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Chick's Great Western Pantechnicon... .2 June, 1876 | South street, New York, public stores, with 20,000 chests Messrs. Warner's and other premises, Brooke's wharf, of tea; loss $1,500,000..

.28 Jan. 1840 Upper Thames street...

15-18 June, Great warehouse fire, Water street, New York....7 May, 1841 Little Windmill street, Haymarket; about $0,0001, dam- National theatre, New York, again..

..29 May, age; many poor sufferers.

. 15 July,

Broome street, New York, 100 houses burned..31 March, Bridgman's saw-mills, St. Luke's, destroyed.24, 25 July, Tribune building, New York...

.5 Feb. 1845 Grant & Co.'s printing office, etc., Turnmill street, Clerk- Pittsburgh, Pa., 1000 buildings; loss about $6,000,000, enwell; about 100,0001, loss. ..10, 11 Aug.

10 April, Mill street, Hanover square, W., 3 lives lost.....18 Sept. Bowery theatre, New York (4th time)... New Wharf flour-mills, etc., Rotherhithe, destroyed; Quebec, Canada, 1500 buildings; many lives and an imabove 80.000l, loss..

.8 Oct.
mense amount of property lost.

28 May, Near Old Kent road, 2 lives lost; suspected arson,

Eighteenth and adjoining streets, New York, 100 houses,

2 Nov. House of Correction, Clerkenwell, mill-house, etc.; no In less than a month afterwards, 1300 dwellings-in all, prisoners injured or escaped..

.24 March, 1877 two thirds of the city-were destroyed... .28 June, Charing-cross restaurant, 1 life lost..

21 May,

New York city, 302 stores and dwellings, 4 lives, and Little Britain, E.C., a paraffine lamp upset; 4 lives lost, $6,000,000 of property..

...19 July, 9 July, St. Johns, Newfoundland; nearly the whole town de. No. 250 Mile End road; 2 lives lost..

.23 Oct.

stroyed; 6000 people deprived of homes .....12 June, 1846 Scottish corporation hall, Crane court, Fleet street (built Quebec Theatre Royal; 47 persons burned to death, by Wren); burned many valuable portraits, etc.,

14 June, 14 Nov. Nantucket, 300 buildings and contents, valued at $800,000, Watson's wharf, Wapping; loss about 30,0001.....31 Dec.

13 July, Manchester warehouses, Watling street; Crocker & Co., At Albany, 600 buildings, besides steamboats, piers, etc.; and others; about 200,0001. loss...

..12 Jan. 1878 24 acres burned over; loss $3,000,000 ..9 Sept. 1848 Elephant and Castle theatre destroyed.. .26 March, At St. Louis, 15 blocks of houses and 23 steamboats; Price & Co., oil-merchants, etc.

..3 Sept.
loss estimated at $3,000,000..

17 May, 1849 Messrs. Tylor's, brass - founders, etc., Newgate street; Taylor's machine shop, 63 lives lost.

....4 Feb. 1850 great loss

.2, 3 Jan. 1879 At Philadelphia, 350 buildings; loss estimated at New East London theatre, Whitechapel road; several $1,500,000; 25 persons were killed, 9 drowned, and 120 houses injured

16 March,

.9 July, Wesley's chapel, City roud, nearly destroyed; caused by Fredericton, N. B., four entire blocks in the centre of heating apparatus

7 Dec.
the city, nearly 300 buildings..

11 Nov. Holborn, Roworth's printing offico.

,19 April, 1880 Nevada, Cal., over 200 buildings destroyed; loss estiMessrs. Hodgkinson's, chemists, and others; 4 perish, mated at $1,300,000. ...

12 March, 1851 30 April, San Francisco, Cal., nearly 2500 buildings burned; estiThe Duke's theatre, Holborn, burned.

.4 July,

mated loss about $3,500,000; many lives lost, 3-5 May, Whitechapel church, recently rebuilt, destroyed, 26 Aug. Stockton, Cal.; loss $1,500,000.

14 May, Trinity lane. Thames street, large block of buildings, and San Francisco, Cal., 500 buildings; estimated loss much property destroyed... .3 Feb. 1881 $3,000,000..

.22 June, Co-operative stores, Haymarket, destroyed; loss about Concord, N. H., greater part of the business portion of 20,0001..

.23 April,
the town destroyed....

.24 Aug. Mr. Allen's, stationer, No. 96 Walworth road; 4 deaths, Congress Library, Washington city, 35,000 volumes, with

26 April,
works of art...

24 Dec. No. 422 Portobello road, Notting hill; 6 deaths, 16 May At Montreal (see Montreal).

...8 July, 1852 (Wm. Nash, shopkeeper, charged with arson).30 May, Harper & Brothers' printing and publishing house, New There were 953 fires in 1854; 1113 in 1857; 1114 in 1858

York; loss over $1,000,000..

10 Dec. 1853 (38 lives lost); 1183 in 1861. 1303 fires in 1862; 1404 Metropolitan Hall and Lafarge Hotel, New York city. in 1863; and 1715 in 1864. In 1866, 1338 tires (326 se.

