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to his new abbey of Westminster, and gave their church | The Sacred Harmonic Society met here 1831-80; last concert, for a cathedral to the united see, 1049; the see was

• Israel in Egypt,"' 30 April, 1880. The hall was purchased

for the Young Men's Christian Association for 25,0001., valued in the king's books at 500l. per annum. Present

July, 1880; re-opened (jubilee), 29 March, 1881. stated income, 27001.

Exhibition of 1851 (THE GREAT EXHIBITION). Alfred invested the city, held by the Danes, and com.

The original idea of a National Exhibition * is attribpelled thein to capitulate.

.877, 894 uted to Mr. F. Whishaw, secretary of the Society of Exeter sacked by Sweyn...

1003 Arts in 1844. It was not taken up till 1819, when Besieged by William the Conqueror.

1067 The castle surrendered to king Stephen.


prince Albert, president of the society, said, “ Now is the The city first governed by a mayor.

1200 time to prepare for a Great Exhibition-an exhibition The celebrated nunnery founded.

1236 worthy of the greatness of this country; not merely The ancient bridge built..

1250 Edward I. holds a parliament here

national in its scope and benefits, but comprehensive of

1286 The Black Prince visits Exeter..

1371 the whole world; and I offer myself to the public as The duchess of Clarence takes refuge in the city. 1469 their leader, if they are willing to assist in the underBesieged by sir William Courtenay

taking." City assaulted by Perkin Warbeck.

1497 Exeter constituted a county of itself.. 1536 Royal commission appointed...

3 Jan. 1850 Welsh, the vicar of St. Thomas's, hanged on the tower of A subscription list opened, headed by the queen for 10001. his church, as a Cornish rebel

..2 July, 1549 Civic banquets in support of the plan, at London, 21, 22 Annual festival established.

..6 Aug
March; and at York..

.25 Oct. The Guildhall built..

1593 The building t commenced..

.26 Sept. Prince Maurice takes Exeter for king Charles I....Sept. 1643 Many persons admitted into it in Jan. ; it is virtually It surrenders to the parliamentarians.

.. April, 1646 transferred to the royal commissioners by the conThe canal to Topsham cut. 1675 tractors, Messrs. Fox and Henderson..

Feb. 1851 A mint established by James II..

1688 Reception of goods began, 12 Feb., and the sale of season Water-works erected...


.25 Feb. The sessions house built.

1773 The Exhibition opened by her majesty ... 1 May, The new bridge built..

1778 The number of exhibitors exceeded 17,000, of whom 2918 The theatre erected..

1783 received prize medals and 170 council medals. The Lunatic asylum founded.

1795 articles exhibited in arts, manufactures, and the vari. County jail built...

1796 ous produce of countries defied calculation. Devon and Exeter institution for the promotion of sci- The palace continued open above 23 weeks-altogether ence established..

1803 144 days (1 May - 15 Oct), within which time it was Subscription library founded.

1807 visited by 6,170,000 persons, averaging 43,536 a day, New city prison built..

1818 whose admission-at the respective prices of one pound, The last of the ancient gates remored..

half a crown, and one shilling-amounted to 505, 1071., The subscription rooms opened


including season tickets, leaving a surplus, after pay. The public baths erected,

1821 ment of expenses, of about 150,0001. I. Mechanics' institution opened.

1825 The greatest number of visitors in one day was 109,760 New cemetery commenced..

1837 (8 Oct.); and at one time (2 o'clock, 7 Oct.) there were Railway to Bristol opened

.1 May, 1844 93,000: these persons were assembled at one time, not Great fire, 20 houses burned.

..2 Aug.

in an open area, like a Roman amphitheatre, but within Another great fire..

26 April, 1847

a windowed and floored and roofed building. There is Inauguration of a statue of John Dinham, who died

no like vast assemblage recorded in either ancient or June, 1864, bequeathing 24,0001. to charities.. 26 March, 1866 modern annals as having been gathered together, it Bread and meat riots; suppressed...

.4-5 Nov. 1867 may be said, in one room. Albert Memorial Museum given up to the town council,

The Exhibition was closed to the public.........11 Oct.

21 April, 1870 A memorial statue of the prince consort by Joseph DurA new reredos, by sir Gilbert Scott (sce Reredos), set up ham, placed in the gardens of the Royal Horticultural in the cathedral (1873): ordered to be removed by de

Society, uncovered in the presence of the prince and cision of the bishop and justice Keating, 15 April; this princess of Wales.

....10 June, 1863 decision reversed by the Court of Arches (sir R. Philli.

(See Crystal Palace.) more), 6 Aug. 1874; the privy council decided that the Exhibition of 1862 (INTERNATIONAL). A proposal reredos should remain ..

