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exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483, a pro

of muriatic acid gas ” (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, 28 hibition which was relaxed in 1663.

July, 1863. It came into operation 1 Jan. 1864, proved successful, was re-enacted 1868, and amended 1874; see Chem

ical Works.
Alien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign persons)
suppressed in England, 1414.

Alkmaer, see Bergen.
The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.
Act to register aliens, 1795.

Allahabad (N.W. Hindostan), the "holy city” of Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, or the Indian Mahometans, situated at the junction of the

dered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalization by the holding of stock in the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabanks of Scotland, June, 1820.

bad was successively subject to the sovereigns of Delhi New registration act, 7 Geo. IV. 1826. This last act was re- and Oude, but in 1801 was partially and in 1803 wholly

pealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836. The rigor of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed in incorporated with the British possessions. By treaty 1844 and 1847.

here, Bengal, etc., was ceded to the English in 1765.— " Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, During the Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments fished our seas, and built our bridges and harbors."'

rose and massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857; col. Neil Smiles, 1861. Their status defined by the Naturalization Act, passed 12 May, marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the in1870.

surrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made this city By act of Congress passed 1798, alien enemies might be the capital of the N.W. provinces. Visit of the prince restrained, secured, or removed from the territories of the of Wales, 7 March, 1874. United States. An act of Congress relieving the chil- Allatoona Pass (Ga.), BATTLE OF, fought 6 Oct. dren born abroad of United States fathers from alienage 1864. After his evacuation of Atlanta, Hood covered was passed 1854. In 1857, the United States attorney- the road to Macon. Soon, however, he shifted southgeneral officially asserted that a United States citizen ward to the West Point road, and then boldly pushed may renounce his citizenship. Aliens may readily nat- northward against Sherman's communications. Sheruralize themselves in the United States; see Naturali- man followed him with the bulk of his army, but on 6 zation. In the United States aliens may sue and be sued, Oct. had only reached Kenesaw. Hood, farther north, but cannot serve a process, vote, or hold office. With that day attacked Allatoona Pass, the most important respect to the power of aliens to hold real estate, the laws station on the road, and stored with one and a half of the several States are not alike. Some impose restric- million of rations. Gen. Corse conducted the defence, tions, while others do not. The question of the inheri- and all day long held out against the assailing force, tance of the property of aliens has been the subject of retaining his position until relief approached and several treaties between the United States and foreign Hood was compelled to withdraw. Corse was severely nations,

wounded. Aliwal, a village of N.W. India, the site of a battle, Allegiance, see Oaths. 28 Jan. 1816, between the Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor

Allegory abounds in the Bible and in Homer: see Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Gen. xlix. (1689 B.C.), of cannon, and the British under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 Psa. lxxx., and all the prophets. Spenser's Faerie men with 32 guns. The contest was obstinate, but ended Queene (1590) and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1678) in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or

are allegories throughout. The Spectator (1711), by drowned.

Addison, Steele, and others, abounds in allegories. The Alizarine, a crystalline body, the coloring principle allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures is said to of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in have begun with Origen in the third century; but see 1831. Schunck showed that all the finest madder colors Gal. iv. 24. contained only alizarine combined with alkalies and fatty

Alleyn, see Almshouses and Dulwich. acids. Graebe and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869. Allia (Italy), a small river flowing into the Tiber, The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal where Brennus and the Gauls defeated the Romans, 16 oils by Dumas, and Laurent in 1832; see Mudder.

July, 390 B.c. The Gauls sacked Rome and committed

so much injury that the day was thereafter held to be Aljubarrota, Portugal. Here John I. of Portugal unlucky (nefas), and no public business was permitted defeated John I. of Castile, and secured his country's in- to be done thereon. dependence, 14 Aug. 1385; see Batalha.

Alliance, TREATIES OF, between the high EuroAlkahest, see Alchemy.

pean powers. The following are the principal (see Alkalies (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United Kingdoin, etc.): from which an alkaline substance was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the Of Leipsic...

9 April, 1631

of Vienna... nature of the difference between caustic and mild alka

27 May, 1657 The Triple..

28 Jan. 1668 lies in 1736.

Of Warsaw.

31 March, 1683

The Grand. The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the met. The Hague..

12 May, 1689

. 4 Jan. 1717 als potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry Davy at the The Quadruple.

.2 Aug. 1718 Royal Institution, London, 1807.

of Vienna

.16 March, 1731 Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816.

Or Versailles. The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lancashire and Germanic.

...1 May, 1756

,23 July, 1785 Cheshire, is based on the decomposition of common salt of Paris. (chloride of sodium) by a process invented by a Frenchman of St. Petersburg..