On the same day, Custom-house at Portland, Me., rious); in 1867, 1397 ores (245 serious); in 1868, 1668

8 Jan. 1854 fires (235 serious); in 1869, 1572 fires (199 serious); in At Jersey City, N. J., 30 factories and houses...30 July, 1870, 1946 fires (276 serious); in 1871, 1912 (207 seri. Damariscotta, Me., almost entirely destroyed. On the ous); in 1872, 1494 (120 serious); in 1973, 1548 (166 se

same day, more than 100 houses and factories in Troy, rious: 35 lives lost); in 1874, 1573 (154 serious: 23 lives N. Y., and a considerable portion of Milwaukee, Wis., lost); in 1875, 1668 (163 serious: 29 lives lost); in


..25 Aug 1876, 1787 (166 serious: 35 lives lost); in 1877, 1708 At Lockport, N. Y., a large portion of the town destroyed, (159 serious: 29 lives lost); in 1878, 1659 (170 seri.

2 Nov. 1855 ous); in 1879, 1718; 1880, 1871 (162 serious: 33 lives At Boston, on Lincoln's and Battery wharves, property lost). In but few cases were the premises totally de- to the amount of $500,000.....

.27 April, stroyed.

At Syracuse, N. Y., twelve acres of ground burned over, Several fires were occasioned by careless use of coal oils about 100 buildings; loss $1,000,000,

.8 Nov. 1856 in 1861-2.

At Toledo, Ohio..

..13 Feb. 1857 At Baltimore, Md. ; loss $400,000..

.14 April, Fires in North AMERICA. Some of the most de- At New Orleans; loss $250,000..

.8 July, structive fires are as follows:

At Chicago, III. ; several lives and $600,000 lost...9 Oct.

New York Crystal Palace destroyed, with an immense Norfolk, Va., destroyed by fire and cannon-balls by the amount of property on exhibition,

5 Oct. 1858 British; property to the amount of $1,500,000 perished, At Key West, Fla., 20 acres burned over, 110 houses; loss 1 Jan. 1776 $2,750,000..

.16 May, 1859 City of New York, soon after passing into the hands of At New Bedford, Mass. ; loss $300,000.. ... 24 Aug.

the British, 500 buildings consumed.... 20, 21 Sept. The city of Charleston, S. C., was alınost totally destroyed Great tire in New York...

.3 Aug. 1778 by fire, with great quantities of naval and military Coffee House slip fire, New York, 50 buildings burned,


17 Feb. 1865 9 Dec 1796 The city of Richmond, Va., in great part destroyed by Forty buildings burned in New York.. ....18 Dec. 1804 fire at the time of the Confederate evacuation, Chatham street fire, New York, 100 buildings burned,

2, 3 April, 19 May, 1811 Bonded warehouses in South street, New York; loss Theatre at Richmond, Va., when the governor of the state $2,000,000....

.16-18 April, and a large number of the leading inhabitants perished, The city of Portland, Me., was nearly destroyed by fire,

26 Dec.

and 10,000 people rendered homeless; loss $15,000,000, Broadway, New York, 36 houses burned.. .22 June, 1820

4 July, 1866 Front street, New York, 24 houses burned. .24 Jan. 1821 Great Chicago fire, burning over about 3} square miles, Brown's ship yard, New York, with shipping, 14 March, 1824 destroying 17, 450 buildings, killing 200 persons, and Bowery theatre, New York..... 26 March, 1828 rendering 98,500 homeless

.8, 9 Oct. 1871 New York city, 200 families rendered homeless...8 Jan. 1835 Great forest-fires in Michigan and Wisconsin, 2000 lives City of New York. 600 warehouses and property to the


8, 14 Oct. amount of $20,000,000.

16 Dec. Great fire in Boston, Mass., destroying 15 lives and 800 Methodist Book Concern, New York.. .18 Feb. 1836 buildings..

..9-11 Nov. 1872 Bowery theatre, New York, again..

.22 Sept.

Great fire in factories at Fall River, Mass. ; 60 lives lost, Washington city, destroying the General Post-office and

19 Sept. 1874 Patent-oflice, with over 10,000 valuable models, draw. Virginia City, Nev., nearly destroyed by fire; loss ings, etc..

15 Dec.

.... 26 Oct. 1875 Bowery theatre, New York, again.

.18 Feb. 1838 Brooklyn theatre burned; about 300 lives lost....5 Dec. 1876 Al Charleston, S. C., 1158 buildings, covering 145 acres, Tenement-house fire in New York; 9 lives lost....4 Jan. 1881

27 April, Great fire in Quebec, Canada; 800 houses destroyed, Hammond street, New York, 50 buildings burned, 1 Aug.

9 June, New York city, 46 buildings; loss $10,000,000...6 Sept. 1839 Great forest fires in Michigan, 300 lives lost...1-8 Sept. National theatre and many other buildings in New York, Burning of 0. B. Potter's newspaper building in New

23 Sept.
York; 6 lives lost...

.31 Jan. 1882 Philadelphia, 52 buildings; loss $500,000

4 Oct.

Burning of the town of Haverhill, Mass. ; loss of about 6 Water street, New York.

5 Oct.
lives and $2,000,000.

17 Feb.

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Burning and explosion of fireworks factory at Chester, auspices of this officer, great progress has been made in
Pa.; 14 lives lost..........