.... 24 Feb; 1875 in 1858 for another great exhibition, to be held in 1861, The church-tax * dominicals," or sacrament-money,

said to be of the nature of tithes; distraints for pay. was withdrawn in consequence of the war in Italy in ment; much excitement.

.Oct. 1859, etc. The scheme was revived in April, 1860,

when the prince consort engaged to guarantee 10,0001. RECENT BISHOPS.

if 240,0001. should be subscribed for by other persons. 1803. John Fisher, translated to Salisbury in 1807. 1807, Hon. George Pelham, translated to Lincoln, Sept. 1820.

A charter granted to the following commissioners: earl 1820. William Cary, translated to St. Asaph, March, 1830.

Granville, the marquess of Chandos, C. W. Dilke, jun., 1830. Christopher Bethell, translated to Bangor, 1830.

and Thomas Fairbairn.

22 Feb. 1861 Henry Phillpotts, died 18 Sept. 1869.

The guarantee fund amounted to 349,0001. in Nov. 1860, 1869. Frederick Temple, elected 11 Nov., and enthroned (after

and to 452,3001....

22 Aug. 1862 much opposition from some of the clergy) 29 Dec.

* Industrial exhibitions began with the French; Erposi1869.

tions having been organized and opened at Paris in 1798, 1801, Exeter Change (London) was built about 1680, 1802, 1806, 1819, 1823, 1827, 1834, 1839, 1844, and 1849, the last,

being the eleventh, exceeding all the preceding, in extent and on part of the site of Exeter House, the palace of Walter brilliancy. The first exhibition of the kind in this country Stapleton, bishop of Exeter and lord treasurer in 1319, was the National Repository, opened under royal patronage in beheaded by order of the queen-regent, Isabella, in 1326. hibitions were opened at Manchester in 1837, at Leeds in

1828, near Charing cross. It was not successful. Other exIt was entirely demolished at the period of the Strand 1839, and at Birmingham in 1849. Exhibitions have since improvements, in 1829. The new Exeter Change, built been held at Cork, Dublin, Manchester, New York. Paris, by the marquess of Exeter near its site, opened in 1845, Montreal, Florence, Constantinople, Bayonne, Melbourne, was pulled down in 1862 for the Strand Music-hall, now

Vienna, Philadelphia, and many other places (which see).

† The palace, with the exception of the flooring and joists, Gaiety theatre.

was entirely of glass and iron. It was designed by Mr. (since Exeter College (Oxford) was founded by Walter Sir) Joseph Paxton (who died 8 June, 1865), and the contract

ors were Messrs. Fox and Henderson, to whom it was agreed Stapleton, bishop of Exeter, in 1314. The college build- to pay 79,8001., or 150,0001. if the building were permanently ings mainly consist of a quadrangle in the later Gothic retained. It cost 176,0307. 138. Bd. Its length was 1851 feet,

corresponding with the year; the width 409 feet, with an ad. style.

ditional projection on the north side, 936 feet long by 48 wide. Exeter Hall (Strand, London), erected in 1830-1 The central portion was 120 feet wide and 64 feet high, and for the meetings of religious and philanthropic institu- transept near the centre was 72 feet wide and 10s feet high.

the great avenues ran cast and west through the building; the tions, concerts, oratorios, and musical societies, a large the entire area was 772, 784 square feet, or about 19 acres. Four and magnificent apartment with a splendid orchestra galleries ran lengthways, and others round the transept. The and organ, and having rooms attached for committees, wooring. There were altogether 4000 tons of iron in the struct

ground floor and galleries contained 1,000,000 square feet of etc., opened 29 March, 1831; see under Music. Religious ure, and 17 acres of glass in the roof, besides about 1500 verservices were held here in 1856 by the rev.C. Spurgeon, tical glazed sashes. and in 1857 by ministers of the Church of England, on promoted the South Kensington Museum, and in 1876 pro

This was placed in the hands of commissioners, who have Sundays.

posed the establishinent of a science library.

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The building, * erected at South Kensington by Messrs. Expenditure, see under Revenue.

Kelk and Lucas, according to a design by capt. Fowke, made over to the commissioners.

..12 Feb. 1862 Exploring Expedition, UNITED States, under The Exhibition opened by the duke of Cambridge and lieut. Wilkes, consisted of six small vessels of the United royal commissioners. ....

..1 May, The Fine Arts department included a noble collection of

States navy (Vincennes, Peacock, Porpoise, Relief, Flypaintings and sculptures.

ing-fish, and Sea-gull), to explore the southern seas, sailed The jurors' award of medals was announced in the build. from Hampton Roads, Va., on 19 Aug. 1838. They dising..

