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sanguinary battles of the American revolution was fought with ropes, and halters about their necks, were carried at Eutaw Springs, near the Santee, in South Carolina, on to Westminster; but they crying “Merey, mercy!" were 8 Sept. 1781. The Americans were commanded by gen. all pardoned by the king, Henry VIII. Greene, and the British by col. Stewart. The victory, Evolution Theory includes the nebular theory at the end of the conflict, belonged to neither party. and Mr. Darwin's doctrine of natural selection ; see DeStewart kept the field, but that night prudently retreated velopment, and Progressionists. towards Charleston. On the following morning Greene took possession of the battle-ground, and sent detach-In

1877 three forms of evolution were discussed:-1. That of

all animals gradually from the lowest form, the amoeba, up ments in pursuit of his enemy. Congress presented a to man, in opposition to the Biblical account of the creation; gold medal to Greene, and a British flag captured on

2. that of every animal from protoplasm in a cell, or egg; that occasion, in token of their appreciation of his valor.

3. that of all the parts of an animal from its blood. The Americans lost in the battle, in killed, wonnded, and Exaltation, see Cross. missing, 555. The British lost 693.

Examination of candidates for employment in the Eutychians, so called from Eutyches, an abbot of civil service have been enforced since 1855. Mr. GladConstantinople, who asserted in 446 that there was but stone in 1862 said that the present might be termed the one nature in Christ, the human having been absorbed - age of examinations;" see Civil Service. in the divine. This doctrine was condemned by coun- Examiner, liberal weekly journal, established Jan. cils—at Constantinople in 448, and at Chalcedon in 451. 1808; extinct; last number, 26 Feb. 1881. It has been also called Monophysite (of one nature), and Jacobite, from Jacobus Baradæus, its zealous defender in Examiner of Stage Plays, an office under the the sixth century. It is the form of Christianity now lord chamberlain, now held by Mr. E. F. S. Pigott, apexisting among the Copts and Armenians.

pointed 25 Aug. 1874. His more recent predecessors Euxine, see Black Sea,

were, George Culman, Chas. Kemble, and his son John

Mitchell Kemble, and Mr. Wm. Bodham Donne (1857Evacuation Treaty, see France, Sept. 1871. 74).

Evangelical, a term applied to a portion of the Exarchs, appointed by the Byzantine emperors of clergy of the Church of England (also called the low the East, to gorern central Italy after its conquest by church), who profess to preach the gospel more purely Belisarius and Narses, 548. They ruled Ravenna from than their brethren termed the high-church party ; see 568 to 752, when Eutychus, the last, was overcome by Church of England.

Astolphus the Lombard.
The Evangelical Alliance was founded by sir Culling Eardley
Smith and others at Liverpool in 1845, with the view of pro-

Exchange, formerly Bourse, the Royal Exchange moting unity among all denominations of Protestant Chris being “ Britain's Burse;" that at Paris is still named tians against Romanism and intidelity. It holds annual meet- La Bourse, from bursa, a purse. One called Collegium ings. It met in Sept. 1857, at Berlin, where it was well received by the king. The 19th meeting was held at Hull, 3 Oct. Mercatorum existed at Rome, 493 B.C.

The Exchange 1865; the 20th at Bath, 16 Oct. 1866; the 21st at Amsterdam, at Amsterdam was reckoned the finest structure of the Aug. 1867; at Derby, 23-28 Nov. 1869. Lord Ebury presided kind in the world. Many edifices of this name in the at a day of united prayer for the issue of the general election United Kingdom are magnificent; see Royal Exchange, about to take place, 1 Oct. 1868. New York in Sept. 1870, deferred on account of the war, took and Bills of Exchange.

'he Alliance met at Geneva, 23-28 Sept. 1872; at Bikinti 2

Exchequer, an ancient institution, consisting of 24 April, 1873; at Oxford, 29 Aug. 1874; at Conte "it 11497 March, 1875; at Southport, 3 Oct. 1876, at 'ox officers with financial and judicial functions: the chanford, a suret 1377; at Basle, 2 Sept. ; and at Edinburgh, 28 Oct. cellor of the exchequer, the financial officer, formerly sat 1879. The " Evangelical Church" in Germany began with a fusion

in the court of exchequer above the barons. The first of the Litherans and Calvin'sts in Nassau in 1817; followed chancellor was Eustace de Fauconbridge, bishop of Lonby similar movements in diflerent parts of Germany, 1818-22. don, in the reign of Henry III., about 1221. Sir Robert Evangelists, preachers of the “ gospel,” or good acted judicially (in 1735). The legal function of the

Walpole was the last chancellor of the exchequer who news; see Gospels.

chancellor was abolished by the Judicature act, Aug. Evelina Hospital, Southwark, established in 1869 1873.

The exchequer stopped payment from Jan. to 24 by baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, in memory of his May (Charles II.), 1673.-Stow. The English and Irish wife, and since maintained by him. Its enlargement by excheqners were consolidated in 1816; see Chancellors public aid was proposed in 1871.

of the Exchequers and Tally Office. Evening Schools for adults of the lower classes Exchequer Bills. The government securities, so called, said were strongly recommended by bishop Hinds in 1839, to have been invented by Montague, afterwards earl of Haliand by the committee of the Privy Council on Educa- fax, were first issued in 1697, and first circulated by the bank tion in 1861. One was set up at Bala, in Wales, by the

in 1796. These bills, of which more than twenty millions

sterling are often in circulation, are in effect accommoda. rev. T. Charles in 1811,

tion notes of government, that are issued in anticipation of Evesham (Worcestershire), where prince Edward,

taxes, at daily interest; and being received for taxes, and

paid by the bank in lieu of taxes, in its dealings with the afterwards Edward I., defeated the barons headed by

exchequer, they usually bear a premium. Amount in cir. Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, 4 Aug. 1265, when culation, 56,974, 7804. in 1817; in 1854, 16,008, 7001. the earl, his son llenry, and most of his adherents were

Robert Aslett, a cashier of the Bank of England, tried for em. slain. Henry III. at one period of the battle was on the

bezzling exchequer bills and found not guilty, on account of

the invalidity of the bills, though the actual loss to the bank point of being cut down by a soldier who did not know amounted to 342,6971., 18 July, 1803. him, but was saved by exclaiming, “ Do not kill me, Mr. Beaumont Smith tried for forging exchequer bills to the soldier ; I am Henry of Winchester, thy king!" This

amount of 350,0001. ; pleaded guilty; sentenced to transpor.

tation, 4 Dec. 1841. victory broke up the combination of the barons.