...17 Feb. 1882 the propagation and conservation of food fishes.

Fishmongers' Company of London (salt), 1433; (stock), Fire-salvage Corps formed, in 1863, by the Lon- 1509; united..

1536 don tire-insurance offices.

Fishing towns regulated by an act passed in.

1542 Fishing on our coast forbidden to strangers

1609 Fire-ships. Among the most formidable contriv- The Dutch paid 30,0001. for permission to lish on the coasts


of Britain.. ances of this kind ever used was an explosion vessel to Corporation of Free British Fisheries instituted. 1750 destroy a bridge of boats at the siege of Antwerp in 1585. Fish-machines, for conveying lish by land to London, set The first use of them in the British navy was by Charles, up in 1761; and supported by parliament..

1764 lord Howard, of Effingham, in the engagement with the The British Society of Fisheries establishod in London in 1786

The Irish Fishery Company formed in..

Dec. 1818 Spanish Armada, July, 1588.Rupin.

In 1849, two peasants, Remy and Gehin, obtained medals Fire-watch, or FIRE-GUARI), of London, was insti

for their exertions in cultivating fish in France, and

the government set up an establishment for this purtuted Nov. 1791.

pose at Huningue, under M. Coumes. Fireworks are said to have been made by the Chi-In 1860 great progress had been made by M. Coste and

others. nese in remote ages. They were invented in Europe, at Commission to examine into British fisheries was appointFlorence, about 1360, and were exhibited as a spectacle ed in 1860, and acts to amend the law relating to fisbin 1588.

eries in Great Britain and Ireland were passed,

1861, '62, '63, '68, '69 Macaulay states that the fireworks let off in England at the In April, Mr. Ponders placed in the Thames 76,000 young peace of Ryswick, in 1697, cost 12,0001.

fish (salmon, trout, char, and grayling); and on 17 April, Very grand fireworks were let off from a magnificent building Mr. Frank Buckland demonstrated the importance of

erected in the Green park, Loudon, at the peace of Aix-la- fish-culture before the members of the Royal InstituChapelle, Xov. 1748.

tion, London,

1863 Exhibition of fireworks in Paris, 31 May, 1770, in honor of the In 1853 Mr. Buist began the culture of fish at Stormont

marriage of the dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI.; nearly feld, Perthshire; reported highly successful..... Sept. 1866 1000 persons perished by pressure and drowning, through a A convention with France respecting sea fisheries signed panic.

at Paris, 11 Nov. 1867; ratified by the Sea Fisheries The display of fireworks, under sir William Congreve, at the act, passed.....

...13 July, 1868 general peace, and the centenary of the accession of the Act for the protection of fresh water fish passed..8 Aug. 1878 Brunswick family to the throne, 1 Aug. 1814.

International fish and fishing exhibition at Berlin openAnother at the coronation of William IV., 8 Sept. 1831.

ed by the crown-prince..

20 April, 1880 A grand display of this kind (at a cost of 10,0001.) to celebrate National fisheries exbibition at Norwich opened by the the peace with Russia, 29 May, 1856.

prince of Wales...

.18-30 April, 1881 In consequence of explosions frequently occurring at fireworkmakers' (particularly one on 12 July, 1858, at Mr. Benneti's,

AMERICAN SEA FISHERIES.-Sebastian Cabot first directed atin the Westminster road, Lambeth, when 5 lives were lost

tention to the American fisheries in 1498. The earliest fishand about 300 persons seriously injured and much prop- ing voyages to American coasts were made in 1517. Barerty destroyed), it was determined to enforce 9 & 10 Will. tholomew Gosnold explored the New England coast in 1602; III. c. 7 (1697), an act to prevent the throwing and forming and, catching cod near the southern cape of Massachusetts, of squibs, serpents, and other fireworks. An act regulating named that point Cape Cod. A ship-load of fish was sent the making of fireworks was passed in 1860.

from Massachusetts to England in 1624. Fish were exportRalph Fenwick, a maker, his wife, and six others, Broad street,

ed from Boston in 1633. An act to encourage fishing was Lambeth, killed by explosion, 4 Nov. 1873.

passed by Massachusetts in 1639, and the industry grew rap. Mr. C. T. Brock, the greatest pyrotechnist of the time, has a idly from that time until the Revolution. By the treaty of

manufactory at Nuphead; exhibits at the Crystal Palace, peace in 1783, the right of United States citizens to fisin on etc., and abroad, 1871 et seq.

the Banks of Newfoundland, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence,

etc., was conceded. But, to injure the United States fishing Fire-worshippers, see Parsees.

industry, the British government, in July, 1783, prohibited

the importation of fish by United States fishers into the First-fruits were offerings which made a large part

British West Indies. The United States government passed of the revenues of the Hebrew priesthood. First-fruits

a bounty act to encourage fishing in 1759, and another in

1790, at the same time imposing duties on imported fish. (called ANNATES, from annus, a year), in the Roman