11 July, The Exhibition was closed 1 Nov., when the total num.

covered an Antarctic continent 19 July, 1839. The Peaber of visitors (exclusive of atendants) had been 6, 117,

cock was lost on the bar at the mouth of the Columbia 450.

river in July, 1841. The Vincennes, Wilkes's flag-ship, The Exhibition reopened on 3 Nov. for the sale of goods returned to New York in June, 1842, after an absence of exhibited; was finally closed..

15 Nov. The success of the Exhibition was much impaired by the

almost four years. Wilkes's “ Narrative " was published decease of the prince consort, 14 Dec. 1861, and the in six vols., illustrated. The scientific reports form 20 breaking out of the civil war in the United States of

quarto and folio vols. America. The foreign exhibitors in 1851 were 6566; in 1862, 16,456.

Explosions, see Boilers, Coal. Exhibitors at London, in 1851, 14,000; at Paris, in 1855,

24,000; at London, in 1862, 29,000; at Paris, in 1867, Explosives, see_Gunpowder, Gun-cotton, Nitro50,000.

glycerine, Dynamite, Dualine, Lithofracteur, Glyoziline, Exhibitions, International. A meeting was Blasting, Gelatine, etc. A committee to examine into held 4 April, 1870, the prince of Wales in the chair, to the nature and properties of various explosives was appromote annual international exhibitions at South Ken- pointed by government in 1871. Explosives have been sington, to commence 1 May, 1871; see Centennial Ex- much studied by professor F. A. Abel, of Woolwich hibition of the United States.

(1881). I. 1871. Fine arts, pottery, woollen and worsted manufact

Professor Osborne Reynolds produced a new explosive-75 ures; educational department; opened by the prince of parts chlorate of potash, 25 sulphuria-a product of coal-gas; Wales, 1 May; closed 30 Oct.

the ingredients kept apart till required; announced 1878. [34 countries contributed; total number of visitors, 1,142,154; highest on one day (Whit- Monday, 29 May), 21,946.)

Explosives Act, passed 14 June, 1875, amends II. 1872. Fine arts, cotton, jewelry, stationery, with machine the law with respect to the manufacturing, keeping, sell

ry, and raw materials; opened by the duke of Edinburgh, 1 ing, carrying, and importing gunpowder, nitro-glycer

May; closed 19 Oct.
III. 1873. Fine arts; manufactures (silk, steel, surgical in-ine, and other explosive substances.

struments, etc.; carriages for rails or tramways; food); sci-
entific inventions and new discoveries; opened 14 April; trade. turned the scale so much in favor of English

Exports. Edward III., by his encouragement of closed 31 Oct. IV. Fine arts; manufactures and raw materials, and engineer: merchandise that, by a balance taken in his time, the

ing, and recent scientific inventions; opened 6 April; closed exported commodities amounted to 294,0001. and the im31 Oct. 1874.

[The annual exhibitions having proved unsuccessful, the ported to only 38,0001.; see Revenue. The declared value building was appropriated by the East India Museum.]

is of much less amount than the official. Exodus (Greek, žžodos, way out), a term applied to the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, 1491 B.C.; and


£6,097,120 1830 described in the book of Exodus. Chronologers vary in

£66,735,415 1750 10,130,991 1835

78,376,732 the date of this event: the LXX. gives 1614; Hales, 1775

16,326,363 1840

97,402, 726 1648; Wilkinson, 1495; Bunsen, 1320 or 1314.

38,120,120 1845

131,564,503 45,869,839 1850

175, 126,706 Ex Officio Informations are those filed by the 1820

51,733,113 | 1851

190,397,810 attorney-general, by virtue of his office, without applying to the court where they are filed for leave, or giving the

£74,448,722 | 1966

.£188,917,536 defendant an opportunity of showing cause why they 1853

98,933,781 1867

180,961,923 should not be filed.Cabinet Lawyer. They were used 1855

95,688,085 1868

179,677,812 1856

115,826,948 1869 the Liverpool administration about 1817-19. Will

189,953,957 122,155, 237 1870

199,586,822 iam Hone was tried on criminal information, 18-20 Dec. 1859

130, 440,237 1875

223,465,963 1817, and acquitted. The British bank directors were 1860

135,891,227 1876

200,639, 204

1861 thus tried, 1857.

125, 102,814 1877

198,893,065 1862 123,992, 264 1878

192,848,914 Expeditions. Many are described under their re

146,602,342 1879


1865 spective heads.

165,835, 725 Expedition of "the Nations," or "the Ditch;" the third Exports of all kinds to foreign countries in 1875, 152,373,8002; expedition of the Koreish (which see) against Mahomet, named in 1876, 135,779,9801. ; in 1877, 128,969,7151. ; in 1878, 126,611, from the nations who marched under their leader, Abu Sophi. 4281. ; in 1879, 130,529,647. To British possessions in 1875, an, and from the ditch which was drawn before the city. 71,092, 1631. ,, in 1876, 64,859, 2241.; in 1877, 69, 923,350l. ; in They were principally vanquished by the fury of the elements. 1878, 66, 237,486l. ; in 1879, 61,002,11il. -Gibbon. 625.



