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Born. Died. Arthur Helps. e...

1813 1875 [d. dramatist ; e. essayist : h, historian; m. miscellaneous ; n, novelist; J L Motley, h.

1813 1877 P. poet ; t. theologian ; pol. political; ph. philosopher.)

Benson J. Lossing, h.

1813 Born. Died. Anthony Trollope, n.

1815 John Gower, p... .about 1320 1402 Theodore Martin, h. p. m.

1816 John Wickliffe, t. 1324 1384 H. D. Thoreau, e..

1817 1862 Geoffrey Chaucer, p. 1328 1400 James Anthony Froude, h. m.

1818 William Caxton.. 1421 1491 John Ruskin, art critic.

1819 Paston Letters. 1460 1432 J. G. Holland, p. n..

1819 1881 Sir Thomas More, h. p. 1482 1535 J. R. Lowell, p. e..

1819 John Fox, 1. h.. 1517 1587 Marian Evans (“George Eliot ''), n. p.........

1820 1880 Walter Raleigh, h. p

1618 Matthew Arnold, p. m....

Edmund Spenser, p...
1553 1598 James Parton, h. m..

18:22 Richard Hooker, t...

1600 Francis Parkman, h..

1823 Sir Philip Sidney, n. p...

1586 George W. Curtis, n. e. m.

Francis Bacon, ph.
1561 1626 Bayard Taylor, p. m.

1825 1878 William Shakespeare, d..

1616 R. H. Stoddard, p. e...

Ben Jonson, d....
1574 1637 Lord Lytton, p. m.

1831 Philip Massinger, d. 1584 1640 E. C. Stedman, p. e...

1833 Holinshed's Chronicles, 1586.

Samuel L. Clemens ("* Mark Twain''), n. d. m. 1835 George Herbert, p..... 1593 1633 T. B. Aldrich, p. n.

1836 John Milton, p... 1608 1674 W. D. Howells, p. n..

1837 Samuel Butler, p. 1612 1680 Bret Harte, p. n...

1837 Jeremy Taylor, t. 1613 1667 | Edward Eggleston, n..

1837 John Bunyan, t. .

1628 1688 Isaac Barrow, t..

1630 1677

"Englishman," a newspaper edited by Dr. KeneaJohn Dryden, p.

1631 1700 John Locke, ph..

1632 1704

ly, published in April, soon after the conviction of the Daniel De Foe, n. pol.....

1663 1731 claimant of the Tichborne estates (see Trials, 1873-4). Matthew Prior, p.


1721 For its libellous character, the editor was disbenched by Jonathan Swift, n. p..

1667 1745 Richard Steele, e...


the Society of Gray's Inn, 1 Aug. 1874; ordered to give

1729 Joseph Addison, e..

1673 1719 up his chambers by vice-chancellor, 29 June, 1876. Edward Young, p..

1681 1765 John Gay, p...

1689 1732

Engraving on signets is mentioned Exod. xxviii. Alexander Pope, p..

1633 1744 11 (1491 s.c.). Engraving on plates and wood began Samuel Richardson, n.

1639 1761 about the middle of the fifteenth century. Engraving James Thomson, p..

1700 1748 Benjamin Franklin, ph. pol.

1703 1790

on glass was perfected by Bourdier, of Paris, 1799. The Henry Fielding, n. d.

1707 1754 copyright to engravings bas been protected by several Samuel Johnson, e. n. p.

1709 1781 statutes; among the principal are the acts 16 & 18 Geo. David Hume, h. ph..

1711 1776 Laurence Sterne, n.

III. 1775 and 1777; and the acts 7 & 8 Vict., 6 Aug.

1713 1768 Thomas Gray, p..

1716 1771 1814, and 15 Vict., 28 May, 1852. A process of enlargTobias Smollett, n.

1720 1771 ing and reducing engravings by means of sheets of Mark Akenside, p....

1721 1770 vulcanized india-rubber was shown by the ElectroWilliam Robertson, h..

1721 1793 Oliver Goldsmith, n. p.

1729 1774 printing Block Company in 1860; see Lithography and William Cowper, p..

1731 1800 Photo - galranography. In “Lyra Germanica," pubEdward Gibbon, h.

1737 1794 lished in 1861, are illustrations engraved upon blocks Robert Burns, p...

1759 William Cobbelt, poł. e.


1835 photographed from negatives taken by John Leighton, Joanna Baillie, p...

1763 Samuel Rogers, p..


1855 William Wordsworth, p.

ENGRAVING ON COPPER ---Prints from engraved copper plates

1770 1850 Walter Scott, n. p...

made their appearance about 1450, and were first produced 1771 1832

in Germany Masso, surnained Finiguerra, is considered Sydney Smith, e. pol..

