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chute resembling wings, in 1874; but was killed by fall- | its contents to Mr. Farquhar took place in 1822; 7200 ing, through failure of his apparatus, at Chelsea, 9 July, catalogues, at a guinea each, were sold in a few days.

On 21 Dec. 1825, the lofty tower fell, and in consequence Mr. Simmonds tried his flying-machine (combining an

umbrella and kite) at Chatham, and failed: it carried the remaining buildings were sold.
sand-bags about 100 feet high; and fell, 15 Dec.
failed again.....

23 Dec. 1875 Food, see Provisions. A Food Journal published

1870; continued several years. Sale of Food and Drugs Fly-sheets, see under Wesleyans.

act passed 11 Aug. 1875. Dr. Arthur Hill Hassali's Fö, RELIGION OF, the form of Buddhism (which see) "Food and its Adulterations” published 1854, and since. existing in China.

International Food Exhibition at Agricultural Hall, IsFog. In 1862, much attention was paid to the sub- lington, 13-20 Oct. 1880. ject of fog-signals by the Royal Commission on Light- Fools, FESTIVALS OF, were held at Paris on the 1st houses, etc. The use of bells, steam-trumpets, a battery of January, when, we are told, all sorts of absurdities of whistles blown by steam, the transmission of sound were committed, from 1198 to 1438. Fools or licensed through water, the sirene, etc., were considered. A fog- jesters were kept at court in England up to the time of horn blown by steam is in use at Dungeness light-house Charles I., 1625. The “ Order of Fools,” founded by (1869). For Dr. Tyndall's experiments, see Acoustics. Adolphus, count of Cleves, for philanthropic purposes, Continued thick fog in London, Nov. 1879, to Feb. 1880, 1381, existed in 1520. caused much mortality; very bad on. .....25 Dec. 1879

Foot and Mouth Disease, see Cattle. Foix (s. France), a county established 1050, and

Forbes Mackenzie's Act (16 & 17 Vict. c. 67), united with Béarn, 1290. About 1494 Catherine de - for the better regulation of public-houses in Scotland," Foix, the heiress, married Jean d'Albret, whose descend- passed in 1853. It permits grocers to sell spirits, etc., as ant, Henry IV., as king of France, united Foix to the usual, but forbids drinking on the premises, which is to monarchy, 1589.

be contined to places duly licensed. Much dram-drinkFolk-lore, a general name given by Mr.W.J.Thoms, ing previously took place in grocers' shops. in 1846, to popular legends, fairy tales, local traditions,

Force, see Conservation and Correlation, old outdying customs, superstitions, and similar matters. The formation of the Folk-lore Society was proposed by having been required to provide this market before 1

Foreign Cattle Market. The city of London Mr. W. J. Thoms, in Notes and Queries, 1 Dec. 1877; Jan. 1872, by the Contagious Diseases act (for animals), established in 1878.

| 1869, the common council, 7 Nov. 1870, agreed to the Font. Formerly the baptistery was a small place expenditure of 160,000l. for the purpose. The site partitioned off in a church, within which a large font chosen, Deptford dockyard, was much opposed. The was placed, where the persons to be baptized (frequently requisite alterations were made by Mr. Horace Jones, adults) were submerged. Previously, lakes and rivers and the market was formally opened by the lord mayor, were resorted to for immersion. Fonts are said to have 28 Dec. 1871; for use on 1 Jan. 1872. been set up in churches in the sixth century.

Foreign Enlistment Act, 59 Geo. III. c. 69 Fontainebleau, near the Seine, France. The (1819), forbids British subjects to enter the service of a royal palace, founded by Robert le Pieux about 999, en- foreign state, without license from the king or privy larged and adorned by successive kings, was completed council, and prohibits the fitting out or equipping ships by Louis Philippe, 1837–40. Fontainebleau was entered for any foreign power to be employed against any by the Austrians, 17 Feb. 1814. Here Napoleon re-power with which our government is at peace; see signed his dignity, 4 April, and bade farewell to his Triuls, 1862, 1863. In 1606, Englishmen were forbidden army, 20 April, 1814.

to enter foreign service without taking an oath not to Peace between France, Denmark, etc.

.2 Sept. 1679 be reconciled to the pope. The act was suspended in Treaty between Germany and Holland.. ..8 Nov. 1785 1835 on behalf of the British Legion (which see). The Treaty between Napoleon and Spain. The decree of Fontainebleau for the destruction of British act passed 9 Aug. 1870, relates to illegal enlisting, shipmerchandise issued.....