1 Oct. 1746

1821 Cherbourg

$43,671,891 | 1874 7 Aug. 1758


58,524,878 1875 St. Malo; 4000 men lost..

514.880.624 .Sept. 1840

111,660,561 | 1876 Quiberon Bay (French emigrants). 1796

536,089,810 1850

134,900,233 1877 Ostend (all made prisoners). . May, 1798

602, 722,018 1860

316,242,423 1878 Helder Point and Zuyder Zee.. ..Sept. 1799


1870 Ferrol, in Spain...

376,616,473 1879 Aug. 1800

698,340,790 1871

428,398,908 1880 Egypt (Abercrombie). March, 1801

823,946,353 1872

428,487,131 | 1881 Copenhagen... .Sept. 1807


1873 Walcheren (unfortunate)

..July, 1809

505,033, 439 Bergen op Zoom..

.8 March, 1814 Extension, see University. Crimea.

..Sept. 1854 Abyssinia.

...Oct. 1867-April, 1868 Extincteur, see Fire-annihilator. Against the Ashantees (which see)

.12 Sept. 1873

Extract of Meat, obtained by Liebig in 1847; a * The main building occupied about 16 acres of ground, and company was formed to manufacture it in South Amerthe annexes 7 acres. The south front was 1150 feet long and ica in 1866. 55 feet high, and over the east and west fronts rose the two

Extradition Treaty between Great Britain and domes 260 feet high. The interior was decorated by Mr. John G. Crace. The building was given up to Messrs. Keik and Lu: France, 1843. In Dec. 1865, the French government cas on 31 Dec. 1862, the house of commons having refused to gave notice of withdrawing from it in six months. It purchase it for 80.0001. 2 July, 1863; and the pulling down

was renewed, with modifications, for six months, 21 May, commenced on 6 July. The domes and other parts of the structure were purchased for erection in Alexandra park, 1873. Similar treaties have been concluded with other

1866. A new act was passed 9 Aug. 1870; amended in Muswell Hill, near London (north).







powers: with Austria, 3 Dec. 1873; Switzerland, 4 April, stands on the Ashburton treaty of 1842, wherein no stip

ulation is mentioned; although it is found in other 1874; Holland, Aug. 1874; with Spain, 1878.

treaties with other governments. In 1866, M. Lamirand, charged with forgery and fraud

Winslow was discharged, 15 June; and Brent, another against the Bank of France, fled to America.

He was pur-
fugitive, a few days after...

1876 sued, and was arrested at Montreal, on 1 Aug., under the gov. The British government yield, 27 Oct.; Brent recaptured,

Dec. 1876. ernor-general's warrant. On 15 Aug., while his examination was still pending, he petitioned the governor-general not to Wilson, claimed by Swiss government, escapes through warrant his surrender before he could apply for a writ of ha- flaw in the treaty; decision of queen's bench...2 Nov. 1877 beas corpus, and was assured on 17 Aug. that ample time should be allowed for this purpose. On 22 Aug. he was finally

Extravagantes, see Decretals. committed; and on 24 Aug. his petition for a writ of habeas Extreme Unction, see Anointing. corpus was presented to judge Drummond, twenty - four hours' notice having been given to the representatives of the Eylau (Prussia), where, on 7-8 Feb. 1807, the French crown and the Bank of France. After arguments had been defeated the Russians in one of the most bloody contests heard and the case adjourned until the following day, he was surreptitiously carried off the same night by train to Quebec, of the war. Napoleon commanded in person. Both and hurried on board a steamer bound for Europe, by virtue armies, by this and other battles, were so much reduced of an extradition warrant, purporting to be signed by the gov- that the French retired to the Vistula and the Russiaus ernor general at Ottawa on 23 Aug. He was conveyed to

on the Pregel. France, and on 5 Dec. was tried, found guilty, and condemned to ten years' imprisonment. These circumstances led to Eyre (old French for ire, to go on), the itinerant much discussion, and the Canadian authorities were censured for irregularity and want of discretion. The discussion ended

court of justices, the justices in eyre, was instituted by by Lamirand declining British intervention.

Henry II, 1176; and when the forest laws were in force Dispute with United States respecting the surrender of

its chief - justice had great dignity. These justices were Ezra D. Winslow, a forger, by Great Britain, which is to go their circuit every third year, and punish all abuses refused unless it is agreed that the prisoner shall only

committed in the king's forests. The last instance of a be tried for the offence for which he has been committed (according to the treaty)

.. April, 1876 court being held in any of the forests is said to have Mr. Hamilton Fish, the American foreign secretary,

been in 1671.-Beatson.