1771 1845 Samuel T. Coleridge, p. ph..

to have been the first Italiau engraver, about 1410; see 1772 1834

Niello Richard Southey, p. R...

1774 1812 Charles Lamb, e....


The earliest date known of a copper-plate engraving is 1461.

1834 Thomas Campbell, p...

1777 1844

Rolling presses for working the plates were mvented in 1545. Henry lord Brougham, pol. h.


of the art of etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis,

1868 George lord Byron, p..


Francis Mazzuoli, or Parmegiano, is the reputed inventor, 1824

about 1532.- De Piles. Henry Hallam, h....


1859 J. K. Paulding, m..

Etching was practised by Albert Dürer, and most especially 1779 1860

by Rembrandt. Its revival began about 1860. Eminent Thomas Moore, p. n...

1780 1852 Washington Irving, n. h.

1783 1859

modern etchers: Messrs. Lalanne, P. G. Hamerton, F. Sey. John Wilson, p. e.....


mour Haden, Bracquemond, Jacquemart, Martial, and oth1854

ers. Thomas de Quincey, ...

The Etching Club was established in 1838.

1786 1859 Archbishop Richard Whately, ph..

Society of Painter-etchers formed; opened an exhibition, April, 1787 1863

1881. R. H. Dana, p. e......

1787 1879

ENGRAVING ON Wood, long known in China, began in Europe Bryan W. Procter (* Barry Cornwall"), p... 1790 1874 George Ticknor, h...

with the briefmahlers, or manufacturers of playing-cards,

1791 1871 Percy B. Shelley, p..

about 1400 (see Printing). The art is referred by some to a

1792 1822 J. R. Drake. p...

Florentine, and by others to Reuss, a German; it was greatly

1795 1820 Thomas Arnold, h...

improved by Dürer (1471-1528) and Lucas van Leyden (1497). 1795

1843 F. G. Halleck, P...


It was much improved in England by Bewick and his

1867 J. P. Kennedy, n..


brother, and pupils Nesbitt, Anderson, etc., 1789 et seq 1870

The earliest wood engraving which has reached our times Thomas Carlyle, h. e...

1795 1881 William H. Prescott, h.

1796 1859

is one representing St. Christopher carrying the infant W.C. Bryant, p.

Jesus over the sea; it bears date 1423. 1797 1878

ENGRAVING ON SOFT STEEL, to be hardened afterwards, was J. Fenimore Cooper, n.

1798 1851 T. B. Macaulay, h. p.

introduced into England by Messrs. Perkins and Heath, of 1800


Philadelphia, 1819. George Bancroft, h...

1800 R. W. Emerson, p. e. ph..

John Pye, - father of English landscape engraving,'' died 6 1803


Feb. 1874. Nathaniel Hawthorne, n....

1804 1864

MEZZOTINTO is said to have been discovered by col von Siegen, Edward Bulwer Lytton, lord, p n.

1805 1873 Benjamin Disraeli, lord Beaconstield, n...

who engraved a portraut of princess Amelia of Hesse in 1805 1881

mezzotinto in 1643; it was improved by price Rupert in Richard Hildreth, h....

1807 1865 HW Longfellow, p.

1648; and by sir Christopher Wren, about 1662. 1807

1882 J. G. Whittier, p..

Aquatinta, by which a soft and beautiful effect is produced,

1807 E. A. Poe, p. m.

was invented by the celebrated French artist St. Non, 1809 1849

about 1662; he communicated his invention to Le Prince. Alfred Tennyson, p.

1803 0. W. Holmes, p. m.

Barabbe of Paris was distinguished for his improvements

1809 Thomas Trollope, n.

in this kind of engraving, 1763. Chiaroscuro engraving

1810 William M. Thackeray, n.

originated with the Germans, and was first practised by

1811 1863 Charles Dickens, n..

Mair, one of whose prints bears date 1491; see Zinc, etc.

1812 1870 Robert Browning. p.

1812 Harriet Beecher Stowe, n. .

Enlistment. No persons enlisting as soldiers or

1812 Sylvester Judd, n.

1813 1853 sailors are to be sworn in before a magistrate in less

1851 F. S.A.

19 1

1472 1516

1667 1728 1805

than twenty-four hours after, and they are then at sians is dated A.D. 64. The third general council was liberty to withdraw upon their returning the enlistment held here in 431. After investigation, begun in 1863, or bounty money and 21s, costs. Enlistment is now Mr. J. T. Wood discovered the site of the temple of entirely voluntary. In 1847 the term of enlistment was Diana in April, 1870; and about 60 tons of marble were limited to ten years for the infantry, and twelve years shipped at Smyrna for the British Museum, Jan. 1872, for the cavalry, artillery, and royal marines; and in part of which arrived in the summer. Mr. Wood pub1867, to twelve years; see Army, 1867 and 1879, and lished an illustrated account of his discoveries in 1876. Foreign Enlistment.

