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Casimir Périer's motion for a republic rejected (375-333),

23 July, 1874 Malleville's motion for dissolution of the assembly reject

ed (374-332)....... The assembly adjourns (to 30 Nov.). ... ....5 Aug Marshal Bazaine escapes from the isle of Ste. Marguerite

(see Dec. 1873), 10 P.M. (His wife asserted that he descended by an old gutter by means of a knotted rope; was received into a boat by her and her nephew, Alvarez de Rul, and conveyed to the steamer Baron Rica

sola, which landed him at Genoa)...... ......9 Aug. Forcade de Roquette, a minister under the empire, dics (aged 53).

..16 Aug. Mac Mahon's progress in the N. W. provinces; well received..

.17 Aug Vendôme column restored..

......31 Aug. Comte de Jarnac, minister at London, arrives there,

4 Sept. Death of M. Guizot...

.12 Sept. Bazaine's defence, sent by him to the New York Herald,

dated 6 Sept., published in London.. 14 Sept. Trials for complicity in Bazaine's escape; col. Villette and others sentenced to imprisonment.

..17 Sept. Thiers, at Vizille near Grenoble, in reply to an address, says, “Since you cannot establish the monarchy, establish the republic, and do it frankly and sincerely,"

27 Sept. Poirier executed at Chartres for 5 murders..... 29 Sept. Severe note from Spanish government complaining of

French neglect in regard to the Carlists on the Spanish frontier..

..early Oct. Clément Duvernois, ex-imperial minister, convicted of fraud; 2 years' imprisonment..

25 Nov. POLITICAL PARTIES. Extreme Right: legitimists, adherents of Henry V.

Moderate Right: monarchists. Right Centre: septennates, imperialists or Bonapartists. Left Centre: mod. erate republicans (chief, Thiers). Left: more pronounced. Extreme Left: radicals (chief, Gambetta),

Nov. St. Genest's pamphlet, “ L'Assemblée et la France,” inciting to a coup d'état...

...end of Nov. Comte de Chambord requests his friends not to vote so as to prevent or delay the restoration of the monarchy,

Nov. Four ornamented volumes of addresses from towns, etc.,

in France, conveying thanks for relief during the war 1870-1 (inscribed on the outside Britanniæ grata Gallia), with about 12,000,000 signatures, presented to the queen by M. d'Agiout and the comte de Serrurier (placed in the British Museum for inspection),

3 Dec. The assembly meets; firm moderate message from MacMahon..

...3 Dec. Sudden death of M. Ledru-Rollin.

....31 Dec. President in his message having recommended the pass

ing a bill for constituting a senate, motion against it passed (120-250), 6 Jan. ; ministers' resignation not accepted..

...7 Jan. 1875 Cost of the war (395, 400,0001.) announced. ....Jan. Emile Péreire, financier, died.

...6 Jan. A Bonapartist elected deputy for Hautes - Pyrénées,

17 Jan. Nine days' debate on the new army bill.

..Jan. Stormy debate on Ventavon's bill for organizing MacMahon's powers; tirst reading passed (557 - 146 ),

22 Jan. Laboulaye's amendment rejected (359-335). ..... 29 Jan. Wallon's amendment (the president of the republic to be

elected by absolute majority of the two chambers for 7 years, and to be eligible for re-election; the republic

virtually established), passed. .... .1 A.M. 31 Jan. Great satisfaction throughout the country..........Feb. Duprat's amendment carried (senate to be chosen by

universal suffrage), 11 Feb. ; third reading of the con. stitutional bill rejected (357-345); proposed dissolution of the assembly negatived (107–266), 12 Feb. ; message

from the marshal disapproving of last votes...13 Feb. Senate bill (senate to consist of 300; 225 to be elected by

the departments, 75 by national assembly). .... 22 Feb. Laws passed constituting French republic by union of

moderate monarchists and republicans; legitimists and Bonapartists defeated; senate bill passed (448– 244), 24 Feb.; final vote for republic; constitutional laws passed (436–262), 5 P.M. 25 Feb.; published

1 March, New ministry under Buffet constituted: Buffet, interior;

Dufaure, justice; Léon Say, finance; Wallon, instruction; De Meaux, agriculture and commerce; Cissey, war; Decazes, foreign; Montaignac, marine; Caillaux, public works..

