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Bronze statues of Napoleon ordered to be made into cannon....

..about 19 Sept. 1870 Stern proclamation of Trochu respecting the cowardice of the Zouaves on 19 Sept...

.20 Sept. M. Duruof in a post-balloon quits laris with mail-bags, arrives at Evreux, and reaches Tours......

.23 Sept. The Journal Officiel replaced by the Moniteur Universel

as the organ of the government........ about 23 Sept. Esquiros struggles to maintain order at Marseilles,

24 Sept. Failure of the negotiations for peace between count Bis.

marck and Jules Favre; manifesto of the government at Tours calling on the people to rise and either disavow the ministry or "fight to the bitter end;" the

elections for the assembly suspended . .24 Sept. All Frenchmen between 20 ånd 25 years of age prohibited leaving France....

... about 26 Sept. Great enthusiasm in the provinces on the failure of the

negotiations; “war to the knife" and levée en masse proclaimed by the prefects; efforts made to excite war

Îike ardor in Brittany by ń. Cathelineau..26, 27 Sept. The duc d'Aumale consents to become a candidate for

the representative assembly, and promises submission

to the de facto government for defence. .about 27 Sept. Attempted insurrection of the Red Republicans at Lyons;

order restored by national guards; gen. Cluseret disappears. .

28 Sept. Great order in Paris maintained by the national guard; report from surgeon-major Wyatt.

28 Sept. All between 21 and 40 to be organized as a national guard

mobile; all men in arms placed at the disposal of the minister of war.

.30 Sept. The empress and her son residing at Camden House, Chiselhurst, Kent.

...Sept. The elections for the constituent assembly (753 members)

ordered by the delegates at Tours to take place on 16 Oct.

29 Sept. -1 Oct. Proclamations of gen. Trochu for maintaining order in Paris..

... about 1 Oct. Marseilles said to be unsettled; many arrested. ...1 Oct. The elections deferred till they can be carried out

throughout the whole extent of the republic, by order of the government at Paris...

.1 Oct. M. Crémieux becomes delegate minister of war at Tours in room of admiral Fourichon, still minister of marine,

3 Oct. Gustave Flourens. heading five battalions of national

guards, marches to the Hôtel de Ville and demands chassepots (not to be had).

...5 Oct. Suppression of the schools of the “ Brethren of the

Christian Doctrine" by the Republicans; much dis. satisfaction..

18 Oct. All Frenchmen under 60 years of age forbidden to quit France...

.8 Oct. M. Gambetta escapes from Paris in a balloon, 7 Oct.;

arrives at Rouen and declares for “a pact with victory or death," 8 Oct.; arrives at Tours and becomes min. ister of war as well as of the interior..

.9 Oct. Address from the comte de Chambord saying that his

whole ambition is to found with the people a really national government..

...9 Oct. Battalions of amazons said to be ming in Paris,

12 Oct. Blanqui, Gustave Flourens, Ledru- Rollin, Félix Pyat,

aud other Red Republicans defeated in their attempts to establish the commune at Paris to supersede the government, 10, 11 Oct. ; reconciliation effected by Rochefort..

... about 14 Oct. Riots at Honteur: the people oppose the embarkation of cattle to England, 12 Oct.; similar riots at St. Malo,

15 (ct. M. Edmond Adam, prefect of police; replacing M. de

Kératry, sent on a foreign mission...... about 16 Oct. M. de Kératry quits Paris in a balloon, 12 Oct.; at Ma

drid fails in obtaining assistance from Prim.. 19, 20 Oct. Marseilles disturbed by Red Republicans; Esquiros still in office..

.19 Oct. Publication of the imperial correspondence seized in the

Tuileries.
Decree for a loan of 10,000,0001, issued on behalf of the
French government.

.25 Oct. The imperial guard suppressed...

.26 Oct. Circular of Gambetta stigmatizing the surrender of Metz (on 27 Oct.) as a crime..

..28 Oct. Death of M. Baroche in Jersey.

.30 Oct. M. Thiers arrives in Paris with news of the surrender of

Metz and the proposals for an armistice.. ..30 Oct. Riots in Paris: gen. Trochu threatened; the principal

members of the defence government imprisoned in the Hôtel de Ville; Ledru-Rollin, Victor Hugo, and Gustav Flourens, and others, established as a committee of public safety and of the commune of Paris, under the direction of M. Picard; the national guard releases the government, and order is restored

.31 Oct. Gen. Boyer, replying to Gambetta, says, "We capitulated with hunger

.31 Oct. Tho empress arrives at Wilhelmshöhe; interview of Bazaine with the emperor.

..31 Oct. Etienne Arago and other mayors of Paris res gn..1 Nov. dlarshals Canrobert and Le Bauf and many generals at Wilhelmshöhe...

..1 Noy.

Proclamation of Gambetta calling on the army to avenge the dishonor at Metz....

...1 Nov. 1870 The government proclaim a p'ébiscite in Paris on 3 Nov.

to ascertain whether the people maintain the power

of the government of national defence.........1 Nov. M. Rochefort, member of the defence government, resigns..

.2 Nov. Result of the plébiscite : for the defence government, 557,976; against, 62,638.

.3 Nov. Resignation of M. Esquiros at Marseilles, succeeded by M. Alphonse Gent...

.3 Nov. The ex-empress returned to Chiselhurst.

.3 Nov. Mobilization of all able-bodied men between 20 and 40

ordered. Failure of the negotiations for an armistice.......6 Nov. Félix Pyat and others arrested for the aflair of 31 Oct.,

6 Nov. “ France can do nothing now but carry on with such

courage and strength as remain to her a war à outrance."'-Guizot...

.....8 Nov. Decree for melting some of the church-bells to make cannon...