The site of the temple was purchased for the British

Museum. Enniskillen (N.W. Ireland). This town made an obstinate defence against the army of Elizabeth, 1595, Ephori, powerful magistrates of Sparta, fire in numand resisted James II., 1689. 1500 Enniskilleners met ber, said to have been first created by Theopompus to his gen. M'Carthy at Newton Butler with 6000 men (of control the royal power, about 757 B.C. whom 5000 were slain, and nearly all the rest made prisoners), they losing but twenty men, 30 July,

Epic Poems (from Greek ēnos, a song), narratives 1689.

in verse. Eminent examples : The dragoon regiment the “Inniskillingers ” was originally recruited here.

Homer's “Iliad” and “Odyssey" (Greek), between

eighth and tenth century B.C. ; see Homer. Enoch, Book Of, an apocryphal work, quoted by Müba- birhata (Sanscrit), rery ancient; by several authe fathers, disappeared about the eighth century. A thors; the longest epic known (220,000 lincs).

Virgil's Æneid" (Latin)..

.. about B.C. MS. Ethiopic version was found in Abyssinia by Bruce,

Ovid's "Metamorphoses” (Latin)

.about A.D. and brought to England in 1773. Of this, archbishop Dante (died 1321), “Divina Commedia" (Italian) pubLawrence published an English translation in 1821, and lished the Ethiopic text in 1838.

Ariosto, “ Orlando Furioso(Ilalian).
Camoens, “Lusiad " (Portuguese)

1569 Ensisheim (E. France). Here Turenne defeated Tasso, "Jerusalem Delivered" (Italian).


1590-6 the Imperial army, and expelled it from Alsace, 4 Oct. Spenser's ": Faerie Queene”

Milton's " Paradise Lost" 1674.

Voltaire, “Henriade” (French) Entail of Estates began with the statute of West- Walter Scott, “Lay of the Last Minstrel,” etc. minster, 1285. Subsequent legislation broke the entail in cases of treason (1534), when the estate is to revert

Epicurean Philosophy. Epicurus of Gargertus, to the crown, and of bankruptcy (1833 and 1849), when

near Athens, about 300 B.C., taught that the greatest it is to be sold. The law of entail in Scotland was

good consists in peace of mind springing from virtue, as

tending to prevent disquiet; but the name epicurean is amended in 1875.

frequently given to those who derive happiness from Entertainment of the People Society, for sensual pleasure; see Atoms. the very poor, held first concert at the board schoolroom, Saffron hill, London, Saturday, 12 April, 1879.

Epidaurus (Greece), celebrated for the temple of

Asclepius, or Æsculapius, god of medicine, and enriched Entomology, the science of insects, now mainly by gifts from persons healed. The Romans sent an based upon the arrangement of Linnæus, 1739. Ray's embassy to seek the help of the god during a pestilence, " Methodus Insectorum," 1705 ; " Insectorum Historia," and his worship was introduced at Rome, 293 B.C. The 1710. The Entomological Society of London was insti- temple was visited by Æmilius Paulus, after his contuted in 1833. A National Entomological Exhibition at the Westminster Aquarium was opened 9 March,

quest of Macedonia, 167 B.C. 1878,

Epidemiological Society, established in 1850. Envelopes for letters are mentioned by Swift, Epigenesis, see Spontaneous Generation. 1726. Stamped adhesive envelopes came into general

Epigrams derive their origin from the inscriptions use shortly after the establishment of the penny postal placed by the ancients on tombs. Marcus Valerius system, 10 Jan. 1810. Machinery for their manufacture Martialis, the Latin epigrammatist, who flourished about was patented by Mr. George Wilson in 1844; and by Messrs. E. Hill and Warren De La Rue, 17 March, 1813. A.D. 83, is allowed to have excelled all others, ancient or

modern. The following epigram on Christ's turning Envoys at Courts, in dignity below ambassadors, water into wine (John iii.) is an example: “Vidit et enjoy the protection, but not the ceremonies, of ambassa- erubuit lympha pudica Deum.” “The modest water dors. Envoys - extraordinary are of modern date.- saw its God, and blushed.”—Crashaw (died 1650). Wicquefort. The court of France denied to them the

"The Epigrammatists,” a collection by rev. H. P. Dodd, pubceremony of being conducted to court in the royal carriages, 1639.

Epiphany (appearance), a feast (Jan. 6), termed Eozoon Canadense, asserted to be the earliest Twelith-day, celebrates the manifestation of the Saviour known form of life, is a species of foraminisera, found by by the appearance of the star which conducted the Magi prof. J. W. Dawson, of Montreal, in Laurentian liine to the place where he was to be found; instituted 813.stone, in 1858.