10 March, Duc d'Audiffret Pasquier elected president of the assem. bly almost unanimously..

,15 March, Death of M. Jarnac-Chabot, ambassador at London,

22 March, Assembly adjourns to 11 May.

.20 March, Edgar Quinet, author of “Les Jésuites," a stanch re. publican, died....

. 27 March, Powerful speech of Gambetta at Belleville, defending the new constitution....

...23 April,

Meeting of the assembly, 11 May; the ministry propose

to refer a bill to the commitice of 30; defeated; part of the committee resign, 18 May; new committee elected (republican majority). ...

..26 May, 1875 Louis Blanc's speech against the conservative republic,

21 June; self-denying resolution of the Left party (to

avoid delaying the dissolution by speaking, etc.).June, Destructive inundations at Toulouse; about 1000 lives lost, with much property....

. 23 June, Election of baron de Bourgoing, a Bonapartist, annulled

by the assembly, 13 July; warm defence of his party by Rouher (on the charge of there being a central committee of Bonapartists in Paris, with branches in the provinces, actively endeavoring to overthrow the republic in 1874)

14 July, Fierce debate in assembly; Buffet defends the imperial

istic prefects, and gains vote of confidence; the Left not voting

.15 July, H. Rochefort, after challenging Paul de Cassagnac, declines accepting the conditions of the combat at Gene

Aug The assembly adjourns..

..4 Aug Naquet, an "irreconcilable” republican, attacks Gambetta for his moderation..

end of Aug. Plon having lost by publishing "Julius Cæsar," by Na

poleon III., sues the emperor's executors; fails; and is adjudged to pay costs..

...Aug. L'Echo de Blois fined for libel on the duc d'Aumale,

28 Aug “Les Responsibilités," pamphlet, recommending the comte de Chambord to resign his rights to the crown,

Aug. Belgian and German pilgrimage to Lourdes (see 1872),

Sept. Admiral de la Roncière Noury superseded for writing a

letter animadverting on the republic (2 Sept.)..8 Sept. Alleged adhesion of the Orleanist party to the republic,

about 10 Sept. Important speeches: M. Thiers at Arcachon defending his

policy; advocating a conservative republic, and censuring delay; M. Rouher at Ajaccio, advocating imperialism and universal suffrage, and asserting that the nation will not accept the republic as a detinite government..

..17 Oct. Important letter of Gambetta to his friends at Lyons (in

favor of the conservative republic), said to be too ad. vanced for the moderate and too moderate for the ad. vanced")

.. 25 Oct. Meeting of the assembly; duc d'Audiffret re-elected president..

..4 Nov. The assembly virtually votes its dissolution before 31

March, 1876; 6 months' residence in a commune to give right to vote, 9 Nov, majority for ministers; the scrutin d'arrondissement adopted instead of scrutin de liste (357-326); able speech of Gambetta for the latter,

11 Nov. New Catholic university opened.....

.17 Nov. Beginning of ballot for senators for life; duc d'Audiffret

Pasquier elected; the result discloses a breach between the legitimists and Orleanists; government defeated,

9 Dec. Committees on the bills relating to the press and the state of siege protest against them strongly,

about 13 Dec. Seventy five senators for life (52 republicans) elected by the assembly

.9-21 Dec. Powerful speech of Buffet in favor of rigid press-law and

state of siege, 23 Dec.; much censured, but approved in a letter by MacMahon....

.24 Dec. Majority for ministers (376–303)..

