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Great Britain. This force (between 14,000 and 15,000), 1 Gen. Massey captured..

.4 or 6 March, 1867. which did its duty with much judgment during a period Rising at Midleton, in Cork; Daly, a leader, killed; rails

of South and Midland railway taken up. ..6 March, of intense popular excitement, was disbanded in 1800. Proclamation of the Irish republic sent to the Times and

other papers..

.6 March, “ Fencing was introduced into England from France. Fenian rising near Dublin; telegraph destroyed; attack Fencing-schools, having led to duelling in England, were on the police station at Tallaght repelled; several shot; prohibited in London by statute 13 Edw. I., 1285. In 208 prisoners taken into Dublin.

.7 March, 1859 there were eight teachers of fencing in London ; in 1000 Fonians hold market-place at Drogheda, but retreat

at the approach of police..

:7 March, " 1872, ten.

Capt. Maclure captured...

.31 March,

Special commission to try_230 Fenians-Whiteside, Fenians (the name of ancient Irish national militia), chief-justice: Deasy and Fitzgerald, begin (Massey, a“ brotherhood ” in the United States and Ireland united Keogh, Corydon, and McGougb, approvers), to liberate Ireland and establish a republic.* The agi- Burke and Doran sentenced to death, 1 May; reprieved,

9 April et seq. tation was begun, it is said, by Stephens in March, 1858,

26 May, and in 1864 enlistments and secret drillings took place. Many convictions of treason (M'Afferty, M'Clure, and A convention was formed in 1863 in America. The

others) and treason felony, and many discharged. May, Trials at Limerick begin...

..11 June, movement is opposed by the Roman Catholic clergy; see President Roberts retires; the party in the United States Ireland

said to be demoralized...


Many Fenians tried and convicted.. July and Aug. Riot between the Fenians and their opponents at the Ro

Several imprisoned Fenians released and sent to Amer. tondo, Dublin.....

...22 Feb. 1864

.Aug. and Sept. 25 persons arrested in Dublin, and the newspaper the

Fenian congress at Cleveland, O..

.Sept. Irish People (established Sept. 1863) seized, 15 Sept. ;

Kelly and Dçasy, two Fenians, remanded for further exothers arrested at Cork, etc.

...16-30 Sept. 1865

amination, rescued from the prisoners van, near ManThe Fenians in America publish an address, stating that

chester; and Brett, a policeman, shot for refusing to officers were going to Ireland to organize an army of

give up his keys.

.18 Sept. 200,000 men..

..Sept. Fenians arrested at Manchester.

.21 Sept.

Many persons taken up; 23 committed on charge of

murder; tried, 5 condemned to death (2 reprieved); 7 A ship with gunpowder seized at Liverpool........ Sept. sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment... 29 Oct.-12 Nov. Allocution of the pope, condemning secret societies,

Allen, Gould, and Larkin executed at Salford....23 Nov. 30 Sept. Funeral demonstration in London...

..24 Nov. Evidence that 50001. and 2000 pike-heads had been re

Trials of Halpin and others in Dublin. ....Oct.-Nov. ceived from America in...


Funeral demonstrations for Allen, etc., in Cork, 1 Dec. ; O'Donovan and 5 others committed for high-treason,

Dublin and Limerick.

.8 Dec. 2 Oct.. "

Address of the president and senate of the Fenian broth33 Fenians committed for trial.

..up to 14 Oct.

erhood of America to the “liberty-loving people of A Fenian provisional government at New York, and a

England,” dated New York.

.12 Dec. congress of 600 members held at Philadelphia, ....Oct.

Reunion of the Roberts and Stephens parties under a new Fenians in United States said to have raised 200,0001.,


.about 20 Dec. Oct. Premeditated explosion at Clerkenwell House of DetenCapture of James Stephens, Irish head-centre, 11 Nov.;

tion, London, to release Burke and Casey, leading Fe. he escapes from jail....

..24 Nov.

nians, at 3.45. (A cask of gunpowder was fired close Fierce disputes between the senate and O'Mahony, the

to the prison wall; Timothy Desmond, Jeremiah Allen, head-centro, who is charged with corruption and de.

and Ann Justice captured on suspicion)........13 Dec. posed; Mr. Roberts appointed his successor...... Dec. 380,000 Fenians reported in the United States......Jan: 1866 [Consequences of the explosion. —"Six persons were killed

* outright,' six more died from its effects, according to Habeas corpus act suspended in Ireland; about 250 sus

the coroner's inquests; Ave, in addition, owed their pected persons arrested immediately... .17 Feb.

deaths indirectly to this means; one young woman is Great mass meeting in New York, threatening to invade

in a madhouse, 40 mothers were prematurely contined, Canada..

.4 March,

and 20 of their babes died from the effects of the ex: Fenian schooner Friend captures British schooner Went.

plosion on the women; others of the children are worth, and scuttles her near Eastport, Me., U.S. 1 May,

dwarsed and unhealthy. One mother is now a raving James Stephens arrives in New York..

. 10 May, maniac; 120 persons were wounded; 50 went into St. Col. O'Niel and Fenians cross the Niagara and enter

Bartholomew's. Gray's-Inn-lane, and King's College Canada, 31 May; a contlict ensued with the volun

hospitals; 15 are permanently injured, with loss of tcers, with bloodshed...