..19 Oct. 1810 building, and expeditions. Concordat between Napoleon and pope Pius VII. .25 Jan. 1813

Foreign Jurisdiction Acts, passed in 1813, Fontenaille, or FONTENAY (Fontanetum), a village 1865, and 1866, were extended and amended by 41 & 12 in Burgundy. Near here Charles the Bald and Louis Vict. c. 67, passed 16 Aug. 1878. the German totally defeated their brother, the emperor Lothaire I., 25 June, 841. This victory, termed "the

Foreign Legion. Foreigners have frequently judgment of God," conduced to the formation of the been employed as auxiliaries in the pay of the British French monarchy.

government; see Ilessians. An act (18 & 19 Vict. c. 2)

for the formation of a foreign legion as a contingent in Fontenoy, near Tournay, in Belgium, the site of the Russian war (1855) was passed 23 Dec. 1854.* The an obstinate sanguinary battle, on 30 April (11 May, N.s.), 1745, between the French, commanded by marshal queen and prince Albert reviewed 3500 soldiers, princi

pally Swiss and Germans, at Shorncliffe, 9 Aug. 1855. Saxe, and the English, Hanoverians, Dutch, and Aus. On the peace in 1856, many were sent to the Cape of trians, commanded by the duke of Cumberland. The Good Hope ; but, not prospering, returned. king, Louis XV., and the dauphin were present. The success of the British at the commencement is still

Foreign Loans, see Loans. quoted as an illustration of the extraordinary power of Foreign Missions, see Missions. a column; and the advance of the Austrians during

Foreign Office was established at the rearrangeseveral hours at Marengo (14 June, 1800) was compared ment of the duties of secretaries of state in 1782. It to it by Bonaparte. The allies lost 12,000 men, and the has the exclusive charge of British interests and subFrench nearly an equal number; but the allies were jects in foreign countries. The secretary for foreign compelled to retire. Marshal Saxe (ill of the disorder affairs negotiates treaties, selects ambassadors, consuls, of which he afterwards died) was carried about to all etc., for foreign countries, and grants passports. The the posts in a litter, assuring his troops that the day new Foreign Office building, in the Italian style (designed would be their own.

hy sir Gilbert Scott), was begun in 1864. A portion of Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, founded in 1796, the it was inaugurated by Mr. Disraeli's reception, 25 March, mansion of William Beckford, author of “Vathek," and son of alderman Beckford. He died 2 May, 1814. * The endeavor to enlist for this legion, in 1854, in the Within this edifice (which alone cost 273,0001.) were

United States, gave great offence to the United States govern

ment. Mr. Crampton, our envoy, was dismissed, 28 May, 1856, collected costly articles of virtù and art, and the rarest

in spite of all the judicious pacific efforts of lord Clarendon. works of the old masters. The sale of the abbey and Lord Napier was sent out as our representative in 1857.

27 Oct. 1807

and it was occupied by lord Stanley, 24 June, 1868. See The law respecting forgery amended in........ 1861 and 1870 Administrations under separate heads, and Secretaries.

For W. Roupell's case, see Trials. ...... .Aug., Sept. 1862

An elaborate system of bill-forgery in London discovered Foreign Orders. No British subject is permitted by the Bank of England...

.. 1 March, 1873 to accept a foreign order from the sovereign of any

(See Executions (for forgery), 1776, 1777, et seq.) foreign country, or wear the insignia thereof, without

Forks were in ise on the continent in the thirteenth her majesty's consent, by orders issued in 1812 and 1834: and fourteenth centuries. — Voltaire. This is reasonably regulations published in London Gazette, 10 May, 1855.

disputed. In Fynes Moryson's “ Itinerary,” reign of Foreigners, see Alien.

Elizabeth, he says, “ At Venice each person was served Forestalling was forbidden by statutes (in 1350, (besides his knife and spoon) with a fork to hold the 1552, etc.), all repealed in 1814.

meat while he cuts it, for there they deem it ill manners

that one should touch it with his hand." Thomas CorForesters, ANCIENT ORDER OF, a species of benefit yate describes, with much solemnity, the manner of society, founded on the principle that many can help using forks in Italy, and adds, “I myself have thought one; all religious and political discussions are strictly it good to imitate the Italian fashion since I came home avoided. About 500,000 members. Meeting of high to England," 1608. Two-pronged forks were made at court, Edinburgh, 7 Aug. 1876; at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Sheffield soon after. Three-pronged forks are more Aug. 1878.

recent.' Silver forks, previously only used by the highForests. There were in England, even in the last est classes, came into more general use in England century, as many as 68 forests, 18 chases, and upwards about 1814. of 780 parks; see New Forest.*

Mr. G. Smith found a bronze fork with two prongs at KouForests, CHARTER OF THE, Charta de Foresta, yunjik, Assyria, 1873. granted by Henry III. in 1217, was founded on Magna A * flesh-hook of three teeth” mentioned 1 Sam. ii. 13, about

1165 B.C. Charta, granted by king John, 15 June, 1215. It was confirmed in 1225 and 1297. See Woods.

Forma Pauperis. A person having a just cause Forfarshire Steamer, on its passage from Hull of suit, certified as such, yet so poor that he cannot meet to Dundee, on 6 Sept. 1838, was wrecked in a violent the cost of maintaining it, has an attorney and counsel gale, and thirty-eight persons out of tifty-three perished. assigned him on his swearing that he is not worth 5l., The Outer-Fern lighthouse-keeper, James Darling, and by statute 11 Henry VII., 1495. This act has been rehis heroic daughter Grace, ventured out in a tremendous modelled, and now any person may plead in formâ pausea in a coble, and rescued several of the passengers..