EXCHEQUER Bonds, a species of public securities, introduced Evidence, Law of, regulated by 14 & 15 Vict. c. TELLERS OF THE EXCHEQUER. Besides chamberlains of the

by Mr. W. E. Gladstone in 1853, have not been well received. 99 (1851), 16 & 17 Vict. c. 83 (1853), 32 & 33 Vict. c. 68 exchequer, clerks of the polls, and auditor of the exchequer (1869).

(offices which have all been discontinued since their lust

avoidance in Oct. 1826, or by surrender or abolition in Oct. Mr. Labouchere's application for a mandamus of the 1834), there were the four lucrative offices of Lellers of the Court of Queen's Bench to compel sir Robert Carden

exchequer, also abolished, 10 Oct. 1834. to hear irrelevant evidence, refused. ........... 20 Nov. 1879 John Jeffreys Pratt, earl (afterwards marquess) Camden, was

appointed a teller of the exchequer in 1780, and held the apEvil May-day (1 May, 1517), thus called on ac- pointment until his death, in 1840. During nearly half of count of the violence of the apprentices and populace, ibis long term he relinquished the income (amounting in directed against foreigners, particularly the French. The

the whole to upwards of a quarter of a million sterling) and rioters were headed by one Lincoln, who, with 15 others, COMPTROLLER-GENERAL OF THE EXCHEQUER. This oflice was

placed it at the service of the state, as it annually accrued. was hanged; and 400 more in their shirts, and bound created on the abolition of the offices of the auditor and the

place n..

four tellers of the exchequer, and the clerk of the pells, men. 1844. Sir Frederick Pollock.

15 April tioned in the preceding paragraph. The first comptroller 1866. Sir FitzRoy Kelly. 16 July (died 17 Sept. 1830). general was s.r John Newport, appointed 11 Oct. 1831. —-34,

The last of the chief barons. 4381, per annum have been saved to the state by the retrench

CHIEP BARONS OF EXCHEQUER IN IRELAND.
ments in this department of the government.
COURT OF EXCHEQUER CHAMBER. Erected by Edward III. in 1690. John Hely. 5 Dec.

1357. It was remodelled by Elizabeth in 1584, and then 1695. Robert Doyne. 10 May.
made to comprise the judges of all the courts. This court 1703. Nehemiah Donnellan. 27 Dec.
is for error from the judgments of the courts of Queen's 1706. Richard Freeman. 25 June.
Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer of Pleas in actions 1707. Robert Rochfort. 12 June
commenced therein. Remodelled by act 2 Geo. IV. and 1 1714. Joseph Deane. 14 Oct.
Will. IV. c. 70 (23 July, 1830).

1715. Geoffrey Gilbert. 16 June.
The Exchequer ollice, Westminster, was instituted by Henry 1722. Bernard Hale. 9 June.
IV. in 1399.

1725, Thomas Dalton. 2 Sept. CHANCELLORS OF THE EXCHEQUER.

1730. Thomas Marlay. 29 Sept.

1741. John Bowes. 21 Dec. Henry Addington (afterwards lord Sidmouth)..21 March, 1801

1757. Edward Willis. 11 March. William Pitt (premier)..

16 May, 1804

1761. Anthony Foster. 6 Sept. Lord Henry Petty (aft. marquess of Lansdowne).. 10 Feb. 1806 1777. James Dennis (afterwards baron Tracton). 3 July. Spencer Perceval

.31 March, 1807

1782. Walter Hussey Burgh. 2 July. And premier 6 Dec. 1809 (assassinated. ....11 May, 1812) 1783. Barry Yelverion (ait. viscount Avonmore). 29 Nov. Nicholas Vausittart (afterwards lord Bexley).....9 June, 1812 1803. Standish O'Grady (aft. viscoant Guillamore). 5 Oct. Fred. J. Robinson (afterwards lord Goderich and earl of

1831. Henry Joy. 6 Jan. Ripon). .

.31 Jan. 1823

1833. Stephen Woulse. 20 July. George Canning ( premier")..

. April, 18:27 John C. Herries.

17 Ang

1840. Maziere Brady. 11 Feb.

1846. David Richard Pigott. 1 Sept. (died 22 Dec. 1873). Henry Goulburn..

. 26 Jan. 1828 1874. Christopher Palles.

Jan.
Viscount Althorp (afterwards earl Spencer). .22 Nov. 1830
Sir Robert Peel (premier)...

10 Dec. 1834 Excise. The system was established in England by Thomas Spring Rice (afterwards lord Monteagle), 18 April, 1835 the Long Parliament in 1643, duties being levied on Francis T. Bring (afterwards baronet).

.26 Aug. 1839 Henry Goulburn..

..3 Sepi. 1841 wines, beer, etc., and tobacco, to support the army against Charles Wood (aft. baronet, lord Halifax, 1865)...6 July, 1846 Charles I. It was continued under Charles II. The Benjamin Disraeli..

21 Feb). 1852 present system was settled about 1733. The old excise William Ewart Gladstone.

28 Dec. Sir George Cornewall Lewis.

:5 March1855 office was built on the site of Gresham College in 1774; Benjamin Disraeli, again.

.27 Feb. 1858 the present is at Somerset House. The othicers of excise William Ewart Gladstone, again,

... June, 1859 and customs were deprived of their votes for returning Benjamin Disraeli, again.

