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Nelson's victory at Copenhagen..
27 June, 1850 Habeas Corpus act again suspended. .19 April, Death of sir Robert Peel (aged 62)
.2 July, Peace of Amiens concluded ...1 Oct. Duke of Cambridge dies..
.8 July, War against France under Bonaparte.
18 May, 1803 Queen's visit to Belgium.. Nelson's victory and death at Trafalgar.. 21 Oct. 1805 Great excitement occasioned by the pope's establishment Death of Mr. Pitt.....
.23 Jan. 1806 of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England. ......Nov. ** Delicate investigation" (which see).
. May, Sixth census of United Kingdom (see Population) (27,Lord Melville impeached, 29 April; acquitted...12 June, 637, 761)
.30 March, 1851 Death of Charles James Fox
.13 Sept. The first Great Exhibition " opened. ........1 May, Orders in council against Berlin decree. ..7 Jan. 1807 Australian gold arrives
.... Dec. Abolition of the slave-trade by parliament.... 25 March, Death of the poet Thomas Moore.
26 Feb. 1852 Victory and death of sir J. Moore (see Corunna).. 16 Jan. 1809 John Camden Neild, an eccentric miser, bequeathed Duke of York impeached by col. Wardle.
..Jan. about 250,0001. to the queen; he died .......30 Aug. Jubilee celebrating king's accession ..
25 Oct. Slight earthquake at Liverpool, etc..... ...9 Nov. Unfortunate Walcheren expedition. .. Aug.-Noy. Death of Wellington (aged 83), Sept. 14; public funeral, Sir Francis Burdett's arrest, and riots . .6 April, 1810
18 Nov. Death of princess Amelia; king's malady returns, 2 Nov. Camp at Chobham.
.14 June-19 Aug. 1853 Great commercial embarrassment..
..Dec. Death of sir Charles Napier, conqueror of Scinde, REGENT—The prince of Wales. .5 Feb. 1811
29 Aug. Luddite riots.
.Nov. English and French fleets enter Bosphorus.. .22 Oct. Assassination of Mr. Perceval, premier.. 11 May, 1812 Protocol signed between England, France, Austria, and Earl of Liverpool premier...
Prussia for re-establishment of peace between Russia War with America commenced..
....5 Dec. Peace with France, etc..
,14 April, 1814 Many meetings on Eastern question, favorable to Turkey, Visit of the emperor of Russia and king of Prussia to
Sept. -Dec. England
.7 June, Great strike at Preston; 14,972 hands unemployed at one Centenary of the house of Hanover
....15 Oct. 1853-1 May, 1854 Peace with America (treaty of Ghent) .. 24 Dec. Queen reviews Baltic fleet.
......11 March, Battle of Waterloo (close of French war). . 18 June, 1815 Treaty of alliance between England, France, and Turkey Princess Charlotte marries prince Leopold of Saxe-Co- signed...
.12 March, burg
.2 May, 1816 War declared against Russia (see Russo-Turkish War), Death of R. B. Sheridan. ,9 July,
28 March, Spa-fields meeting (which see). .2 Dec. Fast-day on account of the war
26 April, Green-bag inquiry (which see). .2 Feb. 1817 | Marquess of Anglesey dies...
28 May, Habeas Corpus act suspended. .24 Feb. King of Portugal visits England.
.June, Cash payments resumed...
. 22 Sept.
.10 June, Princess Charlotte dies in childbirth,
..6 Nov. Cholera prevails in the south and west of London, Queen Charlotte dies at Kew. .17 Nov. 1818
Aug. and Sept. Queen Victoria born... 24 May, 1819 Thanksgiving for abundant harvest.
1 Oct. Manchester reform meeting (Peterloo)
Great explosion and fire at Gateshead and Newcastle, Duke of Kent dies .23 Jan. 1820
6 Oct. GEORGE IV. accession. . 29 Jan. Meeting of parliament.
12 Dec. Cato-street conspirators arrested, 23 Feb.; executed, Resignation of Aberdeen ministry.
.29 Jan. 1855 1 May, Formation of Palmerston ministry.
...Feb. Trial of queen Caroline 19 Aug. -10 Nov. Death of Joseph Hume (aged 78).
20 Feb. Coronation of George IV. 19 July, 1821 Sebastopol Inquiry committee named.
.23 Feb. Queen Caroline dies at Hammersmith.
Visit of emperor and empress of French....16-21 April, Lord Byron dies. 19 April, 1824 Loan of 16 millions agreed to..
. April, Commercial panic.. 1825-6 Distribution of Crimean medals..
.18 May, Duke of York dies .5 Jan. 1827 Metropolitan cattle-market opened.
.13 June, Mr. Canning premier, 30 April; dies
Agitation and rioting concerning Sunday-trading bill, Battle of Navarino..
.2 July, Roman Catholic Relief bill passed. .13 April, 1829 | The queen and prince visit Paris.
.18 Aug. Political panic in London; riots.
.Nov. Peace with Russia proclaimed, 19 April; thanksgiving WILLIAM IV. accession. . 26 June, 1830 day, 4 May; illuminations, etc...
29 May, 1856 Mr. Huskisson killed at the opening of the Liverpool and War with China (which see)...
..Oct. Mancbester railway...
.Nov. Grey administration formed..
Nov. Mutiny of Indian army begins (see India). . March, 1857 King opens new London bridge..
. Aug. 1831 Dissolution of parliament, 21 March; new parliament The cholera morbus in England.
.30 April, Reform bill rejected by the lords, 7 Oct.; fatal Bristol Death of duchess of Gloucester (aged 81), the last of riots.
.30 April, « English Reform act passed..