10 Nov. Alexandre Dumas, novelist and dramatist, dies.., 10 Dec. The delegate government removed from Tours to Bordeaux.

.11 Dec. Murder of lieut. Arnaud at Lyons by the people for resisting them...

20 Dec. Trial of 21 peasants for murder of M. Moneys (see 16 Aug.): 4 condemned to death; others to imprisonment,

about 23 Dec. Firm proclamation of Trochu at Paris.. ..30 Dec. Gambetta at Bordeaux declares that the government

only holds office for defence of the country; demonstration in honor of the republic..

.1 Jan. 1871 Foreigners not permitted to leave Paris by the Germans,

19 Jan. Fierce speech of Gambetta at Lille, demanding continuance of the war..

.22 Jan. Disturbances at Paris suppressed by the arıny.... 23 Jan. Resignation of Trochu; Vinoy made governor of Paris,

24 Jan. Capitulation of Paris ; armistice signed by Favre and Bismarck...

28 Jan. Disavowed by Gambetta at Bordeaux... ...31 Jan. Manifesto of the duc d'Aumale in favor of a constitu. tional monarchy

.1 Feb. Arrival of food from London to relieve Paris (see Man. sion-house). ...

.3 Feb. The defence government publish their reasons for capitu

lation (2,000,000 people in Paris with only ten days provisions), 4 Feb.; and annul Gambetta's decree, 4 Feb.; he and his ministry resign..

.5, 6, Feb. Railway accident between Bandoz and St. Nazaire; ex.

plosion of casks of gunpowder; 60 killed; about 100 wounded...

...5 Feb. Four murderers of M. Moneys (16 Aug. 1870) executed,

8 Feb. Proclamation of Napoleon III. “ Betrayed by fortune,"

he condemns the government of 4 Sept. ; states that his government was four times confirmed in 20 years; submits to the judgment of time; saying "that a na. tion cannot long obey those who have no right to command"..

.8 Feb. General election of a national assembly..

.8 Feb. M. F. P. J. Grévy elected president..

Feb. First meeting of the new national assembly.

......12 Feb. Supplementary armistice signed....

15 Feb. Garibaldi resigns his election, 13 Feb.; Grévy elected president by 519 out of 538.

16 Feb. Termination of the war ; the Belfort garrison (12.000) marches out with military honors.

16 Feb. Pact of Bordeaux : M. Thiers made chief of the execu

tive power, by agreement of the different parties in the assembly, 17 Feb.; voted...

... 18 Feb. Thiers ministry: Dufaure (justice), Jules Favre (foreign),

Picard (interior), Jules Simon (public instruction), Lambrecht (commerce), gen. Leto (war), admiral Pothuan (marine), De Larcy (public works).......17 Feb. The French government recognized by the great powers of Europe..

...18 Feb. The duc de Broglie appointed French minister at Lon. don....

....21 Feb. Negotiations for peace between Thiers and Bismarck,

22, 23, 24 Feb. Preliminaries of a treaty of peace accepted by MM. Thiers

and Favre, and 15 delegates of the national assembly at Versailles (cession of parts of Alsace and Lorraine, in. cluding Strasburg and Metz, and payment of five mill

iards of francs— 200,000,0001.), 25 Feb.; signed 26 Feb. Intense excitement in Paris...

.27 Feb Preliminaries of the treaty accepted by the assembly

(546 to 107); the fall of the empire unanimously con

tirmed; and the emperor stigmatized........ 1 March, A strong party of the national guard seize some cannon

and transport them to Montmartre and Belleville, to defend themselves against the Germans entering Paris,

1 March, The emperor of Germany reviews about 100,000 of his troops at Longchamps near Paris..

.1 March, About 30,000 Germans enter Paris, 1 March; remain 48 hours; depart...

.3 March,

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Impeachment of the defence government demanded by shells the Avenue des Ternes; Bergeret arrested by orthe party of the left (Victor Hugo, Louis Blanc, Quinet,

der of the commune,

.9 April, 1871 and others)..

.6 March, 1871 Marshal MacMahon, commander-in-chief for the assem. The ex-emperor protests agaiust his deposition,

bly, distributes his forces, and commences the invest. 6 March, ment of Fort Issy....

.11 April, The army of the north and other special army corps dis- Versailles batteries established on Châtillon; the Orleans solved

... 7-10 March,

railway and telegraph cut; communications of the inMeeting of national guard in Paris quelled. ... 10 March,

surgents with the south intercepted; decree ordering The national assembly vote for removal to Versailles

the fall of the column Vendôme..

..12 April, (461-101)..

10 March, Publication of the reports of the sittings of the commune, Le Vengeur and four other violent journals suppressed

13 April, in Paris by Vinoy....

11 March, The redoubt of Gennevilliers taken; the troops of VerBlinqui, Flourens, and others condemned for insurrec

sailles advance to the Château de Bécon, a post of imtion of 31 Oct. 1870, .

.12 March,

portance; Assy at the bar of the commune...14 April, Central committee of republican confederation of national The national assembly pass the new municipal bill (419guards (termed "the government of the Buttes"').

18)..

.14 April, meet; depose Vinoy and appoint Garibaldi general-in- Complementary clections; organization of a court-marchief...

15 March,

tial under the presidence of Rossel, chief officer of the Insurrection at Paris; the regular troops take possession

staff...

..16 April, of the Buttes Montmartre and Belleville, for the as- Capture and fortification of the Château de Bécon by the sembly; the national guard attempt to recover them;

Versailles troops..

17 April, after a brief contlict the troops fraternize with the in: Station and houses at Asnières taken by the army of surgents, who capture and shoot generals Lecomte and

Versailles...

.18 April, Clément Thomas, and take possession of the Hôtel de The communists appeal to the nation. ..... 19 April, Ville; barricades erected in Belleville and other places; Bagneux occupied by the Versaillais; reorganization of gen. Vinoy, with the gendarmerie, retires across the commissions; Eudes appointed inspector - general of Seine...