.6 July, 1866

members to parliament in 1782, but received them again George Ward Hunt.

29 Feb. 1868 Robert Lowe...

..9 Dec.

in 1868. In 1819 the boards of excise, stamps, and taxes, William Ewart Gladstone (and premier). Aug. 1873 were united as “the board of commissioners of inland Sir Stafford Northcote...

.:21. Feb. 1874 revenue.” Notwithstanding the abolition of the excise William Ewart Gladstone (and premier). ....... 28 April, 1880

duty upon numerous articles, and the reduction of duty Exchequer, Court of (Curia Regis), instituted by upon various others of late years, the total excise revenue, William I. on the model of the Transmarine Exchequer so far from having decreased, has progressively advanced of Normandy, in 1079; according to some authorities by (1817 and 1861 excepted) in its aggregate annual amount. Henry I. It included the common pleas until they were Additional excise duties were charged by 17 and 18 Vict. separated (16 John, 1215).---Coke's Reports. The ex- c. 27, 3 July, 1854. The excise duties were further moulchequer is so named from a chequered cloth which an- ified in 1860; see Revenue. ciently covered the table where the judges and chief

REVENUE FROM EXCISE. officers sat.* Here are tried all causes relating to the

Great Britain. king's revenue; such as are concerning accounts, dis

1744.

.£3,754,072 | 1860 to Mar. 31...£20,240,467 bursements, customs, and fines imposed, as well as all 1786.

5,540,114 1865 ·

19,428,324 matters at common-law between subject and subject. 1808..

19,867,914 1868 "

20,190,338 The judges are styled barons, first appointed in 1234. 1820..

26,364, 702 1869 "

20,475,740

1827 (United KingThere are a chief and four puisne barons, the fifth judge

21,879, 233 dom)... 20,995,324 1871 "

22,833, 908 having been added 23 July 1830. The office of Cursitor 1830.

18,644,385 1872 "

23,386,064 Baron was abolished in 1856. For changes, see Supreme

1834.
16,877,292 1873 “

25,904, 450

1837.. Court. The ancient court sat for last time, 10 July,

14,518,142 1874 "

27,115,969 1810. 12,607, 766 1875 “

27,254, 132 1875. The Exchequer division was abolished in 1881. 1845..

13,585,583 1876 "

27,569,323 CHIEF BARONS.

1847.
12,883,678 1877 "

27,681,523
1848..
13,919,652 1878 "

27,710,514 1689. Sir Robert Atkins. 10 April

1850...
15, 278,208 | 1879 (

27,186,021 1695. Sir Edward Ward. 10 June.

1858 to Mar. 31.... 17,901,515 | 1880“

25, 218,303 1714. Sir Samuel Dodd. 22 Nov. 1716. Sir Thomas Bury. 11 June.

Exclusion Bill (to exclude the duke of York, after1722. Sir James Moutagti. 9 May. 1723. Sir Robert Eyre. 5 Dec.

wards James II., from the throne) was passed by the 1725. Sir Geoffrey Gilbert, 1 June.

commons, but rejected by the lords in 1680. The revi1726. Sir Thomas Pengelly. 29 Oct.

val of the question led to the dissolution of parliament 17:30. Sir James Reynolds. 30 April. 1738. Sir John Comyn. 7 July.

in 1681. 1740. Sir Edmund I'robyn. 24 Nov.

Excommunication, or separation from Christian 1742. Sir Thomas Parker. 29 Nov.

communion (Matt. xviii. 17; 1 Cor. V., etc.), was insti1772. Sir Sidney Stafford Smythe. 29 Oct. 1777. Sir John Skynner. 17 Dec.

tuted to preserve the purity of the church. The Roman 1787. Sir James Eyre. 26 Jan.

church excommunicated by Bell, Book, and Candle (which 1793. Sir Archibald Macdonald. 12 Feb. 1813. Sir Vicary Gibbs. 8 Nov.

see); see Interdict. 1814. Sir Alexander Thomson. 24 Feb.

Gregory VII. excommunicated the emperor Henry IV., 1817. Sir Richard Richards. 22 April

and absolved his subjects from their allegiance..... 1077 1824. Sir William Alexander. 9 Jan.

Innocent III. excommunicated John of England, placing 1831. John, lord Lyndhurst. 18 Jan. Previously lord chan- the country under an interdict.

1208-14 cellor; again lord chancellor, 1834.

Gregory IX. excommunicated the emperor Frederick II. 1834. Sir James Scarlett. 24 Dec. Created lord Abinger, Jan. four times, between..

1228-45 1833.

Louis XII. of France was excommunicated by Julius II.

1510; Luthier by Leo X. 1521; Henry VIII. of England * In process of time the court of exchequer became gradu. by Paul III. in 1535; and Elizabeth by Pius V. 25 April, 1570 ally enlarged in its jurisdiction, until at length it was not | The emperor of France, the king of Sardinia, and others merely a revenue court and one at common-law between sub- were virtually excommunicated (but not by name) on ject and subject, but one in which suits in equity were also account of the apnexation of the Romagua by Sardinia, instituted. In fact, until the act 5 Vict. c. 5 (1841), the court

29 March, 1860 of exchequer possessed a triple jurisdiction; but by this stat. ute its equity business was transferred to ihe court of chan

Executions, see Crime. In the reign of Henry cery

VIII. (38 years) it is said that no less a number than

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72,000 criminals were executed. Stow. In the ten | John Hatfield (a rank impostor, who married, by means

of the most odious deceit, the celebrated " years between 1820 and 1830, there were executed in

Beauty of
Buttermere”'); forgery; Carlisle.

.3 Sept. 1803 England alone 797 criminals; but as our laws became Robert Emmett;' high-treason; Dublin.. .....20 Sept. less severe the number of executions decreased. In the Richard Patch; in urder of Mr. Bligh; Horsemonger lane, three years ending 1820, the executions in England and

8 April, 1806 Wales amounted to 312; in the three years ending 1830, John Holloway, Owen Haggerty; murder of Mr. Steele;

Old Bailey (thirty of the spectators of this execution they were 178; in the three years ending 1840, they were trodden to death, and numbers were pressed, were 62. The place of execution in London (formerly maimed, and wounded).