..24 Dec. Solemn funerals of gens. Clément Thomas and Lecomte,

killed by the communists (18 March, 1871); violent recrimination in the assembly...

27 Dec. Re-election to the assembly declined by the duc d'Au

male, 27 Dec. ; by the prince de Joinville...... 29 Dec. New press-law (abolishing interdiction) passed; state of

siege raised except in Paris, Versailles, Lyons, and Marseilles; proposal to raise it at Paris negatived (369–279).

29 Dec. The assembly prorogued till 8 March, 1876.......31 Dec. Powerful letter from Gambetta,

..31 Dec. Communist trials report; 9596 convicted; 110 sentenced to death...

Dec. Ministerial crisis; difference between Buffet and Say re

specting an electoral list; resignation of Say; with. drawn at MacMahon's request, 10 Jan. et seq. ; the marshal issues a proclamation, countersigned by Buf. fet; he says, “I think that the constitution ought not to be revised before having been loyally worked. I shall fulll to the end the mission intrusted to me."

13 Jan. 1876 New Catholic university inaugurated at Paris by the archbishop.....

...10 Jan. Commencement of election of senators in departments,

17 Jan. General prosperity; revenue for 1875 estimated at

100,000,0001., said to be the highest ever received by any government..

Jan.
Election of senators; mostly moderate republicans;

Thiers for Belfort nearly unanimous; Buflet and Louis
Blanc rejected; Victor Hugo elected.

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30 Jan.

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Resignation of Léon Renault, prefect of police, opposed Gambetta and Murat convicted; sentence, 3 months' imto Buffet....

.9 Feb. 1876 prisonment and fine of 802., 11 Sept.; on appeal, senElection of deputies; great majority of republicans, 20 tence affirmed...

.22 Sept. 1877 Feb. -5 March; resignation of Buffet, about 22 Feb.; The marshal's excursions to various places; reception Dufaure chief minister, with a modified cabinet. 24 Feb.

differs...

.. Aug. Sept. " Estimated result of elections: moderate republicans, 270; In his manifesto respecting the elections, he refers to his radicals, 60; Bonapartists, 92; Orleanists, 58; legiti

successful government, and says, “I cannot obey the mists, 36.

.7 March, injunctions of the demagogy; I can neither become Dufaure's ministry complete (including Decazes, Say, the instrument of radicalism nor abandon the post in

Waddington, De Cissey, etc.)... about 9 March, which the constitution has placed me".......19 Sept. Senate and assembly meet, 8 March; duc d'Audiffret Thiers's manifesto to electors (an historical defence of the

Pasquier elected president of senate; M. F. P. Jules republic and late chamber) published......... 24 Sept. Grévy, president of assembly...

.. 13 March, The clergy energetically support the government, Amnesty bill for communists introduced in the senate

Sept.-Oct. " by Victor Hugo; in the assembly by Raspail.21 March, Temperate manifesto of the Len, 4 Oct.; of Grévy and Proposed international exbibition, Paris, for 1 May, 1878,

Gambetta..

.7 Oct. 6 April, Justificatory manifesto of the marshal, appealing to Archbishop Guibert of Paris declines to give evidence

voters..

.11 Oct. concerning the election of comte de Mun as deputy, Gambetta convicted for placarding his address; fine, April, 1501, and 3 months' imprisonment.

12 Oct. Gambetta president of budget committee for 1877, M. de Fourtou interferes very energetically in elections;

about 19 April,
foreign papers stopped, etc...

..Oct Queen Victoria in Paris; received by the president General election; quiet and dignified; results: defeat of

21 April, Bonapartist and clerical parties (of 506 oficial candiDeath of Ricard, popular liberal minister of the interior, dates about 199 elected; republicans, 320). .....14 Oct.

aged 48, 12 May; succeeded by M. de Mercère, under: Final result: 325 republicans; 112 Bonapartists; 96 secretary.. .. about 15 May, monarchists..

