I. 1285. the insurgents under marshal Serrano, 27 Sept. 1868. They were further subjected to regulation by 5 & 6 Edw. The former was defeated, and, being severely wounded, vi. c. 25, 1551. By 1 James I. c. 9, 1603, one full surrendered 28 Sept. About 600 were killed on both quart of the best, and two quarts of small ale, were to be sides.

sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was Al-coran, or AL-KORAN, see Korun, Mahometanism, imposed by the parliament in 1613, and continued by etc.

Charles II., 1660; repealed, 1 Will. IV.c. 51, 1830; see Alderman. The Saxon ealdorman was next to the Porter, Wine, Victuallers. king and frequently a viceroy; but after the settlement Alemanni, or All Mex (i. e. men of all nations), of the Danes the title was gradually displaced by that hence Allemand, German. A body of Suevi, who took of earl. Aldermen in corporations are next in dignity this name, were defeated by Caracalla, 214. After sevto the mayor. They were appointed in London (where eral repulses, they invaded the empire under Aurelian, there are twenty-six) in 1242; and in Dublin (where who subdued them in three battles, 271. They were there are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen chosen for again vanquished by Julian, 356, 357; by Jovinus, 368. life, instead of annually, 17 Rich. II. 1894. Present mode They were defeated and subjugated by Clovis at Tol. of election established, 11 Geo. I. 1725. Aldermen made biac (or Zulpich), 496. The Suabians are their descendjustices of the peace, 15 Geo. II. 1741. London aldermen are elected by the wards. In 1877 the court Alençon (N. France) gave title to a count and of aldermen exercised their ancient right of veto against sir

duke. John Bennett (thrice chosen alderman for the ward of Chcap), and chose Mr. Edgar Breffitt, 23 Oct. 1877.

1268–82. Peter, made Coust by his father, king Louis IX.

1293. Charles I. of Valois, made Count by his brother, king Alderney (English Channel), with Jersey, etc., was Philip the Fair.

1325. Charles II. (his son), killed at Cremy. acquired by William the Conqueror, 1066. The “Race"

Charles III. (his son), became a priest. is celebrated for two fatal occurrences; William of Nor- 1361. Peter, his brother. mandy, son of Henry I. of England, and many young no- 1404. John (his son), made DUKE in 1414; killed at Agincourt, bles (140 youths of the principal families of France and

1415. John II. (his son), prisoner in England, 1424-9; in. Britain), were overtaken by a storm, and all lost, 25 Nov.

trigued against the French king; died in prison, * M. Martin Ziegler patented a method of producing a “vital

1476. Charles IV. fled after the battle of Pavia in 1525, and fluid” by combining nitrogen and carbon in a porous cell con.

died shortly after of chagrin. The duchy was an. taining ammonia, immersed in a vessel filled with molasses.

nexed by the crown. The current was to how through slk threads attached to the vessel: about 1868.

Aleppo (N. Syria), a large town named Beræa by









36 122




969 1365



Seleucus Nicator, about 299 B.C. The pachalic of Alep-dence of the Greek sovereigns of Egypt, the Ptolemies.
po is one of the five governments of Syria. It was taken 323. Seventeen councils were held bere, A.1). 231-633.
by the Saracens, A.D. 638, who restored its ancient Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Serapeum, the
name Haleb, or Chaleb; by Saladin, 1193; and sacked Pharos, and other edifices, and begins the library about
by Timour, Nov. 1400. Its depopulation by the plague These works completed by his son, P. Philadelphus, and

B.C. 298 has been frequent: 60,000 persons were computed to his grandson, P. Euergetes

,283-222 have perished by it in 1797 ; many in 1827. The chol Alexandria taken by Julius Cæsar; when a library is era raged here in 1832. Aleppo suffered severely from

47 the terrible earthquakes in 1822 and 1830, and has often the city restored by Adrian...

Which Antony replaces by one brought from Pergamus. been the scene of fanatical massacres. On 16 Oct. 1850, Massacre of the youth by Caracalla in revenge for an inthe Mahometans attacked the Christians, burning ev

215 erything. Three churches were destroyed, five others Alexandria, supporting the usurper Achilleus, is taken

by Diocletian after a long siege...

297 plundered, and thousands of persons slain. The total Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the Athanaloss of property amounted to about a million sterling; no sians and Arians..

321 interference was attempted by the pacha.

George of Cappadocia was killed, 362, and Athanasius
finally restored.