.16 May, 1795

.8 April, 1805 named Le Blanc, about 1792.


14 March, 1812 Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814. Valor Sweden...

.24 March, rious modifications of these processes are now in use. Of Töplitz. "Alkali worksare defined as works for the manufacture of Holy Alliance...

....9 Sept. 1813

.26 Sept. 1815 alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in which of England, France, and Turkey (at Constantinople), muriatic gas is evolved.

12 March, 1854 Mr. William Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid of England and France ratified...

.3 April, " gas patented in 1836.

Of Sardinia with the Western Powers (at Turin)... 26 Jan. 1855 The "ammonia process" of making soda invented by Dyer or Sweden with the Western Powers..

19 Dec. and Hemming in 1838; patents respecting it taken out by of Prussia and Italy....

..June, 1866 Solvay, 1863, 1867, 1872; Gossage, 1854; Schloesing, 1851,

1858; Young, 1871, 1872; Weldon, 1872, 1873; and by others. All-night Sittings, see Parliament, 1877 and 1881. Mr. Walter Weldon received the French Lavoisier medal for

his most important improvements in the alkali manufact- All-saints' Day (Nov.1), or ALL-HALLOws, a fesure, July, 1877.

tival said to have been begun by pope Boniface IV. about In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by the

alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the Alkali works 607, celebrated in the Pantheon at Rome, and established Act “for the more effectual condensation [of 95 per cent.] | by pope Gregory IV. (about 830) for the commemoration


of all those saints and martyrs in whose honor no par- | British Almanac and Companion...


1832 ticular day is assigned. The reformers of the English Anniversary Calendar, published by W. Kidd.

Nautical Almanac (U. S.).

1849 church, 1549, struck out of their calendar a great num- Chambers's Book of Days..

1862-63 ber of anniversaries, leaving only those which at their Whitaker's Almanack..

1869 time were connected with popular feeling or tradition. Spofford's American Almanac....

1878 All-souls College, Oxford, see Oxford.

Most of the great daily journals in New York and other

American cities publish almanacs containing elaborate and All-souls' Day (2 Nov.), a festival of the Roman detailed political and industrial statistics. Catholic church to commemorate the souls of the faith- publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from James I.,

The Stationers' Company claimed the exclusive right of ful, instituted, it is said, at Cluny about 993 or 1000.

granting the privilege to them and the two universities; but "All the Talents" Administration, see Gren- Common Pleas in 1775. A bill to renew the privilege was

the monopoly was broken up by a decision of the Court of ville Administrations.

lost in 1779. Allobroges, Gauls, defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus, was abolished in Aug. 1834 ; since when almanacs have be.

The Stamp Duty on English almanacs first imposed in 1710, near the contluence of the Rhone and Saone, 121 B.C. come innumerable, being issued by tradesmen with their

goods. Allotments, see Land, note.

Of Moore's (under the management of Henry Andrews, the Alma, a river in the Crimea, near which was fought able computer of the “ Nautical Ephemeris') at one time upa great battle on 20 Sept. 1854; see Russo-Turkish Wur wards of 430,000 copies were annually cold. He died in 1820.

Of Foreign Almanacs, the principal are the “ Almanach de and Crimea. The English, French, and Turkish army France," first published in 1699, and the “Almanach de (about 57,000 men) moved out of their first encampment Gotha,” 1764. in the Crimea on 19 Sept., and bivouacked for the night Almanza (S.E. Spain). Here on 25 April (0. s. 14), on the left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (com- 1707, the English, Dutch, and Portuguese forces under manded by prince Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 in the earl of Galway were totally defeated by the French fantry, had 180 field - pieces on the heights, and on the and Spanish commanded by James Fitzjames, duke of morning of 20 Sept. were joined by 6000 cavalry from Berwick (illegitimate son of James II.). Most of the Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces, under lord English were killed or made prisoners, having been abanRaglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the French of 24,000, doned by the Portuguese at the first charge. under marshal St.-Arnaud. At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made; the river Alma was crossed, while

Almeida (Portugal), a frontier town, captured by prince Napoleon took possession of the village under the Massena, 27 Aug. 1810. The French entered Spain, leavtire of the Russian batteries; and at 4, after a sanguinary ing a garrison at Almeida; blockaded by the English 6 fight, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, April, 1811. Almeida was retaken by Wellington (11 utterly routed, threw away their arms and knapsacks in May), and Massena retired from Portugal. their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of whom 900

Almenara, a village N.E. Spain, where, on 28 July, were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The loss of the 1710, an English and German army defeated the SpanBritish was 26 officers and 327 men killed, and 73 officers ish army supporting Philip V., the grandson of Louis and 1539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23d, 7th, and XIV. of France. Stanhope, the English general, killed 33d regiments); that of the French, 3 officers and 233 the Spanish general, Amezaga, in single conflict; an act men killed, and 54 officers and 1033 men wounded. almost unexampled in modern warfare. Total loss of the allies about 3400.