..28 Oct. Debate on the amnesty to communists, 14 May; rejected Ministry hold office till successors appointed; M. Pouyer(394-52), 17 May; Victor Hugo's speech in favor of Quertier fails to form a ministry.

Nov. amnesty ; proposal rejected almost unanimously, Election of departmental councils who elect senators;

22 May,
majority for republicans..

.4 Nov. Funeral procession of Michelet at Paris. .18 May,

Meeting of chambers...

7 Nov. M. Buffet, ex-minister, elected life senator..

.16 June,

Census for 1876 announced; 36,905,788 (increase of 802, 87 communists pardoned...

.28 June,
867 over 1872).

.8 Nov. Casimir Périer dies..

.6 July,

The marsbal determines not to resign; his ministry Nearly 2,000,0001. voted for public instruction...31 July, agree to remain temporarily; announced.....8 Nov. Chambers prorogued..

12 Aug. F. P. Jules Grovy re-elected president of the chamber of 68 communists pardoned..

.17 Aug
deputies now constituted....

...10 Nov. Observatory at Puy de Dôme, near Clermont, inaugu- Albert Grévy's resolution for the appointment of a comrated

.22 Aug

mission of 33 to inquire into the conduct of the gov. New fortifications around Paris nearly completed. .Sept.

ernment respecting elections, 13 Nov.; carried after a The assembly reopened, 30 Oct.; the duc Decazes' firm warm debate (312-205)...

16 Nov. pacific speech.

.3 Nov. Debate in senate on M. Kerdrel's motion respecting minPrince Jerome Napoleon becomes prominent in the as. isters; vote in their favor indirectly reflecting on sembly..

.Nov.
Grévy's resolution, etc. (151–129).

.19 Nov. Resignation of Dufaure's ministry through defeats in the Resignation of ministers anpounced

20 Nov. senate, etc

..2 Dec. New ministry formed under gen. Rochebouet, president; Pardons and commutations granted to many communist no member of it in the senate or assembly; termed convicts..

2 Dec.
“ministry of affairs”.

23 Nov. New ministry; Jules Simon, president of the council and No confidence in the new ministry voted in the second minister of interior; Martel, justice; others remain, chamber (323–208)...

24 Nov. 12, 13 Dec. Important meeting of commercial men in Paris, peti. Estimated revenue, 109,000,0001..

... Dec.
tion to the marshal agreed on...

2 Dec. Chambers opened..

...9 Jan. 1877 The chamber refuses to discuss the budget........4 Dec. Gambetta president of the budget..

26 Jan. The ministry resign; negotiations with Dufaure to form Above 50 prefects, hostile to the republic, removed.Jan. a parliamentary ministry fail; Batbie (see 26 Nov. Gen Changarnier died, aged 83... ..14 Feb 1812) also fails.

.7-13 Dec. Paul de Cassagnac ined and imprisoned for libel against The marshal submits unconditionally, 13 Dec. A thor. chamber of deputies in the Pays..

.5 April,

ough republican ministry formed under M. Dufaure, Rochefort's Lanterne republished.

president of the council and minister of justice; De M. Jules Simon compelled to yield to Gambetta in the Marcère, interior; Waddington (Protestant), foreign af. chanıber..

.4 May,

fairs; Bardoux, public instruction; gen. Borel, war; Peremptory letter of censure from marshal MacMahon to vice-admiral Pothuau, marine; Léon Say, finance; Jules Simon causes him and his ministry to resign, Teisserenc de Bort, commerce; De Freycinet, public

16 May,

works: announced, the marshal in his message acThe duc de Broglie forms a ministry (royalist and im

cepts the will of the country..

..14 Dec. perial): De Fourtou, interior; Cailloux, finance; Paris, Restrictions of the press removed; many prefects republic works; De Meaux, agriculture; Brunet, public sign and others are removed.. ..15 Dec. et seq. instruction (Decazes, foreign, and Berthaut, war, re- Death of gen. Aurelle de Paladines,

.17 Dec. main).. ...17 May, Budget voted; chambers adjourn..