.7 June, 1832 Opening of the Fine Arts exhibition at Manchester, Assault on William IV. by a discharged pensioner al As
6 May, cot.......
..19 June, Educational conference in London, prince Albert in the Sir Walter Scott dies ..
22 June, S.T. Coleridge dies..
. 25 July, 1834 Victoria crosses (which see) distributed by the queen in Slavery ceases in the colonies..
26 June, " Corporation Reform act passed..
.9 Sept. 1835 Meetings for relief of sufferers by the mutiny in India VICTORIA, accession; Hanover separated from Great [by 15 Nov. 260,0001. raised)...
25 Aug. Britain.
20 June, 1837 Great commercial panic; relieved by suspension of Bank Coronation of queen Victoria, 28 June, 1838 Charter act of 1844
..12 Nov. Beginning of war with China March, 1839 Parliament meets.
..3 Dec. Penny postage begins
.10 Jan. 1840 Marriage of princess royal to prince Frederick William Marriage of the queen with prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg
25 Jan. 1858 (see p. 250)..
10 Feb. Excitement respecting attempted assassination of Louis Oxford's assault on the queen
Napoleon, 14 Jan.; indiscreet addresses of French colo. Prince of Wales born .. .9 Nov. 1841 nels published..
27 Jan. King of Prussia visits England..
24 Jan. 1842 “Conspiracy to Murder” bill (introduced by lord Pal. John Francis fires at the queen
merston, 8 Feb.) rejected, 19 Feb.; Palmerston minis. Bean presents a pistol at her.
.22 Feb. Income tax act passed.....
..Aug. Derby. Disraeli administration formed.. ..26 Feb. Queen embarks for Scotland (first visit). 29 Aug Dr. Simon Bernard acquitted of conspiracy against the Peace of Nankin (with China).
life of Louis Napoleon.....
.17 April, Death of duke of Sussex
.21 April, 1843 The Jewish Disabilities Bill passed.. ...23 July, Queen's visit to the Orleans family at Château d'Eu, The India bill passed
2 Aug. 2 Sept. The queen visits Birmingham, 15 June; Cherbourg, 4, 5 Emperor of Russia visits England. .
..1 Juno, 1844 Aug; the princess royal (at Potsdam), 12 Aug. etc.; King Louis Philippe's visit
.Sept. Tractarian or Puseyite controversy
.1844-5 Excitement about the confessional; public meetings held Anti-corn-law agitation.
1845 against it ......
.......12 July and 18 Sept. Queen's visit to Germany..
.9 Aug. The Association for the Promotion of Social Science meet Peel's new tariff, 1845; railway mania.
12 Oct. Commercial panic. .
. March, 1846 Excitement respecting the Italian war; proclamation for Corn laws repealed
..30 April, 1859 Chartist demonstration in London..
.10 April, 1848 Thanksgiving for suppression of Indian mutiny...1 May, Cholera reappears in England in.. .1848 and 1849 Declaration of neutrality of England. ...
.12 May, Queen embarks on her visit to Ireland.
Proclamat.on for the organization of volunteer rifle corps; Adelaide, queen dowager, dies
May-Oct. ** Exhibition of 1851" announced.
.3 Jan. 1850 The Derby ministry defeated on the Reform bill; dissolve Death of Wordsworth (aged 80)..
parliament, 23 April; again defeated, they resign, 11
...... 20 Dec.'
June; the Palmerston-Russell administration formed, The Atlantic telegraph completely laid, and messages 18 June, 1859 sent to lord Stanley...
..27 July, 1866 The Handel commemoration...
20, 22, 24 June, The cable of 1865 recovered, and communication estabThe income tax increased to provide for the defences of Tished with Valentia, 2 Sept. ; and with Newfoundland, the country.. ...July,
8 Sept. Lord Macaulay dies (aged 59).
28 Dec. Projected attack of Fenians on Chester prevented by Commercial ireaty with France, sgned 23 Jan.; ap
11, 12 Feb. 1867 proved by parliament..
March, 1860 | The queen laid foundation of the Albert Hall of Arts at Sir Charles Barry dies (aged 65).
.20 May, The queen reviews 18,000 volunteers in Hyde park, Visit of the viceroy of Egypt...
...6-18 July, 23 June, Visit of the Belgian volunteers (see Belgium), 10-22 July, National rifle shooting match at Wimbledon (see Volun- Visit of the sultan (see Turkey).
-12-23 July teers)...
2-7 July, “Early Years of the Prince Consort'' published end of The earl of Derby reviews about 11,000 Lancashire vol
July, unteers at Knowsley
New Reform act passed (see Reform). .15 Aug. The queen and princo visit their daughter in Prussia, Michael Faraday, natural philosopher (nearly 76), died Sept.
25 Aug. Peace with China signed.....
24 Oct. Preparations for the expedition to Abyssinia (see AbysThos. Cochrane, earl of Dundonald, dies (aged 82). .31 Oct. sinia)..
..Aug. Prince of Wales visits Canada and United States, 24 July- Fenian outrages; rescue of prisoners at Manchester (see 20 Oct. ; returns..
.18 Sept. Severe cold (see Cold)
.Dec. 1860 and Jan. 1861 Synod of bishops at Lambeth (seo Pan-Anglican) Charter granted for Exhibition of 1862 .14 Feb.
24-27 Sept. Death of duchess of Kent (aged 75).
.16 March, Meeting of parliament respecting the Abyssinian war, Excitement about "Essays and Reviews"
19 Nov. Seventh Census taken (29, 192, 419)
..8 April, Fenian explosion at Clerkenwell prison, London, 13 Dec. King of Sweden and his son visit London.......... Aug. Special constables called for; 113, 674 (in the U.K) sworn Great excitement through capt. Wilkes (of U. S. navy) in by..