..2 June,

eyes, legs, arms, etc.; besides 20,0001. worth of damage The United States generals Grant and Meade capture to person and property." -- Times, 29 April, 1868.] many retreating Fenians.,

..2 June et seq.

Capt. Mackay and others rifle a martello tower...27 Dec. Sweeny and others arrested

.6, 7 June, Audacious seizure of arms and ammunition in a gunPresident Johnson's proclamation against the Fenians, smith's shop in Cork.

..30 Dec. 7 June,

12 suspected Fenians captured at Merthyr-Tydvil..31 Dec. Spcar and others cross the boundary linc ncar Vermont,

Mullany, a prisoner, turus queen's evidence, and accuses 7 June; the corps demoralized; many return..9 June,

Barrett or Jackson (captured at Glasgow, 14 Jan.) of Much dissension among the Fenians........July et seq.

firing the barrel at Clerkenwell...

28 Jan. 1868 They exercise much influence in the elections in the Attack on martello tower near Waterford.. ....28 Jan. United States, in....

.. Oct.

Capt. Mackay arrested at Cork, 7 Feb.; much rioting TRIALS IN CANADA-Col. Lynch and. rev. John MacMa


11, 12 Feb. hon (sentenced to be hanged on 13 Dec.) reprieved, Conviction of Patrick Lennon, a leader.

..12 Feb. 24-26 Oct.

Habeas corpus act suspended till i March, 1869. ....Feb. James Stephens, “central organizer of the Irish repub- Mullany and Thompson convicted as accessories in mur. lic," said to sail from America,

24 Nov.
der of Brett.

.18 March, The British government offer 20001. for his apprehen- Capt. Mackay convicted; sentenced to 12 years' impris. sion...


20 March, Meaney, a delegate, arrested in London.


O'Farrell, a Fenian, wounds the duke of Edinburgh at Arms and ammunition seized in Dublin, Cork, and Lim

Port Jackson, 12 March; sentenced to death.31 Jarch, erick; many arrests.


Mr. Darcy M'Gee, M.P., shot dead by a Fenian at OtGen. Millen, head of the Fenian military department, de



7 April, nounces Stephens "as a cheat and a ruscal," and de

Trial of Wm. and Timothy Desmond, Nicholas English, clares the cause for the present hopeless, but exhorts John O'Keefe, Michael Barrett, and Ann Justice, for to watchfulness for an opportunity..

.......3 Dec.

murder (Clerkenwell outrage) begun 20; acquittal of Sweeny (released) rejoins the U. S. army...........Jan. 1867 Justice, 23; of O'Keefe, 24; and of the two Desmonds 22 convictions at Toronto...


and English, 27. Conviction of Barrett......27 April, 67 Fenians from Liverpool arrested in Dublin... 12 Feb.

Richard Burke, a leader, convicted of treason - felony, Irruption of Fenians into Chester; compelled to retire,

30 April, 11, 12 Feb.

Michael Barrett (for causing the Clerkenwell explosion) Outbreak in Kerry; Killarney threatened; capt. Mo.


...26 May, riarty and others captured...

12 Feb.

O'Donovan Rossa and others released, behave violently, Attack on coastguard station, Cahirciveen, 12 Feb.;

March, 1869 morcment collapsed....

.16 Feb.

The government declines to release others.. 18 Oct. Kilmallock police barrack defended for three hours by

Manifesto from John Savage, executive officer. ..... Dec. 14 constables, who drove off 200 armed Fenians, with

Fenian raid into Canada vigorously repelled by the mili. loss, by a sally.

.5 March, tia, and their general, O'Neill, captured by the United
States marshal.

.26 May, 1870
* Fenian oath: “I promise by the divine law of God to do Michael Davitt and John Wilson convicted of treason.
all in my power to obey the laws of the society F. B., and to felony for endeavoring to transmit arms secretly to
free and regenerate Ireland from the yoke of England. So Ireland (detected March).

18 July, help me God."

Captured Fenian generals (Thompson and Starr) in United


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States, sentenced to imprisonment for breach of neu- The French under Massena took Ferrara in 1796; but it trality laws....

...July, 1870 President Grant's proclamation against Fenian raids into

was restored to the pope in 1814. An Austrian garrison Canada,

.. 13 Oct.

held it from 1849; it retired in June, 1859, and the peoLetter from Mr. Gladstone announcing early release of ple rose and declared for annexation to Sardinia, which Fenian convicts...

. 15 Dec. The convicts released.

.Jan. 1871

was accomplished in March, 1860. The released convicts welcomed in the United States, Ferrars's Arrest. In March, 1542, Mr. George

Jan. The Fenians favor the French in the war.. Aug. 1870-Feb.

Ferrars, a member of parliament, while in attendance on Fenian raid into Manitoba suppressed by United States

the house, was taken in execution by a sheriff's officer troops, and gen. Neill arrested (see Ireland),

for debt, and committed to the Compter prison. The about 12 Oct.

house despatched their sergeant to require his release, Gen. Cluserct (a short time in the service of the Fenians) publishes an account of them in Fraser's Magazine :

which was resisted, and, an affray taking place, his mace he says, “ Their insurrection was foolishly planned and was broken. The house in a body repaired to the lords still more foolishly executed," and strongly advises to complain, when the contempt was adjudged to be very reconciliation with England..