Almohades, Mahometan partisans, followers of MoAlmack's Assembly-rooms, King street, St. hammed ben Abdalla, surnamed El-Mehedi, in Africa, James's, London, at first very exclusive, were erected by about 1120.

They subdued Morocco, 1145; entered a Scotchman named Almack, and opened 12 Feb. 1765. Spain and took Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 1146-56; They are now termed Willis's Rooms, from the name of and founded a dynasty and ruled Spain till 1232, and the present proprietors.

Africa till 1278. Almanacs (from the Arabic al manah, to count).

Almoner, an office anciently allotted to a dignified The Egyptians computed time by instruments; the Al- clergyman who gave the first dish from the royal table exandrians had almanacs, and log calendars are ancient to the poor, or an alms in money. By an ancient canon In the British Museum and universities are specimens all bishops were required to keep almoners. The grandof early almanacs. Michael Nostradamus, the astrologer, almoner of France was the highest ecclesiastical dignity wrote an almanac in the style of Merlin, 1556.---Dufres- in that kingdom before the revolution, 1789. Queen noy. Prof. Augustus De Morgan's valuable “ Book of Victoria's almoner (Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, Almanaes, with an index of reference, by which the al- appointed 28 May, 1870), or the sub-almoner, distributes manac may be found for every year,” was published in the queen's gifts on Maundy-Thursday (which see). March, 1851.* Among the earlier and more remarkable almanacs were

Almoravides, Mahometan partisans in Africa, rose

about 1050; entered Spain by invitation, 1086; were John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford.

1380 One in Lambeth Palace, written in..

1460 overcome by the Almohades in 1147. First printed one, published at Buda “Shepheard's Kalendar” (first printed in England) by

Almshouses for aged and infirm persons have been Richard Pynson....

1497 erected by many public companies and benevolent indiTybalt's Prognostications..

1533 viduals, particularly since the abolition of religious houses Almanac Liegeois...

at the Reformation in the sixteenth century. A list of Lilly's Ephemeris... Poor Robin's Almanac..

1052 them, with useful information, will be found in "Low's British Merlin...

1658 Charities of London,” 1862; frequently republished. Connaissance des Temps (by Picard). Edinburgh Almanac..


Armorers' almshouses, Bishopsgate.. Moore's Alimanac..

.1098 or 1713 Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion almshouses, Lady's Diary.

Westminster Franklin's l'oor Richard's Almanac..

Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by lady Dacre. 1594 Season on the Seasons...

1735 Alleyn's almshouses, near City road, founded by E. AlGentleman's Diary.

leyn.. Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Maskelyne (ina

Whittington's almshouses, founded in 1621, were rebuilt terially improved, 1834)..

1767 near Highgate bill by the Mercers' Company... 1826 British Imperial Kalendar.

The Fishmongers' Company founded almshouses in 1618, Hono's Every day Book...


and rebuilt them on Wandsworth common.. Haberdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded by Robert

Aske.. * Murphy's Almanack for 1838 predicted correctly a frost Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 1613 (in on 7 Jan., thaw and frost 14th; severe frost 21st, and then gratitude for her escape from an arrow-shot), were re

A great sale of the almanac ensued. Afterwards the built by the Brewers' Company.... predictious failed.

Bancroft's almshouses, Mile End, were crected..






1705 1732







1839 1735


The London almshouses, in commemoration of the pass. Mont Cenis or Col de Fréjus Tunnel. - A tunnel, 7% miles long ing of the Reform Bill, built at Brixton...

through Mont Cenis, connecting Savoy and Piedmont, was Numerous almshouses since erected for printers, book

proposed by M. Medail, and, after long lying dormant, was binders, etc.

discussed and plans drawn up in 1848. The execution was

prevented by the war of 1849. Alney, an island in the Severn, near Gloucester. The work of excavation was begun by king Victor Emmanuel, Here a combat is asserted to have taken place between 31 Aug. 1857. Edmund Ironside and Canute the Great, in sight of their The boring was at first effected by ordinary piercing ma

chinery; steam power was employed in 1860; and latterly armies, 1016. The latter was wounded, and proposed a compressed air. division of the kingdom, the south part falling to Ed- Engineers-Grattoni, Grandis, and Sommeiller; the boring was mund. Edmund was murdered at Oxford shortly after, The total cost was about 2,600,0001. As the Italians had ex

completed 25 Dec. 1870. it is said, by Ædric Streon; and Canute obtained posses- ecuted the work within the given time, the French governsion of the whole kingdom.

ment bore the chief expense.