Other acts to encourage this industry were passed 16 Feb. church, originally the protits of one year of every vacant 1792, 2 May 1792, 1797, and 1799. The bounties were abol. bishopric, afterwards of every benefice, were first claimed

ished in 1807, but restored in 1813. The subject has been

many times legislated upon since, the general policy having by pope Clement V. in 1306, and were collected in England

been to encourage the industry as far as possible. After in 1316: but chronologers differ on this point. In the the war of 1812-15, the British maintained that hostilities 26th of Henry VIII. 1534, the first-fruits were assigned,

had abrogated the fishing rights conceded in 1783; and in

1818 the matter was made the subject of a convention, by by parliament, to the king and his successors. Mary

which the fishing privileges of United States citizens were gave the annates to the popes (1555); but Elizabeth detined. Disputes concerning bay and inlet fishing arose in resumed them (1559). They were granted, together with 1852, which were settled by the reciprocity treaty of 1854. the tenths, to the poor clergy, by queen Anne, in 1703.

The United States gave notice, 17 March, 1865, of the abro.

gation of this treaty, which terminated in pursuance of that The offices of First-fruits, Tenths, and Queen Anne's

notice, 17 March, 1866. In consequence of disputes which Bounty were consolidated by 1 Vict. c. 20 (1838); see arose in 1870, the subject was included in the treaty of Augmentation of Poor Livings. Annates were long re

Washington, 1871, the fisheries provisions of which took

eflect 1 July, 1873. By that treaty the fisheries of both sisted in France, but not totally suppressed till 1789.

countries were opened equally to the citizens of both; but

it was agreed to submit the question of the difference of Firth College, see Sheffield, 1879.

value, in the respective concessions, to arbitration. This Fish Dam Ford C.), BATTLE AT, between

commission met at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1877, and award.

ed to Great Britain the sum of $5,500,000. The justice of Americans under Sumter, and British under Wemyss, 12 this decision was stoutly disputed in the United States; but Nov. 1780. American victory.

congress promptly made the necessary appropriation, and

the money was paid in London by the American minister, Fish, Fisheries, ETC. Laws for the protection 23 Nov. 1878. In making the payment the United States of fisheries were enacted by Edward I. in 1284, and by the following table shows the total tonnage of the United

filed a protest against the award as excessive. his successors. The rights of the English and French

States whale and cod and mackerel fisheries, in the several fishermen were detined by treaty in 1839; see Herring, years named, since 1789: Whale, and Veurfoundland Fisheries; Oysters. The

Whale Fishery.

Cod and Mackerel known species of tish are about 7000.-Günther, 1871. Year.


Fisheries. Tons. The first experiments in fish-culture by artificial propa- 1789..

9,062 gation, in the United States, were made in South Caro. 1790..

28,348 lina in 1804. In 1853 successful efforts to hatch trout 1800..


29,427 were made at Cleveland, Ohio. Many large establish. 1810..


31,828 ments for hatching are now in operation; and there 1820..


72,040 are official fish commissioners in about half the states,



97,529 Much has been done to stock or restock rivers, creeks, 1810.


104,305 lakes, and ponds; and laws for the protection of fish 1850.


151,918 are in force in most of the states. By act of con. 1860..


162, 764 gress of 9 Feb. 1871, a l'nited States commissioner of 1870..


91,460 üsh and fisheries was provided for; and, under the 1879..



Here gen.

Fishguard (Pembroke). On 22 Feb. 1797, 1400 1574, Henry III. of France became a flagellant for a shoft Frenchmen landed in Cardigan bay. On 24 Feb, they time. surrendered to lord Cawdor with the Castlemartin yeo

Flageolet, a musical instrument said to have been manry, and some countrymen, armed with scythes and invented by Juvigny, about 1581; double flageolet patpitchforks, near Fishguard.

ented by William Bainbridge, 1803; improved 1809 and Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge), founded by 1819. Richard viscount Fitzwilliam, who died in 1816, and

Flambeaux, FEAST OF, see Argos. bequeathed his collection of books, pictures, etc., to the university, with 100,0001, to erect a building to contain

Flammock's Rebellion, see Rebellions, 1497. them. T'e building was begun by G. Basevi in 1837, Flanders, the principal part of ancient Belgium, and finisheu by Cockerell some years after.

which was conquered by Julius Cæsar, 51 B.C. It beFiume (meaning river), the port of the kingdom came part of the kingdom of France, A.D. 813, and was of Hungary, on the Adriatic: a very ancient town, built governed by counts subject to the king, from 862 till on the supposed site of Tersatica, destroyed by Charle- 1369, the first being Baldwin, Bras de Fer, who is said magne about 799, and afterwards known as Vitopolis, to have introduced the cloth manufacture. In 1204, Cività Sancti Viti ad Flumen, and finally Fiume. After Baldwin IX. became emperor at Constantinople. In being successively subjected to the Greeks, Romans, the 1369, Philip, duke of Burgundy, married Margaret, the Eastern emperors, and the pope, it was transferred to the heiress of count Louis II. After this, Flanders was subhouse of Austria. It was captured by the French early jected successively to Burgundy (1384), Austria (1477), in the century, from whom it was taken by the English and Spain (1555). In 1580 it declared its independence, in 1813, and given to Austria in 1814. It was transfer- but afterwards returned to its allegiance to the house of red to Hungary in 1822; to the Croats in 1848; re- Austria. In 1713 it was included in the empire of Gerstored to Hungary in 1868. A new port and railways many. France obtained a part of Flanders by treaty in have been recently constructed (1877).