F's, THREE (that is, “fixity of tenure, fair rents, and were distinguished by colors, as green, blue, red, and free sale”), term much used respecting Irish land ques- white; Domitian added gold and scarlet, about A.D. 90. tion in 1880-1. Sir Stafford Northcote termed them

Nilca" Sedition.-In Jan. 532, a conflict took place at Con. “ fraud, force, and folly," and they were much opposed stantinople, lasting five days, when about 30,000 lives were by lord Dufferin and others.

lost, and Justinian was mainly indebted for his life and throne

to the heroism of his empress Theodora. The blues and greens Fabii. A noble family at Rome, said to have de- united for a day or two against the emperor, taking Nika!

(overcome) for a watchword. The blues soon turned, and rived their name from faba, a bean, because some of

massacred nearly all the greens. The conflict was suppressed their ancestors cultivated this pulse; or to have de- by Belisarius with dilliculty, and the games were abolished scended from Fabius, a son of Hercules. They made for a time. war against the Veintes, and in an engagement near the Factories, supplied with machinery for producing Cremera all the grown-up males of the family (306 manufactures, have immensely increased in this country men) were slain in a sudden attack, 477 B.C. From one, since 1815. The Factory act, regulating the hours of whose tender age had detained him at Rome, arose the labor, etc., was passed in 1833 and amended 1834 and noble Fabii of the following ages. Fabius Cunctator (the 1844. Similar acts have been passed since; and an act delayer) kept Hannibal in check for some time without for the extension of the principles of the Factory acts coming to an engagement, 217--216 B.C.

was passed in 1867, in relation to women and children Fables. “ Jotham's fable of the trees (Judg. ix., employed in manual labor; short time on Saturdays was about 1209 B.c.) is the oldest extant, and as beautiful as enacted. Other acts were passed in 1870-8. any made since."A ddison. Nathan's fable of the poor | The act of 1878 (like that of 14 July, 1874) relates to sanitary man (2 Sam. xii., about 1034 B.c.) is next in antiquity. provisions, safety from machinery, hours of employment, The earliest collection of fables extant is of Eastern ori

meal hours, women and children, holidays, education of

children, accidents, etc., passed 27 May, 1878. gin, and preserved in the Sanscrit. The fables of Vishnoo Sarma, or Pilpay, are the most beautiful, if not the Faculties, Court of, giving powers to the archmost ancient, in the world.—Sir William Jones. Pro- bishops of Canterbury and York, 25 Hen. VIII. cap. 21, fessor Max Müller traced La Fontaine's fable of the Milk- 1534. maid to a very early Sanscrit collection. Æsop's fables Faenza, central Italy, the ancient Faventia, submit(which see), supposed to have been written about 565 or ted to the emperor Frederick I., 1162; was taken by 620 B.C., were versitied by Babrius, a Greek poet, about Frederick II., 12 April, 1241; held by the pope, 1275; by 130 B.C. (Coray), and turned into prose by Maximus the Bolognese, 1282; by Cæsar Borgia, 1501; by Venice, Planudes, a Greek monk, about 1320, who added other 1504; by the papacy, 1509; by the French, 1512. After fables and appended a worthless life of Æsop. The fa- various changes early in the sixteenth century it was bles of Phædrus, in elegant Latin iambics (about A.D. 8), acquired by the papacy and retained till the annexation of La Fontaine (1700), and of Gay (1727), are justly cel- by Sardinia, 1859. Faïence pottery owes its name to ebrated.

this place, where it was invented. Facial Angle (that contained by one line drawn “Faerie Queene," by Edmund Spenser; a part was horizontally from the middle of the ear to the edge of published in 1590; the whole, 1611. the nostrils, and another from the latter point to the ridge of the frontal bone) was invented by Peter Cam.

Fahrenheit, see Thermometer. per to measure the elevation of the forehead. In ne- Fainéants, see Mayors of the Palace. groes this angle is about 70°; in Europeans varies from

Fairlop Oak, with a trunk 48 feet in circumfer75° to 85°. Camper died 7 April, 1789. His book on Characteristic Marks of Countenance” was published ence, the growth of five centuries, in Hainault forest

, in

Essex, was blown down in Feb. 1820. Beneath its

branches an annual fair was long held on the first FriFactions of the Circus, among the Romans, were day in July, which originated with the eccentric Mr. parties that fought on chariots in the circus, and who | Day, a pump and block maker of Wapping, who, having



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A. D.

436 42

300 310 370 450 739 823 954


1315 1336


a small estate in the vicinity, annually repaired here F. Robinson, 1866; col. George A. K. D'Arcy, 1870; Thos. with a party of friends, to dine on beans and bacon. F. Callaghan, 1876; Thos. Kerr, 1880.