.18 Dec. Gambetta's resolution in chamber in favor of parliamen- Limoges affair; gen. Rochebouet said to have issued or.

tary government carried (355-154), 17 May; protest of ders to gen. de Bressoles for a military movement, 363 liberal deputies signed..

.18 May, 12 Dec.; major Labordère denounces the orders as il. The marshal prorogues the chambers for a month; a firm legal, 13 Dec.; the orders nullified by the change of manifesto issued by the Left...

...18 May, ministry, 14 Dec.; De Bressoles suspended for al. Many changes made in the prefects. .. ...20 May, leged mistake; Labordère cashiered; much excitement Thiers accepted as leader by the republicans; Broglie's in Paris on account of suspected preparations for a circular for repressing the press issued..about 29 May, coup d'état..

......Jan, 1878 Bonnet Duverdier, chief of municipality of Paris, ar- Legislative assembly meets.....

......8 Jan. rested for speaking against the marshal, 1 June; sen- Gen. Ducrot dismissed from command for suspected tenced to fine and imprisonment...

..8 June, connection with projected coup d'état....... 10, 11 Jan. Meeting of chambers; stormy debate in second chamber, Committee of 18 liberal deputies (formed in May) virtu16 June; vote against government carried (363-158), ally dissolve..

..13 Jan. 19 June, Break-up of combined reactionary parties; the ministry The deputies vote the necessary supplies, but not direct generally successful.

..March, taxes...

....21 June, International exhibition at Paris opened by the marshal The senate votes dissolution of the chambers (150-130), president (see Paris)..

.1 May, 22 June; decreed..

.25 June,

Joan of Arc and Voltaire centenaries celebrated. 30 May, The marshal, in an order of the day, after a review at M. Waddington, foreign minister, a plenipotentiary at Longchamps, says, “I appeal to the army to defend the the Berlin Conference....

.13 June-13 July, dearest interests of the country

...2 July, Temporary strikes of workmen.. ........July, Aug. Quarrels among Bonapartists (Rouher against Cassagnac), Republican success in electing departmental councils, July, Aug.

Aug. Repressive measures towards the press, etc...July, Aug. Solemn commemoration of death of Thiers at Notre Prosecution of Gambetta (and Murat, editor of the Re. Dame, etc..

.... 3 Sept. publique Française, in which it appeared) for a speech Execution of Barré, stockbroker, and Lebiez, medical at Lille (29 July) in which be said the marshal must, student, for murder of a milkwoman for her funded if the elections be against him, "submit or resign"

property .......

...7 Sept. (“se soumettre ou se démettre”)....... about 25 Aug. Review of 55,000 soldiers at Vincennes. .....15 Sept. Thiers dies, aged 80, 3 Sept. ; public funeral, no disorder, Powerful speech of Gambetta at Romans (department

8 Sept. Drôme), proposing abolition of the exeinption of theo.

. April,

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logical students from military service, 18 Sept.; and Meeting of the chambers..

.13 Jan. 1880 at Grenoble...

.10 Oct. 1878 M. de Freycinet's moderate programme. ...16 Jan, Dupanloup, bishop of Orleans, dies suddenly..... 11 Oct. Death (ex-foreign ministers): duc de Gramont, 16 Jan.; The assembly meets..

...28 Oct.
Jules Favre.

20 Jan. 12,000 national lottery tickets of 1 franc sold (sco Lot. Budget for 1881 announced: estimated revenue, 110,teries)..

..up to Nov.

935,0001., 960,0001. more than for 1880; surplus, 1,300,Energetic manifesto of united legitimists, Orleanists,

0001...

Feb. and Bonapartists against republicans respecting elec- Death of M. Crémieux..

.10 Feb. tion of senators..