365 Alessandria, a city of Piedmont, built in 1168 un- 50,000 persons perish by an earthquake.. der the name of Cæsar by the Milanese and Cremonese, Paganism suppressed by Theodosius, when a second li.

brary is burned. to defend the Tanaro against the emperor, and after- Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia. wards named after pope Alexander III. It has been And by Amrou, the general of the caliph Omar,* who or.

dered the library to be burned, whereby the baths were frequently besieged and taken. The French took it in

supplied with fuel for six months..

..22 Dec.

640 1796, but were driven out by Suwarrow, 21 July, 1799. Recovered by the Greeks; retaken by Amrou

644 They recovered it after the battle of Marengo, 14 June, Cairo founded by the Saracens; which tends to the decay

of Alexandria 1800, and held it till 1814, when the strong fortifications

Alexandria plundered by the Crusaders.

These have been the French capture Alexandria..., erected by Napoleon were destroyed.

.July, 1798 restored since June, 1856.

Battle of Alexandria, or Canopus: the British under gen.

sir Ralph Abercromby defeat the French under MoAleutian Isles, in the N. Pacific Ocean, discov

.21 March, 1801 ered by Behring, 1741; visited by Cook, 1778; and set- Abercromby dies of his wounds, 28 March; Menou and tled by Russians, 1785.

10.000 French surrender it to Hutchinson..

.2 Sept.

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, 20 March;
Alexander, ERA OF, dated from the death of Alex- evacuated by them.

. 23 Sept. 1807 ander the Great, 12 Nov. 323 B.C. In the computation By the convention of Alexandria, Egypt was guarantoed

to Mehemet Ali and his successors.. of this era, the period of the Creation was considered to Railway to Cairo formed.

1851 be 5502 years before the birth of Christ, and, in conse- New port, first stone laid by the khedive 15 May, 1871 quence, the year 1 A.D, was equal to 5503. This computation continued to the year A.D. 284, which was called translation of the Bible in Greek, said to have been tran

Alexandrian Codex, a MS. of the Septuagint 5786. In the next year (A.D. 285), which should have been 5787, ten years were discarded, and the date be- scribed by a lady named Thecla, in the sixth century,

and to have belonged to the patriarch of Alexandria in This is still used in the Abyssinian era came 5777. (which see). The date is reduced to the Christian era by Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch of Constantinople

, and was

1098. It was presented to Charles I. of England in 1628 by subtracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that placed in the British Museum in 1753. It was printed time by subtracting 5492.

in fac-simile, 1786-1821.
"Alexandra Case," see Trials, 1862-4.

Alexandrian Era, see Mundane.
Alexandra Park, Muswell Hill, London, N., pur- Alexandrian Library, see under Alexandria.
chased by a company, and named after the princess of
Wales, was opened with a flower-show, 23 July, 1863. A

Alexandrian Schools of PHILOSOPHY. The portion of the Exhibition building of 1862 was to be first school arose soon after the foundation of Alexan

It flourished under the patronage of the erected here. The work proceeded rapidly in 1864, was dria, 332 B.C.

It included Euclid (300), suspended in 1865, recommenced in 1866, and completed Ptolemies till about 100 B.C. in 1873,

Archimedes (287-212), Apollonius (250), Hipparchus

(150), and Hero (150). The second school arose about Horse-races first held here

.30 June, 1 July, 1868

A.D. 140, and lasted till about 400. Its most eminent The prospectus of a scheme to organize an institution re

sembling the South Kensington Museum and the Cryg. members were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic tal Palace by means of a tontine (to cease 30 June, system (150), Diophantus the arithmetician (200), and 1886) was issued

.22 July, 1871 Pappus the geometer (350). The atfairs were to be managed by “The Alexandra Pal. ace and Muswell Hill Estate Management Company Alexandrines, verses of twelve syllables, first writ(Limited)." Public lectures on the subject, Aug. 1871;

ten by Alexander of Paris, about 1164, and since called the company's affairs were wound up... Feb. 1872 The purchase of the land and buildings for the public

after him. The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an proposed by the lord mayor and others.. ....July, Alexandrine. In Pope's “ Essay on Criticism " this verse The palace was opened with a grand concert, eto., 24

is thus happily exemplified :

9 June, 1873
May; destroyed by fire..
Two women, incautiously viewing the ruins, buried, 25 * A needless Alexandrine onds the song,
June; bodies found.