..July, 1872 Great demonstration near Drogheda..

20 Sept.

great, and the punishment of the offenders was referred Escape of Fenian prisoners from West Australia in the

to the lower house. On another messenger being sent Catalpa, American ship, 17 April; arrived at New to the sheriffs by the commons, they delivered up the York..

..... 19 Aug; 1876 senator, and the civil magistrates and the creditor were O'Mahony, head-centre, dies at New York; grand funeral service..

....6 Feb. 1877 committed to the Tower, the inferior officers to Newgate, Davitt and other Fenian convicts released..Jan. to Sept. 1878 and an act was passed releasing Mr. Ferrars from liability Davitt prominent during the land league agitation.... 1880-81 for the debt. The king, Henry VIII., highly approved Arrested and committed to prison..... ..3, 4 Feb. 1881

of all these proceedings, and the transaction became the Fère-Champenoise (France). Here the French basis of that rule of parliament which exempts members army under Marmont, Mortier, and Arrighi were sur- from arrest.-Holinshed. prised and defeated by the allies under the prince of

Ferro, the most western of the Canary isles, from Schwarzenberg, 25 March, 1814, after an heroic resistance. whose west point some geographers have taken their Paris surrendered six days after.

first meridian, was known to the ancients, and was reFerghana, see Khokand.

discovered in 1402. Feriæ Latinæ, solemn Roman festivals, said to Ferrol (N.W. Spain). Upwards of 10,000 British have been instituted by Tarquin the Proud, about 534 landed near Ferrol under the command of sir James B.C. The principal magistrates of forty-seven towns of Pulteney, in Aug. 1800. They gained possession of the Latium assembled on a mount near Rome, and with the heights; but, despairing of success, on account of the Roman authorities offered a bull to Jupiter Latialis. strength of the works, sir James re-embarked his troops. Fermentation, termed by Gay-Lussac one of the His conduct was much condemned. Soult captured Fer

An insurrection of about 1500 men in most mysterious processes in nature: he showed that in rol, 27 Jan. 1809. the process, 45 lbs. of sugar are resolved into 23 of alcohol the arsenal here broke out, headed by brigadier Pozas and 22 of carbonic acid. His memoir appeared in 1810. and capt. Montojo, who raised the red tag, 11 Oet. They In 1861 Pasteur brought forward evidence to show that dispersed or surrendered when about to be attacked, 17 fermentation depends on the presence of minute organ

Oct, 1872. isms in the fermenting fluid, and that the source of all

Fescennine Verses were rude extemporary diasuch organisms is the atmosphere. For his researches logues, frequently licentious, in favor among the ancient he was awarded an annual pension of 120,000 francs in Etruscans at weddings, and still popular in Italy. 1874.

Festivals, see under Feasts, Clergy, Music. Fermiers Généraux, officers who farmed the

Fête de Dieu, a feast of the Roman church in French revenues previous to 1789, frequently with much honor of the real presence in the Lord's Supper, kept on oppression. Lavoisier and 27 of these were executed the Thursday after Trinity Sunday ; see Corpus Christi. 8 May, 1794.

Berengarius, archbishop of Angers, opposed the doctrine Ferndale Colliery Explosion; 8 Nov. 1867 ; of transubstantiation, and to atone for his crime a yearly about 178 lives lost; see under Coal.

procession was made at Angers, called la fête de Dieu, Ferns (Ireland), an ancient bishopric, once archi

1019. episcopal. St. Edæn was seated here in 598. Leigblin Fête de Vertu, an annual assemblage, chiefly of and Ferns were united in 1600; and by the Church young persons, to whom were adjudged rewards for inTemporalities act, passed Aug. 1833, both were united to dustry and virtue. These fêtes, held at Nuneham, in the bishopric of Ossory ; see Ossory.-Ferns, an order Oxfordshire, begun by lady Harcourt in 1789, were conof cryptogamous plants, now much cultivated in Wardian tinued till her death. cases (which see, and also Nature-printing).

Feudal Laws. The tenure of land by suit and Ferozeshah (India). The British, commanded by service to lord or owner, in use in England by the Saxons, sir Hugh Gough, attacked the intrenchments of the about 600, was mainly introduced by William I. in 1066. Sikhs, and carried their first line of works, 21 Dec. 1845; The kingdom was divided into baronies, which were but night coming on, the operations were suspended till given on condition of the holders furnishing the king daybreak, when their second line was stormed by gen. with men and money. The vassalage, limited by Henry Gilbert, and 74 guns captured. The Sikhs advanced to VII., 1495, was abolished by statute, 1660. The feudal retake their guns, but were repulsed with great loss, and system was introduced into Scotland by Malcolm II. retreated towards the Sutlej, 22 Dec.; and recrossed that in 1008, and the hereditary jurisdictions were finally river unmolested, 27 Dec. The British loss was reckoned abolished in that kingdom, 1746-7. The feudal laws, at 2415.

established in France by Clovis I. about 486, were Ferrara, formerly part of the exarchate of Ravenna,

discountenanced by Louis XI. in 1470. under the emperors of the East. It was subdued by the