1659 and 1679; see Burgundy, Netherlands, and Belgium. Five Forks, near Richmond, Va.

Flannel, see Woollen. Sheridan turned the front of the confederates and de- Flatbush, BATTLE OF, sec Long Island. feated them after a fierce struggle, 1 April, 1865.

Flattery, Cape (W. coast of North America), so Five Hundred, COUNCIL OF, established by the new named by capt. Cook, because at a distance it had the French constitution, 22 Aug. 1795, was unceremoniously deceptive appearance of a harbor, 1778. di-soi ed by Napoleon Bonaparte, 10 Nov. 1799.

Flavian Cæsars, the Roman emperors Vespasian, Hive Mile Act, 17 Chas. II. c. 2 (Oct. 1665), for- Titus, and Domitian, 66-96. bade nonconformist teachers who refused to take the nonresistance oath to come within five miles of any corpo- times was carried thence to Tyre about 588 B.C., and to

Flax. The manufacture in Egypt in very early ration where they had preached since the Act of Oblivion Gaul about 1 B.C.; and thus reached Britain. It was (unless they were travelling), under the penalty of 401. ordered to be grown in England, by statute 24 Hen. They were relieved by Will. III. in 1689.

VIII. 1533. For many ages the core was separated from Fladenheim, or FlatcHEIM, Saxony. Here Ro- the flax, the bark of the plant, by the hand. A mallet dolph of Swabia defeated the emperor Henry IV., 27 Jan. was next used; but the old methods of breaking and 1080.

scutching the flax yielded to a water-mill which was Flag. The flag acquired its present form in the invented in Scotland about 1750; see Hemp. The duty sixth century, in Spain; it was previously small and imposed on imported flax, 1842, was repealed 1845. In square.A she. It is said to have been introduced there 1851 chevalier Claussen patented a method of “cottonby the Saracens, before whose time the ensigns of war ing" flax. were extended on cross-pieces of wood; see Carrocium.

Flayers, see Écorcheurs. The honor-of-the-flag salute at sea was exacted by England from very early times; but it was formally yielded

Fleece, see Golden Fleece. by the Dutch in 1673, at which period they had been Fleet Prison, Market, ETC. (London), were built defeated in many actions. Louis XIV. obliged the Span- over the small river Fleta, now used as a common sewer. iards to lower their flag to the French, 1680.- Hénault. In the reign of Henry VII, this river is said to have been After an engagement of three hours between Tourville navigable to Holborn bridge. and the Spanish admiral Papachin, the latter yielded by Fleet Prison was founded in the first year of Richard firing a salute of nine guns to the French flag, 2 June, I., and was allotted for debtors, 1640; and persons were 1688.--Idem, The earliest legislation concerning the

committed here who had incurred the displeasure of

the Star chamber, and for contempt of the court of United States flag was a resolution of congress, 14 June,

chancery. It was burned during the Gordon riots, 7 1777, “that the flag of the 13 United States be 13 stripes June, 1780, and rebuilt 1781-2. It was pulled down in alternate red and white; that the union be 13 stars, 1845 (and the debtors removed to the Queen's Bench white in a blue field, representing the new constellation.”

prison). The site was sold to the London, Dover, and

Chatham railway company for 60,0001. on 2 June, 1864. This flag was first raised by Paul Jones on the Ranger. Last vestige removed..

.. Feb. 1868 In 1794 it was resolved in congress that after May 1, FLEET Market, originally formed in 1737, was removed, 1795, “ the flag of the United States be 15 stripes alter

and the site named Farringdon street in 1829.

(Farringdon) market was opened 20 Nov. 1829. The nate, red and white, and that the union be 15 stars, white

granite obelisk in Fleet street, to the memory of alder. in a blue field.” In 1816 a committee was appointed to man Waithman, was erected..

25 June, 1833 inquire into the expediency of changing the flag, and FLEET MARRIAGES. Between 19 Oct. 1704, and 12 Feb.

1705, there were celebrated 295 marriages in the April 4, 1818, a bill was approved by the president re

Fleet without license or certificate of banns. ducing the number of stripes to 13, and increasing the 30 couples were sometimes joined in one day, and number of stars to represent at all times the number their names concealed by private marks, if they chose of states in the union; see Salute at Sea and Union

to pay an extra fee. Pennant says that in his youth

he was often accosted with, “Sir, will you please to Jack,

walk in and bo married ?" Painted signs, of male and The comte de Chambord definitively declined to give up the

female hands conjoined, with the inscription, “Marwhite flag for the tricolor (see France), 5 July, 1871, and 27

riages performed within,” were common along the Oct. 1873.


This abuse abolished by the Marriage act... Flagellants, at Perouse, about 1268, during a plague, they maintained there was no remission of sins without

Fleetwood, see lythe. flagellation, and publicly lashed themselves. Clement Flensborg (North Germany). Here the Danes deVI. declared them heretics in 1349; and 90 of them, and feated the Slesingers and Germans, 9 April, 1818. It was their leader, Conrad Schmidt, were burned, 1414. In entered by the Germaus, 7 Feb. 1864.