13 Nov. Plenary amnesty for communists rejected by the ChamElections of Paul de Cassagnac (7 Nov.) and M. Fortou

...12 Feb. invalidated by the chamber, 18 Nov.; of Decazes,

Debate in senate: 7th clause of Ferry's education bill 7 Dec.

(abolishing Jesuit schools, etc.); Jules Simon speaks Letter from comte de Chambord to M. de Mun, main

against it; rejected (148-129). .

.9 March, taining his rights; published..

.25 Nov. Decree dissolving order of Jesuits and other orders in All foreign commercial treaties denounced in view of a

France...

29 March, new tarifl..

.31 Dec. Letter from prince Jerome Napoleon in favor of the de. Elections for senate: 64 republican, 16 opposition..5 Jan. 1879 cree; offends Bonapartists..

about 5 April, Compulsory resignation of gen. Borel, war minister, 13 Many bishops and others protest against the decree, Jan. ; succeeded by gen. Gresley... .. 13 Jan.

April, Meeting of chambers; M. Martel elected president of the Pacific circular of M. de Freycinet respecting intersenate..

..15 Jan.
national relations.

.16 April, Confidence in the ministry voted in chamber of deputies Ministerial defeat on public meetings bill; M. Lepère (223–121)..

20 Jan.
resigns, 15 May; M. Constans succeeds...

18 May, 2245 communists pardoned by decree.....issued 17 Jan. Gen. Martel, president of senate, resigns; succeeded by Ministerial programme: pardons to communists; check M. Léon Say

20 May, of clerical influence upon education; dismissal of off- Amnesty bill for political offences, 19 June; presented cials opposed to the republic, etc.

..16 Jan.

by M. de Freycinet, 19 June; passed by the chambers Drawing of the national lottery begun.

.. 26 Jan.
(333-140).

.21 June, Budget : revenue, about 110,242,8121. ; expenditure, Otaheite formally annexed to France.. ..29 June, 110,177,3041..

..Jan. Expulsion of religious orders (much officially opposed) Marshal MacMahon refuses to supersede military officers;

carried into effect with Jesuits..

.30 June, resigns, 28 Jan.; F. P. Jules Gréry elected president Amnesty bill passed for all, except incendiaries and by the senate and deputies united as “ The National assassins, by senate (143–138)...

.3 July, Assembly” (536 for Grévy; 99 for gen. Chanzy),

The president, Grévy, grants a general amnesty, 10 July; 30 Jan.

Rochefort warmly received in Paris.... 12 July, Gambetta elected president of the chamber. ....,31 Jan. First grand republican national fête...

14 July, Resignation of Dufaure; new ministry formed by M. Chambers prorogued..

15 July, Waddington, 1 Feb.; changes (see Nov. 1877); M. le Elections of councils general; great majority for republi. Royer, keeper of seals and justice; Jules Ferry, public cans (anti-clerical and anti-Bonapartist). ....1 Aug instruction; M. Lepère, agriculture; admiral Jauregui. MM. Grévy, Gambetta, and Leon Say, witness the launch berry, marine....

..4 Feb.
of a man of-war at Cherbourg, etc..

.8-11 Aug Communist amnesty bill passed by chamber of deputies, M. de Freycinet, in a speech at Montauban, expresses

21 Feb.

disagreement with his colleagues respecting decree Resignation of M. de Marcère, minister of the interior against religious orders; resigns...

19 Sept. (police scandals), 3 March; succeeded by M. Lepère,

New ministry: Jules Ferry (premier and public instruc4 March,

tion), admiral Clouet (marine), Sadi-Carnot (public Admiral Pothuau ambassador to England

....... March,

works), Barthélemy St.-Hilaire (foreign); other offices Impeachment of De Broglie and Rochebouet (late minis.

unchanged.

.20 Sept. ters) recommended by a commission... .8 March, Two important letters from Guibert, archbishop of Paris, Impeachment negatived by the chamber (317-159); vote to the president, recommending suspension of execuof censure passed (240–154).