Feuillants, a religious order founded by Jean de la Lombards in the eighth century, and taken from them Barrière in 1577 at the abbey of Feuillant, near Toulouse, about 752 by Pepin, who gave it to pope Stephen II. and settled in Paris in 1587. The Feuillant Club, formed About 1208 it fell into the hands of the house of Este in Paris by La Fayette and others in 1789, to counteract (which see), and became the principal seat of the litera- the intrigues of the Jacobins, was so named from the ture and fine arts in Italy. Pope Clement VIII. ob- convent where they met. A body of Jacobins burst tained the sovereignty in 1598, on the death of the duke into their hall and obliged them to separate, 25 Dec. Alphonso II., the last legitimate male of the Este family. 1791; and the club was broken up in 1792. His illegitimate nephew, Cæsar, became duke of Modena. Fez (in the ancient Mauritania, Africa), founded by

Edris, a descendant of Mahomet, about 787, was long cene creed, in respect to the procession of the Holy Ghost capital of the kingdom of Fez. After long-continued from the Father and the Son, in a council at Toledo, 589; struggles, it was annexed to Morocco about 1550. Leo adopted by the Western, but rejected by the Eastern Africanus describes it as containing more than 700 tem- church since 662. The omission of the phrase was conples, mosques, and other public edifices, in the twelfth sidered at the Old Catholic Conference at Bonn, Aug. century.

1875; see Athanasiun Creed. Fictions, see Romances.-FICTIONS ix Law were Filterers. A plan for purifying corrupted water invented by the lawyers in the reign of Edward I, as was patented by William Woolcott in 1675. Other a means of carrying cases from one court to another, modes followed. James Peacock's method of filtration whereby the courts became checks to each other.— Hume. was patented in 1791, and many others since; Ransome's, Lord Mansfield, in the court of King's Bench, emphati- 1856. cally declared that "no fiction of law shall ever so far Apparatus for freshening salt-water, brought forward by Grant, prevail against the real truth as to prevent the execu- 1819; by Macbride, 1849; Gravely, 1858. Dr. Normandy's tion of justice,” 31 May, 1784. They have been mostly

greatly improved apparatus, 1859, much used in the royal

navy abolished in the present century. “Fidelio," Beethoven's single opera; composed in

Fine Arts, see Arts, Paintings, Sculpture, Engrav1804, produced at Vienna, 20 Nov. 1805.

ing, etc. Fidenæ, a Sabine city, frequently at war with Rome: breaking ancient entails and alienating estates, began in

Fines AND RECOVERIES, conferring the power of It was finally captured and the inhabitants enslaved, 426 the reign of Edward IV., but was not, properly speaking, B.C., by the Romans, whose ambassadors they had slain. law till Henry VII., by correcting some abuses that at

Field. The country gentleman's weekly paper, de- tended the practice, gave indirectly a sanction to it, 1487. voted to natural history, sports, etc., first appeared 3 Jan. Fines and recoveries were abolished in 1833. 1853.

Finisterre, see Cape Finisterre. Field of March and May, see Champ.

Finland, a Russian grand-duchy, in the middle of Field of the Cloth of Gold, a plain near Ardres, the twelfth century was conquered by Eric IX. of Swenear Calais, in France, on which Henry VIII. met den, who introduced Christianity. It was several times Francis I. of France, 7-25 June, 1520. The nobility taken by the Russians (1714, 1742, and 1808), and reof both kingdoms displayed their magnificence, and stored (1721 and 1743); but in 1809 they retained it by many involved themselves in debt. Paintings of the treaty; see Abo. Its political constitution was confirmed embarkation and interview are at Windsor Castle.

by the czar in 1800, 1825, and 1855. Population in 1862, Field-marshal, see Marshal.

1,746,229; in 1867, 1,830,853 ; 1875, 1,912, 647. During

a dreadful famine whole villages were starved, March, Fiery Chamber, see Chambre Ardente.

1868. Fieschi's Attempt on LOUIS PHILIPPE, see

Finnian, see Fenians.
France, 1835.

Finsbury Park, London, N. In 1866 land was
Fifth-monarchy Men, about 1645, supposed the
period of the Millennium to be just at hand, when Jesus purchased, and preparations for the park began; and it
Christ should descend from heaven and erect the fifth

was opened 7 Aug. 1869.
universal monarchy. They proceeded so far as to elect Fire. The poets supposed that fire was stolen from
him king at London. Cromwell dispersed them, 1653.— heaven by Prometheus. Heraclitus, about 596 B.C.,
Kearsley. Another rising, with loss of life, was sup- maintained that the world was created from fire, and
pressed, 6 Jan. 1661. Thos. Venner, a cooper, their leader, deemed to be a god omnipotent; see Parsees.
and 16 others, were executed soon after.

Fire Insurance, see Insurance.
Fig-tree (Ficus Carica), brought from the south of Fire, Royal SOCIETY FOR PROTECTION FROM; see
Europe before 1548. The Botany Bay tig, Ficus Austra- Fire-escapes.
lis, brought from New South Wales in 1789.

Fire-annihilator, an apparatus invented by Mr.
Figures, see Arithmetic and Digits.