.23 Feb. 1807 generally at Tyburn) was in front of Newgate from 1783 T. Simmons, the man of blood; murder; Hertford,

7 March, 1808 to 1868, when an act was passed directing executions to Major Campbell; murder of capt. Boyd in a duel; Artake place within the walls of prisons. The dissection magh...

...2 Oct. of the bodies of executed persons was abolished in 1832; Capt. Sutherland; murder; Execution dock.... 29 June, 1809

Richard Armitage; forgery; Old Bailey... 24 June, 1811 see Death, 1868.

John Bellingham; murder of Mr. Perceval; Old Bailey, John Calcraft, born 1800, executioner for London, 1828–74,

18 May, 1812 died 13 Dec. 1879.

Philip Nicholson; murder of Mr. and Mrs. Bonar; Pen.
nenden heath...

...23 Aug. 1813 EXECUTIONS IN LONDOX.

Francis Tuite; murder of Mr. Goulding; Dublin...9 Oct. 1820, 43; 1825, 17; 1830, 6; 1835, 0; 1836, 0; 1837, 2; 1838, Charles Callaghan; murder of Mr. Merry; Horsemonger 0; 1839, 2; 1840, 1; 1842, 2; 1843, 0; 1844, 1; 1845, 3; 1846, 2.

lane...

.2 April, 1814 William Sawyer; murder of Jack Hacket; Old Bailey, IN ENGLAND.

15 May, England. London.

England. London. Eliza Fenning; administering poison; Old Bailey, 26 July, 1815 1847... 8...... 1 1864.

8

(Universally believed to be innocent; she denied her 1848 .12.. 1865.

2 guilt on the scaffold, and thousands accompanied her 1849. .15..

1866.

.12..

1 funeral. In the “Annual Register” for 1857, p. 143, 1850. 6.... 1867.

10.

2 it is stated, on the authority of Mr. Gurney, that she 1851. 10.

1868.

12.

2 confessed the crime to Mr. James Upton, a Baptist min1852.

9.

1
1869.
.10..

ister, shortly before her execution.)
1853.
8..
1870.
6..

John Cashman; Spa-fields riots; Skinner street.12 March, 1817 1854.

5.
0 1871.

3...

Murderers of the Lynch family; Wild-goose Lodge affair; 1855.

7.

2
1872.
..15..
Ireland..

19 July, 1856.

.15.
2 1873.

10.

The three Ashcrofts, father and sons; murder; Lan1857

.13.

1
1874.

22.

5
caster..

..8 Sept. 1858.

.11.

1
1875.

18.

1

Brandreth and others; high-treason; Derby ......7 Nov. 1859.

9.

1
1876..

22.

6

Charles Hussey; murder of Mr. Bird and his housekeeper; 1860.

.12.
1 1877.

23
Pennenden heath.

.3 Aug. 1818 1861..

.15.

1
1878.

15.

1 John Scanlan, esq. ; murder of Ellen Hanley; Limerick, 1862.

. 16.
2 1879..

.16.
3

16 March, 1820 1863.. 22.

1880..
:13.

Arthur Thistlewood, John Brunt, James Ings, John David

son, Richard Tidd (see Cato Street); Ol Bailey, 1 May, EXECUTIONS OF REMARKABLE CRIMINALS. *

John Channell, Thomas Calcraft; murder of Mr. Channell, Gunpowder-plot conspirators, Digby, R. Winter, Grant,

sen. ; Godalming.

.17 Aug. and Bates, 30 Jan.; T. Winter, Rookwood, Keys, and Josiah Cadman; forgery; Old Bailey..

21 Nov. 1821 Fawkes, 31 Jan.; Henry Garnett, Jesuit, at London, Samuel Greenwood; highway robbery; Old Bailey, 3 May, 1606

27 Dec. 1822 John Felton; murder of duke of Buckingham; Tyburn, John Thurtell; murder of Mr. Weare; Hertford... 9 Jan. 1824 28 Nov. 1628 John Wayte; forgery; Old Bailey..

..24 Feb. James, duke of Monmouth; treason; Tower hill, 15 July, 1685 Henry Fauntleroy, banker; forgery; Old Bailey. .30 Nov. Charnock, King, and Keys, 18 March; sir John Friend, William Probert (an accomplice of Thurtell's in the mur

and sir William Perkins (“assassination plot''), 3 April, 1696 der of Mr. Weare; he became approver); horse-stealing; Capt. William Kidd and three others; piracy.... 23 May, 1701

20 June, 1825 James, earl of Derwentwater, and William, earl of Ken- Spitalfield's gang; highway robbery; Old Bailey.29 Nov. 1826 mure; rebellion; Tower hill.

.24 Feb. 1716 Charles Thomas White; arson; Old Bailey.... ..2 Jan. 1827 John Price, the hangman; murder, Bunhill row, 21 May, 1718 | Edward Lowe; coining (the last coiner drawn on a sledge Jack Sheppard, highwayman; Tyburn.. ..16 Nov. 1724 to the scaffold); Old Bailey....

22 Nov. Richard Turpin, highwayman; York.. .7 or 10 April, 1739 Catherine Walsh; murder of her child; Old Bailey, Lord Balmerino and others; rebellion; Tower hill, 18 Aug. 1746

14 April, 1828 Lord Lovat; rebellion ; Tower hill.

9 April, 1747 William Rea; highway robbery; Old Bailey......4 July, Richard William Vaughan, first forger of Bank of Eng. Capt. Charles Montgomery was ordered for execution this land notes..

..11 May, 1758 day for forgery; but he took a dose (an ounce and a Eugene Aram; murder; York.