28 Jan. 1868 forcibly taking Messrs. Slidell and Mason from the "Leaves from our Journal in Scotland,'' etc., by the Royal British Mail steamer Trent (see United States), queen, published
..Jan. 8 Nov. Resignation of earl of Derby, 25 Feb.; the Disraeli minisDeath of the prince consort of "typhoid fever, duration try formed ..
...29 Feb. 21 days," 14 Dec. ; buried (see Albert Memorial). 23 Dec. The queen holds a drawing-room again .......12 March, The United States government release Messrs. Slidell Mr. Gladstone's resolution for disestablishing the Irish and Mason ..
church adopted by the commons. ...30 April, Second great International Exhibition opened by the Death of lord Brougham (aged 89).
...7 May, duke of Cambridge
.1 May, 1862 Arrival of the duke of Edinburgh from Australia, 26 June, Inundations in Norfolk (see Levels)..
. May, Irish and Scotch reform acts passed.. 13 July, Marriage of princess Alice to Louis of Hesse. ...1 July, Nearly 21,000 extra deaths attributed to the hot summer Prince Alfred declared king of Greece at Athens (throne (23 July said to be the hottest)........1 July-30 Sept. declined).
23 Oct. Parliament dissolved 11 Nov.; new parliament meets Final closing of International Exhibition........15 Nov.
10 Dec. Remains of the prince consort transferred to the mauso. Resignation of Disraeli ministry, 2 Dec. ; Gladstone min. leum at Frogmore..
... 18 Dec.
.9 Dec. Great distress in the cotton-manufacturing districts be. Convention with the United States respecting the Ala.
gins, April; contributions received, Central Relief fund, bama claim signed (afterwards rejected by the States) 407,8301. ; Mansion House fund, 236, 926l.
14 Jan. 1869 Rupture with Brazil.. ..Jan. 1863 New parliament meet for business.
.16 Feb. Prince Alfred elected king of Greece
.3 Feb. Irish church bill introduced into the commons, 1 March; Princess Alexandra of Denmark enters London, 7 March; royal assent
26 July, married to the prince of Wales.. . 10 March, The earl of Derby dies (aged 70).
23 Oct. The British, French, and Austrian governments remon Parliament meets...
...8 Feb. 1870 strate with Russia on cruelties in Poland...... 7 April, Charles Dickens died (aged 58).
.9 June, Inauguration of the Great Exhibition memorial to the Earl of Clarendon died (aged 70)
.27 June, prince consort in the Horticultural Gardens, London, Irish land bill brought in, 15 Feb.; received royal assent, 11 June,
8 July, Arrival of captains Grant and Speke from exploring the Neutrality in Franco Prussian war (which see) proclaimed source of the Nile. ..June,
19 July, Great decrease of distress in cotton districts.. ... ... Oct. 2,000,0001. voted to increase the army by 20,000 men, 1 Aug. Earthquake in central and N. W. England. .6 Oct. Foreign Enlistment act passed, 1 Aug.; stringent procThe government declines the French emperor's proposal lamation of neutrality issued..
19 Aug for a congress of sovereigns.... Nov. Parliament prorogued...
.10 Aug. Death of William M. Thackeray (aged 52)........24 Dec. Treaty with Pruss a and France for neutrality of Bel. Birth of prince Albert Victor of Wales. .........8 Jan. 1864 gium signed...
.9, 11 Aug. Final judgment of the judicial committee of the privy Long drought; bad hay harvest; good wheat harvest, council that the government had no authority to seize
March-Aug. the Alexandra (Confederato) steamer.
.8 Feb. Earl Granville repels the charge of violating neutralities Garibaldi's visit to England...
made by the Prussian government.........1-15 Sept. The Ionian isles made over to Greece... ......1 June, The queen's consent to the marriage of the princess European conference at London on the Schleswig-Hol- Louise to ihe marquess of Lorne announced.... 24 Oct.
stein question; no result........... 24 April-25 June, Foot and mouth disease prevalent among cattle Great excitement through the murder of Mr. Briggs in a
Aug.-Nov. first-class carriage on the North London railway, Election of elementary school boards..
Nov. 9 July, Excitement through the Russian note respecting the Great explosion of gunpowder at the Belvedere magazine, Black Sea (see Russia)...
Nov. near Woolwich.. ..1 Oct. Foundation of new Post-office laid.
16 Dec. Death of John Leech (aged 47). 29 Oct. Resignation of Mr. Bright announced..
. 20 Dec. Death of Richard Cobden (aged 61). 2 April, 1865 Parlament meets...
..9 Feb. 1871 Prince George of Wales born...
...3 June, Marriage of the princess Louise and the marquess of Resignation of lord chancellor Westbury.. .4 July,
.21 March, General election; majority for Palmerston administra- Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, opened by the queen, tion.. .10 July,etc.
29 March, Visit of Abd-el-Kader; departs.
.3 April, Prevalence of a cattle plague, June-Oct.; royal commis- Death of sir Jobn F. Herschel, astronomer and philososion appointed; met.
11 May, English tleet visits Cherbourg, 15 Aug; French fleet Death of George Grote, historian of Greece (aged 77), visits Portsmouth.. 29, 30 Aug
18 June, Fine-art and industrial exhibitions opened in London First annual International Exhibition at South Kensingand the provinces ...
.30 Sept. Death of lord Palmerston, 18 Oct.; public funeral, 27 Oct. Black Sea conference met 17 Jan.; closed (neutralization Earl Russell premier.....
.13 March, Important commercial treaty with Austria signed, 16 Dec. Disestablishinent of the Church of England bill rejected New parliament opened by the queen...