T. Phillips, and made known by him in 1819. When Fiji, or Viti Isles, in the Pacific Ocean, about 1500 put in action, steam and carbonic acid are formed, which miles from Sydney. There are above 200 isles, 80 in- extinguish flame. It was not successful commercially. habited; the largest about 360 miles in circumference, l'Extincteur was invented by Dr. F. Carlier, and patentwith about 60,000 inhabitants, 1200 Europeans.

ed by A. Vignon in July, 1862. It is an iron cylinder

filled with water and carbonic acid gas, generated by biThe islands offered by the king. Thakomban, and chiefs

to the British government, but not accepted.....July, 1859 carbonate of soda and tartaric acid. The apparatus was The house of commons granted 16801. for expenditure in developed and improved by Mr. W. B. Dick in Manthem, and European settlements made...

ual and Chemical Fire-engines, which give a continuous Annexation to Great Britain proposed in parliament; de

clined 25 June, 1872; but unconditional cession to the tlow of water and gas, patented April, 1869.
British government accepted by sir Hercules Robinson,
July; and announced by him.

25 Oct. 1874 The " Mata fuego,” or “Fire killer," of M. Banolas of Paris, His club sent as a present to the queen by the king, Tha

was successfully exhibited at the Alexandra Palace, 16 Oct.

1880. Great bodies of tlamo were almost instantaneously komban. Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon first governor..

extinguished. Many deaths by epidemic measles. .

early in

Fire-arms, see Artillery, Cannon, Needle-gun, ChasseOutbreak of cannibal devil worshippers suppressed by the

military; about 20 ringleaders executed... about june, 1876 pot, and Pistols. The first small tire-arms were a species George William Des Væux governor... .....Oct. 1880 of cannon, borne by two men.

Files are mentioned (1 Sam. xiii. 21) 1093 B.C. The Fire arms made at Perugia, in Italy.. manufacture of them has attained to great perfection Edward IV., when he landed at Ravenspur, is said to

Employed by the Burgundians at Arras.

1414 by means of tile-cutting machinery. That set up by

heve been accompanied by 300 Flemings, armed with Mr. T. Greenwood of Leeds, in 1859, was invented by M.

hand guns..

At Morat the Swiss are said to have had 10,000 arquebus. Bernot of Paris. It is said that the price of files made

iers (men armed with fire arms)...

1476 by it is reduced from 32d. to 4d. per dozen.

Fire-arms said to have been used at the siege of BerFilibusters (properly Flibustiers), a name given to the freebooters who plundered the coasts of America in The petronel

, from poitrine, the chest) or arquebus camo

into use, 1450; and the musket employed in the armies the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; sec Buccaneers of the emperor Charles V. and Nicaragua.

All these were of very rude construction, being Orst dis

charged by a lighted match, afterwards (about 1517) by Filioque (* and from the Son”), inserted in the Ni

a wheel lock, then by the ti nt.

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The match-lock and wheel-lock superseded by the flint. W. Dennis's portable self-acting pneumatic fire-engine

... about 1692 was tried successfully at gas-works near the Thames, The rev. Mr. Forsythe patented the percussion principle

30 Nov. 1876 of igniting gunpowder in muskets, by means of deto

Fire-escapes were patented by David Marie (1766) nating powder...

... April, 1807 Breech - loading revolvers, invented by Samuel Coli and Joachim Smith (1773). The Royal Society for the (American), 1829; patented..

1835 Protection of Life from Fire was first established in 1836; Colt's revolvers adopted by the United States govern- its object was not fully attained till 1813, when it was rement for army and navy use.

1845 Percussion caps came into use.... ...between 1820 and 1830 organized, beginning with six escape stations in London; Percussion musket; pattern..

1842 in March, 1859, it possessed 67; in 1866, 85. In 1858 Artillery carbine; pattern..

504 fires had been attended and 57 persons rescued. In Victoria carbine (for cavalry). Dahlgren's ( American ) ritled guns-heavy calibre-in

1861 it was stated that 84 lives had been saved by the troduced into the United States navy

1850 society's officers. In 1866, 695 fires had been attended Regulation rite musket; pattern.

1851 and 78 lives saved. In Aug. 1867, the plant of the sociSharp's rifles and other long-range small-arms intro.

ety was virtually presented to the Board of Works, in duced...

... about 1855 Application of machinery in small-arms factory estab. consequence of the passing of the Metropolitan Firelished at Enfield (the old musket, Brown Bess, super- brigade Act, 1865. Versmann's composition for renderseded).....

...Jan. 1857 ing washing dresses fire-proof was published about 1860. The Spencer rifle (American)breech-loading; eight. shooter; came into use..


Fireman's Respirator, the invention of Dr. TynGatling guns (American) first made, 1862; improved, dall (1870–71), is a combination of his respirator of cot

1865 et seq. ton-wool moistened with glycerine, and Dr. Stenhouse's Mr. Jacob Snider's system of breech-loading invented in 1859; presented to the British government; finally

charcoal respirator. Armed with this apparatus, a man adopted, 1866. He received 10001, for expenses in may remain a long time in the densest smoke. June; died 25 Oct....


Fires in London. The conflagration of a city, with 100,000 breech-loaders said to have been ordered by the British government


all its tumult of concomitant distress, is one of the most New government advertises for propositions for conver dreadful spectacles which this world can offer to human sion of Enfield rifles into breech loaders.

Aug. “Chassepot" guns in use in France..