Whately. Epact (Greek, štartóc, added) is the excess of the

Epirus (N. Greece). Its early history is very solar month above the lunar synodical month, 1 day, 11

obscure. hours, 15 minutes, 57 seconds, the lunar month being only 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 3 seconds; and the The first Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) settled in Epirus, after excess of the solar year above the lunar synodical year

the Trojan war, 1170 B.C., and was killed in the temple of Delphi..

.. about B.O 1163 (nearly 11 days), the lunar year being 354 days. The Pyrrhus the Great reigns, 295; he takes Macedon from number of the Gregorian epact for 1877, 15; 1878, 26; He invades Italy; defeats the Romans, 280; again, 279;

, 290to

287 1879, 7; 1880, 18.

subdues Sicily... Épernay (N.E. France), seat of the trade in cham- He invades Italy again, and is totally defeated by Curius

Dentatus at Beneventum

26 pagne, was taken from the League by Henry IV.,

He takes Macedon from Antigonus

273 July, 1592, when marshal Armand Biron was killed.

He unsuccessfully invades Sparta; enters Argos, and is

killed by a tile, thrown by a woman. Ephesus (in Asia Minor), a city founded by the

Philip unites Epirus to Macedon.. Ionians about 1043 B.C. It was subdued by Cyrus in its conquest by the Romans.. 544 B.C.; revolted from the Persians, 501 B.C.; and was

A. D. 1466 destroyed by an earthquake in A.1). 17; see Diana, Epirus annexed to the Ottoman empire..

An insurrection against the Turks put down..
Temple of, and Seven Churches. Paul preached here
A.1). 55, 56 (Acts xviii., xix.). His epistle to the Ephe- ! Episcopacy, see Bishops.

lished 1870 and 1875.



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1854 ..B.C. 4001


The birth of Christ.

.A. D.



Epistles, or LETTERS. The earliest known letter the civil power in spiritual matters and the law of patis that sent to Joab by David by the hands of Uriah, ronage are now termed Erastians. about 1035 (2 Sam. xi. 14); see under article Bible.

Erasures. By order of sir John Romilly, master of Horace Walpole, renowned for his letters, was born 5 the rolls, in 1855, no document corrected by erasure with Oct. 1717; died 2 March, 1797. The collection entitled the knife was to be heucesorth received in his court. “ Elegant Epistles," commencing with Cicero, was pub. The errors must be corrected with the pen. It is so in lished in 1790. It ends with an essay on letter-writing the army courts. by Dr. Johnson.

Erdington Orphanage, etc., see Orphans' Ilouses. Epitaphs were inscribed on tombs by the Egyp- Erfurt (Central Germany) was founded in 476, and tians, Jews, Greeks, and Romans. Mr. T. J. Pettigrew its university established about 1390. Erfurt was ceded published a collection entitled “Chronicles of the Tombs,” to Prussia in 1802. It capitulated to Murat, when 14,000 in 1857.

Prussian troops surrendered, 16 Oct. 1806. In this city Epithalamium, a nuptial song at marriage. Tisias, Napoleon and Alexander met, and offered peace to Engthe lyric poet, is said to bave been the first writer of one. land, 27 Sept. 1808. The French retreated to Erfurt He received the name of Stesichorus, from the altera- from Leipsic, 18 Oct. 1813. A German parliament met tions made by him in music and dancing, about 536 B.c. here in March and April, 1850. --Bossuet.

Ericsson's Caloric Engine, see Heat, note. Epocha, a point of time made remarkable by some

Erie, Fort, in Upper Canada, nearly opposite Black

On 3 event, from which subsequent years are reckoned by Rock, was the theatre of many stirring events. historians and chronologers ; see Eras.

July, 1814, it was taken from the British by a part of

gen. Brown's division, commanded by gens. Scott and Creation.....

Ripley. The garrison withdrew to the intrenched BritDeluge ...

2318 First Olympiad.

ish camp. Early in Aug., Fort Erie was besieged by Building of Rome

753 gen. Drummond, with 5000 men. Gen. Gaines was in

1 command of the fort, with 2500 troops. Drummond The Hegira (or flight of Mahomet)

made a severe assault on the 15th, but was repulsed with Epping Forest, see Forests, note.

the loss of almost 600 men in killed, wounded, and pris

The Americans lost 26 killed and 86 wounded Epsom (Surrey). The mineral springs were discovered in 1618. The races began about 1711, and have command of the fort, a sortie was made, by his orders, by

during the siege. On 17 Sept., when gen. Brown had been held annually since 1730.