The first experimental trip was made in 40 minutes, 13 Sept., Alnwick (Saxon Ealnwic), on the river Alne in and the tunnel was solemnly inaugurated by the passage of Northumberland, was given at the Conquest to Ivo de 22 carriages in 20 minutes, 17 Sept. 1871; regular trains pass Vesci. It has long belonged to the Percies. Malcolm, A railway for locomotives over Mont Cenis was constructed

through, 16 Oct. 1871. king of Scotland, besieged Alnwick, and he and his sons

upon Mr. Fell's plan in 1867 (see Railways), and opened for were killed 13 Nov. 1093. It was taken by David I. in traffic, 15 June, 1868. 1136, and attempted in July, 1174, by William the Lion, The overland mail first travels through the tunnel to Brindisi, who was defeated and taken prisoner. It was burned by st. Gothard Tunnel (part of a railway system to connect the

saving 24 hours, 5 Jan. 1872. king John in 1215, and by the Scots in 1448. Since North Sea and the Mediterranean), about 94 miles, 214 1854 the castle has been repaired and enlarged with broad; compressed air employed in boring; begun June, great taste and at unsparing expense.

1870; completed 29 Feb. 1880; through failure in vaulting,

May, 1880, opening deferred. Alpaca, or Paco, a species of the S. American quad

Alresford, BATTLE OF, or Cheriton, which see. ruped, the llama, the soft hairy wool of which is now largely employed in the fabrication of cloths. It was Alsace, Elsass, formerly part of the kingdom of introduced into this country, about 1836, by the earl of Austrasia, afterwards the French departments of the C'pDerby. An alpaca factory (covering eleven acres), with per and Lower Rhine. It was incorporated with the a town, park, almshouses, etc., for the work-people, was German empire in the tenth century. A portion was erected at Saltaire, near Shipley, Yorkshire, by Mr. (after- restored to France, 1648, and the whole, including Straswards sir) Titus Salt in 1852. A statue of him at Bradburg, in 1697. Alsace was reconquered by the Germans, ford was unveiled 1 Aug. 1874. He died 29 Dec. 1876. Aug.-Sept. 1870; and annexed to their empire, May,

1871; by law, 9 June, 1871. The Alsatians were perAlphabet. Athotes, son of Menes, is said to have mitted to choose their nationality, before 30 Sept. 1872. been the author of hieroglyphics, and to have written Many emigrated into France, with much regret.-ALthus the history of the Egyptians, 2122 B.C. - Blair. Sace-Lorraine was constituted a province of the GerBut Josephus affirms that he had seen inscriptions by man empire, having been ceded by France by the treaty Seth, the son of Adam : this is deemed fabulous.

of peace concluded 10 May, 1781; see Belfort. The prov. The Egyptian alphabet is ascribed to Memnon, 1822 B.C. ince sends 15 members to the German parliament. AdThe first letter of the Phænician and Hebrew alphabet was ministrators, prince Bismarck, 1781 ; field-marshal Man

aleph, called by the Greeks alpha, and abbreviated by the moderns to A. The Hebrew is supposed to be derived from teuffel, 1 Oct. 1879. Population of Alsace-Lorraine, 1875, the Phoenician.

1,529,408. Cadmus, the founder of Cadmea, 1493 B.C., is said to have brought the Phoenician letters (fifteen in number) into

Alsatia, a name given to the precinct of WhiteGreece, viz. A, B, C, A, T, K, A, M, N, O, 11, P, E, T, Y. friars, London, is described in Scott's “ Fortunes of NiThese letters were originally either Hebrew, Phænician, or gel.” Its privilege of sanctuary was abolished in 1697. Assyrian characters, and changed gradually in form till they became the ground of the Roman letters, now used all over Alsen (Denmark), besieged by the Prussians, and Europe. Palamedes of Argos invented the double charac. heroically defended, 26 June; taken, 29 June, 1864. ters e, X, 0, about 1224 B.C. ; and Simonides added z, 4, H, N, about 489 B.C. - Arundelian Marbles. When the E

Altar. One was built by Noah, 2348 B.C. (Gen. viii. was introduced is not precisely known. The Greek alpha. bet consisted of 16 letters till 399 (or 403) 1.c., when the 20); others by Abraham, 1921 (Gen. xii. 8). Directions Ionic of 24 characters was introduced. The small letters for making an altar are given, Exod. xx. 24, 1491 B.C. are of later invention. The alphabets of the different na- Altars were raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Cecrops, tions contain the following number of letters:

1556 B.C. He introduced among the Greeks the worship English 26 Arabic...

of the deities of Egypt.llerodotus. The term “altar French..