..6 Aug. 1759 hall) of prussic acid, to save himself from the ignominy Earl Ferrers; murder of his steward; Tyburn....5 May, 1760 of the gallows, and was found dead in his cell..4 July, Theodore Gardelle; murder; Haymarket.. ...4 April, 1761 William Corder, murder of Maria Marten; Bury St. John Perrott; fraudulent bankrupt; Smithfield..11 Nov.

Edmund's.

....11 Aug. John M.Naughten, esq; murder of Miss Knox; Stra- Joseph Hunton, Quaker; forgery; Old Bailey.....8 Dec. bane...

13 Dec. William Burke; murderer (see Burking); Edinburgh, Elizabeth Brownrigg; murder of her apprentice; Tyburn,

28 Jan. 1829 14 Sept. 1767 Anne Chapman; murder of her child; Old Bailey.30 June, Daniel and Robert Perreau, wine-merchants; forgery; Stewart and wife; murder; Glasgow.

.24 July, Tyburn..

...17 Jan. 1776 Thomas Maynard, the last executed for forgery; Old Rev. Dr. Dodd, found guilty of forging a bond, in the name Bailey...

...31 Dec. of lord Chesterfield, for 42001. The highest influence Mr. Comyn; arson; Ennis.

18 March, 1830 was exerted to save him; but when the case came be- John Bishop, Thomas Williams; murder of a poor Italian fore the council, the minister of the day said to George

boy (see Burking); Old Bailey...

.5 Dec. 1831 III., “ If your majesty pardon Dr. Dodd, you will have John Smith, James Pratt; unnatural crime; Old Bailey, murdered the Perreaus;” Tyburn.... 27 June, 1777

8 April, 1835 Rev. Henry Hackman; murder of Miss Reay, mistress of Maryanne Burdock; remarkable case of poisoning; Bris. earl of Sandwich; Tyburn... 19 April, 1779

.15 April, Capt. John Donellan; murder of sir Theodosius Boughton; John Pegsworth; murder; Old Bailey .7 March, 1837 Warwick..

.2 April, 1781 James Greenacre; murder of Haunah Brown; Old Bailey, Christian Murphy (or Bowman), a woman; strangled and

2 May, burned for coining.

.18 March, 1789 William Lees; murder of his wife; Old Bailey ...16 Dec. 1839 Richard Parker and others; mutiny at the Nore.30 June, 1797 | François Benjamin Courvoisier; murder of lord W. RusMrs. Phepoe, celebrated murderess; Old Bailey..11 Dec. sell; Old Bailey.. Sir Edward Crosbie; hightreason; Ireland......4 June, 1798 Josiah Misters; wounding Mr. Mackreth; Shrewsbury,

.6 July, 1840 Messrs. Sheares; high-treason; Dublin.. ..12 July, 1799

3 April, 1841 Galloping Dick; highwayman; Aylesbury .4 April, 1800 Robert Blakesley; murder of Mr. Burdon; Old Bailey, Governor Joseph Wall; murder of sergeant Armstrong;

15 Nov. Old Bailey....

28 Jan. 1802 John Delahunt; murder of Thomas Maguire; Dublin, Mr. Crawley; murder of two females; Dublin..10 March,

5 Feb. 1842 George Foster; murder of wife and child; Old Bailey, Daniel Good; murder of Jane Jones; Old Bailey.. 23 May,

18 Jan. 1803 William Crouch; murder of his wife; Old Bailey 27 May, 1844 Col. Despard and others; high - treason; Horsemonger James Tapping; murder of Emma Whiter; Old Bailey, lane..

24 March, 1845

John Tawell; murder of Sarah Hart; Aylesbury 28 March, * For some other executions, see England, 1535, 1536, 1618, Thomas Henry Hocker; murder of Mr. Delarue; Old 1641, 1645, 1683, and Oates's Plot.

Bailey..

.28 April,

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Joseph Connor; murder of Mary Brothers; Old Bailoy, John Currie; murder of major de Vere; Maidstone. 12 Oct. 1865

2 June, 1845 | Stephen Forward, alias Ernest Southey; murder of wife John Platts; murder of Collis; Derby....... .1 April, 1847 and four children; Maidstone..

....11 Jan. 1866 Catherine Foster; murder of her husband; Bury St Ed- Mary Ashford; murder of husband; Exeter... 28 March, mund's...

17 April,

John William Leigh; murder of wife's sister; Brighton, James Bloomtield Rush; murder of Messrs. Jermy, sen.

10 April, and jun.; Norwich.

.21 April, 1849 Robert Coe; murder of a young man for his wages (308.); Frederick George Manning, and his wife, Maria Manning;

Swansea

.12 April, murder of O'Connor; Horsemonger lane...... 13 Nov. John Grant, a soldier; murder of a boy; Exeter. 15 Aug. James Barbour; murder; York.

...15 Jan. 1853 J. R. Jeffreys; murder of his son (aged 7); Old Bailey, Henry Horler; murder of wife; Old Bailey.......15 Jan.

9 Oct. Grani, Quin, and Coomey; murder of Thomas Bateson; James Langhurst; brutal murder of Harriet Sax (6 years Monaghan.. .........9 April, 1854 old)...

..16 April, 1867 Emanuel Barthelemy; murder of Mr. Moore and C. Col! Hubbard Lingley; murder of his uncle, Benjamin Black; lard; Old Bailey. 22 Jan. 1855 Norwich.

...26 Aug William Bousfield; murder of his wife and three children; George Britten; murder of his wife; Taunton... 29 Aug. Old Bailey...

..31 March 1856 John Wiggins; murder of his concubine, Agnes Oakes; William Palmer (of Rugeley); murder of J. P. Cook by Old Bailey..

..15 Oct poison; Stafford.

..14 June, Louis Bordier; murder of his concubine, Mary Aun Snow; William Dove; murder of his wife by poison; York. 9 Aug. Horsemonger lane.