.21 Aug.

That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along." The new building (386 by 184 feet) opened. ....1 May, 1875

The longest English poem wholly in Alexandrine verse 94,125 persons said to have entered the park, Whit-Monday

.17 May, is Drayton's " Polyolbion," published 1612-22, Balfe memorial festival...

.29 July, 1876 Petition for winding-up, 24 Oct , 1876; carried out: Jan, 1877 took place here between the Turks and Servians, Aug.

Alexinatz, a town in Servia. Severe fighting The palace reopened (annual subscription, 108. 6d.)

10 May,

Sept. 1876. The town, headquarters of the Servians, Arrival of Nubian hunters with elephants, rhinoceroses,

This led to an armistice and

was captured 31 Oct. camels, dromedaries, buffaloes, zebras, ostriches, etc.

(imported by Carl Hagenbeck). .....7 Sept. -13 Oct. peace; see Turkey. Opened by new proprietors (Mr. Willing and others) with

Alford (N. Scotland), BarTLE OF. Gen. Baillie, new attractions.

.17 May, 1880 107,852 visitors (bank holiday)

..2 Aug

with a large body of covenanters, was defeated by the Taken by Jones and Barber.

Nov. marquess of Montrose, 2 July, 1645,
Put up for sale; unsold..

.11 Feb. 1881
Varied entertainments..


* The saying of Omar-"That If the books agreed with the Alexandria (Egypt), the walls whereof were six book of God, they were useless; if they disagreed, they were

It is also attributed

pernicions"-is denied by Mahometans. miles in circuit, was founded by Alexander the Great, to Theophilus, archbishop of Alexandria (390), and to cardinal 332 B.C., who was buried here 322. It became the resi- Ximenes (1500).

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.13 July,

Algebra: Diophantus, said to be the inventor, | Fresh revolts, 1849; subdued...


An insurrection of the Kabyles subdued by the French, wrote upon it probably between the third and fifth cen

after several sharp engagements. turies. It was cultivated in the ninth century by the Another insurrection suppressed. ..

1857 Arabs, who brought it into Spain; and in Italy by Leo- The government intrusted (for a short time) to prince nardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. In 1494 Luca Paciolo

Napoleon ...


The Arab tribes attack the French; defeated, published the first printed book on Algebra in Europe.

31 Oct, and 6 Nov. 1859 Serret. Some of the algebraic signs were introduced Algiers visited by Napoleon III..

.Sept. 1860 either by Christophe Rudolph (1522-6) or Michael Marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhoff, appointed governorStifelius of Nuremberg, 1544, and others by Francis The emperor promises a constitution securing the rights

general of Algeria. .

Nov. Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into general use.- of the Arabs, saying, “I am as much emperor of the Moréri. Jerome Cardan published his “ Ars Magna,"

Arabs as of the French."

Feb. 1863 containing his rule, 1545. Thos. Harriot's important Insurrection of the Arabs, May; submission.......June, 1864

Death of marshal Pelissier, 22 May; M.Mahon, duke of discoveries appeared in his “ Artis Analyticæ Praxis," Magenta, succeeds him..

...8 Sept. 1631. Descartes applied algebra to geometry about Fresh revolts; insurgents defeated by Jolivet.....2 Oct. 1637. The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of The emperor well received during his visit..3 May-June, 1865 the doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. The emperor publishes his letter on the policy of France

More rights and privileges promised to the natives..July, Dean Peacock's “ Algebra" is a first-class work.

in Algeria (20 July)....

.Nov. 4000 Arabs defeated by col. Sounis.

..2 Feb. 1869 Algeria, see Algiers.

Algeria proclaimed in a state of siege.

..15 Aug. 1870 Algesiras, or Old GIBRALTAR (S. Spain). Here State of siege raised....

.24 June, 1871 the Moors entered Spain in 711, and held it till taken Gen. Chanzy accused of governing despotically; his res?

ignation not accepted by marshal M‘Mahon, July; reby Alfonso XI., March, 1344.—Two engagements took placed by Albert Grévy...

1878 place here between the English fleet under sir James An insurrection soon quelled.

...June, 1879 Saumarez and the United French and Spanish fleets, 6 Dispute with Tunis; outrages of the savage tribes, Krou and 12 July, 1801. In the first the enemy was victori- Arab insurrection, headed by Bou Amcema, Juno; he is

mirs, etc. (see Tunis)..