25 Persian Italian 22 Turkish

was applied to the Lord's table for the first three cen. Spanish. 27 Sanscrit.

44 turies after Christ (Heb. xiii. 10). Christian altars in German. 26 Chinese radical charac

churches were instituted by pope Sixtus I. A.D. 135; and Slavonic. 42

214 Russian. 35 Chinese alphabet said to

were first consecrated by pope Sylvester. The Church Latin...

be invented by bishop of England terms the table on which the elements are Greek..

Eligius Cosi of Canton

placed an altar. Since the time of Elizabeth there has Hebrew..



been much controversy on the subject, and the Puritans Alphonsine Tables, astronomical tables, com- in the civil war destroyed many of the ancient stone posed by Spanish and Arab astronomers, and collected in altars, substituting wooden tables. In Jan. 1845 it was 1253 under the direction of Alphonso X. of Castile, sur- decided, in the Arches Court, that stone ultars were not named the Wise, who is said to have expended upwards to be erected in English churches. of 400,000 crowns in completing the work; he himself

Altenkirchen (Prussia). The French, who had wrote the preface. The Spanish government ordered defeated the Austrians here, 4 June, 1796, were themthe work of Alphonso to be reprinted from the best MSS.; selves defeated, and their general, Marceau, killed, 19 the publication begun in 1863.

Sept. following Alps, European mountains. Those between France

Alter ego (another or second I), a term applied to and Italy were passed by Hannibal, 218 B.C.; by the Romans, 154 B.C.; and by Napoleon I., May, 1800. Roads Spanish viceroys when exercising regal power; used at over Mont Cenis and the Simplon, connecting France Naples when the crown-prince was appointed vicarand Italy, were constructed by order of Napoleon, be- general during an insurrection in July, 1820. tween 1801-6; see Simplon. The “ Alpine Club," which Alton Riot. On the night of 7 Nov. 1837 a riot consists of British travellers in the Alps, was founded in occurred in Alton, Ill., growing out of the attempt of 1858, and published its first work, “ Peaks, Passes, and a mob to destroy the printing - press of the Obserrer, Glaciers," 1859; and a journal since; see Matterhorn. a newspaper published by the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy,

28 32 28



24 ......22

and devoted to the advocacy of the abolition of slavery. | ampton on her first voyage, Friday, 2 Jan. 1852, and on The attacks on the printing-office were repulsed, but Mr. Sunday morning, 4 Jan., was destroyed by fire at sea, Lovejoy was shot as he stepped out of his door. The about 110 miles W.S.W. of Scilly (ascribed to the sponleaders of the riot were tried and acquitted.

taneous ignition of combustible matter placed near the Altona (Holstein, N. Germany), acquired by the engine-room). Out of 161 persons on board, 102 persons Danes, 1660, and made a city, 1664. It was occupied must have perished by fire or drowning: 21 persons first by the German federal troops, 24 Dec. 1863, and were saved by the life-boat of the ship, 25 more were then by the Prussians (the federal diet protesting) 12 carried into Brest harbor by a Dutch vessel passing by, Feb. 1864.

and 13 others were picked up in the bay of Biscay, also

by a Dutch galliot. Eliot Warburton, a distinguished Alt-Ranstadt (Prussia), where the treaty of peace writer in general literature, was among those lost. dictated by Charles XII. of Sweden, to Frederick Augus. tus of Poland, was signed 24 Sept. 1706, 0.s. Frederick,

Amazon, a river in S. America, was discovered by deposed in 1704, regained the throne of Poland after the Pinzon in 1500, and explored by Francisco Orellana in defeat of Charles XII., in 1709.

1510. Coming from Peru, he sailed down the Amazon

to the Atlantic, and, observing companies of women in Alum, a salt, is said to have been first discovered at arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and Roccha, in Syria, about 1300; it was found in Tuscany gave the name of Amazon to the river, previously called about 1470; its manufacture was brought to perfection Marañon. in England by sir T. Challoner, who established large alum works near Whitby in 1608; it was discovered in

Amazons. Three nations of Amazons have been Ireland in 1757; and in Anglesey in 1790. Alum is used mentioned—the Asiatic, Scythian, and African. They as a mordant in dyeing, to harden low, to whiten are said to have been the descendants of Scythians inbread, and in the paper manufacture.