15 Oct. Joseph Jenkins, alias Robert Marloy; murder of Cope, a William O'Meara Allen, William Gould (or O'Brien), and shopman, in Westminster; Old Bailey. ....15 Dec.

Michael Larkin, Fenians, for murder of Brett, a policeWilliam Jackson; murder of two children; Chester,

man; Salford.

23 Nov. 20 Dec. Frederick Baker; murder of a little girl, whom he afterLagava, Bartelano, and Pettrick; murder of two officers, wards cut up; Winchester..

...24 Dec. and piracy; Winchester.

.23 Dec. William Worsley; murder of William Bradbury; BedDedea Redaines; murder of two girls at Dover; Maidstone,

ford...

.......31 March, 1868 1 Jan. 1857 Frances Kidder; murder of ber husband's child; MaidThomas Mansell (after seven months' respite); murder

stone..

.2 April, of a soldier; Maidstone

...6 July, Timothy Faherty; for murder of his sweetheart, Mary Capt. H. Rogers; murder of A. Rose, a black, with great Hanmer (for rejecting him): and Miles Weatherill; cruelty; Liverpool....

11 Sept. murder of rev. Mr. Plow, of Todmorden, and his maid Thomas Davis; murder of wife; Old Bailey......16 Nov. (for revenge); Manchester...

.4 April, John William Beale; murder of Charlotte Pugsley, his Frederick Parker; murder of Daniel Driscoll; York, sweetheart; Taunton. 12 Jan. 1858

4 April, John Thomson, alias Peter Walker; murder of Agnes John Mapp; murder of little girl; Shrewsbury..9 April, Montgomery by poison-discovered by a child; Paisley, O'Farrell; for attempting to assassinate the duke of Edin

14 Jan.
burgh; Sydney, N. S. Wales..

.21 April, Christian Sattler, a German; murder of inspector Thain; Richard Bishop; murder of Alfred Cartwright; Maidstone, Old Bailey.... .8 Feb.

30 April Giovanni Lani; murder of Héloise Thaubin; Old Bailey, Michael Barrett, Fenian; for Clerkenwell explosion; THE

26 April, LAST PUBLIC EXECUTION IN ENGLAND; Old Bailey. 26 May, John B. Bucknall; murder of his grandfather and grand- Thomas Wells; for murder of Mr. Walsh, station master mother; Taunton...

24 Aug. at Dover (the first private execution). ..13 Aug. William Burgess; murder of his daughter; Taunton, William Sherward; for murder of his wife; Norwich (see 4 Jan. 1859 Norwich).

..20 April, 1869 Joseph Castle; murder of his wife; Bedford...31 March, 1860 Josiah Detheridge; murder of warder in Portland prison; William Youngman; murder of sweetheart, Mary Street

Dorchester..

.12 Aug. er, and mother and two brothers, on Aug. 16; Horse- William Taylor, soldier; murder of his corporal; Exeter, monger lane.... .4 Sept.

11 Oct. James Mullins; murder of Mrs. Emsley, at Stepney; Old Frederick Hinson; murder of his concubine, Maria Death, Bailey.

.19 Nov.

and of William Douglas Boyd, her paramour; at Wood James Johnson; murder of two non-commissioned off

Green, Middlesex; Old Bailey......

13 Dec. cers; Winchester,

...1 Jan. 1861 William Mobbs, purposeless murder of a child; AylesMatthew and Charles Wedmore; murder of their aunt;

bury...

.28 March, 1870 Taunton.

..5 April, Walter Millar; murder of rev. Elias Huelin and Ann Boss Martin Doyle; barbarous attempted murder (last execu- (at Chelsea); Old Bailey..

..1 Aug. tion for this crime); Chester..

.27 Aug.

John Owen (or Jones); for murder of a family (7 persons) William Cogan; murder of wife; Old Bailey......14 Oct. at Denham; Aylesbury...

..8 Aug. Thomas Jackson, a soldier; murder of sergeant John Thomas Ratcliffe; murder of a warder in Portland prison; Dickson; Winchester.

..27 Dec,
Dorchester

....15 Aug William Charlton, engine-driver; murdered Jane Emmer- Margaret Waters; murder of infants; baby-farming case; son, to obtain the money she had saved for her funeral; Horsemonger lane..

.11 Oct. Carlisle.

.15 March, 1862 Patrick Durr; murder of his wife; Manchester.. 26 Dec. G. J. Gilbert; brutal murder of Miss M. S. Hall, on her William Bull; brutal murder of an old woman; Bed. way to church; Winchester.

4 Aug.
ford..

3 April, 1871 William Taylor; murder of Mr. Meller from revenge; he Michael Campbell; murder of Mr. Galloway at Stratford; previously killed his own children; Kirkdale. 13 Sept. Springfield jail, Essex.

24 April, Catherine Wilson; murder of Mrs. Soames by poison (and Richard Addington; murder of wife; Northampton, of several other persons); Old Bailey.. 20 Oct.

31 July, William Ockold (aged 70); murder of his wife, after 50 Frederic Jones; murder of Emily Gardner, through years' marriage; Worcester.. 2 Jan, 1863 jealousy; Gloucester...

.8 Jan. 1872 Noah Austen; murder of Mr. Allen; Oxford...24 March, Edward Roberts; murder of Ann Merrick, who refused Robert A. Burton; murder of a boy, Maidstono.11 April, to marry him; Oxford....

.18 March, Edward Cooper; murder of his deformed son; Shrews- William Frederick Horry; murder of wife; Lincoln, bury.... ...11 April,

1 April, Dennis Delane; hired Beckham and Walsh to murder his Charles Holmes; murder of wife; Worcester. ...12 Aug. landlord, F. Fitzgerald..

..13 April, Thomas Moore; murder of wife. James Tooth, soldier; John Dacker; murder of Tye, a policeman; Ipswich, murder of drummer. Francis Bradford, soldier; mur

14 April,
der of comrade; Maidstone...

.13 Aug William Hope; violation and murder of Mary Corbett; Christopher Edwards; murder of wife; Stafford..13 Aug. Hereford..