peris in the courts of law. Forgery of deeds, or giving forged deeds in evi- Formic Acid, the acid of ants (formica). Its dence, was made punishable by tine, by standing in the artificial production by Pelouze in 1831 was considered pillory, having both ears cut off, the nostrils slit up and an event in the progress of organic chemistry. seared, the forfeiture of land, and perpetual imprison- Formigni (N.W. France). Here the constable de ment, 5 Eliz. 1562. Since the establishment of paper Richemont defeated the English, 15 April, 1450. credit many statutes have been enacted; the latest

Formosa, an island in the Pacific, 90 miles from Forgery act passed 9 Aug. 1870.

the Chinese coast. In May, 1874, the Japanese, with Forgery first made punishable by death.

1634 the consent of a Chinese mandarin, chastised the savage

a Forging letters of attorney made capital .

1722 Mr. Ward, M.P., a man of wealth, expelled the house of

tribes here for massacring Japanese sailors on their procommons for forgery, 16 May, 1726; and consigned to

posed settlement on the isle. The Chinese threatened the pillory..

.17 March, 1727 war if they did not quit within 90 days, 18 Aug. 1874. The first forger on the Bank of England was Richard

By British interposition the Japanese withdrew, an inWilliam Vaughan, once a linen-draper of Stafford.

He employed a number of artists on different parts of the

demnity having been agreed on; treaty between Japan notes fabricated. He filled up twenty of the notes and China signed 31 Oct. 1874. Formosa flourished and deposited them in the hands of a young lady whom under the rule of Ting; removed in 1878. The plant he was on the point of marrying, as a proof of his being a man of substance; no suspicion was entertained.

of the Woosung railway brought here in 1878. George One of the artists informed, and Vaughan was executed

Psalmanazar published his fabricated description of Forat Tyburn...

..1 May, 1758 mosa in 1704. Value of forged notes presented to the bank 1801-10 nominally 101,6611.

Fornovo (Parma, Italy). Near here Charles VIII. The bank prosecuted 142 persons for forgery or the utter- of France defeated the Italians, 6 July, 1495. ing of forged notes

1817 Thos. Maynard, the last person executed for forgery,

Forster's Act, see Education, 1870.

31 Dec. 1829 Statutes reducing into one act all such forgeries as shall

Fort Donelson (Tennessee). This fort, built by henceforth be punished with death..

1830 the confederates, near the beginning of the war, on the The punishment of forgery with death ceases, except in Cumberland river, east of Fort Henry, was designed, in

cases of forging or altering wills, or powers of attorney to transfer stock ....


connection with the latter, to prevent an approach to These cases also reduced to transportable offences. 1837 Nashville and into the interior of the confederacy.

Its A barrister, Jein Saward, and others, tried for forging importance was not appreciated by the confederates, who numerous drafts on bankers,..

.5 March, 1857

expected that the national troops would in 1862 advance

into East Tennessee. Fort Henry was captured 6 Feb., * The commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of the woods and forests, between 1787 and 1793, reported the and the surrender of Donelson to gen, Grant took place on following as belonging to the crown, viz. : In Berkshire, the 16th. The naval attack made by commodore Foote on Windsor Forest and Windsor Great and Little Park. In Dor the 14th was repulsed. A battle was fought on the 15th, set, Cranburn Chase. In Essex, Waltham or Epping and Mai. in which an attempt was made by the garrison to cut nault Forest. In Gloucestershire, Dean Forest.

In Hampshire, the New Forest, Alice Hole, Woolmer Forest, and Bere its way through Grant's line of investment. The atForest. In Kent, Greenwich Park. In Middlesex, St. James's, tack was made on the national right with great success Hyde, Bushey, and Hampton Court parks. In Northampton. at first; but the advantages gained were not followed shire, the forests of Whittlebury, Salcey, and Rockingham. In Nottingham, Sherwood Forest. In Oxford, Whichwood up, and on the 16th the fort was surrendered, with 10.000 Forest. In Surrey, Richmond Park Several of these bave prisoners and 40 guns. The garrison numbered on the been disforested since 1851, viz. : Hainault, Whichwood, and 15th about 18,000 men. Of these over 2000 were killed

bury. A committee of the house of commons respecting forests sat in 1863. Motion in parliament to preserve

or wounded, and a large number escaped by the river, Epping Forest adopted 14 Feb. 1870; and the decision of the among them generals Floyd, Pillow, and Forrest. The master of the rolls, 10 Nov. 1874, stopped the enclosures by defence was mismanaged. The national loss was about the lords of manors. The lord mayor Stone visited the forest 2000; the confederate somewhat larger. The immediate in state, 14 Oct. 1875. The commissioners' new scheme was published, July, 1876. Memorial trees were planted by the results of the surrender of Donelson were the confederate duku aud duchess of Connaught, 16 Oct. 1880.

| evacuation of Nashville and Columbus.