.13 March, tion of the decree of 29 March against religious orders, Proposed return of the assemblies to Paris; congress to delivered. ...

.6, 15 Sept. be appointed (315-128)..

22 March, Felix Pyat, cditor of the Commune, sentenced to imM. Ferry's education bills to check clerical influences, prisonment and fine for justifying regicide. ....19 Oct. abolishing Jesuit colleges, etc. .

March, Carmelites and other religious orders expelled, Pardon of 252 communists signed .8 April,

16 Oct. -Nov. Blanqui (a convict) elected for Bordeaux.

.20 April, Meeting of the assembly: majority against the ministry, Pardon of 400 communists signed..

..24 May,
who resign (200-166)..

..9 Nov. Prince Louis Napoleon killed while reconnoitring in The ministry withdraw their resignation on rote of conZululand.

...1 June,
fidence (240–149)..

..12 Nov. Blanqui's election annulled by the chainber (372-33), 4 M. Baudry d'Asson, deputy, excluded, 9 Nov ; refuses to June; pardoned and released....

.11 June,

retire from the chamber; forcibly expelled'...11 Nov. Pardon of 288 more communists signed. ......5 June, Violent attacks of Rochefort in the Intransigeant) on Violent opposition of Paul de Cassagnac; he is expelled Gambetta; crushing replies...

Dec. the house for three days for abusing government,

Municipal council elections strongly in favor of the gov16 June, ernment

.9 Jan. 1881 Congress of senate and deputies vote for their return to Meeting of the chambers..

20 Jan. Paris (526–249) ..

20 June, Bill greatly freeing the press brought in. .....26 Jan. M. Ferry's law of superior public instruction passed by Projected loan of 40,000,0001. (public debt, about 1.200,the deputies.....

.9 July

0001.) immediately taken up for thirty times the President Grévy's first grand military review at Long

amount

March, champs .

Discussion respecting the scrutin de liste (which see), adFote of the republic.

..14 July,

vocated by Gambetta; opposed by president Grévy, Prince Jerome Napoleon coldly accepted as chief of the

who yields

.21, 22 March, Bonapartists..

.20 July,

Expedition to N. Africa to chastise the Kroumirs; inComte de Chambord's letter: "With the co-operation of

vasion of Tunis.....

March, April, all honest men, and with the grace of God, I may save

1

Treaty with the bey signed (see Tunis). France, and will".

. 26 July,

Excitement at Marseilles and in Italy (which see), Chambers prorogued ...2 Aug.

13 May et seq. Treaties of commerce with England prolonged; signed, M. Bardouy's bill for the scrutin de liste adopted by the

10 Oct.
chamber of deputies (243–235).

..18 May, Humbert, an amnestied communist, elected to the mu. The Tunis treaty ratified by the chamber (453-1)..23 May,

nicipal council, Paris, 11 Oct. ; imprisoned for seditious Warm reception of Gambetta at Cahors and other places, speeches, etc., 22 Oct.; election annulled .... .4 Nov.

25 May, About 60 mayors in La Vendee dismissed for celebrat- Proposed revision of the constitution negatived in the ing comte de Chambord's birthday...

Nov.

chambers.... The senate and assembly meet again at Paris....27 Nov. The scrutin de liste rejected by the senate (148-114), Michael Chevalier, political economist, dies.....28 Nov.

9 June, M. Waddington demands a vote of contidence.....2 Dec. (Republican sections: left centre, pure left, advanced

SOVEREIGNS OF FRANCE. left, extreme left.)

MEROVINGIAN RACE.
Ministerial majority (221-97); many abstainers...4 Dec.
Resignation of Lopère and Le Royer, ministers,

Pharamond (his existence doubtful).

11, 12 Dec. 428. Clodion the Hairy, his supposed son; king of the Salic Resiguation of the Waddington ministry. ....21 Dec.