habiting Cappadocia, where their husbands, having made

incursions, were all slain, being surprised in ambuscades Alumbagh, a palace with other buildings near by their enemies. Their widows formed a female state, Lucknow, Oude, India, taken during the mutiny from and decreed that matrimony was a shameful servitude. the rebels, 23 Sept. 1857, and heroically defended by the -Quintus Curtius. They were said to have been conBritish under sir James Outram. He defeated an attack quered by Theseus, about 1231 B.C. The Amazons were of 30,000 sepoys on 12 Jan. 1858, and of 20,000 on Feb., and was relieved by sir Colin Campbell in March. throw the javelin with more force, their right breasts

constantly employed in wars; and, that they might Aluminium, a metal, the base of the earth alumina, were burned off, whence their name from the Greek-a, which is combined with silica in clay, and which was no, pa ós, breast. Others derive the name from maza, shown to be a distinct earth by Marggraff in 1754, having the moon, which they are supposed to have worshipped. been previously confounded with lime. Oerstedt in 1826 About 330 B.C. their queen, Thalestris, visited Alexander obtained the chloride of aluminium ; and in 1827 the the Great, while he was uing his conquests in Asia, metal itself was got from it by F. Wöhler, but was long with 300 females in her train.-Herodotus. a scientific curiosity, the process being expensive. The Ambassadors. Accredited agents, and representmode of production was afterwards simplified by Bunsen atives from one court to another, are referred to in early and others, more especially by H. Ste.-Claire Deville, ages. In most countries they have great privileges, and who in 1856 succeeded in procuring considerable quan- in England they and their servants are secured against tities of this metal. It is very light (sp. g. 2.25), malle

England usually has six ambassadors, twentyable, and sonorous; when pure does not rust, and is not seven ministers, and about thirty-six chief consuls, resiacted on by sulphur or any acid except hydrochloric. dent at foreign courts, exclusive of inferior agents; the In March, 1856, it was 3l, the ounce; in June, 1857, 11s. ambassadors and other chief agents from abroad at the or 12s., and it is now much cheaper (1873). The eagles court of London in 1865 were 47; in 1868, 43; in 1872, of the French colors have been made of it, and many 42; in 1878, 39. other ornamental and useful articles. Deville's work,

Strictly speaking, the United States sends no ambas“De l’Aluminium,” was published in 1859. An alumin- sadors-who are supposed to represent the person of a ium manufactory was established at Newcastle in 1860, sovereign-but only envoys extraordinary and ministers by Messrs. Bell.' They obtain the metal from a French plenipotentiary; bút American ministers are commonly mineral, bauxite. Their aluminium bronze, an alloy called ambassadors, and the term is used in the act of of copper and aluminium, invented by Dr. John Percy; Congress of 1836 relating to the diplomatic service. F.R.s., was made into watch-cases, etc., by Messrs. Reid The Russian ambassador being imprisoned for debt by a laceof Newcastle, in 1862.

merchant, 27 July, 1708, led to the passing tho statute of 7 Amadis OF Gaul, a Spanish or Portuguese ro- Anne for the protection of ambassadors, 1708. mance, stated to have been written about 1342 by Vasco Two men, convicted of arresting the servant of an ambassa

dor, were sentenced to be conducted to the house of the amde Lobeira. It was enlarged by De Montalvo, about bassador, with a label on their breasts, to ask his pardon, 1485; and first printed (in Spanish) 1519; in French, and then one of them to be imprisoned three months and 1510-56.

the other ined, 12 May, 1780.

The first ministers of the United States to France were Dr. Amalekites (descendants of Amalek, grandson of Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee, 1778. Esau, brother of Jacob) attacked the Israelites, 1491

B.C, The tirst minister plenipotentiary from the United States of

Leo were soon recalled, and Franklin made sole envoy. when perpetual war was denounced against them. They

America to England, John Adams, presented to the king, 1 were subdued by Saul about 1079; by David, 1058 and

June, 1785; the first from Great Britain to America was Mr. 1056; and by the Simeonites about 715 B.C.

Hammond in 1791.
Amalfi, a city on the gulf of Salerno, Naples, in the The first accredited ambassador

from China, Kus-ta-Jen, land

A Japanese minister received by the queen, 3 March, 1875. eighth century became the seat of a republic, and four- ed at Southampton, 21 Jan. 1877. ished by its commerce till 1075, when it was taken by

Amber, a carbonaccous mineral,* principally found Roger Guiscard, and eventually incorporated with Na- in the northern parts of Europe, of great repute in the ples. The Pisans, in their sack of the town in 1135, are world from the earliest time; esteemed as a medicine said to have found a copy of the Pandects of Justinian, before the Christian era: Theophrastus wrote upon it, and thus to have induced the revival of the study of Ro- 300 B.C. Upwards of 150 tons of amber have been found man law in Western Europe; the story is now doubted. Flavio Gioia, a native of Amalfi, is the reputed discoverer * Much diversity of opinion still prevails among naturalists of the mariner's compass, about 1302.

and chemists respecting the origin of amber. It is considered

by Berzelius to have been a resin dissolved in volatile oil. It Amateur Mechanical Society (89 Stamford often contains delicately formed insects. Sir D. Brewster conStreet) issued its first prospectus 1 Jan. 1869.

cludes it to be indurated vegetable juice. When rubbed it be.

comes electrical, and from its Greek name, édéktpov, the term Amazon, West India mail steamship, left South-electricity is derived.