Fort Duquesne (North America). Near here gen. 1865, the old flag, which had been lowered by major AnBraddock was surprised by a party of French and In- derson four years before, was again raised above the dians, his troops routed and himself killed, 9 July, 1755. fort. The fort was named Fort Pitt after its capture by Forbes,

Forth and Clyde Canal, commenced 10 July, 24 Nov, 1758. It is now Pittsburgh.

1768, under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, and opened Fort Erie (Upper Canada). This fortress was taken 28 July, 1790. A communication was thus formed beby the United States forces under gen. Browne, 3 June, tween the eastern and western seas on the coast of Scot1814. After several conflicts it was evacuated, 5 Nov. land. 1814.

A railway bridge across the Firth of Forth projected, and a Fort George (Inverness, N.W. Scotland) was erected raft launched in June, 1866, in 1747, to restrain the Highlanders.-Fort William, Mr. (afterwards sir) T. Bouch, of Edinburgh, was engaged to besieged by them in vain in 1746, is now in ruins.

prepare plans for a suspension-bridge, 1878.

The Forth Bridge company accepted tenders from Wm. Arrol & Fort Henry (Tennessee). This fort, situated on Co. (1,250,0001.) for constructing bridge and railway, Oct. the Tennessee river, was captured by gen. U.S. Grant and

1879; through Tay-bridge disaster, etc., the scheme was sus

pended and eventually abandoned by the company, 13 Jan. commodore A. H. Foote, 6 Feb. 1862. The attacking fleet 1881. consisted of seven gunboats, four of which were ironclad. Gen. Grant, with 11 regiments, co-operated with

Fortification. The Phænicians were the first peoFoote by a movement to the rear of the fort, which led ple to fortify cities. Apollodorus says that Perseus forgen. Tilghman, commanding the post, to send the main tified Mycenæ, where statues were afterwards erected to portion of his command -- about 3000 men- to Fort him. The modern system was introduced about 1500. Donelson, retaining 83 in the fort to contend with the Albert Dürer wrote on fortification in 1527 ; and great gunboats. Twenty-one of these were killed or wounded, improvements were made by Vauban, who fortified many

The new fortifications and the remainder, including Tilghman, were captured places in France; he died 1707. with the fort. Seventeen guns were captured.

of Paris were completed in 1846 ; see Paris. In Aug. Fort Sumter IN THE WAR OF THE AMERICAN RE- 1860, the British parliament passed an act for the exBELLION. This fort is situated in Charleston harbor, tions of Portsmouth, Plymouth, Pembroke, and Portland,

penditure of 2,000,0001. in one year upon the fortificanearly midway between Sullivan and Morris islands, the Thames, Medway, and Sheerness, Chatham, Dover, and 34 miles from Charleston city. It was originally a and Cork, and on the purchase of a central arsenal escasemated brick work of five faces, designed to mount tablishment; the estimated expense being 9,500,0001. two tiers of guns in embrasure and en barbette. In the A committee to investigate our fortifications was apspring of 1861 major Robert Anderson commanded the national works in Charleston harbor.

pointed, 16 April, 1868.

This officer, in view of the secession of South Carolina (20 Dec. 1860), Fortunate Isles, see Canaries. and of the preparations being made by the military Fortune Bay Affair, see Cunadu, 1878, 1880-1, forces in that state to seize the forts in the harbor, evacu- and Newfoundland. ated Fort Moultrie on the night of 26 Dec., and occupied Fort Sumter with his command. The Star of the West,

Fortune-telling is traced to the early astrologers, in an attempt to reinforce Sumter, was fired upon off by whom the planets Jupiter and Venus were supposed Morris Island (9 Jan. 1861), and obliged to return to New to betoken happiness. The Sibyllæ were women said to York. For four months preparations were made by the be inspired by Heaven; see Sibyls and Gipsies. In Engconfederate forces at Charleston--numbering 7000 men, land the laws against fortune telling were at one time and commanded by gen. G. T. Beauregard for an attack very severe. A declaration was published in France, 11 on Fort Sumter. On 11 April Beauregard demanded the Jan. 1680, of exceeding severity against fortune-tellers surrender of the fort, which demand was refused by major and poisoners, under which several persons suffered death. Anderson. That night the relieving flotilla reached the

- Ilénaull. Fortune-tellers, although liable by the acts offing; and at 3.20 A.M. on the 12th, Anderson was noti- of 1743 and 1824 to be imprisoned as rogues and vagafied that fire would be opened upon him in one hour. bonds, still exist in England. At the time appointed the bombardment of Fort Sumter Forty-shilling Freeholders, see Freeholders. commenced from Fort Moultrie, two batteries at Fort Johnson, an iron - clad battery on Cumming's Point,

Forum, at Rome, originally a market-place, became another near Charleston, and other works, which had about 472 B.C. the place of assembly of the people in their been constructed within range. The first gun was fired tribes (the Comitia), and was gradually adorned with by Edmund Ruffin, an aged Virginian. After about

temples and public buildings.- Near Forum TREBRONII, three hours this fire was replied to by the garrison. in Mæsia, the Romans were defeated by the Goths, Nov? Three times during the day the quarters were set on

251. After a struggle in the morass, the emperor Decius fire by the shells. At noon the relieving fleet was dis- and his son were slain and their bodies not recovered. cerned from the fort and saluted. The bombardment Fossalta, near Bologna, central Italy. Here Enzo was continued till dark, and renewed on the 13th. It or Eurico, titular king of Sardinia, natural son of the was impossible for reinforcements to reach the fort. emperor Frederick II., was defeated and made prisoner, The fires in the quarters again broke out, and the fort 26 May, 1249, and retained. He was kept in honorable being untenable, major Anderson surrendered it to the captivity till bis death, 14 March, 1272. confederates, and the next day evacuated the work, lowering his flag with a salute, and, with the garrison, about 1400.