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Fleta, an ancient English law treatise, an abridg- academies, churches, and libraries are to be found the ment of Bracton, dated about 1290, said to have been rarest works of sculpture and painting in the world. composed in Fletâ, in the Fleet prison, by some law- The Florentine Academy and Accademia dellu Crusca yer.

(established 1582) were instituted to enrich literature Fleur-de-lis, the emblem of France, said to have and improve the language of Tuscany. The latter was so been brought from heaven by an angel to Clovis, he named because it rejects like brun all words not purely having made a vow that if he proved victorious in a Tuscan: both are now united under the former name. pending battle with the Alemanni near Cologne, he Destroyed by Totila..

..about 541 would embrace Christianity, 496. It was the national Rebuilt by Charlemagne..


about 1198 emblem till the revolution in 1789, when the tricolor Becomes an independent republic.

Dante born here

.14 May, 1265 (white, red, and blue) was adopted.

Arti, or guilds, established.

1266 Factions of the Bianchi and Neri.

1300 Fleurus (Belgium), the site of several battles.

The influence of the Medici begins with Cosmo de' MediBetween the Catholic League under Gonzales de Cordova

ci, "the father of his country

...about 1420 and the Protestant Union (indecisive). . 30 Aug. 1622 Death of Lorenzo de' Medici..

..8 April, 1492 The prince of Waldeck defeated by marshal Luxemburg, Savonarola strangled and burned.

.23 May, 1498 1 July, 1690 Appointment of Alexander de' Medici as perpetual govThe allies under the prince of Coburg defeated by the

1530 French Revolutionary army commanded by Jourdan, Cosmo de' Medici created grand-duke of Tuscany; makes who was enabled to form a junction with the armies

Florence his capital (see Tuscany). .

1569 of the Moselle, the Ardennes, and the north. (The Revolution at Florence...

27 April, 1859 French used a balloon to reconnoitre the enemy's Annexation to Sardinia voted by people, 11, 12 March; army, which, it is said, contributed to their success),

the king enters Florence...

..7 April, 1860 26 June, 1794 The king opens the exhibition of the industrial products Here Napoleon defeated Blucher at the battle of Ligny

of Italy.

.15 Sept. 1861 (which see).....

......16 June, 1815 Florence decreed the capital of Italy till the acquisition
of Rome...

11 Dec. 1864 Flies. An extraordinary fall of these insects in Lon- The king and court remove there.

13 May, 1865 don covered the clothes of passengers, 1707.--Chamber- The Dante festival (the 600th anniversary of bis birth) lain. In the United States of America the Hessian fly, Inauguration of a national rifle meeting; the king fires

opened by the king..

.14 May, so called from the notion of its having been brought the first shot...

18 June, there by the Hessian troops in the service of England in First assembly of Italian parliament here.. 18 Nov. the war of independence, ravaged the wheat in 1777. The government removes to Rome as capital of Italy, Before and during the severe attack of cholera at New- Fourth centenary of Michel Angelo Buonarroti kepi,

July, 1871 castle in Sept. 1853, the air was infested with small flies.

12 Sept. 1875

Torchlight procession; shell thrown among crowd; 5 Flints, see Man.


..18 Nov. 1878 Floating Batteries, see Batteries, and Gibraltar, 1781.

Flores, or Isle of Flowers, one of the Azores (which Flodden Field (Northumberland). The site of a the Portuguese in 1448.

see), discovered by Vanderberg in 1439, and settled by battle on 9 Sept. 1513, between the English and Scots; in consequence of James IV. of Scotland having taken Florida, a peninsula, one of the southern states of part with Louis XII. of France against Henry VIII, of North America, first discovered by Sebastian Cabot in England. James, many of his nobles, and upwards of 1497. It was visited by Juan Ponce de Leon, the Spau10,000 of his army were slain ; while the English, who ish navigator, 4 April, 1512, in a voyage he had underwere commanded by the earl of Surrey, lost only persons taken to discover a fountain whose waters had the propof small note.

erty of restoring youth to the aged who tasted them. Flogging, by the Jewish law, was limited to forty Florida was conquered by the Spaniards under Ferdistripes, "lest thy brother should seem vile unto thee, nand de Soto in 1539; but the settlement was not fully 1451 B.C. (Deut. xxv. 3). William Cobbett in 1810, and Drake in 1585; and by Davis, a buccaneer, in 1665. It

established until 1565. It was plundered by sir Francis John Drakard in 1811, were punished for publishing se

was invaded by the British in 1702, and again by gen. vere censures on flogging in the army. Flogging was made a punishment for attempts at garroting in 1863; taken by the Spaniards in 1781, and guaranteed to them

Oglethorpe in 1740; ceded to the British crown in 1763; and for juvenile criminals, 1817 and 1850.

in 1783. At the revolution in 1810, the United States Flogging in the army much diminished by orders. 9 Nov. 1859 government took means for occupying the western diviFirst-class seamen not to be flogged, except after a trial, Dec. 1859; more diminished..

March, 1867 sion of the country. During the war of 1812-15, the By an amendment on the clause in the Mutiny bill, flog. British made Pensacola their base of operations against. ging abolished in the army in time of peace.....