Fairoaks, near the Chickahominy, Virginia, the Falling Stars, see Meteors. site of two sanguinary indecisive battles between the

Family Compact, sec Bourbon.
Confederates, under gen. Joseph E. Johnston, and the
Federal army of the Potomac, under gen. M'Clellan, 31

Family of Love, a society, called also Philadel. May and 1 June, 1862.

phians, from the love they professed to bear to all men, Fairs and Wakes, of Saxon origin, were instituted founder, David George, an Anabaptist, of Holland, prop

assembled at Brew - house yard, Nottingham. Their in Italy about 500; in England by Alfredi, 886.-Spel- agated his doctrives in Switzerland, where he died in man. Wakes were established by order of Gregory VII. 1556. The tenets of the society were declared impious, in 1078, and termed Feriæ, at which the monks cele- and George's body and books ordered to be burned by brated the festival of their patron saint: the vast resort the hangman. In England a sect with a similar title of people occasioned a great demand for goods, wares,

was repressed by Elizabeth, 1580; but existed in the Fairs were established in France about 800 by

following century. See Agapemone. Charlemagne, and encouraged in England about 1071 by William the Conqueror. Many statutes were made for

Famines. The famine of the seven years in Egypt the regulation of fairs (1328-1868). The “Fairs act," began 1708 B.C.— Usher ; Blair. passed 25 May, 1871, provides for the abolition of fairs; Famine at Rome, when thousands of people threw them

selves into the Tiber.. in 1872, Charlton and Blackheath fairs, and in 1873 Clap

Awful famine in Egypt.. ham fair, were abolished as nuisances.

At Rome, attended by plague..

262 An “old English fair” was opened at the Royal Albert Hall In Britain; people ate the bark of trees.

272 by princess Christian, to aid the Chelsea Ho ital for Wom In Scotland; thousands died.. en, 9 June, 1881.

In England; 40,000 perished..

Awful one in Phrygia.. Faith, see Defender.

In Italy, when parents ate their children (Dufresnoy)..

In England, Wales, and Scotland Falck Laws, see Prussia, 1873.

Again, when thousands starve.... Falconry, or Hawking, in England cannot be traced Again, which lasts four years

Awful one throughout Europe..

1016 with certainty before the reign of king Ethelbert, the In England, 21 William I.

1087 Saxon monarch, 858.Pennant. The grand seignior at In England and France: this famine leads to a pest len. one time kept six thousand falconers in his service. tial fever, which lasts from....

.......1193 to 1195 Juliana Berners's book on “ Hawkynge and Huntynge” Again, so dreadful that the people devoured the flesh of

Another famine in England.... was printed in 1496; see Angling. Recent attempts have horses, dogs, cats, and vermin been made to revive falconry. Hawking was practised One occasioned by long rains.. in Thrace.- Aristotle.

One in England and France (Rapin).


Again, one so great that bread was made from fernFalczi, on the Pruth, Turkey. Here was concluded One throughout these islands

roots (Slow)..

1565 a Peace between Russia and Turkey, 21 July, 1711, the Awful one in France (Voltaire).

1693 Russians giving up Azof, and all the possessions on the one general in these realms..

1748 Black Sea, to the Turks. The Russians were saved from one which devastates Bengal... imminent destruction by the address of Catherine, the One grievously felt in France.

At Cape Verd; 16,000 persons perish.

1789 empress. In 1712 the war was renewed, and terminated One severely felt in England. by the peace of Constantinople, 16 April, 1712.

Again, throughout the kingdom..

Ai Drontheim, owing to Sweden intercepting the supFalerii, a city of the Falisci, an Etruscan people plies

1813 who joined the Veientes against Rome, and were beaten Scarcity of food severely felt by the Irish poor, 1814,

1816, 1822, 1831, 1846, in consequence of the failure of by Cornelius Cossus, 437 B.C. It is recorded that when

the potato crop. Grants by parliament, to relieve the the city was besieged by Camillus in 394, a schoolmas- suffering of the people, were made in the session of ter offered to betray to him the children of the principal

1847, the whole amounting to ten millions sterling. In N. W. India; above 10.000 perish.

1837-8 citizens. On his refusal, the citizens from gratitude sur

In N. W. India; thousands perish.

1860-1 rendered. They opposed Rome during the tirst Punic In Bengal and Orissa; about 1,000,000 perishi. 1865-6 war; and in 241 the city was taken and destroyed. In Rajpootana, etc.; about 1,500,000 perishi..

1868-9 In Persia very severe.

1871-2 Falernian Wine, celebrated by Virgil and Horace, In Bengal, through drought (see India).

1874 was the produce of Falernus, or, as called by Martial; In Bombay, Madras, Mysore, etc. ; about 600,000 perish

In Asia Minor.

17745 Mons Massicus, in Campania. Horace, in his “ Odes,"

(sec India and Mansion-house).