Deane and


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in one year on the sands of the shore near Pillau.-Phil Columbus sailed on his first expedition from Palos in

Andalusia on Friday, with vessels supplied by the soy.
ereigns of Spain...

.3 Aug. 1492
Amblef, near Cologne, Germany. Here Charles He lands on the island of Guanahani, one of the Baha-
Martel defeated Chilperic II., and Ragenfroi, mayor of

mas; takes possession of it in the name of Ferdinand

and Isabella of Castile, and names it San Salvador, the Neustrians, 716.

Friday, 12 Oct. Amboise (Central France). A conspiracy of the He discovers Cuba, 28 Oct.; and Hispaniola (now Hayti), Huguenots against Francis II., Catherine de' Medicis, He returns to Spain...

where he builds a fort, La Navidad.

..6 Dec.

..15 March, 1493 and the Guises, was suppressed at this place in Jan. 1560. He sails from Cadiz on his second expedition, 25 Sept. ; On 19 March, 1563, the Pacification of Amboise was pub

discovers the Caribbee Isles, - Dominica, 3 Nov.; Gua

daloupe, 4 Nov. ; Antigua, 10 Nov.; founds Isabella in lished, granting toleration to the Huguenots. The civil

Hispaniola, the first Christian city in the New World, war was, however, soon renewed.

Dec. Amboyna, chief of the lucca isles, discovered

He discovers Jamaica, 3 May; and Evangelista (now Isle

of Pines), 13 June; war with the natives of Hispaniola, 1494 about 1512 by the Portuguese, i not wholly occupied He visits the various isles, and explores their coasts....1193-6 by them till 1580. It was taken by the Dutch in 1605. Returns to Spain to meet the charges of his enemies, The English factors at this settlement were cruelly tort

11 June, 1496

Cabot (sent out by Henry VII. of England) discovers Labured and put to death, 17 Feb. 1623-4, by the Dutch, on

rador on the coast of North America (he is erroneousan accusation of a conspiracy to expel them from the isl- ly said to have discovered Florida, and also Newfound. and, where the two nations jointly shared in the pepper Columbus sails on his third voyage, 30 May; discovers

land, and to have named it Prima Vista)......24 June, 1497 trade of Java. Cromwell compelled the Dutch to give

Trinidad, 31 July; lands on terra firma, without knowa sum of money to the descendants of the sufferers. Am

ing it to be a new continent, naming it Isla Santa, boyna was seized by the English, 16 Feb. 1796, but was

1 Aug. 1498 restored by the treaty of Amiens in 1802. It was again Ojeda discovers Surinam, June ; and the gulf of Vene

1499 seized by the British, 17-19 Feb. 1810; and again re- Vicento Yanez Pinzon discovers Brazıl, South America, stored at the peace of May, 1814.

26 Jan.; and the river Marañon (the Amazon); Cabral Ambrosian Chant, see Chant, Liturgy, etc.

the Portuguese lands in Brazil (see Brazil).....3 May, 1500

Gaspar Cortereal discovers Labrador.. Ambulance Association, see John's, $t.

Columbus is imprisoned in chains at San Domingo by

Bobadilla, sent out to investigate into his conduct, May; Amen, an ancient Hebrew word meaning true, faith- conveyed' to Spain, where he is honorably received ful, certain, is used in the Jewish and Christian assem

17 Dec. blies at the conclusion of prayer: see 1 Cor. xiv. 16 Columbus sails on his fourth voyage, 9 May; discovers

various isles on the coast of Honduras, and explores (A.D. 59). It is translated " verily," in the Gospels. the coast of the isthmus, July, etc.; discovers and

names Porto Bello... Amende HONORABLE, in France, in the ninth cen

....2 Nov. 1502 Negro slaves imported into Hispaniola..

1501-3 tury, was a punishment inflicted on traitors and sacrile- Worried by the machinations of his enemies, Columbus gious persons: the offender was delivered to the hang- returns to Spain, 7 Nov.; his friend, queen Isabella, man; his shirt was stripped off, a rope put round his He dies while treated with base ingratitude by the Span


20 Nov. 1504 neck, and a taper in his hand; he was then led into

ish government..