.....18 March,

the southern forts; transfers his quarters from MontThe insurgents nominate a central committee of the rouge to the palace of the Legion of Honor... 20 April,

national guard, headed by Assy, a workman, who The Versailles batteries at Breteuil, Brimborion, Meudon, take possession of public offices; Thiers issues a cir.

and Moulin de Pierre trouble the federal fort Issy, and cular enjoining obedience to the assembly... 19 March, battery between Bagneux and Châtillon shells fort The central committee order communal election in Paris,

Vanves; truce at Neuilly from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M.; the 19 March; and liberate about 11,000 political prisoners inhabitants of Neuilly enter Paris by the Porte des in Paris...

.20 March,
Ternes..

. 25 April, The national assembly meet at Versailles ; propose con- Capture of Les Moulineaux, outpost of the insurgents,

ciliatory measures; and appoint a committee to sup. by the troops, who strongly fortify themselves on the port the government....

..20 March,
27th and 28th....

:26 April, Napoleon III, arrives at Dover..

..20 March, Cemetery and park of Issy taken by the Versaillais in The Journal des Débats and other papers renounce the

the night; Freemasons make a new attempt at reconcentral committee....

.20 March,

ciliation; the commune levies a sum of two millions The Bank of France saved by the courage of the governor,

of francs from the railway companies. 29 April, marquis de Plæuc, and by the forbearance of citizen A flag of truce sent to Fori Issy by the Versaillais, call. Beslay..

.20 March,

ing upon the federals to surrender; gen. Eudes puts The assembly appeal to the nation and the army. 21 March, fresh troops in the fort, and takes the command; Requisitions levied on the Paris shop keepers. 21 March,

Cluseret imprisoned at Mazas by order of the comUnarmed demonstration of the Friends of Order; they mune; Rossel appointed provisional delegate of war, are tired on by the insurgents; 10 killed, 20 wounded,

30 April, 22 March, The Versaillais take the station of Clamart and the Lullier arrested by the central committee.....22 March,

Château of Issy ; creation of the committee of public Admiral Saisset appointed commander of the national safety; members, Antoine Arnauld, Léo Meillet, Ranguard for the assembly...

.23 March, vier, Felix Pyat, Charles Gérardin; alleged massacre The 69th regiment of the line retire to Versailles, 23 March,

of communist prisoners..

.1 May, The central committee appoint some of their delegates Lacretelle carries the redoubt of Moulin Saquet...3 May, generals....

.24 March, Col. Rossel appointed to the direction of inilitary affairs, The insurgents hold central Paris ; Saisset returns to defines the military quarters of Dombrowski, La Cécilia, Versailles.

.25 March,

Wroblewski, Bergeret, and Eudes. ... Municipal elections at Paris; 200,000 out of 500,000 vote; Central committee of the national guard charged with majority of two thirds in favor of the insurgents, administration of war; the Chapelle Expiatoire con

26 March,

demned to destruction-the materials to be sold by The government of the commune proclaimed at the

auction..

.5 May, Hôtel de Ville..

.28 March, Concert at the Tuileries in aid of the ambulances; supMeeting of the conference for the peace at Brussels,

pression of newspapers.

6 May, 28 March, Battery of Montretout (70 marine guns) opens fire; Thiers Gustave Flourens. Blanqui, and Felix Pyat now at the exhorts the Parisians to rise againt the commune,

head of the movement: they propose revival of the system of the Italian republics of the middle ages, Morning; insurgents evacuate the Fort Issy; the com

29 March,

mittee of public safety renewed; members, Ranvier, The remission of part of the rents due by tenants or. Antoine Arnauld, Gambon, Eudes, Delescluze; Rossel dered; the standing army to be named the national resigns..

..8 May, guard...

.29 March, Treaty of peace with Germany signed at Frankfort. 10 May, Reign of terror : “ Paris has no longer liberty of the Cannon from the Fort Issy taken to l'ersailles; decree press, of public meeting, of conscience, or of person."

for the demolition of M. Thiers's house; Delescluze ap-Le Soir. ....1 April, pointed delegate of war....

..10 May, Military operations commence 9 AM ; action at Cour. Thiers opposed; offers to resign; the assembly vote conbevoie; Flourens marches his troops to Versailles, via

fidence in him (495-10)..

11 May, Rueil

.2 April, Troops take possession of the Couvent des Oiseaux at The corps d’armée of gen. Bergeret at the Rond Point, Issy, and the Lyceum at l'anves; Auber, the composer, vear Neuilly, stopped by the artillery of Mont Valérien;

ies, aged 89..

12 May, exchange of shot between Fort Issy and Fort Vanves, Triumphal entry of the troops into Versailles with flags

occupied by the insurgents, and Meudon......3 April, and cannon taken from the convent; evacuation of the Gen. Duval made prisoner in the engagement at Châtillon, village of Issy completed; Fort Vanves taken by the and shot; death of Flourens at Chatou; Delescluze,

troops.

. 13 May, Cournet, and Vermorel succeed Bergeret, Eudes, and Vigorous cannonade from the batteries of Courbevoie, Duval on the executive commission; Cluseret delegate

Bécon, Asnières, on Levallois and Clichy; both villages of war, and Bergeret commandant of Paris forces,

evacuated; commencement of the demolition of house 4 April, of M. Thiers.

..14 May, Communist insurrection at Marseilles suppressed. 4 April, Report of the rearmament of Montmartre....... 15 May, Gen. Cluseret commences active operations ; military The column Vendôme overthrown.