Fotheringhay Castle (Northamptonshire), built

Here Richard III. of England was born in sailed northward. In this first conflict of the rebellion 1450 ; and here Mary queen of Scots was tried, 11-14 there were no casualties on either side. On 7 April, 1863, Oct. 1586, and beheaded, 8 Feb. 1587. It was demolished an attempt was made by admiral Dupont, with a fleet of by her son, James I. of England, in 1604. monitors, to reduce Fort Sumter, but failed on account of obstructions in the harbor, which prevented the ves

Foughard, near Dundalk, N. Ireland. Ilere Ed. sels from reaching the weakest side of the fort. In this ward, brother of Robert Bruce, after invading Irelavd in attack the monitor keokuk was sunk, and other vessels 1315, was defeated by sir John Bermingham, 5 Oct. 1318. of the fleet sustained serious injuries. The bombard- Bruce was killed by Roger de Maupis, a burgess of Dun

dalk. ment was renewed by admiral Dahlgren after the occupation of Morris Island in the summer of 1863, and the Foundling-hospitals are ancient. A species of fort, though reduced to an earthwork, and rendered tem- foundling-hospital was set up at Milan in 787, and in the porarily harınless as an offensive work, was not captured. middle ages most of the principal cities of the continent The fort was held by the confederates until they evacu- possessed one. The French government in 1790 declared ated the city of Charleston, 17 Feb, 1865. On 11 April, foundlings to be the children of the state,"



No foundling hospital in England when Addison wrote in 1713 | chiefly conquests. In 1815 the departments were reLondon foundling-hospital, projected by Thomas Coram,

a sea-captain, incorporated Oct. 1739; opened. . 2 June, 1756 duced to 86; in 1860 they were raised to 89 by the acHandel gave an organ; opened it,

.1 May, 1750 quisition of Savoy and Nice,* reduced to 86 by the loss It succors about 500 infant children; Coram's statue was of Alsace and Lorraine. The political constitution has put up in.....

1856 been frequently changed since 1789. For details of Foundling hospital in Dublin instituted in 1704. Owing

to great mortality, and from moral considerations, the more important events, see separate articles.
internal department was closed by order of govern.

.....31 March, 1835

The Franks settle in that part of Gaul till lato called Foundling-hospital at Moscow, founded by Catherine II.


.... about 418 in 1772; about 12,000 children are received annually.

Clovis, 481; defeats Syagrius and the Gauls at Soissons,

486; and the Alemanni at Tolbiac, near Cologne; and Fountains. The fountain of Hero of Alexandria

embraces Christianity,

496 was invented about 150 B.C. Among the remarkable He kills Alaric the Goth at the battle of Vouglé, near

Poictiers, unites his conquests from the Loire to the fountains at Rome are the Fontana di Trevi, constructed Pyrenees, and makes Paris his capital....

507 for pope Clement XII. in 1735; the Fontana Paolina, He proclaims the Salique law; and dies, leaving four

511 erected for pope Paul V. in 1612 ; and Fontana dell

' Frequent invasions of the Avars and Lombards. .562-34 Acqua Felice, called also the Fountain of Moses. The The mayors of the palace now assume almost sovereign fountains in the palace gardens at Versailles, made for authority

584 Louis XIV., and the Grand Jet d'Eau at St. Cloud, are

Charles Martel becomes mayor of the palace, and rules with despotic sway.

714 exceedingly beautiful. There are above 100 public foun- Invasion of the Saracens, 720; defeated by Charles Martains in Paris, the most striking being the Château d'Eau tel near Tours...

.10 Oct. 732 on the Boulevard St. Martin (by Girard, 1811) and that Reign of Pepin the Short.

752 at the Palais Royal. London is not remarkable for Charlemagne king, 768; conquers Saxony and Lombar:

dy, 773-4; crowned emperor of the West ..... 25 Dec. 800 fountains; the largest are in Trafalgar Square, constructed The 'Normans invade Neustria, 876; part of which is in 1845, after designs by sir Charles Barry. There are granted Rollo, as Normandy, by Charles the Simple... 911 beautiful fountains at Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, the Paris made capital of all France.

Reign of Hugh Capet. ..


996 seat of the duke of Devonshire. The magnificent foun- Letters of franchise granted to cities and towns by Louis tains at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, were first publicly

VI.. exhibited on 18 June, 1856, in the presence of the queen Philip Augustus defeats the Germans at Bouvines..

Louis VII. joins in the Crusades.