.6 Feb. 1866 in the commons (374-89), 1 May; parliament prorogued New Reform bill introduced by Mr. Gladstone, 12 March,
21 Aug Commercial panic in London... .11 May et seq.
Illness of the queen at Balmoral, 4 Sept. ; recovery International botanical congress opened,
13 Sept. Defeat of the government on the Reform bill, 18 June; Serious illness of the prince of Wales from typhoid fever, resignation of ministers...
,14 Dec. Marriage of princess Helena to prince Christian of Letter from the queen and princess to the people, thankSchleswig-Holstein....
26 Dec The third Derby cabinet formed
Thanksgivings for recovery of prince of Wales.., 21 Jan. 1872
Excitement respecting the American claims under the Early meeting of parliament on account of Russo-Turk. treaty of Washington. .....
.17 Jan. 1878 Meeting of parliament..
......6 Feb. Vote of 6,000,0001. asked for before entering into conserThe queen, prince and princess of Wales, and court and ence respecting Eastern affairs, 24 Jan. ; debate.31 Jan.
parliament go in state to St. Paul's; national thanksgiv- Liberal amendment withdrawn on report of Russian ading for recovery of the prince of Wales; London dec- vance on Constantinople, 7 Feb. ; vote passed (201–124), orated; illuminations, etc.; a successful day... 27 Feb.
8 Feb. The queen in a public letter, gazetted 1 March, says, Warlike policy of the ministry; resignation of lord Car“ Words are too weak for the queen to say how very
narvon, 24 Jan.; and earl of Derby (see Disraeli Addeeply touched and gratified she has been by the im- ministration)...
28 March, mense enthusiasm and affection exhibited towards her Message of the queen respecting calling out the reserves, dear son and herself,” dated. .
etc., 2 April; adopted by parliament... .. April, The queen, while entering Buckingham Palace, threaten- Earl of Salisbury's circular indicting treaty of
ed by Arthur O'Connor, aged about 18, who presents San Stefano, 2 April; moderate reply of Gortschakoff an unloaded pistol, with a paper to be signed; imme
.10 April, diately apprehended... .29 Feb. Indian troops ordered to Malta.
.about 17 April, The queen sailed for Germany and stayed several weeks, Censured by the opposition; debate in commons: for
23 March-7 April,
20-23 May, Strikes among agricultural laborers in Warwickshire Earl Russell died (aged 85). ...
28 May, and other counties; union formed.......... 29 March, The ministry announce the meeling of a European con. Arthur O'Connor pleads guilty (sentenced to imprison
gress on the Eastern question, to meet on 13 June; the ment and flogging)..
earl of Beaconsfield and the marquess of Salisbury to Correspondence between the British and American gov. attend for England (see Berlin)..
.3 June, ernments respecting the claims for indirect losses, Anglo-Turkish convention (see Turkey) signed...4 June,
which the former rejects ... ......3 Feb.-May, The conference meets at 'Berlin (which see) 13 June; Supplemental treaty proposed; accepted by U. S. senate,
.13 July, 25 May; further discussion in parliament; unsatisfac- 10,0001. a year voted for the duke of Connaught for his tory correspondence; the U. S. congress adjourns proposed marriage with princess Louise Margaret of
.25 July, Strikes among builders and other trades..........Jupe, Debate on the Berlin treaty in the commons; great Final meeting of arbitrators; damages awarded (see speech of Mr. Gladstone, 30 July; majority for govern. Alabama)..
.29 July-3 Aug. New commercial treaty with France signed at London, Parliament prorogued.
1.16 Aug. 5 Nov. Meeting of parliament on account of Afghan war..5 Dec. Continued rain; floods in Midland counties. .... Dec. Majority for ministers on vote of censure, lords (201-65), Death of Edward Bulwer, Lord Lytton, orator, poet, and 10 Dec.; commons (328–227)...
. 13-14 Dec. novelist (aged 66)...
.18 Jan. 1873 Death of 'princess Alice by diphtheria at Darnstadt. Strikes among colliers, Jan. ; great dearth of coal; the after attendance on her husband, the grand-duke, and best 528. a ton in London..
children, 7.30 A.M.... Resignation of Mr. Gladstone on account of a defeat in Severe winter, many persons unemployed.
..... Dec. the commons on the Dublin university bill (287-234), Parliament adjourned (to 13 Feb.)..
..17 Dec. 13 March; resumes office, 17 March.
The queen in a letter thanks her subjects for their symVisit of the shab of Persia.
..13 June-5 July, pathy with her loss of a dear child, who was a bright Proposed marriage of duke of Edinburgh to grand-duch
example of loving tenderness, courageous devotion, ess Marie of Russia announced by the queen, 17 July;
and self-sacrifice to duty," dated.
26 Dec annuity bill for the duke passed.. .......5 Aug Edward Byrne Madden (? lupatic) arrested for threatenJudicature Act passed....
ing to attack the queen in letters to the Home Office, Severely contested elections; conservative reaction,
12 Dec. 1878; judged insane..
........13 Jan. 1879 Sept. -Oct. 1,500,000/. voted for Zulu war..
....27 Feb. Marriage of the duke and duchess of Edinburgh..23 Jan. 1874 | Expedition sent (between 8000 and 9000 men, 1800 horses, Parliament dissolved..
.. 26 Jan.
Feb. - March, General election; conservative majority about 50, Feb. ; Marriage of duke and duchess of Connaught at Windsor, Gladstone ministry resigos, 17 Feb.; Disraeli ministry
13 March, formed.
The queen at Paris, 26 March; arrives at Baveno, on Close of the Tichborne trial (see Trials).