16 May, service compulsory for all citizens under 40; the arch- Secession from the communist government; a central bishop of Paris arrested. ,

.5 April,

club formed; a battalion of women formed....17 May, Extension of action to Neuilly and Courbevoie; severe Stringent conscription in Paris.........., about 17 May,

decree concerning complicity with V'ersailles, and ar- Silver ornaments in churches seized ; explosion of a rest of hostages ; Dombrowski succeeds Bergeret as

cartridge factory near the Champ de Mars; above 100 commandant of Paris; the guillotine burned on the

killed...

.17 May, Place Voltaire.

.......6 April, The assembly adopts the treaty of peace. .....18 May, Federals abandon Neuilly ; commission of barricades Rochefort brought a prisoner to Versailles ;

last sitting created and presided over by Gaillard senior; military

of the commune.

21 May, occupation of the ra lway termini by the insurgents, Noon, explosion of the powder-magazine of the Manego

8 April,

d'Etat-major (staff riding school); the hostages transInsurgents repulsed in an attempt to take Châtillon; ferred from Mazas to La Roquette; Assy arrested in

forts Vanves and Montrouge disabled; Mont Valérien Paris by the Versaillais ; the assembly votes the re

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erection of the column Vendôme; M. Ducatel, at the

risk of his life, having signalled that the way was clear, • the Versailles troops enter Paris by the gates of St.

Cloud and Montrouge, 2 P. M. 21 May; take possession
of the south and west, and about 10,000 prisoners, after
some conflicts.....

.22 May, 1871 Montmartre taken by Douai and Ladmirault: death of

Dombrowski. Morning : Assy arrives at Versailles;
execution of gendarmes and Gustave Chaudey at the
prison of Sainte-Pelagie. Night: the Tuileries set on
fire; Delescluze and the committee of public safety

hold permanent sittings at the Hotel de Ville.. 23 May, Morning : Palais Royal, Ministry of Finance, Hôtel de

Ville, etc.. set on tire. 1 P.M., the powder-magazine
at the Palais du Luxembourg blown up; the comunittee
of public safety organize detachments of fusee-bearers;
petroleum pumped into burning buildings; Raoul Ri.
gault shot in the afternoon by the soldiers. Evening:
execution in the prison of La Roquette of the arch-
bishop, abbé Deguerry, president Bonjcan, and 64
others, hostages..

24 May, The forts Montronge, Hautes - Bruyères, Bicêtre, evac

uated by the insurgents; the death of Delescluize re-
ported; executions in the Avenue d'Italie of the Pères
Dominicains of Arcueil...

...25 May, 16 priests and 38 gendarmes shot at Belleville by the in

surgents; many women fighting, and casting petrole.
um into tires, shot....

. 26, 27 May, The Buttes Chaumont, the heights of Belleville, and the

cemetery of Père la Chaise carried by the troops; tak-
ing of the prison of La Roquette by the marines; de-
liverance of 169 hostages; the investment of Belleville
complete; last position captured by MacMahon; tight-
ing ends...

.5 P. M. 28 May, Federal garrison of Vincennes surrendered at discretion,

29 May, “ Reported results of seven days' fighting in Paris: regular

troops-877 killed, 645 wounded, 183 missing; insur-
gents-about 50,000 dead. 25,000 prisoners; nearly all
the leaders killed or prisoners; about a fourth part of
Paris destroyed

.22-27 May, Estimated loss of property through the insurrection, 32,000,0001...

.. April, May, Thiers's decree for disarming Paris and abolishing the National Guard of the Seine.

.29 May, Victor Hugo expelled from Belgium..

...30 May, Reported wholesale execution of prisoners by the mar

quis de Gallifet; Paris put under martial law; about
50,000 insurgents still at large.

.30 May, Severe letter from prince Napoleon Jerome to Jules Favre, dated..

31 May, Changes in the ministry; resignation (and reappoint

ment of some) of those who had been members of the
government of defence...

..6 June, Solemn funeral of Darboy, archbishop of Paris...7 June, Abrogation of the laws of proscription by the assembly

(484–103); elections of the duc d'Aumale and the prince
de Joinville declared valid..

..8 June, Important speech of Thiers for maintaining the republic at preseut..

.s June, Imposition of new taxes (463,000,000 francs) and a loan proposed by M. Pouyer Quertier.

12 June, Gen. Trochu's powerful speech defending the “government of national defence"

.13, 14 June, Army of reserve ordered to be dissolved........14 June, Financial measures of M. Pouyer · Quertier opposed by Dufaure and the free-traders..

.about 14 June, Theatres and public places reopened in Paris about

20 June, Letter from M. Guizot to M. Grévy recommending polit

ical moderation to all parties, and maintenance of the
present government, published...

.22 June, The loan of two milliards francs (80,000,0001.) decreed, 26

June; subscription opened, 27 June; about four mill

iards subscribed for in France alone.. .28 June, 132 members elected for the assembly; includes Gam

betta and a few legitimists and Bonapartists; the rest
support the government..

.2 July, Letter from the comte de Chambord at Chambord, pro

fessing devotion to Frauce, and adhesion to modern
policy and liberality; but declining to give up the white
flag of Henry Il.; he retires to Germany to avoid all
pretext for agitation; dated...

.5 July, The government said to have 500 votes in the assembly; bill for new taxes passed (483 to 5)

.8 July, 20,000,0001., part of the indemnity, paid to the Germans,

about 14 July, Prince Jerome Napoleon expelled from France (at Havre),

15 July, M. Devienne, president of the court of cassation, acquit

ted of blame for settling disputes relative to an impe-
rial scandal in Nov. 1860)..

. 21 July, Jules Favre, foreign minister, resigns about 23 July; succeeded by Charles de Remusat

..about 3 Aug. Full compensation for losses claimed by the invaded

provinces refused by Thiers, who acknowledges no
debt, but proposes to act generously...