... April, 1868 the United States; and after remonstrating in vain with New regulations for the navy issued... 18 Dec. 1871 the Spanish authorities, gen. Jackson invaded Florida Proposed total abolition negatived in commons (120-60), 20 June, 1876; (164-122), 10 April, 1877; (239–56), and captured Pensacola, 1814. He again took Pensa

20 May, 1879 cola in 1818, and after a tedious negotiation, the country By the Army Discipline act (42 & 43 Vict. c. 33), flogging reduced, and may be commuted by imprisonment,

was finally ceded by Spain to the United States by treaty, Total abolition of logging by Army Discipline act. April, 1881 24 Oct. 1820, and admitted into th Union as a state in 21 soldiers flogged.. 1869 41 soldiers flogged. 1878 1815. It seceded in Dec. 1860, and was restored in 1865; 61 sailors

see United States. Floods, see Inundutions.

Florin, a coin first made by the Florentines. A florin Floral Hall, adjoining Covent-garden theatre, is a was issued by Edward III., which was current in Englarge conservatory, 220 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 55 land at the value of 6s, in 1337.Camden. This Engfeet high, erected from designs by Mr. E. M. Barry, and lish coin was called Horen, after the Florentine coin, bewas opened with the volunteers’ ball, 7 March, 1860. It cause the latter was of the best gold.--Ashe. The florin was used as a flower-market, 22 May-Aug. 1861. Here of Germany is in value 2s.4d.; that of Spain, 4s. 41d.; was held the West London Industrial Exhibition, 1 May that of Palermo and Sicily, 2s. 6d. ; that of Holland, 2s. to 2 Aug. 1865.

- Ayliffe. Silver florins (value 28.) were issued in EngFloralia, annual games at Rome in honor of Flora, land in 1819. instituted about 752, but not celebrated with regularity Flowers. Our present common flowers were, for till about 174 B.C.

the most part, introduced into England from the reign Florence (Florentia), capital of Tuscany (which of Henry VII. to that of Elizabeth (1485–1603). The art see), and from 1864 to 1870 of Italy, is said to have been of preserving flowers in sand was discovered in 1633. A founded by the soldiers of Sylla (80 B.C.), and enlarged mode of preserving them from the effects of frost in winby the Roman triumviri. In its palaces, universities, ter, and hastening their vegetation in summer, was in


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vented in America by George Morris, in 1792. A very | Tea tree, China..

.about 1768

before 1739 great number have been introduced from America, Aus

Toothache-tree, from Carolina...
Trumpet-flower, North America..

1640 tralia, the Cape, etc., during the present century. Trumpet-flower, Cape..

1823 Tuberose, from Java and Ceylon.

1629 Lo'lon Flower-girl Brigade, formed by baroness Bur.

Tulip, Vienna. ..

1578 dett-Coutts and others. autumn 1880 Verbena, S. America.

1827 Acacia, North America. .before 1640 Victoria regia, Guiana...

1838 Allspice shrub, Carolina.. 1726 Virginian creeper, North America..

1629 Aniseed-tree, Florida... .about 1766 Virgin's-bower, Japan..

1776 Arbor-vitæ, Canada. .before 1596 Wax-tree, China..

1794 Arctopus, Cape of Good Hope.

1774 Weeping willow, Levant.

..before 1692 Auricula, Switzerland. 1567 Winter-berry, Virginia ..

1736 Azarole, S. Europe.. before 1640 Youlan, China..

1789 Bay, royal, Madeira..

1665 Bay, sweet, Italy..

before 1548

Fluorescence. When the invisible chemical rays Camellia, China...

1811 of the blue end of the solar spectrum are sent through Canary bell-flower, Canaries.

1696 uranium glass or solutions of quinine, horse-chestnut Canary convolvulus, Canaries.

1690 Carnation, Flanders.


bark, or stramonium datura, they become luminous. Ceanothus, blue, New Spain

1818 This phenomenon was termed "fluorescence" by its disChaste tree, Sicily..

before 1570 coverer, prof. Stokes, in 1852. By means of fluorescence, Christ's-thorn, Africa..

before 1596

Drs. Bence Jones and Dupré detected the presence of Chrysanthemums, China.

1790 Convolvulus, many-flowered

1779 quinoidine in animal tissues; see Calorescence. Coral-tree, Cape..

1816 Coral-tree, bell-flowered, Cape

Fluorine, a gaseous element obtained from fluor

1791 Coral-tree, tremulous, Cape..

1789 spar; first collected over mercury by Priestley. Its propCreeper, Virginian, North America..

1629 erty of corroding all vessels is so great that it is separated Dahlia, China..

1803 with great difficulty. It was named by Ampère in 1810. Dryandria, New Holland.. Evergreen, thorn, Italy...


Its chemical history was further elucidated by Davy Everlasting, giant-flowered, Cape

1781 (1809), Berzelius (1824), and succeeding chemists. The Everlasting, giant, Cape..

1793 corroding property of fluoric acid was employed in the Fernbush, sweet, North America.

1714 Foxglove, Canaries..


arts in 1760 by Schwankhard of Nuremberg.--Gmelin. Fuchsia fulgens, Mexico.