1877 boasts of having drunk Falernian wine that had been, In N. China; very severe; 9,500,000 said to have perished as it were, born with him, or which reckoned its age from

(45,5031, collected in England for relief).


In Cashmere (which see). ... same consuls, 14 B.C.

l'ery severe in Tauris, etc., in Asia Minor.. .....July, 1880 Falkirk (Stirlingshire, Scotland), the site of a vic- Fan. Used by the ancients; Cape hoc fiubellum, et tory by the English under Edward I. over the Scots, rentulum huic sic facito—“ Take this fan, and give her commanded by Wallace, part of whose forces deserted thus a little air." -- Terence's Eunuchus, 166 B.C. Fans, him. It is said from 20,000 to 40,000 Scots were slain, together with muffs, masks, and false hair, were first de22 July, 1298. A battle was fought at Falkirk Muir be-vised by the harlots in Italy, and were brought to Engtween the royal forces under Hawley, and prince Charles land from France.--Slow. In the British Museum are Edward Stuart, in which the former were defeated, 17 Egyptian fan-handles. Jan. 1746.

Great competitive exhibition of fans at Drapers' Hall, Falkland Islands, a group in the South Atlantic,

London, opened...

.2 July, 1878 belonging to Great Britain, seen by Americus Vespucius, Faraday Monument, etc. Professor Michael 1502, and visited by Davis, 1592 ; explored by Hawkins, Faraday, natural philosopher and chemist (see Electric1594; taken possession of by France, 1764. The French ity), died 25 Aug. 1867. A public meeting was held at were expelled by the Spaniards; and in 1771 Spain re- the Royal Institution, 21 June, 1869, the prince of Wales signed them to England. Not having been colonized by in the chair, to take measures to provide a public monus, the republic of Buenos Ayres assumed a right to these ument to him. A sufficient sum having been subscribed, islands, and a colony from that country settled at Port the production of a statue was intrusted to Mr. Foley. Louis; but owing to a dispute with America the settle- The statue was placed provisionally at the Royal Instiment was destroyed by the latter in 1831. In 1833 the tution, London, in 1876, and still remains there (1881). British flag was hoisted at Port Louis, and a British of- The Furaday Medal,to be given to distinguished forficer has since resided there. Governors, Wm. Clearer eiga pliilosophers by the Chemical Society, was awarded

1771 1775

1795 1801


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...d. 373


.d. 379



to M. Dumas, June, 1869; to professor Cannizzaro, May, FIRST CENTURY. Greele, 1872; to Dr. A. W. Hofmann, March, 1875; to professor



Hermas. A. Wurtz, and given to him after his lecture, 12 Nov.


.d. abt. 340 Barnal..s.

Athanasius. 1878; to professor H. Helmholtz, April, 1881. For Fur- Clemens Romanus.....d. 100

Ephrem Syrus.. d. abt. 378 aduy stcamship, see Steum.


..d. 115 Polycarp.. ........d. abt. 169

Cyril of Jerusalem. ....d. 386 Faradization, the medical application of the mag


Gregory Nazianzen ....d. 389 neto-electric currents which Faraday discovered in 1837. Justin Martyr. .....d. abt. 166 Macarius..

.d. abt. 391 Apparatus for this purpose was first made by M. Pixii, Irenæus ..d. abt. 200 Gregory Nyssen...d. abt. 394


Epiphanius.. ...d. 403 and employed by Dr. Neef of Frankfort. Farad," name

Jobn Chrysostom. .....d. 407

Greek. taken for a unit of electric capacity, 1875.

Cyril of Alexandria....d. 444 Clemens Alexandrinus, Theodoret.

..d. 457

d. abt. 217 Farce, a short comic drama, usually of one or two

Hippolytus... ...d. 230

Latin. acts, One by Otway is dated 1677. The best English


..d. abt. 253

Arnobius.. farces (by Foote, Garrick, Bickerstaff, etc.) appeared from

N. 303 Latin.

Lactantius, d. abt. 330 about 1740 to 1780. This species of dramatic entertain- Tertullian. d. abt. 220 Ambrose..

d. 397 ment originated in the droll shows which were exhibit- Minutius Felix....f. abt. 230 Jerome.

...d. 420

.d. 430 ed by charlatans and their buffoons in the open streets; Cyprian........... d. abt. 258 | Augustine... see Drama,

Fatimites, see Ali and Mahometanism. Farmers' Alliance, an organization of agricult

Fats are oils solid at ordinary temperatures. The ural reformers; held a provisional meeting 27 May, and researches of Chevreul since 1811 on their chemical nata conference 2 July, 1879. It was active during the ure are very important; see Candles. lections of April, 1880.

Faughard, see Foughard. Farmers' Union, National, established at Leaming

Faustus, a professor of magic, renowned in chapton, by lord Walsingham and others, to oppose the Agri- books, flourished about the end of the fifteenth century. cultural Laborers' Union, June, 1874.