3000 of his division, who drove the British towards ChipEquestrian Order in Rome began with Romulus, pewa. They were then more than 5000 strong. In that about 750 B.C. ; see Knighthood.

sortie the British lost almost 1000 men, The Americans Equinox. When the sun in his progress passes

lost 79 killed and 216 wounded. through the equator in one of the equinoctial points, the Erivan (Armenia), in the sixteenth century the resday and night are equal all over the globe. This occurs idence of the shahs of Persia, was taken by the Turks in twice in the year: about 21 March the vernal equinox, 1553 and 1582, but recovered by Abbas the Great, 1604. and 22 Sept. the autumnal equinox. The equinoctial After being several times captured, it was ceded to Perpoints move backwards about 50 seconds yearly, requir- sia, 1769. It was taken by Paskiewitch in 1827, and aning 25,000 years to accomplish a complete revolution. vexed to Russia by treaty in Feb. 1828. This is called the precession of the equinoxes, which is

Erzeroum (Asiatic Turkey), a city built by Theosaid to have been observed by the ancient astronomers. dosius II., 415; taken by the Seljuk Turks in the thir

Equity, Courts of, are those of the lord chancellor, teenth century, and by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. It the vice-chancellors, and the master of the rolls, their was captured by the Russian gen., Paskiewitch, June, office being to correct the operations of the literal text 1829, but restored in 1830. It was almost totally deof the law, and supply its defects by reasonable construc-stroyed by earthquakes, 2 June to 17 July, 1859. tion not admissible in a court of law. The supreme Escheats, land or other property that falls to a lord court of session in Scotlanıl combines the functions of within his manor by forseiture or death. The escheator law and equity. In 1865 equity powers were conferred observes the rights of thc king in the county whereof he on the county courts for cases respecting sums under is escheator.Cowel. In London, a court of escheats 500l.; see Supreme Court, in which law and equity are was held before the lord mayor to recover the property combined.

of a bastard who died intestate for the king, 16 July, Eras. The principal are more fully noticed in their 1771 such a court had not been held in the city for 150 alphabetical order.

years before.-Phillips. Common Era (English Bible, Usher, etc.)..

Escombrera Bay, BATTLE OF; see Spain, 11 Oct. Era of the Jews..

3761 1873, Era of Constantinople.

..1 Sept. 5508

Escurial, properly EsCORIAL (25 miles N.W. of MaEra of Nabonassar, after which the astronomical observations made at Babylon were reckoned, began 26 Feb.

747 drid), the magnificent palace of the sovereigns of Spain, Era of the Seleucidæ jused by the Maccabees),

termed the eighth wonder of the world, was commenced

commenced 312 by Philip II. in 1563, and completed in 1586, at a cost of The Olympiads belong to the Grecians, and date from 1 July, 776 B.C. ; they subsequently reckoned by in

about 10,000,0001. It was built in the form of a gridiron dictions, the first beginning A.D. 313; these, among

in honor of St. Lawrence, on whose day (10 Aug. 1557) chronologers, are still used (see Indictions).

the Spaniards gained the victory of St. Quentin. AcThe Romans reckoned from the founding of their city,

cording to Francisco de los Santos, the total length of all A. U.C. (anno urbis conditæ).

753 Spanish Era (of the conquest of Spain), Varro, 752, Cato its rooms and apartments is above 120 English miles. the Elder; the 16th year of the emperor Augustus (see The Escurial comprises a church, mausoleum, monastery,

Cæsars) long used by the Spaniards... Era of Diocletian or Martyrs..

.. began 29 Aug.

palace, library, and museum. It was struck by lightning The Mahometans began their era from the llegira, or

and caught tire 11.30 P.M., 1 Oct. 1872, and was much fight of their prophet from Mecca... . 16 July, 622 damaged; but the grand library and other treasures (See Creation, Anno Domini, Calendar.)

were preserved. Erastianism, the opinions of Thomas Lieber (Lat- Esparto (from the Latin spartum; stipa tenacissima inized Erastus), a German physician (1524-83), who of Linnæus), a Spanish grass used by Romans for whiptaught that the church had no right to exclude any thongs, and now largely employed in paper-making. In person from church ordinances, to inflict excommunica- 1856 about 50 tons, in 1870 above 100,000 tons, were imtion, etc. Persons who acknowledge the jurisdiction of ported into Britain. The price has risen from 41. to 101.

.B.C. 4004

A.D. 1 Jan.

38 284

.B.C. 1615


710 .525-522


per ton. Living plants were received at Newcastle, July, Sweden by the treaty of Oliva, 3 May, 1660, and finally 1867.

to Russia by the peace of Nystadt, 30 Aug. 1721, having Espierres (Belgium). At Pont-à-Chin, near this been conquered by Peter in 1710. village, the French, under Pichegru, attacked the al- États, see States. lied English and Austrian army (100,000 men), com- Etching, see Engraving. manded by the duke of York, and were repulsed after a

Ether was known to the earliest chemists. Nitric long and desperate engagement, losing the advantages ether was first discovered by Kunkel, in 1681; and mugained by the victory at Turcoing, 22 May, 1794.

riatic ether, from the chloride of tin, by Courtanvaux, in Esprit, Saint (or Holy Ghost), the title of an order 1759. Acetic ether was discovered by count Lauraguais, of knighthood, founded by Henry III of France in 1578, same year; and hydriotic ether was first prepared by and abolished in 1791.