See Chicago, Suntiago, Liverpool, 1 Oct.

eyes.- Dr. Johnson. War oflice advertises for proposals for breech-loading

1862, etc. rifles, to replace those now in use.

22 Oct. A great part of the city destroyed, including St. Paul's Nine systems selected for further trial; 10001. to be


962 and 1037 awarded to the best..

.. June, 1867 One at London bridge begin on the Southwark side, and Snider's rifle reported very successful at Wimbledon,

was communicated to the other side and hemmed in a July,

numerous crowd; about 3000 were drowned, and a 61,682 new arms had been made at Enfield; 175,550 con

great part of the city, north and south, burned.... 1212 verted to Sniders up to.......

..Dec. The Great Fire, whose ruins covered 436 acres, extended The "Money Walker” ritle patented by Mr. Mowbray- from the Tower to the Temple church, and from the Money and lieut. col. Walker) tried and approved, northeast gate to Holborn bridge. It began in a bak

18 June, 1868 er's house in Pudding lane, behind Monument yard, A report in favor of the Martini and Henry rifle issued and destroyed, in the space of four days, 89 churches, (adopted)

.. March, 1869 including St. Paul's), the city gates, the Royal Ex: An act to grant a duty of exciso on licenses to use guns change, the Custom-house, Guildhall, Sion College, and passed...

.9 Aug. 1870 many other public buildings, besides 13,290 houses, Complaints respecting the Martini-Henry rifle (for weight laying waste 400 streets. About 209,000 persons en. and recoil)..

..Aug. 1874 camped in Islington and Highgate fields ( see Monu. (Seo Mitrailleuse and Gatling.)


.2-6 Sept. 1668 In Southwark, 60 houses burned.

1676 Fire-brigade. The “ London Fire-engine Estab- In Wapping, 150 houses burned, 50 lives lost

1715 lishment,” an amalgamation of the engines of the differ- Custom-house burned...

1718 ent companies, was established in London in 1832 by Mr. În Cornbill ward, 200 houses burned; this fire began in

At Sha:lwell, 50 houses burned.

10 Sept. 1736 Charles Bell Ford, director of the Sun fire-office. It then

Change alley, and was the most terrible since the great had 80 men and 19 stations. In 1863 it had 130 men fire of 1666..

. 25 March, 1743 and 20 stations. In May, 1862, a commission recom

At Covent Garden, 50 houses burned.

1759 In Smithfield 23 houses burned..

1761 mended the establishment of a fire-brigade, which was

At Shadwell, 30 houses burned. effected by the Metropolitan Fire-brigade act in 1865. In Throgmorton street, 20 houses burned.

1774 The establishment then gave up its plant to the Metro- At Wapping, 20 houses..

1775 politan Board of Works. The fire-brigade is supported At Horselydown, 30 houses, besides many warehouses and

At Hermitage stairs, 31 houses..

1779 by a jd, rate, and by contributions from government and ships..

.30 April, 1780 from the insurance offices. It came into action and its Newgate, etc., by the Gordon mob.

...June, energies were successfully tested at the great tire at St. In Aldersgate'street, 40 houses; the loss exceeding 100,

In the Strand, 40 houses burned

1781 Katharine's docks, 1 Jan. 1866.


.5 Nov. 1783 Fire-damp Indicator, a small apparatus, about At Rotherhithe, 20 houses

The Opera-house.

.17 June, 1789

..12 Oct. 1790 the size of a chronometer, invented by Mr. G. F. Ansell, Again, when many ships and 60 houses were consumed, and patented by him in 1865, by which the presence of

14 Sept. 1791 very small quantities of tire-damp or light carburetted At Wapping, 630 houses, and an East India warehouse, in

Pantheon, Oxford street.....

....14 June, 1792 hydrogen gas may be detected in mines. It is an appli

which 35,000 bags of saltpetre were stored: the loss cation of the law of the diffusion of gases.

1,000,0001. (tents for the sufferers were lent by the goy. ernment).

.21 July, 1794 Fire - detector AND ALARM, a mechanical and Astley's amphitheatre.. chemical apparatus invented by prof. Grechi, which St. Paul's church, Covent garden..

11 Sept. 1795 causes a bell to be rung and exhibits colored light when in the Minories, 30 houses..

At Shadwell, 20 houses burned

.1 Nov. 1796

.23 March, 1797 the temperature of a room is greatly increased. It was in the King's Bench, 50 residences. ...14 July, 1799 tried at the International exhibition, London, 4 June, 1873. Near the Customs, three West India warehouses; loss


..11 Feb. 1800 Fire-engines are said to have been invented by At Wapping, 30 houses..

...6 Oct. Ctesibius, 250 B.C. They are mentioned by Pliny, A.D.

In Store street, Tottenham Court road, immense property 70. A "water-bow” was patented by Thomas Grent in the great tower over the choir of Westminster abbey


..27 Sept. 1802 1632 ; one was constructed by John Van der Heyden


.....9 July, 1803 about 1663. Bramah's engine was patented in 1793. Astley's again, and 40 houses.