.20 May, 1506 court, and was obliged to beg pardon of God and the Solis and Pinzon discover Yucatan. country. Death or banishment sometimes followed. These Ojeda founds San Sebastian, the first colony on the main

1510 words also denote a recantation in open court, or in pres- subjugation of Cuba by Velasquez...


1511 ence of the injured person.

The coast of Florida discovered by Ponce de Leon. 1512 Amercement, in law, a fine assessed for an offence Vasco de Balboa crosses the isthmus of Darien, and dis

covers the South Pacific Ocean..

1513 done, or pecuniary punishment at the mercy of the court; Mexico discovered by Fernando de Cordova.

1517 thus differing from a fine directed and fixed by a statute. Grijalva penetrates into Yucatan, and names it New Spain 1518

1520 By Magna Charta, 1215, a freeman cannot be amerced Passage of Magellan's Strait by him.....

Conquest of Mexico by Fernando Cortes.

1519-21 for a small fault, but in proportion to the offence he has Pizarro discovers the coast of Quito...

1526 committed; the mode was determined by 9 Hen. III., 1225. He invades and conquers l'eru..


Cartier, a Frenchman, enters the Gulf of St. Lawrence, America,* the great Western Continent, is about

and sails up to Montreal...

1534-5 9000 miles long, with an area of about 13,668,000 square Grijalva's expedition, equipped by Cortes, discovers Cali. miles. It is now believed to have been visited by the



Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and conquers the adjaNorsemen or Vikings in the tenth and eleventh cen

cent country. turies; but the modern discovery is due to the sagacity Orellana sails down the Amazon to the sea..

and courage of the Genoese navigator, Christopher Co- Louisiana conquered by De Soto....

Chili conquered by Valdivia...
Rebellion in Peru-tranquillity established by Gasca.... 1548
Davis's Strait discovered by bim..

* The name is derived from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine Raleigh establishes the first English settlement-at Ro.
merchant, who died in 1512. He accompanied Ojeda in his anoke, Virginia.....
voyage on the eastern coast in 1498; and described the coun- Falkland Isles discovered by Davis..

1592 try in letters sent to his friends in Italy. lle is charged with De Monts, a Frenchman, settles in Acadia, now Nova presumptuously inserting " Tierra de Amerigo" in his maps. Scotia.

1604 Irving discusses the question in the Appendix to the Life of Jamestown, in Virginia, the first English settlement ou Columbus, but comes to no conclusion, Humboldt asserts the mainland, founded by lord de la Warr...

1607 that the name was given to the continent in the popular Quebec founded by the French.,

1608 works of Waldseemüller, a German geographer, without the Hudson's bay discovered by Henry Hudson...

1610 knowledge of l'espucci. To America we are indebted, among The Dutch build Manhattan, or New Amsterdam (now other things, for maize, the turkey, the potato, Poruvian bark, New York) on the Hudson. and tobacco.

Settlement in New England begun by capt. Smith..... † Christophoro Columbo was born about 1415; first went to New Plymouth built by the English nonconformist exiles 1620 sea about 1460; settled at Lisbon in 1470, where he married Nova Scotia settled by the Scotch under sir William Felipa, the daughter of Perestrello, an Italian navigator; Alexander....

1622 whereby he obtained much geographical knowledge. He is Delaware settled by the Swedes and Dutch.. said to have laid the plans of his voyage of discovery before Maryland, by lord Baltimore..

1034 the republic of Genoa, in 1485, and other powers, and finally Connecticut granted to lords Say and Brooke in 1630; before the court of Spain, where at length the queen Isabella but no English settlement was made here till.

1635 • became his patron. After undergoing much ingratitude and Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams and his brethren, cruel persecution from his own followers and the Spanish driven from Massachusetts... court, he died on 20 May, 1506; and was buried with much New Jersey settled by the Dutch, 1614, and Swedes, 1627; pomp at Valladolid.

His remains were transferred, in 1513, granted to the duke of York, who sells it to lord Berke. io Seville; in 1536 to San Domingo; and in Jan. 1796 to Ha- ley...

1664 vana, Cuba. The original inscription on his tomb is said to New York captured by the English. have been: “A Castilla y á Leon Vuero Mundo dió Colon’ - South Carolina settled by the English..

1669 • To Castile and Leon Colon gave a New World." Humboldt Pennsylvania settled by William Penn, tho celebrated says beautifully, that the success of Columbus was "a con- Quaker.....

1682 quest of reflection !!!

Louisiana settled by the French..





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