Goethe's dramatic poem “ Faust” appeared in 1790. Farmers-general, see Fermiers.

Feasts and Festivals. The "Feasts of the Lord”

- viz., those of the Passover, Pentecost, Trumpets, and Farnese Family became important through the Tabernacles-were instituted 1490 B.C. (Lev. xxiii.). elevation of Alexander Farnese to the papacy as Paul Feast of Tabernacles, celebrated upon the dedication of the III. He gave his natural son Peter the duchy of Parma, Temple of Solomon, 1004 B.C. and his descendants ruled till the death of Antony with-Hezekiah (726 B.C.) and Josiah (623) kept the feast of Passover

in a most solemn manner. out issue in 1731. Alexander, prince of Parma, was gor. In the Christian church, the feasts of Christmas, Easter, Asernor of the Netherlands in 1579.

cension, and the Pentecost or Whitsuntide (which see), are

said to have been ordered to be observed by all Christians Farringdon Market, erected by the corporation in the first century. of London, near the abolished Fleet Market, was opened Rogation days appointed 469.

Jubilees in the Romish church were instituted by Boniface 20 Nov. 1829.

VIII. in 1300; see Jubilees. Farthing, an early English coin. Farthings in sil- For fixed festivals observed in the church of England, as set

tled at the Reformation et seq., see Book of Common Prayer. . ver were coined by king John; the Irish farthing of his Feasts of Charity; see Agape. reign (1210) is rare. Farthings were coined in England in silver by Henry VIII. First coined in copper by second month of the year, in which were celebrated Feb

February (from Februus, an Italian divinity), the Charles II., 1665; and again in 1672, when there was a large coinage of copper money. Half-farthings were first rua, feasts on behalf of the manes of deceased persons. coined in 1843; see Queen A me's Farthings. A single Numa, about 713 B.C. February 25 Constitution, sce

This month, with January, was added to the year by copy of the Penny-a-week Country Daily Newspaper (con

France, 1875. servative), No. 1, sold for 1d., 25 June, 1873. The Far. things act, 21 & 22 Vict. c. 75, 1858, relates to the payment

Feciales, or FETIALES, twenty in number, heralds fur portions of a mile travelled by third-class railway of Rome to denounce war or proclaim peace, appointed trains.

by Numa, about 712 B.C.

Federal States are those united by treaty as one Farthingale, see Crinoline.

state, without giving up self-government-as in SwitzerFasti Capitolini, marble tablets dug up in the land. The people of the Northern United States of forum at Rome, 1547, contain a list of the consuls and America during the great conflict in 1861-5 were styled other officers from the year of Rome 250 to 765. Other Federals; their opponents Confederates. fragments were found in 1817 and 1818. The “Fasti

Feejee, see Fiji. Consulares,” from 509 B.C. to A.1. 235, are given at the end of Smith's “ Dictionary of Greek and Roman An

Felony, in English law (says Blackstone, in 1765), tiquities."

comprises every species of crime which occasions the

forfeiture of land and goods. An act to abolish forfeitFasts, observed by most nations from the remotest ures for treason and felony, and to otherwise amend the antiquity: by the Jews (2 Chron. ss. 3); by the Nin-law relating thereto, passed 4 July, 1870. evites (Jouáh iii.); see Isaiah lviii. A fast was observed by the Jews on the great day of atonement, Lev. session in 1865, when courses of lectures were given. Dr.

Female Medical School, London, held its first xxiii., 1490 B.C. Moses fasted 40 days and nights on Sinai (Exod. xxiv.), 1491 B.C. The tirst Christian min- female dress, in 1866. She gave an autobiographical lect

Mary Walker attended Middlesex hospital, in a modified isters were ordained with fasting (A.1). 15), Acts xii. 2. Annual fasts, as that of Lent, and at other stated times, cision that "ladies should be admitted to study medicine

ure at St. James's Hall, 20 Nov. 1866. In 1869, the deand on particular occasions to appease the anger of God, in the university of Edinburgh ” led to disturbances. began in the Christian church in the second century (138). The Mahometan fast is termed Ramadan (which Female Orphan Asylum, Reddington. Surrey, established 1758

Female Orphans' Home, Hampton. Middlesex.. see). Fast-days are appointed by the Reformed church- Female Servants' Home Society.

in times of war andi pestilence (as 21 March, 1855, for Female Aid Society.. the Russian war, and 7 Oct. 1857, for the Indian mutiny); Female Suffrage, etc., see Women. see Abstinence.

Fencible Light Dragoons, a body of caralry Fathers of the Church. The following are the raised roluntarily in various counties of England and principal:

Scotland in 1794 to serve during the war in any part of

1855 1836

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