... April, 1881 ous; but the British honor was redeemed in the latter said to be defeated, and a fugitive... conflict, the San Antonio, 74 guns, being captured. Two

Alhambra, a Moorish palace and fortress near Spanish ships fired on each other by mistake, and took Granada, S. Spain, founded by Mohammed I. of Granada fire; of 2000 men on board, 250 were saved by the Eng. about 1253. It was surrendered to the Christians about lish.-Alison.

Nov. 1491. The remains have been described in a nagAlgiers, now Algeria, N. W. Africa; part of the nificent work by Owen Jones and Jules Goury, publishancient Mauritania, which was conquered by the Ro- ed 1842-5. Washington Irving made the palace and its mans, 46 B.C.; by the Vandals, A.D. 439 ; recovered for the surroundings the subject of an exquisitely graceful and empire by Belisarius, 534; and subdued by the Arabs pleasing work, entitled The Alhambra, published 1832. about 690. Population of Algeria in 1866, 2,921,146 ; A fac-simile of a part of this palace in the Crystal Palace 1872, 2,146,225 ; 1875, 2,448,691.

at Sydenham was destroyed by the fire, 30 Dec. 1866.The town Algiers founded by the Arabs near the site of

The Panopticon (which see) was opened as a circus, etc., Icosium

... about 935 under the name of Alhambra, in March, 1858. The AlBecoming the seat of the Barbary pirates, captured by hambra Palace Company, incorporated in July, 1863, ap

Ferdinand of Spain, 1509; retaken by Horuc and Haydreddin Barbarossa, and made the capital of a state;

plied for dissolution in Jan. 1865. governed by a dey, nomínally subject to Turkey.. ...1516-20 Ali, SECT OF (Shiites, or Fatimites). Ali married The emperor Charles V. loses a fine fleet and army in an

Mahomet's daughter Fatima, about 632, and became expedition against Algiers.....

1541 Algiers terrified into pacific measures by Blake, 1655; by

vizier, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was called by the Du Quesne.

1683-4 prophet “the lion of God, always victorious;" and the For continued piracy, the city successfully bombarded by

Persians follow the interpretation of the Koran accordthe British fleet, under lord Exmouth

.27 Aug. 1816 A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery was abol

ing to Ali, while other Mahometans adhere to that of ished

Abubeker and Omar. Ali was assassinated 23 Jan. 661.f. Algiers surrendered to a French armament under Bourmont and Duperré, after severe conflicts; the dey de

Alien and Sedition Laws. In 1798, when posed, and the barbarian government wholly over

war between France and the United States was threatthrown..

.5 July, 1830 ened, there were in the United States, by estimate, The Arab chief Abd-el-Kader preaches a holy war, bo- 30,000 Frenchmen organized in clubs, and 50,000 sym

comes powerful, and attacks the French, at first successfully

1833 pathizers with France, who had been British subjects. He is recognized as emir of Mascara by treaty with the In apprehension of danger from these men, Congress French


passed an act June 25 authorizing the president to banThe French ministry announce their intention to retain Algiers permanently..

.20 May,

ish alien enemies at his discretion during the ensuing War renewed.

.1835-6 two years. Another act authorizing the president to The French tako Mascara.

..5 Dec. 1835 apprehend and remove alien enemies was passed 6 July. Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two battles, and enters Mascara

.8 Dec. 1836 These alien laws were never actively enforced. On 14 Gen. Damremont killed in taking Constantina ....13 Oct. 1837 July, 1798, the sedition act became a law. This statute Abd-el - Kader, thoroughly defeated, recognizes the defined sedition and affixed severe penalties to offences French supremacy,

.30 May,

of that nature. These alien and sedition laws were very War renewed; French defeated..

... Dec. 1839 Algeria annexed to France, and the emir declared a unpopular, and the fall of the Federal party from power rebel

.Feb. 1842 was due in part to the ill-feeling aroused by them. He is defeated by Bugeaud at Isly..

.14 Aug. 1814 600 Arabs in a cave at Karthani refuse to surrender; suffo. Aliens, or FOREIGNERS, were banished in 1155, be

cated by smoke; said to have been ordered by gen. ing thought too numerous. In 1343 they were excluded Pelissier

.18 June, 1845 from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices. By 2 Rich. II. After a long struggle Abd el-Kader surrenders to Lamoricière...