.28 March, Meeting of parliament..
.5 March, Proposed censure of government respecting Zula war, The duke and duchess of Edinburgh enter London,
etc., negatived, lords (156-61), 25 March; commons 12 March, (306-246)..
...31 March-1 April, Sir Garnet Wolseley returns from his successful expedi- Great depression of trade (attributed to bad harvest, famtion against the Ashantees....
1878-9 Visit of the czar of Russia.......
Commons debate on the budget; for government, 303; Public worship regulation act passed.. ....7 Aug.
28–29 April, 1879 Fruitful season; excellent corn crop.. Aug. --Sept. Cold and very wet summer, little sunshine, failure of The queen receives a testimonial of gratitude from the corn and fruit crops..
autumn, French nation for British assistance during the war Severe weather; Nov. very cold; 1-12 Dec., and Jan., (see France)..
1880 Meeting of pariiament..
..5 Feb. 1875 Parliament opened by the queen, 5 Feb.; dissolved, Moody and Sankey, American revivalists, arrive in Lon.
23 Feb. don, 9 March; sail from Liverpool (sco Revivals)..4 Aug. General election, great liberal majority, 30 March-16 Parliament prorogued... .13 Aug. April; resignation of ministry.
.22 April, Railway jubilee at Darlington..... .27 Sept. Gladstone ministry formed..
29 April, Departure of the prince of Wales for India. ..11 Oct. New parliament meets 29 April; Bradlaugh difficulty The khedive's shares in the Suez canal bought by the (see Parliaments).
... ...3 May et seq. British government (see Suez), 1 Nov.; announced
Fine autumn; good average harvest; improved trade, 25 Nov.
Oct. Parliament opened by the queen in person ......8 Feb. 1876 Early meeting of parliament on account of Ireland.6 Jan. 1881 The queen sails for Germany (all her sons abroad), 28
(See Ireland, Parliament, and Revenue.) March; returns.....
.22 April, Royal Titles bill received royal assent. .27 April,
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND.
BEFORE THE CONQUEST. Parliament prorogued..
827. Egbert, styled “king of England" in 828. Great heat; failure in fruit crops; harvest beneath av. 837. Ethelwolf, his son. erage...
..middle Aug. 857. Ethelbald, his son. Great excitement and many public meetings respecting 860. Ethelbert, brother.
the Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria.. ..Aug. -Oct. 866. Ethelred, brother.
925. Athelstan, eldest son; died 17 Oct. 940. Parliament opened by the queen.
......8 Feb. 1877 940. Edmund I., fifth son of Edward the Elder; died from Proclamation of neutrality in Russo-Turkish war,
a wound received in an affray, 26 May, 946.
30 April, 946. Edred, brother; died 955. Debate on Mr. Gladstone's resolutions: 1st. That 'this 955. Edwy, eldest son of Edmund; died of grief in 958.
house found much cause for dissatisfaction and com- 958. Edgar the Peaceable, brother; died 1 July, 975. plaint in the conduct of the Ottoman Porte with re- 975. Edward the Martyr, bis son, stabbed at Corfe Castle, at gard to the despatch written by the earl of Derby, 21
the instance of his stepmother, Elfrida, 18 March, 979. Sept. 1876, and relating to the massacres in Bulgaria 979. Ethelred II.; half-brother; retired, (for the resolution, 225; against, 354).......7-14 May, 1013. Sweyn, proclaimed king; died 3 Feb. 1014. Fleet sent to Besika bay..
..3 July, 1014. Canute the Great, his son. Statue of king Alfred by count Gleichen, at Wantage, un
Ethelred restored in Canute's absence; died 24 April, veiled by the prince of Wales, his descendant. .14 July,
HOUSE OF LANCASTER.
1016. Edmund Ironside, his son, divided the kingdom with Lincolnshire, 1290. 2. Margaret, sister of the king of Canute; murdered at Oxford, 30 Nov. 1016; reigned
France; married 12 Sept. 1299; survived the king, seven months.
dying in 1317. 1017. Canute sole king; married Emma, widow of Ethelred; 1307. Edward II. son of Edward I. ; reign began 8 July; dedied 12 Nov. 1035.
throned 20 Jan. 1327; murdered at Berkeley castle, 21 1035. Harold I., son; died 17 March, 1040.
Sept. following 1040. Hardicanuto, son of Canute and Emma; died of reple- Queen : Isabella, daughter of the king of France; martion at a marriage feast, 8 June, 1042.
ried in 1308. On the death, by the gibbet, of her fa1042. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred and Emma; died
vorite, Mortimer, she was confined for the rest of her 6 Jan. 1066.
life in her own house at Risings, near Lynn, and died 1066. Harold II., son of earl Godwin; reigned nine months;
in 1357. killed near Hastings, 14 Oct. 1056.
1327. Edward III., his son; reign began 25 Jan. ; died 21 June,
1377. THE NORMANS. *
Queen : Philippa, daughter of the count of Hainault; mar1066. William the Conqueror; crowned 25 Dec.; died at Rouen, 1377. Richard 11., son of Edward the Black Prince, and grand
ried in 1326; died 15 Aug. 1369.
son of Edward III. ; reign began 22 June; dethroned married in 1054; died in 1083.
29 Sept. 1399; said to have been murdered at Poinfret 1087. William II. Rufus; reign began 26 Sept. ; killed by an
castle, 10 Feb. 1400. arrow, 2 Aug. 1100.
Queens : Anne of Bohemia, sister of the emperor Wen1100. Henry I. Beauclerc, his brother; reign began 5 Aug. ;
ceslaus of Germany; married in Jan. 1382; died 7 died of a surfeit, 1 Dec. 1135.