.15 April, Wm. Lace; murder of wife; Taunton... ..26 Aug. D. MacPhail and G. Woods; murder of Mrs. Walne; Kirk Augustus Elliott; murder of paramour; Old Bailey, dale. .25 April,

9 Dec. Joseph Brooks; murder of Davy, a policeman; Uld Bailey, Mich. Kennedy; murder of wife; Manchester...30 Dec.

27 April, Edward Handcock; murder of wife; Warwick.... 7 Jan. 1873 Joseph Kelly; murder of Fitzhenry, a schoolmaster; Richard Spencer; murder of paramour; Liverpool, Wexford. .11 Aug.

8 Jan. Thomas, Alvarez, Hughes, and O'Brien, ferocious mur. Hugh Slane and John Hayes; murder of Joseph Waine; ders; Liverpool....

11 Sept.
Durham...

13 Jan. Alice Holt; murder of her mother; Chester... .28 Dec. Mary Ann Cotton; murder of child (see Poisoning); Samuel Wright; murder of his paramour. .12 Jan. 1864 Durham..

24 March, Jobn Lyon, and four others (foreiguers); murder and Henry Evans at Aylesbury, and Benjamin Hudson at piracy; Old Bailey.....

.22 Feb.
Derby; for murder of their wives...

..4 Aug. Charles Bricknell; murder of his sweetheart.....1 Aug. Thomas Hartley Montgomery; murder of Mr. Glasse; Franz Müller; murder of Mr. Briggs in a railway-car.

Omagh riage (see Trials); Old Bailey..

14 Nov. James Connor; murder of James Gaffney; Liverpool, Ferdinand Kohl; murder of M. Fuhrkop; Chelmsford,

8 Sept. 26 Jan. 1865 Charles Dawson, William Thompson, and Edward Gough; Edward William Pritchard, M.D.; murder of wife and murders; Durham. Thomas Corrigan; murder of her mother; Glasgow..

.28 July,
mother; Liverpool. ...

.5 Jan. 1874

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Edward C. Butt; murder of Miss Phipp, through jeal. Cadwallader Jones; murder of paramour; Dolgelly, ousy Edwin Bailey and Ann Barry; murder of child;

23 Nov. 1877 Gloucester,

12 Jan. 1874 James Sachwell, John Upton, and John Wm. Swift; Thos. Chamberlain; murder; Northampton...30 March, brutal murder of an old man; Leicester .....27 Nov James Godwin; murder of wife; Newgate...

Geo. Pigott; murder of Florence Galloway; Manchester, Frances Stewart; murder of grandchild; Newgate,

4 Feb. 1878 29 June, James Caffyn; murder of Maria Barber; Winchester, Thos. Macdonald; murder of paramour; Exeter..10 Aug.

11 Feb. Wm. Jackson; murder of sister; York.

.. 18 Aug.
James Trickett; murder of wife; Liverpool

.....12 Feb. James H. Gibbs; murder of wife; Usk..

...24 Aug.

John Brooks; murder of Caroline Woodhead; NottingHenry Flanigan; murder of aunt. Mary Williams; mur

ham..

...13 Feb. der of Nicholas Manning; Liverpool.....

31 Aug

Harry Rowles; murder of sweetheart; Oxford.. 1 April, John W. Coppen; murder of wife; Horsemonger lane, Vincent Knowles Walker; murder of woman; York, 13 Oct.

15 April, Private Thos. Smith, 40th Hussars; murder of capt. Charles J. Revell; murder of wise; Chelmsford. .29 July, Bird, in revenge for slight punishment; Winchester, Robert Vest, ship steward; murder of Wm. Wallace, a

16 Nov.
pilot; Durham..

....30 July, Robert Taylor; murder of Mrs. Kidd; Stafford... 29 Dec. Thos. Cholerton; murder of paramour; Nottingham, James Cranwell; murder of Emma Bellamy; Newgate.

12 Aug. Michael Mullen, John McCrave, and William Worth- Selina Wadge; murder of illegitimate child; Bodmin, ington; Liverpool ..4 Jan. 1875

15 Aug. Richard Coates; murder of girl 10 years old; Chelms. Thomas Smithers, murder of woman; Wandsworth, ford... .29 March,

8 Oct. John Morgan; murder of comrade; Maidstone. John Patrick John Byrne; murder of two brother sergeants; Stanton; murder of uncle; Stafford 30 March,

Northampton..

...12 Nov. Alfred T. Heap, quack; murder of Margaret McKivett; Joseph Garcia, Spanish sailor; murder of William WatLiverpool..

.19 April

kins and his wife and three children; Usk....18 Nov. Wm. Hole; murder of wife; Bristol.. .....26 April, James McGowan; murder of wife; Manchester. . 19 Nov. Jeremiah Corkery; murder of policeman; Warwick,

Henry Gilbert; murder of illegitimate child; Hunting. 27 July,

25 Nov. McHugh, Gilligan, and Pearson (woman); murders; Dur. Stephen Gambrill; murder of Arthur Gillow while deham

2 Aug

fending his machinery (Wednesborough); Maidstone, Peter Blanchard; murder of Louisa Hodgson; Lincolu

4 Feb. 1879 slire..

.9 Aug.

Enoch Whiston; murder of Alfred Meredith; Worcester, Philip Lebrun; murder of sister; Jersey. 12 Aug

10 Feb. Wm. McCullogh; murder of Wm. Watson; and Mark Wm. McGuiness; murder of wise; Lancaster....11 Feb.

Fiddler; murder of wife; Lancaster.... ..16 Aug Charles Peace; murder of A. Dyson; Leeds (see Trials, Wm. Baker and Edward Cooper; murders; Liverpool,

1878-9).

25 Feb. 6 Sept. James Simms, American seaman; murder of woman; Henry Wainwright; murder of Harriet Lane, his mis

Newgate..