1214 and 20,000 spectators.

Louis VIII., Cæur de Lion, frees his serfs....

1224 The fountain at Park lane, London, W., the gift of Mrs. Brown, Louis IX. conducts an army into Palestine; takes Dami

was inaugurated and uncovered, 9 July, 1875. It has statues etta, 1249 (see Crusades); dies before Tunis ... 25 Aug. 1270 of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Milton, the work of Mr. Thomas Charles of Anjou conquers Naples and Sicily

1266 Crost, and cost 50001.

His tyranny leads to the massacre called the Sicilian
Vespers (which see)..

1282 Fourierism, a social system devised by M. Charles Philip the Fair's quarrels with the popo

1301-2 Fourier (who died in 1837). The Phalanstery (from pha- Knights Templars suppressed

1307-8 lunr), an association of 400 families living in one edifice, English invasion-Philip VI. defeated at Cressy. 26 Aug. 1346

Union of France and Navarre was to be so arranged as to give the highest amount of Calais taken by Edward III. ..

.3 Aug. 1347 happiness at the lowest cost. The system failed; caused, Dauphiny annexed to France..

1349 it is said, by the smallness of the scale on which it was

Battle of Poietiers (which see); king John taken (brought prisoner to England)

19 Sept. 1356 tried.

France laid under an interdict by the pope..


25 Oct. 1415 "Four Masters," a name given to Michael, Cona- Battle of Agincourt (which see) ry, and Cucogry O'Clery, and Ferfeasa O'Mulconry, who Henry V. of England acknowledged heir to the throne. 1420

Massacre of the Armagnacs by the Burgundians...June, 1418 compiled from original documents the annals of Ireland Henry VI. crowned at Paris; duke of Bedford regent. ... 1422 from 2242 B.C. to A.D. 1616. An edition of these “ An- Siege of Orleans, 8 May; battle of Patay; the English nals,” printed from autograph MSS., with a translation Joan of Arc burned at Rouen.

defeated by Joan of Arc...:

.... 18 June, 1429

....30 May, 1431 edited by Dr. John O'Donovan, was published at Dublin England lost all her possessions (but Calais) in France, in 1851. The “Four Masters" lived in the first half of between

..1434 and 1450 the seventeenth century.

"League of the Public Good” against Louis XI. by the nobles..

.Dec. 1464-Oct 1465 Fourth Party, a name facetiously given to lord Edward IV. of England invades France.

1475 Randolph Churchill, sir Henry Wolff, Mr. Gorst, and a

Charles VIII. conquers Naples, 1494; loses it..


1503 few other conservative members, active opponents of Pope Julius II. forms the Holy League against France... 1511

League of Cambray against Venice... the government; also termed "free lances.” The other English invasion--battle of Spurs

16 Aug 1513 parties were liberals, conservatives, and home - rulers Interview ou the field of the Cloth of Gold between

Francis I. and Henry VIII. of England. (1880--1).

Francis I. defeated and taken at Pavia.. Fox, see Reynard.

Peace of Cambray

.5 Aug. 15:29 Persecution of Protestants begins..

1530 Fox and Grenville Administration, see Gren- Royal printing press established, 1531; Robert Stephens ville Administration.

prints his Latin Bible.


Brittany annexed to France... Foxglove (folks' or fairies' glove), a handsome in

League of England with the emperor Charles V.; Henry digenous flower. The canary foxglove (Digitulis Cana- VIII. invades France..

1541 riensis) came from the Canary islands, 1698. The Ma. Successful defence of Metz by the duke of Guise.

Peace with England. ..

.7 June, 1546 deira foxglove came here in 1777. The fox-grape shrub He takes Calais (which see).

1558 (Vitis vulpina), from Virginia, before 1656.

Religious wars; massacre of Protestants at Vassy, 1 March, 1562 Fraga (N.E. Spain). Near here the Christians, un- Guise killed at siege of Orleans, 18 Feb.; temporary

Guise defeats the Huguenots at Dreux,

.19 Dec. der Alfonso I. of Aragon, were defeated by the Moors, 17 peace of Ambojsc.

...19 March, 1563 July, 1134.

Huguenots defeated at St. Denis.

.....10 Nov 1567 Franc, the current silver French coin (value 101.),

* Population of France in 1700, 19, 669,320; in 1762, 21, 769,superseded the livre tournois by law in 1795.

163; in 1801, 27,319,003; in 1820, 30, 451,187; in 1836, 33,540,France, the Roman Gaul (which see). In the fifth 910;, in 1846, 35, 401,761; in 1856, 36,038,364; in 1861, includ.

ing the new departments, 37, 382.225; in 1872 (after the war), century it was conquered by the Franks, a people of 36,102,921. Population 31 Dec. 1876, 36,905, 788. Population Germany, then inhabiting Franconia, where they became of the colonies (in Asia, Pondicherry, etc. ; Africa, Algeria, known about 240.