1 Sept. Mr. John Braithwaite constructed a steam tire-engine in Frith street, Soho, lasted several days; many houses de1830. A trial of steam fire-engines took place at the


.2 Dec. Surrey theatre

12 Aug. 1805 Crystal Palace, Sydenham, on 1, 2, 3 July, 1863, when Covent-garden theatre.

20 Sept. 1803 prizes were awarded to a large one by Merryweather, Drury-lane theatre

.24 Feb. 1809 and a small one by Shand and Mason; see Fire-anni- In Conduit street; Mr. Windham, in aiding to save Mr. hilutor.

North's library, received an injury which caused his death,

.9 July,

17 Sept.



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In Bury street, St. Mary-axe, half the street made ruins, Mr. Joel's, Fore street, City; 4 lives lost.. 21 May, 1862

12 June, 1811 Mr. Boor's, druggist, Bishopsgate street; explosion; 2 Custom-house: warehouses and public records destroyed,

lives lost

.7 June, 12 Feb. 1814 Great Cumberland street, Hyde park; Mr. S. Barrett At Rotherhithe, 60 houses and several ships destroyed; and 2 daughters burned..

15 Aug. loss 80.0001..

....16 March, 1820 Messrs. Price's oil-mills, Blackfriars, burned; great loss At Mile end; loss 200,0001.. .22 Jan, 1821 of property..

20 Nov. In Smithtield; loss 100,0001.

.14 Aug. 1822 Ancient Austin-friars church, City, partially destroyed, Royalty theatre, Wellclose square, destroyed ...11 April, 1826

22 Nov. In Red Lion street, 15 houses.

.6 June, 1828 Mr. Chard's, Portland street, Soho; 6 lives lost...26 Dec. Argyle rooms destroyed...

.5 Feb. 1830 Messrs. Capel's, Seething lanc, City; great destruction of English Opera-house, etc., burned

.16 Feb.

........18 April, 1863 Houses of parliament consumed..

..16 Oct. 1834 Warehouses of Messrs. Grant and others, between Wood Fenning's wharf, London bridge, etc.; loss 250,0001.,

street and Milk street; property worth about 100,0001. 30 Aug. 1836 destroyed...

....19 Dec. The Royal Exchange destroyed..

.10 Jan. 1838 Meriton's wharf, Dockhead; immense loss of property, At Wapping, 12 houses.. .16 June, 1840

7 June, 1864 Camberwell church..

.7 Feb. 1841 Royal Savoy chapel, Strand, destroyed.. .7 July, Astley's theatre again...

.8 June,

Haberdashers' hall and Messrs. Tapling and others' wareAt the Tower; the armory and 280,000 stand of arms, etc.,


19 Sept. destroyed

...30 Oct. Messrs. Barry, Sufferance wharves, Dockhead; great loss, Raggett's hotel, Dover street, Piccadilly; several eminent

25, 26 Nov. persons perished. ..27 May, 1845 Surrey theatre destroyed.

.30, 31 Jan. 1865 Several houses in New square, Lincoln's Inn ....14 Jan. 1849 Saville House (where George III. was born), Leicester Olympic theatre.

29 March,

.28 Feb. One in St. Martin's lane (at a publican's nained Ben Poulterers' arms, Leadenhall market; 2 lives lost, Caunt);three lives lost.. ..15 Jan. 1851

13 June, Fire at Duke street, London bridge; property lost esti. Messrs. Meeking & Co., Holborn; damage 30,0001., mated at 60,0001.. ..19 Feb

24 June, At the Rose and Crown, Love lane, City; 4 lives lost, Messrs. Sotheby & Co., auctioneers; valuable library

18 May,

.29 June,
Foot of London bridge, four large hop warehouses burn. Great fire at Beale's wharf; about 18,0001. damage,
ed; loss 150,0001.
. 23 June,

30 Oct. Collard and Co., pianoforte-makers, Camden Town; loss Immense fire at St. Katharine's docks.

1 Jan. 1866 60,0001..

...19 Dec. Holland & Hennen's premises, Duke street, BloomsThe warehouses of Messrs. Pawson, St. Paul's churchyard, bury, destroyed

.26 Aug burned..

.24 Feb. 1853 Great fire in Haydon square, Minories; depot of NorthWorks of Gutta-percha Company, near City road; loss western Railway company, and other warehouses; 100,0001.

.5 June,
great loss..

..11 Sept. Kirkman's pianoforte manufactory.

.10 Aug

Standard theatre, Shoreditch, burned down......21 Oct. Messrs. Scott Russell & Co.'s works, Millwall; loss in Hampstead road, 13 lives lost...

.....5 Nov. 100.0001.

..10 Sept. North wing of the Crystal Palace destroyed .....30 Dec. Premises of Messrs. Savill & Edwards, printers, Chan. Quebec street, Oxford street; 6 lives lost. ... .11 March, 1867 dos street, destroyed...

.30 Sept. Rotherhithe, 16 or 17 houses burned; about 100 persons Premises of Townend & Co., Bread street, destroyed;


.12 Sept. loss about 100,0001,

31 Dec. Her Majesty's theatre, Royal opera-house, destroyed (see Messrs. Cubitt's premises, Pimlico.. .17 Aug. 1854 Opera)

6 Dec. Whittington Club house..

.3 Dec. Oxford music - hall, Oxford street, partially destroyed, Premises of Messrs. Routledge, Messrs. Rennie, etc.,

11 Feb. 1868 Blackfriars road; loss, 1 life and 150,0001.......16 Feb. 1855 Above 20 shops burned in Portman market, Marylebone, Of Eina steam battery at Messrs. Scott Russell's works;

23 Feb. loss about 120,0001...

......3 May, Hubbard and Stutters's hop-warehouses, and many small Pavilion theatre ..13 Feb. 1856 houses, destroyed.