Aug.
Trial of communist prisoners at Paris, begun about 8 Aug.
Great dissensions in the assembly between the monarch.

ist and republican parties; resignat'on of Thiers not
accepted, 24 Aug ; prolongation of his power and the

sovereign and constituent authority of the assembly voted (413 to 227).

.. about 25 Aug. 1871 Thiers's powers prolonged, and nominated president of

the French republic by the assembly; to continue till the assembly shall terminate its labors; (the Rivet. Vitet proposition), 491 to 93

..31 Aug. French postage increased. .

Sept. Société de Prévoyance, established to counteract the Internationale, becomes permanent

.Sept. Ferró and Lullier sentenced to death, others to travis.

portation or imprisonment, 2 Sept. ; 3 women (pétroleuses) sentenced to death for throwing petroleum on fires...

.....5 Sept. Bill for making the whole nation bear the losses of ihe

invaded provinces adopted by the assembly....6 Sept. Rossel, communist general, sentenced to death...8 Sept. Message from Thiers to the assembly; consideration of the budget adjourned. 12 Sept. ; read..

.13 Sept. Disarmament of the national guard begun at Lyons, etc.,

14 Sept. Bill introduced concerning treaty with Germany relating

to tariff on goods from Alsace and Lorraine, and the reducing German troops in France to 50.000 men, 14 Sept. ; adopted by the assembly (533 to 33); the ses. sion declared closed, 2 A. M.

.17 Sept. Courts martial on communists go on..

..Sept. * Permanent committee” of 25 of different parties ap

pointed by the assembly to watch over the course of the government during the recess (17 Sept-4 Dec.),

15 Sept. 25,000 communists yet to be tried; about half to be set free....

...15 Sept. Evacuation of Paris forts by the Germans begun about

20 Sept. Rochefort (of La Lanterne and Le Mot d'Ordre) sentenced to life imprisonment.

.21 Sept. Difficulty in settling the Alsace and Lorraine treaty,

21 Sept. M. Pouyer Quertier, the French finance minister, arrives at Berlin

.8 Oct. M. Lambrecht, minister of the interior, dies suddenly, 8

Oct.; succeeded by M. Casimir Perier.... ..10 Oct. Tranquil election of above 2000 general councillors.. Oct. Convention for evacuation of 6 departments, and finance

convention of Alsace and Lorraine signed, 12 and 13 Oct.; exchanged..

..21 Oct. Count Benedetti publishes an apology, attacking the

Prussian government; count Bismarck replies (in Official Journal), disproving his assertions..

.22 Oct. Dispute with Tunis settled.

..about 25 Oct. Prince Napoleon resigns his seat in the council-general

of Corsica; and denounces intimidation. ....28 Oct. Insurrection in Algeria ended...

Nov. Eight of the murderers of generals Lecomte and Thomas condemned..

.18 Nov. Rossel, Ferré, and Bourgeois, communist leaders, shot at

Satory in presence of 3000 soldiers.... .28 Nov. Gaston Crémieux executed at Marseilles

30 Nov. Territory held by Germans put into state of siege. 4 Dec. Meeting of the national assembly.

.4 Dec. Sixteen political parties said to exist... Thiers reads his message to the assembly; deprecates

free trade, but proposes moderate protection of French manufactures..

......7 Dec. Sharp despatch from count Bismarck in reference to the acquittal of murderers of Germans at Melun and Paris,

7 Dec. After some discussion with M. Thiers, the duc d'Aumale

and prince de Joinville take their seats in the assem. bly

19 Dec. A committee of the assembly decide against the assembly removing to Paris

.22 Dec. Joseph Lemettre condemned to death for 27 crimes (chiefly atrocious muurders)..

23 Dec. Income tax proposed and negatived. .

28 Dec. Vautram, a government candidate, elected deputy for Paris, and not Victor Hugo

7 Jan. 1872 The duc de Persigny dies

12 Jan. Long debate in the assembly; opposition to the proposed

taxes on raw materials; government defeated (377 to 307).....

..19 Jan. Resignation of Thiers and the ministry opposed by the

assembly; MacMahon writes that the army will respect the orders of a majority of the assembly, but not obey dictatorship; Thiers resumes office... 20 Jan.

66 Death of Arles Dufour, of Lyons, Saint-Simonian and free trader....

.....about 22 Jan. The government taxes voted.

...22 Jan. Conviction of the assassins of archbishop Darboy and others (on 24 May, 1871), 1 to death

.23 Jan. Manifesto of the comte de Chambord ; his mind un

changed; he will not become a legitimate king by rer. olution..

,29 Jan. Abrogation of the commercial treaties with Great Britain and Belgium determined on.....

.Feb. Sardou's play“Rabagas,'' satirizing the radicals, causes much excitement.

..1 Feb. I'roposed return of the assembly to Paris negatired (377 to 318); resignation of Casimir l'crier, minister of the interior...

2 Feb. I.cague for cominercial liberty formed.

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Five communists sentenced to death for murder of the
Dominicans on 25 May.......

.17 Feb. 1872 Blanqui condemned to transportation to a fortified pris. on..

...about 17 Feb. M. Rouher elected a member of the assembly about 15 Feb. Universal subscription to pay the indemnity to the Germans begins

..Feb. Manifesto in favor of a constitutional monarchy signed by about 280 of the Right...

.about 21 Feb. Assassins of generals Lecomte and Clément Thomas executed.

22 Feb. Janvier de la Motte, a prefect, prosecuted for forgery,

etc., by government, acquitted; M. Pouyer - Quertier,

who gives evidence in his favor, resigns, about 5 Mar. Joseph Lemettre executed...

.5 March, The treaty of commerce with Great Britain (1860) denounced (to cease in 12 months)

15 March, War budget of 27,000,0001. (formerly 10,000,0001.) proposed.....

March, Publishers of Figaro convicted of libel against gen. Tro. chu; moderate punishment...