The country was gradually named etc.; America, Martinique, Guadeloupe, etc.; Oceania, tho Franken-ric, Franks' kingdom. For the dynastic changes, in 1877, about 6,410,660.' (Alsace and Lorraine lost with pop

Marquesas, etc.), in 1858, 3.641,226; in 1872, about 5,621,000; see list of sovereigns, infra. Previous to the revolution, ulation of 1,597,219 in 1871.) In May, 1862, the Monit ur as. France was divided into 40 governments. In 1790 it was

serted the effective army to be 447,000, with a reserve of divided into 83 departments, and subsequently into 130, in 1869. about 1,350,000; in 1875, 1,750,000; in 1880, 2,423, 164

170,000; virtually ra sed to 1,200,000 in 1868; disposable force including Corsica, Geneva, Savoy, and other places, I men; non-military adjuncts, about 1,330,000,

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At Jarnac, 13 March; at Moncontour.
..3 Oct. 1569 | Revolutionary tribunal set up...

19 Aug. 1792 Massacre of St. Bartholomew..

. 24 Aug. 1572 Decree of the National Assembly against the priests; “ Holy Catholic League” established.

1576 40,000 exiled....

26 Aug Duke of Guise assassinated by king's order, 23 Dec.; and Massacre in Paris ; the prisons broken open, and 1200 his brother, the cardinal.. 24 Dec. 1598 persons (100 priests) slain......

.2-5 Sept. Henry III. stabbed by Jacques Clement, a friar, 1 Aug. ; Murder of the princess de Lamballe.

..3 Sept. died.. .2 Aug. 1589 The National Convention opened..

.17 Sept. Henry IV. defeats the League at Ivry. .14 March, 1590 Convention establishes a republic, 20 Sept. ; proclaimed, Henry IV. becomes a Roman Catholic. ...25 July, 1593

22 Sept. The League leaders submit to him.

...Jan. 1596 Duke of Brunswick defeated at Valmy.. 20 Sept. He promulgates the edict of Nantes.

.13 April, 1598 The French people declare their fraternity with all naSilk and other manufactures introduced by him and tions who desire to be free, and offer help.. Sully..... .1606-10 Flanders conquered ....

.. Dec. Quebec, in North America, settled.

1608 Decree for the perpetual banishment of the Bourbon Murder of Henry IV. by Ravaillac.

.14 May, 1610 family, those confined in the Temple excepted, Regency of Mary de' Medici.. 1610-14

20 Dec. The states.general meet and complain of the manage. Louis imprisoned in the Temple distinct from the queen, ment of the finances...

27 Oct. 1614 and brought to trial, 19 Jan.; condemned to death, 20 Rise of the Concinis, 1610; their fall and death,

1617 Jan. ; beheaded in the Place de Louis Quinze..21 Jan. 1793 Navarre annexed to France

1620 Committee of Public Safety established.. ...21 Jan. Vigorous and successful administration of Richelieu, be. War with England and Holland declared.. .1 Feb. gins with finance, 1624 War in La Vendée.

March, Rochelle taken after a long siege

1628 Reign of Terror-proscription of Girondists, 31 May; es“Day of Dupes;" Richelieu's energy defeats the machi

tablishment of convention.

23 June, nations of his enemies... 11 Nov. 1630 | Marat stabbed by Charlotte Corday.

.13 July, Richelieu organizes the Académie de France .1634–5 The queen beheaded..

... 16 Oct. His death (aged 58) .4 Dec. 1642 Execution of the Girondists.

.31 Oct. Accession of Louis XIV., aged four years (Anne of Aus- Philip Égalité, duke of Orleans, who had voted for the tria regent).

.14 May, 1643 king's death, guillotined at Paris (see Orleans), 6 Nov.; Administration of Mazarin; victories of Turenne.. 1643-6 and madame Roland..

.8 Nov. Civil wars of the Fronde.. . 1648, etc. Worship of Goddess of Reason..

..10 Nov. Death of Mazarin, 9 March; Colbert financial minister.. 1661 Adoption of new republican calendar..

24 Nov. War with Holland, etc.

1672 Execution of Danton and others, 5 April; of madame Canal of Languedoc constructed.. 1664-81 Elizabeth..

12 May, 1794 Peace of Nimeguen..

10 Aug. 1678 Robespierre president, 4 June; he and 71 others guilloEdict of Nantes revoked.. 22 Oct. 1685 tined...

.28 July, Louis marries madame de Maintenon

Abolition of the Revolutionary Tribunal. .15 Dec. War with William III. of England. . 1689, etc. Peace with Prussia

.5 April, 1795 Peace of Ryswick..... 20 Sept. 1697 Insurrection of the Faubourgs.

20, 21 May, War of the Spanish succession. ..Sept. 1701 Louis XVII. dies in prison.

..8 June, French defeated at Blenheim.. .2 Aug. 1704 French Directory chosen..

.1 Nov. At Ramillies,

.23 May, 1706 Bonaparte's successful campaigns in Italy. .1796, etc. Peace of Utrecht (which see). 11 April, 1713 Babeuf's conspiracy suppressed..

..12 May, 1796 Dissensions of Jesuits and Jansenists; the bull Unigeni- Pichegru's conspiracy fails.