.. 23 Dec. 1847* st. 1, 1378, they were much relieved. When they were

to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half foreign* He, with his guite, embarked at Oran, and landed at Tou. ers, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from Jon on 28 Dec. following. He was removed to the castle of Amboise, near Tours, 2 Nov. 1848, and released from his con French, and Sardinian sovereigns. He visited Paris and Lon. finement by Louis Napoleon, 16 Oct. 1852, after swearing on don in Aug. 1865. He offered to serve in the French army in the Koran never to disturb Africa again. He was to reside July, 1870. henceforward at Broussa, in Asia Minor; but in consequence † The first four successors of Mahomet-Abubeker, Omar, of the earthquake at that place, 28 Feb. 1855, he removed to Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in establishing his religion Constantinople. In July, 1860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on the account he of Damascus, and there protected many of the Christians styled the cutting swords of God”—all died violent deaths; whom he had rescued from the massacres then in perpetra- and his family was wholly extirpated within thirty years after tion by the Turks. Ho received honors from the English, his own decease.

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exercising any trade or haudicraft by retail, 1483, a pro

of muriatic acid gas" (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, 28 hibition which was relaxed in 1663.

July, 1863. Il camo into operation 1 Jan. 1864, proved suc

cessful, was re-evacted 1865, and amended 1874; see ChemAlien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign persons)

ical Works. suppressed in England, 1414. The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.

Alkmaer, see Bergen. Act to register aliens, 1795.

Allahabad (N.W. Hindostan), the “ holy city” of Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, or the Indian Mahometans, situated at the junction of the

dered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalization by the holding of stock in the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabanks of Scotland, June, 1820.

bad was successively subject to the sovereigns of Delhi New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was re- and Oude, but in 1801 was partially and in 1803 wholly

pealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836. The rigor of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed in incorporated with the British possessions. By treaty 1844 and 1847.

here, Bengal, etc., was ceded to the English in 1765."Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, During the Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments fished our seas, and built our bridges and harbors." —

rose and massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857; col. Neil Smiles, 1861. Their status defined by the Naturalization Act, passed 12 May, marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the in1870.

surrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city By act of Congress passed 1798, alien enemies might be the capital of the N.W. provinces. Visit of the prince restrained, secured, or removed from the territories of the of Wales, 7 March, 1874. United States. An act of Congress relieving the chil- Allatoona Pass (Ga.), BATTLE OF, fought 6 Oct. dren born abroad of United States fathers from alienage 1864. After his evacuation of Atlanta, Hood covered was passed 1854. In 1857, the United States attorney- the road to Macon. Soon, however, he shifted southgeneral officially asserted that a United States citizen ward to the West Point road, and then boldly pushed may renounce his citizenship. Aliens may readily nat- northward against Sherman's communications. Sheruralize themselves in the United States; see Naturali- man followed him with the bulk of his army, but on 6 zation. In the United States aliens may sue and be sued, Oct. had only reached Kenesaw. Hood, farther north, but cannot serve a process, vote, or hold office. With that day attacked Allatoona Pass, the most important respect to the power of aliens to hold real estate, the laws station on the road, and stored with one and a half of the several States are not alike. Some impose restric- million of rations. Gen. Corse conducted the defence, tions, while others do not. The question of the inheri- and all day long held out against the assailing force, tance of the property of aliens has been the subject of retaining his position until relief approached and several treaties between the United States and foreign Hood was compelled to withdraw. Corse was severely nations.

wounded. Aliwal, a village of N.W. India, the site of a battle, Allegiance, see Oaths. 28 Jan. 1846, between the Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor

Allegory abounds in the Bible and in Homer: see Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Gen. xlix. (1689 B.c.), of cannon, and the British under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 Psa. lxxx., and all the prophets. Spenser's Faerie men with 32 guns. The contest was obstinate, but ended Queene (1590) and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678) in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or

are allegories throughout. The Spectator (1711), by drowned.

Addison, Steele, and others, abounds in allegories. The Alizarine, a crystalline body, the coloring principle allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures is said to of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in have begun with Origen in the third century; but see 1831. Schunck showed that all the finest madder colors Gal, iv. 24. contained only alizarine combined with alkalies and fatty

Alleyn, see Almshouses and Dulwich.' acids. Graebe and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869.

Allia (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal where Brennus and the Gauls defeated the Romans, 16 oils by Dumas, and Laurent in 1832; see Mudder.