.about 1835

Flushing, a sea-port of the Netherlands, on the isle Geranium, Flanders

1534 Gilly flower, Flanders,

of Walcheren. For the siege, see Walcheren Expedition.

1567 Gold-plant, Japan..

1783 It was fortitied by Napoleon I., but the works were finalGolden bell flower, Madeira.

1777 ly dismantled in 1867. The port improved, and new dock Hawthorn, American..

before 1683 Heaths, Cape....

opened by the king of Holland, 8 Sept. 1873.

1774-1803 Honeyflower, great, Cape.


Flute. The transverse flute, incorrectly termed the Honeysuckle, Chinese, China.

1806 Honeysuckle, fly, Cape.


“German" instead of the Swiss flute, was known to the Honeysuckle, trumpet, North America..

1656 ancients, It was described by Michael Pretorius of Hyssop, S. Europe

before 1548 Wolfenbüttel in 1620, and by Mersenne of Paris in Jasmine, Circassia

before Jasmine, Catalonia, East Indies..


1636. It was much improved by the French in the Judas-tree, S. Europe...

..before 1596 seventeenth century; by Quantz, Tacet, Florio, Potter, Laburnum, Hungary.

1576 Miller, Nicholson, and others in the eighteenth. In the Laurel, Alexandrian, Portugal..

.. before 1713 Laurustine, S. Europe. ..

.before 1596 present century, also, the Nicholsons, Boehm of Munich, Lavender, S. Europe..

before 1568 Godfrey of Paris, Carter, Rockstro, and Rudall and Rose Lily, Italy..

.before 1460 of London, have greatly contributed to the perfection of Lily, gigantic, New South Wales..

1800 this instrument; see Flageolet. Lily, red colored, South America..

1623 Loblolly buy, North America..

before 1739 Fluxions, a branch of the higher mathematics, Lupine tree, Cape......

.about 1793 invented by Newton, 1665, similar to the differential calMagnolia (see Magnolia), North America..

1688 Magnolia, dwarf, China

culus described by Leibnitz, 1684. A fierce controversy

1786 Magnolia, laurel-leaved, North America.

1734 ensued as to the priority of the discovery. The finest Maiden-hair, Japan.,

1714 applications of the calculus are by Newton, Euler, La Mignonette, Italy

1528 Milkwort, giant-llowered, Cape.

Grange, and La Place. The first elementary work on

1713 Milkwort, showy, Cape..

1814 fluxions in England is a tract of twenty-two pages in Mock orange, S. Europe.

.before 1596 "A New Short Treatise of Algebra, together with a Mountain tea, North America...

.before 1758

Specimen of the Nature and Algorithm of Fluxions,” by Myrtle, candleberry, North America..

1699 Myrtle, woolly-leaved, China...

1776 John Harris, M.A. (London, 1702). Nettle-tree, S. Europe...

.before 1596 Oleander, red, S. Europe. ..

Flying, ARTIFICIAL. In Greek mythology, DædlaOlive, Cape, Cape....


lus is said to have attached wings of wax to the body of Olive, sweet scented, China

1771 his son Icarus, who, neglecting the advice of his father, Paraguay tea, Carolina.

.before 1724 flew so high that the sun melted his wings, and he fell Passion flower, Brazil..

1692 Passion flower, orange, Carolina.


into the Icarian sea. Archytas is said to have made a Petunia, South America.

1823 flying dove, about 400 B.C. Friar Bacon maintained the Pigeon berry, North America.

1736 possibility of the art of flying, and predicted it would be Pink, from Italy..

1567 Ranunculus, Alps..

a general practice, 1273. Bishop Wilkins says (1651),

1528 Rose, China, China

1789 “It will yet be as usual to hear a man call for his wings Rose, damask, S. Europe.

.about 1543 when he is going on a journey as it is now to hear him Rose, the Japan, China.

1793 call for his boots!" Borelli (about 1670) showed the Rose, the moss.

before 1724 Rose, the musk, Italy.


futility of these speculations. About 1800, sir George Rose, the Provence, Flanders.

1567 Cayley experimented on the subject, and in 1843 Mr. HenRose, sweet-scented guelder, from China.


son invented a flying-machine; but nothing has been Rose without thorns, North America.

.before 1726

devised capable of serving a practical purpose. The Rosemary, S. Europe..

1548 Roses, Netherlands..

1522 motion of birds in relation to aeronautics was much disSago, African, Cape..

1731 cussed by scientitic men in 1867-8. At a meeting of the Sage, Mexican, Mexico


Aeronautical Society, 26 March, 1868, it was stated that St. Peter's wort, North America.

1730 Sassafras, North America.

.before 1663 a member had actually, by his muscular force, aided by Savin, S. Europe. ...

before 1584 apparatus, risen from the ground and town horizontally. Snowdrop, Carolina..

1756 Dr. James Pettigrew published his elaborate researches Sorrel-tree, North America..

. before 1752 Sweet-bay, S. of Europe..

. before 1548

on flying, 1867-71. M. Von Groof, a Belgian, “the flyTamarisk plant, Germany..

1560 / ing-man,” descended from a balloon, by means of a para

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