June, 1394. 2. Isabella, daughter of Charles V. of Queens : Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III. king of Scot
France; married when only seven years old, 1 Nov. 2.
1396. land; married 11 Nov. 1100; died 1 day, 1119.
On the deposition of her husband she returned
to her father. Adelais, daughter of Godfrey, earl of Louvaine; mar
ried 29 Jan. 1129; died 1151. 1135. Stephen, earl of Blois, nephew of Henry; reign 26 Dec.; 1399. Henry IV., cousin of Richard II. ; reign began 30 Sept. ; died 25 Oct. 1154.
died 20 March, 1413. Queen : Matilda, daughter of Eustace, count of Boulogne;
Queens : Mary, daughter of the earl of Hereford; she married in 1128; died 3 May, 1151.
died before Henry obtained the crown, in 1394. 2. [Maud, daughter of Henry I. and rightful heir to the
Joan of Navarre, widow of the duke of Bretagne; throne; born 1101; betrothed, in 1109, at eight years
married 1403; survived the king; died 1437. of age, to Henry V., emperor of Germany, who died 1413. Henry V., his son; reign began 21 March; died 31 Aug. 1125. She married, secondly, Geoffrey Plantagenet,
1422. earl of Anjou, 1130. Was set aside from tne English
Queen : Catherine, daughter of the king of France; marsuccession by Stephen, 1135; landed in England and
ried 30 May, 1420. She outlived Henry, and was mar. claimed the crown, 1139. Crowned, but soon after
ried to Owen Tudor, grandfather of Henry VII., in defeated at Winchester, 1141; concluded a peace with
1423; died 1437. Stephen, which secured the succession to her son
1422. Henry VI., his son; reign began 1 Sept. ; deposed 4 Henry, 1153; died 1165.]
March, 1461; said to have been murdered by Richard, THE PLANTAGENETS.
duke of Gloucester, in the Tower, 20 June, 1471.
Queen: Margaret, daughter of the duke of Anjou; mar. 1154. Henry II. Plantagenet, grandson of Henry I. and son of
ried 22 April, 1445; survived the king; died 25 Ang. Maud; reign began 19 Dec.; died 6 July, 1189.
1481. Queen : Eleanor, the repudiated queen of Louis VII., king
HOUSE OF YORK. of France, and heiress of Guienne and Poitou; married 1461. Edward IV.; died 9 April, 1483.
to Henry, 1151; died 26 June, 1202; see Rosamond, 1189. Richard I. Cæur de Lion, his son; reigu began 3 Sept. ;
Queen : Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter of sir Richard died of a wound, 6 April, 1199.
Woodville, and widow of sir John Grey, of Groby, Queen : Berengaria, daughter of the king of Navarre;
married 1463 or 1464. Suspected of favoring the in. married 12 May, 1191; survived the king.
surrection of Lambert Simpel; and closed her life in 1199. John, the brother of Richard; reign began 27 May; died 1483. Edward V. his son; deposed 25 June, 1483, and said to
confinement, 8 June, 1492. 19 Oct. 1216. Queens : Avisa, daughter of the earl of Gloucester; mar.
have been murdered in the Tower; reigned two months
and thirteen days.
Richard III., brother of Edward IV.; began to reign, 26
June; slain at Bosworth, 22 Ang. 1485.
Queen : Anne, daughter of the earl of Warwick, and
widow of Edward, prince of Wales, murdered 1471. married to the count de la Marche.
She is said to have been poisoned by Richard (huu. 1216. Henry III., son of John; reign began 28 Oct.; died 16
ing died suddenly, 16 March, 1485), to make way for Nov. 1272 Queen : Eleanor, daughter of the count de Provence:
his intended marriage with princess Elizabeth of
York. married 14 Jan. 1236; survived the king; and died in
HOUSE OF TUDOR. 1291, in a monastery. 1272. Edward I., son of Henry, surnamed Longshanks; reign 1485. Henry VII. (son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, began 20 Nov.; died 7 July, 1307.
and Margaret, daughter of John Beaufort, duke of Queens : Eleanor of Castile; married in 1253; died of a
Somerset, legitimated descendant of John of Gaunt, fever, on her journey to Scotland, at Grantham, in
duke of Lancaster); began to reign 22 Aug.; died 21
April, 1509. * The REGNAL DATES are those given by sir H. Nicolas. The
Queen : Elizabeth of York, princess of England, daughearly Norman and Plantagenet kings reckoned their reigns
ter of Edward IV.; married 18 Jan. 1486; died 11 Feb. from the day of their coronation; the later Plantagenets 1509. Henry VIII., his son; began to reign 22 April; died 28
1503. from the day after the death of their predecessor. With Ed.
Jan. 1547. ward VI. began the present custom of beginning the reign on the day of the death of the preceding sovereign.
Queens, Catherine of Aragon, widow of Henry's elder
brother, Arthur, prince of Wales; married 11 June, ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND.
1509; mother of queen Mary, repudiated, and afterWilliam I., William II., and Henry I.--two lions or leopards
wards formally divorced, 23 May, 1533; died 7 Jan.
1536. passant. Stephen-Sagittarius, the archer, one of the signs of the zo.
2. Anne Boleyn, daughter of sir Thomas Boleyn, and diac (traditional).
maid of honor to Catherine; privately married, be. Henry II. to Edward II.-three lions passant.
fore Catherine was divorced, 14 Nov. 1532; mother Edward III. and his successors quartered the preceding with
of queen Elizabeth; beheaded at the Tower, 19 May,
1536. fleurs-de-lys, the arms of France. Henry V. used only three fleurs-de-lys.