July, 390 B. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed

so much injury that the day was thereafter held to be Aljubarrota, Portugal. Here John I. of Portugal unlucky (nefas), and no public business was permitted defeated John I. of Castile, and secured his country's in- to be done thereon. dependence, 14 Aug. 1385; see Batalha.

Alliance, TREATIES OF, between the high EuroAlkahest, see Alchemy.

pean powers. The following are the principal (see Alkalies (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdom, etc.) : from which an alkaline substance was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the or Leipsic....

9 April, 1631

or Vienna.. nature of the difference between caustic and mild alka

27 May, 1657 The Triple..

28 Jan. 1668 lies in 1736.

Of Warsaw..

.31 March, 1683

The Grand. The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the met. The Hague...

.12 May, 1689

.4 Jan. 1717 als potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry Davy at the The Quadruple. Royal Institution, London, 1807.

.2 Aug. 1718

of Vienna, Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816.

.16 March, 1731

Or Versailles. The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lancashire and

...1 May, 1756 Germanic.

23 July, 1785 Cheshire, is based on the decomposition of common salt or Paris..

.16 May, 1795 (chloride of sodium) by a process invented by a Frenchman or St. Petersburg.

8 April, 1805 named Le Blanc, about 1792.

Austrian.. Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814. Va of Sweden...

.14 March, 1812

.24 March, rious modifications of these processes are now in use. Of Töplitz. * Alkali works" are defined as works for the manufacture of Holy Alliance...

.....9 Sept. 1813

26 Sept. 1815 alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in which of England, France, and Turkey (at Constantinople), muriatic gas is erolved.

12 March, 1854 Mr. William Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid of England and France ratified.....

..3 April, gas patented in 1836.

of Sardinia with the Western Powers (at Turin)... 26 Jan. 1855 The “ammonia process" of making soda invented by Dyer of Sweden with the Western Powers.. and Hemming in 1838; patents respecting it taken out by of Prussia and Italy......

June, 1866 Solvay, 1863, 1867, 1872; Gossage, 1854; Schloesing, 1854,

1858; Young, 1871, 1872; Weldon, 1872, 1873; and by others. All-night Sittings, see Parliament, 1877 and 1881. Mr. Walter Weldon received the French Lavoisier medal for his most important improvements in the alkali manufact- All-saints' Day (Nov.1), or All-Hallows, a fes

ure, July, 1877. In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by the tival said to have been begun by pope Boniface IV. about alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the Alkali Works 607, celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established Act " for the more effectual condensation (of 95 per cent.] | by pope Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration



19 Dec.


1828 1832

1849 . 1862-63

1869 1878

of all those saints and martyrs in whose honor no par- | British Almanac and Companion..
ticular day is assigned. The reformers of the English Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd..

Nautical Almanac (U.S.).
church, 1519, struck out of their calendar a great num- Chambers's Book of Days..
ber of anniversaries, leaving only those which at their Whitaker's Almanack.
time were connected with popular feeling or tradition.

Spofford's American Almanac.... All-souls College, Oxford, see Oxford.

Most of the great daily journals in New York and other

American cities publish almanacs containing elaborate and All-souls' Day (2 Nov.), a festival of the Roman detailed political and industrial statistics. Catholic church to commemorate the souls of the faith-publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I.,

The Stationers' Company claimed the exclusive right of ful, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000.

granting the privilege to them and the two universities; but “All the Talents" Administration, see Gren- the monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of


A bill to renew the privilege was ville Administrations.

lost in 1779. Allobroges, Gauls, defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus, was abolished in Aug. 1834; since when almanacs have be

The Stamp Duty on English almanacs first imposed in 1710, near the contluence of the Rhone and Saone, 121 B.C. come innumerable, being issued by tradesmen with their

goods. Allotments, see Land, note.

Of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the Alma, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought able computer of the "Nautical Ephemeris") at one time upa great battle on 20 Sept. 1854; see Russo-Turkish Wur wards of 430,000 copies were annually sold. 'He died in 1820.