..May, 1797 tus....

.Sept. Expedition to Syria and Egypt (which see).. ..July, 1798 Accession of Louis XV.; stormy regency of the duke of European coalition against France.

.. April, 1799 Orleans..

.1 Sept. 1715, etc. Council of Five Hundred deposed by Bonaparte, who is Law's Bubble in France (see Law).

1716 declared First Consul...

..10 Nov. French defeated at Dettingen..

.16 June, 1743 He defeats the Austrians at Marengo.. .14 June, 1800 Successful campaign of marshal Saxe

1746 His life attempted by the infernal machine. ..24 Dec. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle...

18 Oct. 1748 | Peace of Amiens (with England, Spain, and Holland) Seven Years' war begun..

May, 1756

25-27 March, 1802 Damiens' attempt on life of Louis XV. .5 Jan. 1757 Amnesty to the emigrants.

. April, Canada lost--battle of Quebec... .13 Sept. 1759 Legion of Honor instituted

.19 May, The Jesuits banished from France, and their effects con- Bonaparte made consul for life..

...2 Aug fiscated.

1762 The Bank of France established..

,14 April, 1803 Peace of Paris; Canada ceded to England, .....10 Feb. 1763 Declaration of war against England

22 May, Louis XV. enslaved by madame Du Barry

1769 Conspiracy of Moreau and Pichegru against Bonaparte, Death of Louis XV...

10 May, 1774 15 Feb.; the latter found strangled in prison (see Famine riots at Versailles.. May, 1775 Georges).

..6 April, 1804 The minister Turgot dismissed. .May, 1776 Duc d'Enghien executed..

21 March, Ministry of Necker..

Nov. France made an empire; Napoleon proclaimed emperor, Louis XVI. assists America to throw off its dependence 18 May; crowned by the pope..

2 Dec. on England, at first secretly 1778 He is crowned king of Italy.

26 May, 180K Torture abolished in French judicature. 1780 Another coalition against France.

.Aug. Peace of Versailles with England...

.3 Sept. 1783 Napoleon defeats the allies at Austerlitz. 2 Dec. The diamond necklace affair (which see)

1785 And the Prussians at Jena.......

.14 Oct. 1806 Meeting of tho assembly of notables, 22 Feb. 1787; again, And the Russians at Eylau......

8 Feb. 1807 6 Nov. 1788 His interview with the czar at Tilsit, 26 June; peace Opening of states-general (308 ecclesiastics, 285 nobles; signed...

.7 July, 621 deputies, tiers état). .

.5 May, 1789 His Milan decree against British commerce ...17 Dec. The tiers état constitute themselves the National Assem. Now nobility of France created...

.1 March, 1808 bly.

17 June Abdication of Charles IV. of Spain and his son in favor The French revolution commences with the destruction of Napoleon, 5 May; insurrrection in Spain...27 May, of the Bastile (which see).

14 July, Commencement of the Peninsular war (see Spain).July, The National Assembly decrees that the title of tho Alliance of England and Austria against France... April, 1809

“king of France'' shall be changed to that of the king Victories in Austria; Napoleon euters Vienna...... May, of the French".

....16 Oct.
Peace of Vienna...

14 Oct. The property of the clergy confiscated

.., 2 Nov.

Divorce of the emperor and empress Josephine decreed Emigration of nobles

by the senate..

16 Dec. Confederation of the Champ de Mars; France declared a Marriage of Sapoleon to Maria Louisa of Austria, 1 April, 1810 limited monarchy; Louis XVI. swears to maintain tho Hollaud united to France.

..,9 July, constitution...

.14 July, 1790 Birth of the king of Rome (since stylod Napoleon II.), The silver plate used in the churches transferred to the

20 March, 1811 mint and coined.. .3 March, 1791 War with Russia declared..

22 June, 1812 Death of Mirabeau.. 2 April, Victory at Borodino....

7 Sept: The king, queen, and royal family arrestod at Varennes, Disastrous retreat; French army nearly destroyed, Oct. in their flight...

21 June, Alliance of Austria, Russia, and Prussia against France, Louis (a prisoner) sanctions the National Coustitution,

March, 1813 15 sept. The British enter France.

7 Oct War declared against the emperor . 20 April, 1792 Surrender of Paris to the allies,

.31 March, 1814 The Jacobin club declare their sittings permanent,

Abdication of Napoleon negotiated

.5 April, 1814 18 June, Bourbon dynasty restored, and Louis XVIII. arrives in The multitude, bearing the red bonnet of liberty, march


.3 May, to the Tuileries to make demands on the king, Napoleon arrives at Elba.

.... 4 May, 20 June, The Constitutional Charter derreed..

.4-10 June First coalition against France; commencement of the Quits Elba, and lands at Cannes

... 1 March, 1815 great French war.

..June, Arrives at Fontainebleau (the Hundred Days)..20 March, (See Battles, 1792 to 1815.) Joined by all the army

22 March, The royal Swiss giards cut to pieces; massacre of 20.0 The allies sign a treaty against him

March, persons. ......10 Aug. He abolishes the slave-trade

29 March,

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