3. Jane Seymour, daughter of sir John Seymour, and Mary I. quartered the preceding with the arms of her husband,
maid of honor to Anne Boleyn; married 20 May, Philip II. of Spain.
1536, the day after Anne's execution; mother of Ed.
ward VI., of whom she died in childbirth, 24 Oct. UNITED KINGDOM.
1537. James I. and his successors combined the arms of England 4. Anne of Cleves, sister of William, duke of Cleves; and France (1st and 4th quarter); 2d, the lion rampant of
married 6 Jan. 1540; divorced 10 July, 1540; died Scotland; 3d, the harp of Ireland. He introduced the uni.
1557. corn as a supporter of the arms.
6. Catherine Howard, niece of the duke of Norfolk; George I., George II., and George III. introduced the arms of
married 28 July, 1540; beheaded, 12 Feb 1542. Brunswick.
6. Catherine Parr, daughter of sir Thomas Parr, and In 1801 the arms of France were omitted. In 1816 the arms
widow of Nevill, lord Latimer; married 12 July, 1543; were modified through Hanover being made a kingdom.
survived the king, after whose death she married sir VICTORIA.-In 1837 the arms of Hanover were omitted. The Thomas Seymour, created lord Sudley; died 5 Sept. arms are now: 1st and 4th quarters, three lions passant for
1548. England; 2d, lion rampant for Scotland; 3d, harp for Ire 1547. Edward VI. son of Henry VIII. (by Jane Seymour); died land
6 July, 1563
HOUSE OF STUART.
1553. Jane, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, and wife of lord
Nov. 1840; married to prince Frederick William of Pruswas tried 13 Nov. 1553; beheaded 12 Feb. 1584, when sia, 25 Jan. 1858 (dowry 40,0001. and annuity of 80001.). but 17 years of age.
Issue : William, born 27 Jan. 1859; and 5 other children 1553. Mary, daughter of Henry (by Catherine of Aragon); living.
married Philip of Spain, 25 July, 1554; died 17 Nov. 2. ALBERT EDWARD, prince of Wales, duke of Saxony, duke 1558.
of Cornwall and Rothsay, earl of Chester, Carrick, and 1558. Elizabeth, daughter of Henry (by Anne Boleyn), died 24 Dublin, baron of Renfrew, and lord of the Isles, born 9 March, 1603.
Nov. 1841; married princess Alexandra of Denmark (born 1 Dec. 1844) 10 March, 1863. Issue : Albert Victor, born 8
Jan. 1864; George, born 3 Jun 35; Louise, born 20 Feb. 1003. James I. of England and VI. of Scotland, son of Mary 1867; Victoria, born 6 July, 1868; Maud, 26 Nov. 1869; queen of Scots; died 27 March, 1625.
Alexander John, born 6 April, died 7 April, 1871; see Queen : Anne, princess of Denmark, daughter of Fred
Wales. erick II.; married 20 Aug. 1590; died March, 3. ALICE Maud Mary, born 25 April, 1843; married prince 1619.
Louis (since grand-duke) of Hesse-Darmstadt (which see), 1625. Charles I., his son; beheaded at Whitehall, 30 Jan. 1649. 1 July, 1862 (dowry 30,0001., annuity 6000L.). Issue : Vic
Queen : Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV., king toria, 5 April, 1863; and 5 other children; died of dipb
of France; married 13 June, 1625; survived the king; theria, 14 Dec. 1878.
4. ALFRED Ernest, born 6 Aug. 1844; entered the Euryalus as 1649. COMMONWEALTH. Oliver Cromwell made protector, 16 midshipman, 31 Aug. 1858; created duke of Edinburgh, Dec. 1653; died 3 Sept. 1658.
etc., 24 May, 1866; visited Cape of Good Hope, Aug. ; Aus 1658. Richard Cromwell, his son, made protector, 4 Sept.; re- tralia, Nov. 1867; escaped assassination by a Fenian at signed 22 April, 1659.
Port Jackson, 12 March, 1868; visited Japan, China, and 1660. Charles II., son of Charles I. ; died 6 Feb. 1685.
India, 1869; married archduchess Marie of Russia (born Queen : Catherine of Braganza, infanta of Portugal,
17 Oct. 1853), 23 Jan. 1874. Issue : Alfred, born 15 Oct. daughter of John IV. and sister of Alfonso VI.; mar. 1874; Mary, 29 Oct. 1875; Victoria, 25 Nov. 1876; Alexan. ried 21 May, 1662; survived the king; returned to drina, 1 Sept. 1878. Portugal; died 21 Dec. 1705.
5. HELENA Augusta Victoria, born 25 May, 1846; married to 1685. James II., his brother; abdicated by flight, 11 Dec. 1688; prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, 5 July, 1866. died in exile, 6 Aug. 1701.
sue : Christian Victor, born 14 April, 1867; and other chil(1st wife, Ann Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, dren. earl of Clarendon; married Sept. 1660; died 1671; 6. Louise Carolina Alberta, born 18 March, 1848; married to mother of queens Mary II. and Anne.)
John, marquess of Lorne (born 6 Aug. 1845), 21 March, Queen : Mary Beatrice, princess of Modena, daughter of 1871.
Alfonso d'Este, duke; married 21 Nov. 1673; in 1688 7. ARTHUR William Patrick Albert, born 1 May, 1820; created retired with James to France; died at St.-Germain, duke of Connaught, earl of Sussex and Strathearn, 23 May, 1718.
1874; 10,0001, a year on his proposed marriage to princess 1689. William III., prince of Orange, king, and Mary, queen, Louise Margaret of Prussia; agreed to, 25 July, 1878; mar. daughter of James; married 4 Nov. 1677; began their
ried 13 March, 1879, to princess Louise Margaret of Prussia reign 13 Feb. 1689, Mary died 28 Dec. 1694.