Of Foreign Almanacs, the principal are the “ Almanach de and Crimea, The English, French, and Turkish army France," first published in 1699, and the “ Almanach de (about 57,000 men) moved out of their first encampment Gotha,'' 1764. in the Crimea on 19 Sept., and bivouacked for the night

Almanza (S.E. Spain). Here on 25 April (0. s. 14), on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (com- 1707, the English, Dutch, and Portuguese forces under manded by prince Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 in the earl of Galway were totally defeated by the French fantry, had 180 field - pieces on the heights, and on the and Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of morning of 20 Sept. were joined by 6000 cavalry from Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). Most of the Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under lord English were killed or made prisoners, having been abanRaglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the French of 24,000, doned by the Portuguese at the first charge. under marshal St.-Arnaud. At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made; the river Alma was crossed, while

Almeida (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by prince Napoleon took possession of the village under the Massena, 27 Aug. 1810. The French entered Spain, leavtire of the Russian batteries; and at 4, after a sanguinary ing a garrison at Almeida; blockaded by the English 6 tight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, April

, 1811, Almeida was retaken by Wellington (11 utterly routed, threw away their arms and knapsacks in May), and Massena retired from Portugal. their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900

Almenara, a village N.E. Spain, where, on 28 July, were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the 1710, an English and German army defeated the SpanBritish was 26 officers and 327 men killed, and 73 officers ish army supporting Philip V., the grandson of Louis and 1539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23d, 7th, and XIV. of France. Stanhope, the English general, killed 33d regiments) ; that of the French, 3 officers and 233 the Spanish general, Amezaga, in single conflict; an act men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men wounded. almost unexampled in modern warfare. Total loss of the allies about 3400.

Almohades, Mahometan partisans, followers of MoAlmack's Assembly-rooms, King street, St. hammed ben Abdalla, surnamed El-Mehedi, in Africa, James's, London, at first very exclusive, were erected by about 1120. They subdued Morocco, 1145; entered a Scotchman named Almack, and opened 12 Feb. 1765. Spain and took Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 1146-56; They are now termed Willis's Rooms, from the name of and founded a dynasty and ruled Spain till 1232, and the present proprietors.

Africa till 1278. Almanacs (from the Arabic al manah, to count).

Almoner, an office anciently allotted to a dignified The Egyptians computed time by instruments; the Al- clergyman who gave the first dish from the royal table exandrians had almanacs, and log calendars are ancient. to the poor, or an alms in money. By an ancient canon In the British Museum and universities are specimens all bishops were required to keep almoners. The grandof early almanacs. Michael Nostradamus, the astrologer, almoner of France was the highest ecclesiastical dignity wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556.--Dufres in that kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen noy. Prof. Augustus De Morgan's valuable “ Book of Victoria's almoner (Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, Almanacs, with an index of reference, by which the al- appointed 28 May, 1870), or the sub-almoner, distributes manae may be found for every year," was published in the queen's gifts on Maundy-Thursday (which see). March, 1851.* Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were

Almoravides, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose

about 1050; entered Spain by invitation, 1086; were John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford.. One in Lambeth Palace, written in.

1460 overcome by the Almohades in 1147. First printed one, published at Buda.

1472 “Shepheard's Kalendar” (tirst printed in England) by

Almshouses for aged and infirm persons have been Richard Pynson....

1497 erected by many public companies and benevolent indiTybalt's Prognostications..

1533 viduals, particularly since the abolition of religious houses Almanac Liigeois..


at the Reformation in the sixteenth century. A list of Lilly's Ephemeris...

1644 Poor Robin's Almanac.

1052 them, with useful information, will be found in “Low's British Merlin...

1658 Charities of London,” 1862; frequently republished. Connaissance des Temps (by Picard).. Edinburgh Almanac..

Armorers' almshouses. Bishopsgate..

1551 Moore's Almanac.

.1698 or 1713 Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion almshouses, Lady's Diary

Westminster.. Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac.

1732 Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by lady Dacre. 1594 Season on the Seasons...

1735 Alleyn's almshouses, near City road, founded by E. AlGentleman's Diary...


leyn... Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Maskelyne (ma

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, were rebuilt terially improved, 1831). 1767 near Highgate hill by the Mercers' Company.

1826 British Imperial Kalendar.

1809 The Fishmongers' Company founded almshouses in 1618, Hone's Every day Book..

and rebuilt them on Wandsworth common...

1850 Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded by Robert

1692 * Murphy's Almanack for 1838 predicted correctly a frost Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 1613 (in on 7 Jan. ; thaw and frost 14th; severe frost 21st, and then gratitude for her escape from an arrow-shot), were re. thaw. A great sale of the almanac ensued. Afterwards the built by the Brewers' Company..... predictious failed.

Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were erected.



1679 1683







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