Gay-Lussac. The phosphoric ether was obtained by M. Esquires, among the Greeks and Romans, were Boullay. The discovery that by inhaling ether the paarmor-bearers to, or attendants on, a knight-Blount. tient is rendered unconscious of pain is due to Dr. Charles In England, the king created esquires by putting about T. Jackson, of Boston, U.S. Mr. Thomas Morton, of the their necks the collars of SS, and bestowing upon them same place, first introduced it into surgical practice, una pair of silver spurs. John de Kingston was created a der Dr. Jackson's directions (1846); see Chloroform and squire by patent, 13 Richard II. 1589-90.

A mylene. The term “ether" was applied to the trans

parent celestial space by the German astronomer Encke, “Essays and Reviews," by six clergymen and about 1829, when studying the elements of Pons's comet, one layman of the Church of England (the rev. Drs. discovered in 1818. Frederick Temple and Rowland Williams, prof. Baden Powell, H. B. Wilson, Mark Pattison, prof. B. Jowett, Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius contain heathen systems;

Ethics (Greek term for Morals). The works of and Mr. C. W. Goodwin), were published in an 8vo vol. the New Testament is that of Christianity. Paley's in March, 1860. The book did not excite much attention at tirst; but having been severely censured for

“Moral Philosophy" appeared in 1785, and Whewell's

“Elements of Morality” in 1845. heterodox views by nearly all the bishops and many of the clergy, it created much excitement in 1861, and was

Ethiopia. The name was applied anciently rather condemned by convocation 24 June, 1864. The ecclesi- vaguely to countries the inhabitants of which had sunastical courts sentenced the revs. R. Williams and H. B. burnt complexions, in Asia and Africa ; but is now conWilson to suspension for one year, and costs, 15 Dec. sidered to apply properly to the modern Nubia, Sennaar, 1862; but on appeal the sentence was reversed by the and Northern Abyssinia. Many pyramids exist at Najudicial committee of the privy council, 8 Feb. 1864. pata, the capital of Meroë, the civilized part of ancient The most remarkable among the works put forth in


opposition (in 1862) are the “ Aids to Faith,” edited by the The Ethiopians settle near Egypt.. bishop of Gloucester (W. Thomson, now archbishop of Zerah, the Ethiopian, defeated by Asa.

A dynasty of Ethiopian kings reigned over Egypt..765 to 715 York), and “ Replies to Essays and Reviews,” edited by Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, marches against Sennacherib. the bishop of Oxford (S. Wilberforce). The election of Unsuccessful invasion of Cambyses.. Dr. Temple to the see of Exeter was much opposed on Ptolemy III. Euergetes extended his conquests in Ethio

pia...... account of his essay in this collection; see Church of Candace, queen of Meroë, advancing against the Roman Englund, 1869.

settlement of Elephantine, defeated and subdued by Pe

tronius... Essenes, an ascetic Jewish sect at the time of

A. D. 22-23 Christ.

Ethnology, a branch of anthropology, is defined as Essex, KINGDOM OF; see under Britain.

the science “which determines the distinctive characEARLS OF ESSEX (from Nicolas).

ters of the persistent modifications of mankind, their Geoffrey de Mandeville, created earl of Essex by Matilda,

distribution, and the causes of the modifications and diswas slain..

...14 Sept. 1141 tribution.” The study of the relations of the different Humphrey de Bohun succeeded by right of his mother, divisions of mankind to each other is of recent origin.

Mary, sister of William, who died without heir.. Humphrey de Bohun, died without heir.

Balbi's “ Ethnographic Atlas” was published in 1826,

1372 Thomas of Woodstock, son of Edward III., 1372; mur.

and Dr. Prichard's great work, “Researches on the Physdered..

1397 ical History of Mankind," 1841-7. The Ethnological SoHenry Bourchier, grandson

1461 ciety, established in 1843, published transactions. On 17 Henry Bourchier, grandson; died without heir (earldom extinct)..

Jan. 1871, it was amalgamated with the Anthropological Thomas Cromwell, 1539; beheaded.

1540 Society (which see), and named the Anthropological InWilliam Parr, 1543; attainted..

1543 stitute. Dr. R. G. Latham's works,“ On the Ethnology Walter Devereux, 1572; died..

1576 Robert Devereux, lord lieut. of Ireland, 1599; censured

of the British Empire," appeared in 1851-2. Prof. T. H. for misgovernment; conspired against the govern- Huxley gave courses of lectures on ethnology at the ment; beheaded...