..2 April, Abolition of passports for British subjects announced,

10 April, Law against the International Society placarded, 22 April, In a letter, the ex-emperor takes upon himself the whole

responsibility of the surrender at Sedan.......12 May, Rouher, in the assembly, repels the duc d'Audiffret-Pas. quier's severe attack on the empire

.21 May, Three more condemned communists shot.......25 May, The duc d'Aumale speaks in the chamber in favor of the army organization bill...

.28 May, Marshal Vaillant dies...

...4 June, Thiers threatens to resign at opposition in the chamber,

about 9 June, Interview of delegates of the majority (the Right) in the

assembly with Thiers (respecting his policy); much censured..

.20 June, Budget for 1873; deficiency, 4,800,0001. ; 8,000,0001. to be

raised; Thiers advocates duty on raw materials, and opposes income tax.....

26 June et seq. The majority in the assembly propose MacMahon as pres. ident in room of Thiers.

..July, New convention between Germany and France respect.

ing speedy payment of the indemnity and evacuation of territory, signed.....

.29 June, Anniversary of the destruction of the Bastile celebrated

by public dinner's ; important moderate speech by Gambetta at Ferté-sous-Jouarre.

.14 July, Announcement of a public loan of 120,000,0001. at 6t per

.26 July, Three communists (murderers of hostages) executed at Satory.

. 25 July, The loan subscribed for, nearly 12 times the amount, chief. ly in France..

..July, Thiers's financial measures carried (taxes on raw mate

rials, etc.); the session of the assembly closed..3 Aug. Meeting of Guizot and Thiers at Val Richer .....11 Sept. Arrest of Edmond About at Saverne, by the Germans, on

account of a newspaper article (written Oct. 1871), 14 Sept. ; released.

21 Sept. Three more communist inurderers shot at Satory, 15 Sept. Altempted celebration of the anniversary of the estab.

lishment of the first French republic; banquet at Cham béry stopped. . M. Thiers and the ministry in Paris.

..Sept. Progress of Gambetta in the south; violent speech at Grenoble against Thiers

27 Sept. Pilgrimage of about 20.000 persons to the grotto of the

Virgin Mary at Lourdes on account of alleged miracles (the Virgin was said to have appeared to two girls, 14 Feb. 1858)

..6 Oct. Report that the Russian minister remonstrated on Gam. betta's speech at Grenoble.

...Oct. The supreme council of war constituted; includes Mac.

Mahon, Canrobert, duc d'Aumale, and other eminent

generals; first meeting, Thiers present..........9 Oct. Prince Napoleon and princess Clothilde come to Paris; expelled by order of the government (he protests),

12 Oct. Letter from the comte de Chambord to M. de la Rochette,

protesting against a republic, and asserting that France can be saved by a monarchy alone; that she is Catho. lic and monarchical, and cannot therefore perish; dated

15 Oct. Elections for vacancies in the assembly; radical republicans mostly elected...

...20 Oct. The Germans evacuate Haute Marne and other departments,

Oct., Nov. Banquet of the monarchical party at Bordeaux...31 Oct. New commercial treaty with Great Britain signed at London..

.5 Nov. Reassembling of the national assembly, 11 Nov.; Thiers,

in his message, declares that the republic is the legal government; and that to exist it must be conservative; and proposes changes...

12 Nov. Service of prayer on behalf of the assembly.....17 Nov. Fruitless attack of gen. Changarnier on Thiers's policy

and Gambetta's speech at Grenoble; motion to pass to order of the day; majority for government, 150 (300

did not vote) The result becomes the law of..

.19 Nov.

M. Kerdrel proposes a commission to consider Th'ers's proposals for changes; adopted

19 Nov. 1872 Thiers threatens to resign; crisis,

19, 20 Nov. Report of the commission read by M. Batbie, claiming

the right of the assembly to frame a constitution with a responsible ministry; the president not to speak in the assembly, etc.; he advocated gouvernement de combat'

.26 Nov. Amendment proposed by Dufaure, minister of justice,

accepting ministerial responsibility, rejected by the committee..

28 Nov. M. Thiers addresses the assembly; declares he prefers

the English to the American system, but that a monarchy in France is at present impossible; that he is faithful to the republic; and that he wishes to render it conservative; and that he has for two years served his country with boundless devotion; Dufaure's amendment carried by 370 to 331 (union of royalists with Bo. napartists against the radicals)....

29 Nov. Vote of censure on the home minister (Lanfranc) carried, 305 to 299; he resigns.....

.30 Nov. Agitation respecting the appointment of the commission of 30, proposed by Dufaure; it consists of 19 for the Right, 11 for the government, 6 Dec.; changes in the ministry announced

1.8 Dec. Manifesto of the Left, proposing a dissolution of the assembly by legal means.

10 Dec. Negatived by the assembly (490 to 201)........ 14 Dec. Powerful speech of Thiers to the commission of 30,16 Dec. Execution of Poitevin, a traitor..

.23 Dec. Debt (before the war, about 460,500,000!. ), 748,700,0001.

Dec. Illness of the ex-emperor..

.4 Jan. 1873 Meeting of the national assembly

.6 Jan. Death of Napoleon III. at Chiselhurst.

..9 Jan. Bonapartist manifesto: “ The emperor is dead, but the empire is living and indestructible"

..15 Jan. The “30 committee" considering Tallon's project for a constitution.

...Jan. Three communist murderers shot at Satory......22 Jan. Reported recognition of the comte de Chambord as king by the Orleans princes..

.. 26 Jan. Powerful speech of Thiers before the commission of 30 against their proposed changes..