(born 25 July, 1860). 1694. William III. ; died of a fall from his horse, 8 March, 18. LEOPOLD George Duncan Albert, born 7 April, 1853; roted 1702.
15,0001. a year by parliament, 23 July, 1874; created bar. 2. Anne, daughter of James II.; married George, prince
on Arklow, earl of Clarence, and duke of Albany, 24 May, of Denmark, 28 July, 1683; succeeded to the throne, 1881. 8 March, 1702: had thirteen children, all of whom
9. BEATRICE Mary Victoria Feodore, born 14 April, 1857. died young; lost her husband 28 Oct. 1708; died 1 First great-grandchild, Feodore, born 12 May, 1879; daughter Aug. 1714
of Charlotte, daughter of princess royal Victoria, and
prince Bernard of Saxe-Meiningen. HOUSE OF HANOVER. (See Brunswick and Este.) THE QUEEN'S AUnt and COUSINS, Augusta, duchess (widow, 8 1714. George I., elector of Hanover and duke of Brunswick- July, 1850, of duke) of Cambridge, born 25 July, 1797; Luneburg ; son of Sophia, who was daughter of
married 1 June, 1818. Elizabeth, the daughter of 'James I. ; died 11 June, Her son, George, duke of Cambridge, commander-in-chief, 1727.
born 26 March, 1819; and Queen : Sophia Dorothea, daughter of the duke of Zell; Her daughters, Augusta, grand-duchess of Mecklenburg-Stredied in prison, 2 Nov. 1726.
litz, born 19 July, 1822; married 28 June, 1843; and the 1727. George II., his son; died 25 Oct. 1760.
princess Mary of Cambridge, born 27 Nov. 1833; married Queen : Wilhelmina Carolina Dorothea of Brandenburg
to the prince Francis, now duke, of Teck, 12 June, 1866. Anspach; married 1705; died 20 Nov. 1737.
Issue : Adolphus, and 3 other children. George III., grandson of George II.; died 29 Jan. 1820.
English Church Union, established 1859; reQueen : Charlotte Sophia, daughter of the duke of Meck- vived 1873.
lenburg-Strelitz; married 8 Sept. 1761; died 17 Nov.
English Language is traced from the Frisian 1820. George IV., his son; died 26 June, 1830.
Queen : Caroline Amelia Augusta, daughter of the duke variety of the Teutonic or Germanic branch of the of Brunswick; married 8 April, 1795; died 7 Aug. 1821 great Indo-European family. “The English tongue pos(see article Queen Caroline).
sesses a veritable power of expression such as, perhaps, 1830. William IV., brother of George IV.; died 20 June, 1837.
never stood at the command of any other language of Queen : Adelaide Amelia Louisa Theresa Caroline, sister of the duke of Saxe - Meiningen; married 11 July,
man.”—Grimm. 1818; died 2 Dec. 1849. 1837. Victoria, the reigning queen, WHOM GOD PRESERVE.
Celtic prevailed in England...
.A.D. 1 Latin introduced...
Saxon prevails (Beowulf; Cædmon; Alfred). 450-1066 THE PRESENT ROYAL FAMILY OF GREAT BRITAIN. Latin reintroduced by missionaries.
596 The queen, * Alexandrina VICTORIA, only daughter of Edward, Norman-French combining with English. ..1066-1250
duke of Kent (fourth son of king George III.), † born 24 William I, and his successors used English in their laws, May, 1819; succeeded to the throne on the decease of her etc.; it was superseded by Latin in the reign of Henry uncle, William IV., 20 June, 1837; crowned at Westmin- II. Norman-French was not used in law-deeds till the
ster, 28 June, 1838; married (10 Feb. 1840) to her cousin, reign of Henry III. Francis ALBERT Augustus Charles Emmanuel, duke of Saxe, Early English..
1250-1500 prince of Saxe Coburg and Gotha; born 26 Aug. 1819; The present English settled in the sixteenth century. naturalized, 24 Jan. 1840 (ordered to be styled Prince Con Law pleadings were made in English by order of Edward sort 25 June, 1857); elected chancellor of the university III. instead of in French...
1362 of Cambridge, 28 Feb. 1847; died 14 Dec. 1861.
The English tongue and English apparel were ordered to be used in Ireland, 28 Hen. VIII.
The English was ordered to be used in all lawsuits, and * On 1 Nov. 1858, the queen was proclaimed throughout the Latin disused..
. May, 1731 India as - Victoria, by the grace of God, of the United King. Percentage of ANGLO-SAXON words in the English Bible, dom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the colonies and de- 97; Swift, 89; Shakspeare and Thomson, 85; Addison, pendencies thereof, in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Aus. 83; Spenser and Milton, 81; Locke, 80; Young, 79; tralasia, QUEEN, defender of the faith," etc. "Empress of Pope, 76; Johnson, 75; Robertson, 68; Hume, 65; GibIndia” added to the royal style by proclamation, 28 April, bon, 58. — Marsh. 1876; see Style, Royal.
Of 100,000 English words, 60,000 are of Teutonic ori. + He was born 2 Nov. 1767; and died 23 Jan. 1820; he mar- gin; 30,000 Greek and Latin; and 10,000 from other ried Victoria Maria Louisa (widow of the prince of Leiningen, sources. sister of Leopold, king of the Belgians, and aunt to the prince Early English Tert Society began publishing..
1564 consort), 29 May, 1818. She was born 17 Aug. 1786; and died English Dialect Society, established to print old glossa16 March, 1861.
. May, 1873