.25 Feb. 1601 Royal Institution, London, May and June, 1866, 1867. Robert (son); died without heir.. Arthur Capel, ancestor of the present earl..

Ethyl, a compound radical, a colorless gas, with a Essling, BATTLE OF, see Asperne.

slightly ethereal odor, a compound of carbon and hydro

gen, first obtained in the free state by prof. Edward Este, House of. Boniface, count of Lucca and duke Frankland in 1849. Several of its compounds with metof Tuscany, about 811, is said to have descended from als take fire on exposure to the air. Odoacer, king of Italy. From Boniface sprang Albert Azzo II., marquess of Italy and lord of Este, born about of the Cyclops, and it is called by Pindar the pillar of

Etna, Mount (Sicily). Here were the fabled forges 996, who married — first, Cunegonda of the house of heaven. Eruptions are mentioned by Diodorus Siculus Guelf, by whom he had Guelf, duke of Bavaria, the ancestor of the house of Brunswick (see Bavaria and as happening 1693 B.C., and Thucydides speaks of three Brunswick) ; and, secondly, Gersonda, by whom he had eruptions as occurring 734, 477, and 425 B.c. There were Fulk, the ancestor of the Estes, dukes of Ferrara and Mo- eruptions, 125, 121, and 43 B.C.Liry. dena.

Eruptions, A.D. 40, 254, and 420.-Carrera.

One in 1012. -Geoffrey de Viterbo. Estella (N. Spain). In a conflict at Peña Mura, near

One overwhelmed Catania, when 15,000 inhabitants perthis place, 25-28 June, 1874, the republicans were re- ished in the burning ruins.. pulsed, and their general, Manuel de Concha (aged 66), Eruptions, 1329, 1408, 1145, 1536, 1537, 1564, et seq;

In 1659, when tens of thousands of persons perished in killed by the Carlists, 27 June.

the streams of lava which rolled over the whole counEsthonia, or REVEL, a Russian province, said to try for forty days. have been conquered by the Teutonic knights in the Eruptions in 1766 1787, 1809, 1811, and in May, 1830,

when several villages were destroyed, and showers of twelfth century; after various changes it was ceded to lava reached near to Rome.



1616 1661

1169 18 Nov. 1832

.28 Nov. 1868

The town of Bronte was destroyed..

Eucharist, thanksgiving, an early name for the Violent eruption occurred in.

Aug. and Sept. 1852 Lord's Supper; see Sacrament.
An eruption began on 1 Feb., and ceased in.. .....July, 1865
Violent eruption began..

Euclid's Elements. Euclid, a native of AlexanAnother eruption began..

Aug. Violent eruption...

26 May-7 June, 1879 dria, flourished about 300 B.C. The “ Elements” are not Eton College (Buckinghamshire), founded by rived from Thales, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, and others.

wholly his; for many of the demonstrations were deHenry VI. in 1140, and designed as a nursery to King's Euclid reduced them to order, and probably inserted College, Cambridge. John Stanbery, confessor to Henry many theorems of his own. The “Elements were first VI. (bishop of Bangor, in 1448), was nominated the first printed at Basil by Simon Grynæus, in 1533. provost. One of the provosts, William Waynflete (bishop of Winchester, 1447) greatly promoted the erection of

Eudiometer, an apparatus to ascertain the purity the buildings. Besides about three hundred noblemen's of atmospheric air, or the quantity of oxygen gas or and gentlemen's sons, there were seventy king's scholars vital air contained in it; one was invented by Dr. on the foundation, who, when properly qualified, were

Priestley in 1772. formerly elected, on the tirst Tuesday in August, to Eugubine Tables, seven tablets of brass, probable King's College, Cambridge, and removed there when date about 400 B.C. (with inscriptions relating to sacrithere were vacancies, according to seniority. The estab- fices, etc.—four in Umbrian, two Latin, and one partly in lishment of the Montem is nearly coeval with the college. both dialects), were discovered in 1444 at Gubbio, the It consisted in the procession of the scholars, arrayed in ancient Eugubium, or Iguvium. The inscriptions are fancy dresses, to Salt-hill once in three years; the do- accurately given by Lepsius, in his “ Inscriptiones Umnations collected on the road (sometimes as much as bricæ et Oscæ,” 1811. 8001.) were given to the senior or best scholar, their cap

Eunuchs, first mentioned among the Egyptians and tain, for his support while studying at Cambridge. The Assyrians, and said to have been first employed by Semontem was discontinued in 1817. The college system miramis, queen of Assyria, about 2007 B.C. Eunuchs was modified by the Public Schools act, 1868. In 1873 frequently attained to political power in the later Eastthe practice of electing students to King's College, ern empire. Cambridge, ceased, the scholars to be students at Cambridge being chosen there. In 1880 there were 853