10 Aug Covent garden theatre..

.5 March,

Northumberland House, Strand; valuable pictures, etc., Messrs. Scott Russell's (third fire), much valuable ma.


.19 Aug chinery destroyed.... .12 March, Adelaide rooms, Strand, destroyed..

.14 March, 1869
Messrs. Dobbs's premises, Fleet street ......1 April, All-Saints church, Walworth, destroyed.. 27 April,
Shad Thames flour-mill; loss about 100,0001....17 July, Mrs. Jago's, Pentonville hill; 3 perish. ..5 June,
Messrs. Broadwood's, pianoforte - makers, Westminster, Moscow road, Bayswater; through explosion of fire-

12 Aug
works; 7 persons perisb...

..1 Oct. Premises of Messrs. Almonds, army-accoutrement mak- Mr. McMicken's, Newington butts; 4 lost.. ...10 Oct.

ers, and others, in St. Martin's lane; estimated loss Old Star and Garter hotel, Richmond; Wm. Lever, the 20,000l ....

.9 Nov.
manager, killed..

... 12 Jan. 1870 Messrs. Pickford's premises, at Chalk · farm station, Mr. Hill's, upholsterer, Waterloo road; 6 children suffo9 June, 1857 cated.

23 July, Gilbert street, Bloomsbury; 15 lives lost. . 28 March, 1858 Church street, Rotherhithe; 3 lives lost..

.23 Aug Fresh wharf; 25,0001. of silk..

.21 June, Cecil House, Cecil street, Strand; Mr. Forbes burned; London docks; great explosion: man killed by fright; architectural books, etc., of Mr. G. G. Scott destroyed, loss about 150,0001.. ..29 June,

4 Sept. Limehouse; Messrs. Forest, Dixon's, etc. premises de Mr. Bush's, manufacturing chemist, Liverpool street, stroyed, and Blackwall railway arches; insured,

Bishopsgate; 4 lives lost...

.27 Sept. 19, 20 July, Chapel street, Edgware roud, 4 lives lost; Crouch end, Great James street, Marylebone; 6 lives lost...26 Feb. 1859 Hornsey, 3 lives lost...

.5 March, 1871 Messrs. Hubbuck & Co., Lime street; 1 life and a large Pavilion road, Chelsea; 5 deaths

.. 26 March, amount of property

. 20 May, Gray's-inn road; James Ford, a fireman, lost his life West Kent wharf and New Hibernia wharf; destroyed after saving 6.

....7 Oct property valued at 200,000l. ; fire lasted nearly a month; Thames street; Nicholson's and other warehouses de commenced.. ..17 Aug 1860 stroyed; great loss..

.24 Oct. St. Martin's hall, built for Mr. Hullah, and other premises, Oxford music hall; quite destroyed.

.1 Nov. 1872 destroyed.

26 Aug.

City flour.mills, Upper Thames street; 1 fireman killed, Thames iron-works, Blackwall.. ..31 Aug

10, 11, 12 Nov. Kilburn church, Maida hill, destroyed..

29 Nov. Grosvenor mews, Bond street, 6 killed.. 27 May, 1873 Surrey music-hall destroyed

11 June, 1861 Alexandra palace, Muswell bill, destroyed; 1 life lost, Cotton's wharf and depot and other wharves near Tooley

9 June, street, containing oil and other combustible substances, Silver street, Stepney; 2 killed.....

.10 Sept. took fire about half past 4 P.M., 22 June, and continued Lloyd's newspaper printing oflice, Whitefriars, destroyed, burning for a month. (Several persons were killed, in

4 P.M. 29 Dec. cluding James Braidwood, the able superintendent of Pantechnicon (which see), Knightsbridge; much valuable the London tire-brigade; the loss of property was esti. property destroyed

13, 14 Feb. 1874 mated at 2,000,0007.).

Carnaby street, W.; 2 lives lost.

..15 Feb. Davis's wharf, Horselydown, burned; loss about 15,0001., Latta's great hop warehouse, Bermondsey, destroyed, 1 Aug.

28 Dec. Near Paternoster row; Messrs. Longman's, booksellers, Rimmel's perfumery manufactory, Beaufort House, Messrs. Knight's, tallow-melters, and others; loss above Strand, destroyed.

19 March, 1875 50.0001..

..4 Sept. W. Walker's cabinet manufactory, Bunhill row, E.C., deMr. Price's, Fountain court, Strand; 3 lives lost....3 Jan. 1862 stroyed; estimated loss 30,0001..

.14 Sept. At Campden House, Kensington, pictures and other valua. Mr. H. A. Hankey's new mansion, near St. Anne's gate, ble property of Mr. Woolley destroyed (see Trials, 1863), St. James's park, destroyed; about 60,0001. damage, 23 March,

7, 8 Oct. Ur. Dean's, Berkeley street, Clerkenwell; 3 lives lost, East London Rice and Flour Mills, Devonshire street,

5 May,
and 18 other buildings..

......3 Jan. 1876

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