.2 Feb. The commission of 30 close their meetings. ..8 Feb. Letter of the comte de Chambord published; destroys all hopes of the fusion of the Bourbons.

Feb. Debate begins on the report of the commission, which

reserves the legislative rights of the present assembly, and the adherence to the provisional state in accord. ance with the “pacte de Bordeaux," 27 Feb.; powerful speech of Thiers in favor of this “truce of parties,”! adopted (475–199).

4 March, Convention for the total evacuation of the departments in Sept. on payment of indemnity, signed at Berlin,

15 March, Declaration in the assembly "that M. Thiers has deserved well of his country''.

.17 March, M. Grévy resigns the presidency on account of the con

duct of the party of the Right, 2 April; M. Buffet, a liberal Bonapartist, elected in opposition to Martel, the government candidate.

..4 April, M. Barodet, radical, ex-mayor of Lyons, clected member

of the itssembly for Paris by a large majority over the minister De Remusat.

.27 April, Changes in the ministry: Casimir Périer, interior; w.

H. Waddington, of Cambridge, public instruction (in room of De Goulard and Jules Simon). ...

18 May, Meeting of the national assembly, 19 May; the govern

ment introduce their constitutional bills, 21 May; the duc de Broglie leads an attack on the government, 23 May; speech of Thiers; the government defeated (362318) at a sitting..

...2 P. M. 24 May, Resignation of Thiers and his ministry accepted (368–339),

24 May; marshal MacMahon, duc de Magenta (born 1803), elected president of the republic by 390 votes (the Left did not vote); he accepts the oflice, declaring his independence of party, 24 May; in his message to the assembly he says, "The post in which you have placed me is that of a sentinel, who has to watch over

the integrity of your sovereign power''...... 26 May, The duc de Broglie chief of the new ministry...26 May, Gen Ladmirault succeeds MacMahon in the command of the army of Versailles....

..3 June, Private circular of the minister to prefects requesting

them to sound newspapers of his department; censured in the assembly.

....11 June, The assembly (by a large majority) order the prosecution of Ranc, formerly a communist, now deputy for Lyons,

19 June, Visit of the Shah

.5 July, Grand review of the renovated army at Paris, and assem bly prorogued.

10 July, Renewal of the Anglo-French treaty of 23 Jan. 1860 (till

30 June, 1877); signed 24 July; ratified.. 29 July, Evacuation of all the French territories by the Germans, except Verdun, by..

...2 Aug. Fusion of the legitimists and Orleanists after an inter.

view of the comte de Paris with the comte de Chambord; the latter recognized as chief...

... 5 Ang Odilon-Barrot died..

....6 Aug.

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The imperial prince Napoleon declares the policy of his claims to be son of Louis XVII.; his claim rejected, family to be " Everything by the people for the people,"

27 Feb. 1874 15 Aug. 1873 Ledru-Rollin and Lepetit elected members of the naLast instalment of 10,000,0001. of the indemnity of 200,- tional assembly..

...1 March, 000,0001. paid......

...5 Sept.

New electoral law presented by the committee; about 3 About 2700 communists yet to be disposed of. ..Sept.

millions disfranchised.

....11 March, Verdun quitted by the Germans..

13 Sept.

Demonstration at Chiselhurst on prince Louis Napoleon's The last quitted the French territory

.16 Sept.

coming of age (at 18); 6000 Frenchmen present; he Duc Decazes ambassador for London.

.Oct.

says that he waits the result of the 8th plébiscite, Letter from comte de Chambord to the vicomte de Rodez.

16 March, Benavent; not explicit; shows tendency to concession; Gabriel Hugelmann, political spy and swindler, convicted says, “I want the co-operation of all, and all have need

and sentenced to 5 years imprisonment....25 March, of me," dated..

..19 Sept.

Ferrand, contractor (made about 80,0001. during war), Prince Jerome Napoleon joins the republican party,

fined and imprisoned. ..

.about 25 March, 26 Sept. Proposal of Dahirel, legitimist, of a law enacting that on Letter from Thiers to mayor of Nancy, censuring the

1 June the assembly should vote for either a monarchy fusionists, who “without the consent of France pre

or republic, negatived (330-256)... .27 March, tend to decide upon her destinies", 29 Sept. Assembly adjourns to 12 May..

..28 March, France divided into 18 new military regions; 18 generals Two republican deputies elected...

.29 March, appointed.

...30 Sept. Reported escape of Rochefort, the communist, from New Trial of marshal Bazaine, late commander of the army

Caledonia..

.announced 30 March, of the Rhine in 1870, for alleged treachery and mis. Death of Beulé, ex-minister..

,4 April, conduct at Metz; duc d'Aumale president of the court; Newspapers warned not to attack the septennate. 12 April, begins...

..6 Oct. Clément Duvernois, ex-imperial minister, arrested for Changes in the ministry; duc Decazes foreign and Chan- suspected fraud..

...14 April, garnier war minister...

6 Oct. The assembly meets 12 May; the ministry defeated on Rouher's letter to the Bonapartists against the monarch

electoral law (381-317), resigns..

16 May, ists.

.9 Oct. M. Goulard failing to form a ministry, the president reM. Rémusat and 3 other republicans elected deputies,

appoints the former without Broglie; nominal head, 12 Oct. gen. De Cissey.

22 May, Ranc condemned to death in contumaciam. .. .. .. 13 Oct. Prince Hohenlohe, the new German ambassador, reM. Lemoinne (in the Journal des Débats) says, "The

par

ceived by the president; mutual professions of peace, tisans of an absolute monarchy make a tabula rasa of

23 May, history; for them nothing has occurred. If that be Rochefort and other communists arrive at San Francisco, so, nothing will return”. .......15 Oct.

announced 21 May, Manifesto of the monarchists proposing restoration of Bourgoing, a Bonapartist, elected for Nièvre (asserted the monarchy, guaranteeing all necessary liberties,

that he was devoted to the marshal).