Eupatoria (KOSLEFF), a seaport on the west coast

of the Crimea. After the allied French, English, and students. Etruria (or Tuscia, hence the modern name Tus- detachment under capt. Brock occupied this place, which

Turkish armies landed in the Crimea, 14 Sept. 1854, a cany), a province of Italy, whence the Romans, in a great was afterwards reinforced by the Turks. It was atmeasure, derived their laws, customs, and superstitions. tacked 17 Feb. 1855, by 40,000 Russians under Liprandi. Herodotus asserts that the country was conquered by a The latter were repulsed with the loss of 500 men by the colony of Lydians. The subjugation of this country Turks, whose loss was only 50, among whom, however, forms an important part of early Roman history. It was

was Selim Pacha, the commander of the Egyptian conmost powerful under Porsena of Clusium, who attempted

tingent. to reinstate the Tarquins, 506 B.C. Veii was taken by Camillus, 396 B.C. A truce between the Romans and Euphrates Valley Railway, as a speedy means Etrurians for forty years was concluded, 351 B.c. The of reaching India, has been much advocated, especially latter and their allies were defeated at the Vadimonian by the late gen. Chesney, who published his survey of lake, 310, with the Boii their allies, 283 B.C., and totally the Euphrates and Tigris in 1850. A parliamentary lost their independence about 265 B.C. The vases and commission reported on it, Aug. 1872, when it was also other works of the Etruscans still remaining show the considered at the meeting of the British Association at degree of their civilization. Napoleon I. established a Brighton. The construction would cost from five to ten kingdom of Etruria, 1801, and suppressed it 1807; see millions sterling, and its advantages are considered rather Tuscany. “The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria,” by hypothetical by the best judges. George Dennis, published 1848 and 1878. Etruria, Staf- Euphuism, an affected style of language, prevalent fordshire, the site of Josiah Wedgwood's porcelain works, in the time of Elizabeth, arose from “ Euphues; the etc., was founded in 1771.

Anatomy of Wit,” by John Lyly, published in 1581. Euboea, the largest island in the Ægean sea. Two

Eurasian Plain, the great central plain of Europe of its cities, Chalcis and Eretria, were very important, and Asia, so named by ethnologists (1865). till the former was subdued by Athens, 506 B.C., and the latter by the Persians, 490. After the Persian

Europe, the smallest of the three divisions of the Eubæa became wholly' subject to Athens, and was its old continent, really an appendage of Asia; area, nearly most valuable possession. It revolted in 445, but was

3,800,000 square miles ; population, 301,700,000 (1872); soon subdued by Pericles. After the battle of Chæronea, 310,675,966 (1877). For the history, see Greece, Rome, 338, it became subject to Macedon. It was made inde and the modern kingdoms. pendent by the Romans in 194; but was afterwards in- European Assurance Company, see Insurance. corporated in the province of Achaia. It now forms "Eurydice," H.M.S. frigate, foundered in a squall part of the kingdom of Greece.

off Dunnose, near Ventnor, Isle of Wight, 24 March, Eucalyptus Globulus, or Blue Gum-tree, a very 1878; see Nary and Wrecks, 1878. fast-growing Tasmanian evergreen, of the order Myrtaceæ. Eurymedon, a river in Pamphylia, near which From the extraordinary power of its roots of absorbing Cimon, son of Miltiades, destroyed the fleet of the Permoisture, and the salutary aromatic odor of its leaves, it sians at Cyprus, and defeated their land forces, 466 B.C. has been found highly beneticial in counteracting the malaria of marshy districts of hot climates, and hence reated here, 14 Dec. 1837, and compelled to surrender

Eustace, St. (Lower Canada). The rebels were dehas been named the fever-destroying tree. M. Ramel

their arms.

Their chiefs fled. tirst sent seeds from Melbourne to Paris in 1854, and subsequently seeds were distributed over the south of Eustatius, St., a West India island, settled by the Europe, the north and south of Africa, and elsewhere. Dutch, 1632; taken by the French in 1689; by the BritHe died in 1881.

ish in 1690; again by the British forces under Rodney So rapid is the growth of this tree that a forest may be and Vaughan, 3 Feb. 1781. It was recovered by the formed in twenty years. It sometimes reaches the height of French under the marquess de Bouillé, 26 Nov. same 350 feet, with a circumference of 100 feet, rivalling Welling. year; captured by the British, 1801, 1810; restored to tonia gigantea (which see).

the Dutch, 1814. The timber, bark, and oils of the Eucalyptus are highly valuable, and prof. Bentley says that the genus is one of the most Euston Square MYSTERY, see Trials, July, 1879. important to man in the vegetable kingdom. medicinal value was said to have been exaggerated.

Eutaw Springs, BATTLE OF, One of the most


In 1874 its

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