.24 March, tress (see Whitechapel); Newgate

..21 Dec. Edward Smart; murder of woman; Gloucester..12 May, Wm. Smedley; murder of Elizabeth Firth, his mistress; Wm. Cooper; murder of Ellen Matler; Manchester, Armley, near Leeds.... ...21 Dec.

20 May, John William Anderson; murder of wife; Newcastle on. Catherine Churchill; murder of husband; Taunton, Tyne .22 Dec.

26 May, Richard Charlton; murder of wife; Morpeth...

....23 Dec. John Darcy; murder of Wm. Mitecballe; York. . 27 May, George Hunter; murder of fellow.workman; Morpeth, Thomas Johnson; murder of Eliza Parten; Liverpool, 28 March, 1876

28 May, Thos. Fordred; murder of Ann Bridger; Maidstone,

Catherine Webster; murder of Mrs. Julia Martha Thomas; 4 April, Wandsworth (see Richmond).

29 July, George Hill; murder of his illegitimate child, and nearly Annie Took; murder of nurse-child; Exeter.....11 Aug. of its mother; Hertford...

. 10 April, James Dilley; murder of illegitimate child; Newgate, Edward Deacon; murder of wife; Bristol 24 April,

25 Aug Johu Webber; murder; Cardiff.

.26 April, John Ralph; murder of Sarah Vernon; Birmingham, Henry Webster; murder of wife; Norwich.. 1 May,

26 Aug Lennie mutineers and murderers. Matteo Cargalis, Pas- Henry Bedingfield; murder of Eliza Rudd; Ipswich, calis Culudis, George Kaida, and Giovanni Carcaris;

3 Dec. Newgate...

.23 May,

Charles Shurety; murder of child; Newgate......5 Jan. 18. O John Williams; shot his brother-in-law, Durham,

William Cassidy; murder of wife; Manchester ..17 Feb.

26 July, Hugh Burns and l'atrick Kearns; murder of Patrick James Parris; murder of a child; Maidstone..... 1 Aug.

Tracey at Widnes; Liverpool. ...

2 March, Wm. Fish; murder of a child (see Trials). Richard John Wingtield; murder of his wife; Newgate.. 22 March, Thompson; murder of J. H. Blundell; Liverpool,

Wm. Dumbleton; murder of John Edmunds; Aylesbury, 14 Aug

10 May, C. E. Baumbos (see Mutinies); and Crowe (see Ireland); John Henry Wood; murder of John Coe; York. .11 May, Cork ..

.25 Aug

John Wakefield; murder of a child; Derby.....16 Aug. John Ebelthrift; murder of wife; Newgate...... 26 Aug. Wm. Brownless; murder of sweetheart; Durham, Charles O'Donnell; murder of wise; Newgate ...11 Dec.

16 Nov. Robert Browning; murder of Emma Rolfe, aged 16; Wm. J. Distin; murder of paramour; Bristol ...22 Nov. Cambridge..

14 Dec. Thos. Wheeler; murder of Edward Anstee, near St. Silas Barlow; murder of Ellen Sloper, paramour; Horse.

Albans..

29 Nov. monger lane. James Dalgleish; murder of Sarah George Pavey; murder of Ada Shepherd, aged 11; and Wright; Carlisle....

19 Dec,

Wm. Herbert; murder of Jane Messenger, sister in. John Thomas Green; murder of wife; Leicester. 20 Dec.

Jaw; Newgate.

13 Dec. Wm. Flanagan; murder of paramour; Manchester.21 Dec. Wm. Stanway; murder of Ann Mellor; Chester.. 21 Feb. 1881 Isaac Marks, Jew; murder of Fredk. Barnard, for re- James Williams; murder of Eliz. Baguall; Stafford, venge (Newington murder); Horsemonger lane.. 2 Jan. 1877

22 Feb. Henry and Francis George Tidbury; murder of two Albert Robinson; murder of wife; Derby.. .28 Feb. policemen; Reading..

12 March, Albert Moor; murder of old woman; Maidstone..17 May, Wm. Clark (or Slenderman); murder of Henry Walker, James Hall; murder of wise; Leeds.....

.23 May, gamekeeper; Lincoln..

26 March, Joseph P. McEntee; murder of wife; Liverpool..31 May, John Mckenna; murder of wife; Manchester. 27 March,

For noteworthy executions in U. S., see Trials. James Bannister; murder of wise; Chester.....2 April, John Henry Johnson; murder of Amos White, through Exeter (Devonshire), said to have been named jealousy.

.3 April, A ugusta from having been occupied by the second AuFrederick Baker; murder of Mary Saunders, jealousy; Warwick

.17 April,

gustan legion commanded by Vespasian; its present John Henry Starkey; murder of wife; Leicester. Henry

name is derived from Excestre. It was for a considerRodgers; murder of wife; Stafford

.31 July, able time the capital of the West Saxon kingdom. The Henry Leigh; murder of child; Chester. .

13 Aug

BISHOPRIC anciently comprised two sees - Devonshire Caleb Smith; murder of nominal wife (Eliza Osborne); Horsemonger lane.

....14 Aug.

(founded about 909) and Cornwall. The church of the John Goulding and Patrick McGovern; murders; Liver. former was at Crediton, of the latter at Bodmin, and pool

afterwards at St. German's. About 1040 the sees were John Lynch; murder of wise; Newgate..

15 Oct.

united. Thos. Pratt; murder of paramour; Newgate.

....12 Nov.

St. Petroc was the first bishop of Cornwall, beWm. Husseil; murder of wife; Exeter. .19 Nov. fore 900; Eadulphus, the first bishop of Devonshire, 905; Henry March; murder of employer and fellow-workman;

and Leofric, the first bishop of Exeter, in 1049. The Norwich..

20 Nov

cathedral originally belonged to a monastery founded by Thos, Gray; murder of Ann Mellors, who refused him; Nottingham. .

21 Nov. Athelstan; Edward the Confessor removed the monks

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