24 May, etc.

..18 Oct. Thiers addresses some Gironde friends; refers to the M. Léon Say and the Left Centre decline negotiation with failure of his opponents; and recommends dissolution the monarchists; who threaten abstention in the next of the assembly.

24 May, elections, if successfully opposed...... ..23 Oct. Electoral bill; assembly pass to second reading (393-318), Letter from the comte de Chambord to M. Chesnelong;

1 June, he says, “I retract nothing, and curtail nothing of my Ledru-Rollin's speech a failure..

3 June, previous declarations. I do not wish to begin a reign Hot disputes between republicans and Bonapartists; Left of reparation by an act of weakness; if enfeebled to.

Centre demand the establishment of the republic, or day, I should be powerless to morrow; I am a neces

dissolution of the assembly.

..8, 9 June, sary pilot; the only one capable of guiding the ship to Bonnard, communist, condemned for murder, 25 Feb.; port, because I have for it a mission of authority,"

shot...

.6 June, dated..

.27 Oct. Electoral bill; age of electors fixed at 21, not 25 (defeat M. Léon Say and the Left Centre say the moment has ar. of ministry)..

. 10 June; rived for the organization of a conservative republic, Gambetta, having called the Bonapartists - misérables,

30 Oct.

is struck at a railway station by comte de Sainte-Croix, Meeting of national assembly; message from marshal 11 June, who is condemned to fine and imprisonment, MacMahon, requesting increased and prolonged power

13 June, (ten years); this referred to a committee of 15; voted Casimir Périer (leader of Left Centre) moves for recogni. urgent (by 360 to 350)..

.5 Nov.

tion of the republic; MacMahon president till 20 Nov. M. Butlet re-elected president.

...6 Noy.

1880, and revision of the constitution; voted "urgent” Conspiracy at Autun to seize marchioness MacMahon; (345–311)..

14, 15 June, offenders convicted......

.7 Nov. Duc de Rochefoucauld-Bisaccia's motion for restoration Eight of the committee vote for prolongation of MacMa

of the legitimate monarchy negatived; he resigns hon's presidency for five years after date of meeting

British embassy.

...15 June, of the next legislature, under existing conditions till Rochefort in London..

.19 me, the passing of constitutional laws; the others vote for The “fusion” between legitimists and Orleanists ended; ten years' prolongation without conditions...13 Nov.

conflict now between republicans and Bonapartists, M. Laboulaye's report of the committee laid before the

June, assembly; MacMahon's message suggesting 7 years' Grand review of 60,000 men at Longchamps, near Paris, prolongation of his powers.. ..17 Nov.

28 June, Warm debate in the assembly; majority of 68 for min- In his order of the day, marshal MacMahon declares that isters, 18 Nov. ; 7 years' power voted to marshal Mac

with the army he will maintain the authority of the Mahon (383–317), 19 Nov.; decree.

.20 Nov.
land for the seven years..

29 June, Incognito visit of the comte de Chambord to Paris,

Casimir Périer's motion negatived by commission of about 20 Nov. 30...

29 June, Ministry resigns, 20 Nov. ; reconstituted; duc de Broglie, Manifesto from comte de Chambord, saying, “France

minister of interior; duc Decazes, foreign minister; has need of monarchy. My birth has made me your announced.

..26 Nov.

king. ... The Christian and French monarchy is in Committee of 30 for constitutional changes, completed, its very essence limited (tempérée). It admits of the

4 Dec.

existence of two chambers; one nominated by the sor. Holds its first meeting, Batbie president. .....5 Dec.

ereign, the other by the nation. ... I do not wish for Embassy to London declined by Guizot; accepted by the those barren parliamentary struggles, whence the sor. duc de la Rochefoucauld. Bisaccia.

Dec.

ereign too frequently issues powerless and enfeebled. Bazaine's trial ends; he is found guilty of capitulating ... I reject the formula of foreigu importation, which

with his army (of 170,000 men) in the open field; of all our national traditions repudiate, with its king who negotiating dishonorably with the enemy, and sur- reigns and does not govern."-Signed Henri V., rendering a fortitied place; sentence, death and degra

2 July, dation, 10 Dec.; commuted to 20 years' imprisonment, L'Union, legitimist paper, suspended for publishing

12 Dec.
the above...

.4 July, Peaceful republican demonstration in Paris at the funeral M. Goulard, ex-minister, dies.

..: July, of Victor Hugo's second son, François.. .28 Dec. Debate on the manifesto; legitimists defeated; minisMeeting of the assembly; majority against the nomina

ters defeated on a motion in favor of the septennate, tion of mayors bill, through the legitimists (268-2:26), resign (368-331); their resignation not accepted by the 8 Jan.; the ministry resign, 9 Jan. ; vote of confidence

marshal..

.8 July, in the ministry (379-329), 12 Jan.; the ministers re- He states in a message to the assembly his determinasume office.

13 Jan. 1874 tion to maintain the law of 20 Nov., and exhorts them Vote for ministers on the nomination of mayors bill

to pass the constitutional laws..

,9 July, (341-336)..

.17 Jan. Figaro suspended for 15 days for attacking the assembly, The Ultramontane newspaper L'Univers (edited by M. I..

11 July, Veuillot), suspended for 2 months for attacks on Italy Reports of committee, by Ventaron (the bill proposes and Germany.

.about 19 Jan.

maintenance of the authority of the president of the Nomination of mayors bill passed, 21 Jan.; many may. republic; ministerial responsibility; two legislative ors replaced...

Feb.

assemblies; dissolution of the chamber of deputies by A person calls himself comte Albert de Bourbon, and the president; etc.), suspended.. ......16 July,

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