Franks.
New ministry (more republican left) formed by M. de 447. Merovæus, or Mérovée; son-in-law of Clodion.

Freycinet ; includes Jules Ferry (public instruction) 458. Childeric, son of Mérovée.
and Lepère (interior); not Waddington or Léon Say, 481. Clovis the Great, his son, real founder of the monarchy.

28, 29 Dec.

His four sons divided the empire: Gen. Farre, new war minister, dismisses heads of depart- 511. Childebert; Paris. ments in War oflice..

...Jan. 1880

Clodomir; Orleans.

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13 July,

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511. Thierry; Metz.

1270. Philip III., the Hardy; son; died at Perpignan, 6 Oct. Clotaire; Soissons.

1285. Philip IV., the Fair; son; king in his 17th year; died 534. Theodebert; Metz.

29 Nov. 548. Theodebald; succeeded in Metz.

1314. Louis X. ; son; surnamed Hutin, an old word for head. 558. Clotaire I. ; sole ruler. Upon his death, the kingdom

strong, or mutinous; died 5 June. divided between four sons: viz.,

1316. John I., posthumous son of Louis X.; born 15 Nov.; 561. Charibert, ruled at Paris.

died 19 Nov. Gontram, in Orleans and Burgundy.

Philip V., the Long (on account of his stature); brother " Sigebert, at Metz; and Both assassinated by Frede

of Louis; died 3 Jan. Chilperic, at Soissons.) gond.

1322. Charles IV., the Handsome; brother; died 31 Jan. 1328. 575. Childebert II. 584. Clotaire II. ; Soissons.

HOUSE OF VALOIS. 596. Thierry Il., son of Childebert; in Orleans.

1328. Philip VI, de Valois, the Fortunate; grandson of Philip Theodebert II. ; Metz.

III.; died 23 Aug. 613. Clotaire II. ; became sole king.

1350. John ÍI., the Good; son; died suddenly in the Savoy in

1 628. Dagobert I., the Great, son of Clotaire II. ; divided the

London, 8 April. kingdom between his two sons:

1364. Charles V., the Wise; son; died 16 Sept. 638. Clovis II. ; Burgundy and Neustria.

1380. Charles VI., the Beloved ; 'son; died 21 Oct. Sigebert II. ; Austrasia.

1422. Charles VII., the Victorious; son; died 22 July. 656. Clotaire III., son of Clovis II.

1461. Louis XI. ; son; able but cruel; died 30 Aug. 670. Childeric II.; sole king; assassinated, with his queen 1483. Charles VÍII., the Affable; son; died 7 April. and his son Dagobert, in the forest of Livri.

1498. Louis XII., duke of Orleans ; the Father of his People; Thierry III.; Burgundy and Neustria.

great-grandson of Charles V.; died 1 Jan. 674. Dagobert II., son of Sigebert, in Austrasia; assassinated 1515. Francis 1. of Angoulême; called the Father of Letters; 679.

great-great-grandson of Charles V.; died 31 March. 691. Clovis III. (Pepin, mayor of the palace, rules in his 1547. Henry II. ; son; died of a wound received at a tournaname; succeeded by his brother.)

ment at the nuptials of his sister with the duke of 695. Childebert III., the Just; Pepin supreme.

oy, accidentally inflicted by the comte de Mont711. Dagobert III., son of Childebert.

morency, 10 July. 715. Chilperic II., 'deposed by Charles Martel, mayor of the 1559. Francis II. ; son; married Mary Stuart, queen of Scots; palace.

died 5 Dec. 717. Clotaire IV., of obscure origin, raised by Charles Martel 1560. Charles IX. ; brother; Catherine de' Medici, his mother, to the throne; dies soon after; Chilperic is recalled

regent; died 30 May. from Aquitaine.

1574. Henry III. ; brother; elected king of Poland; last of the 720. Chilperic II. restored; shortly afterwards dies at No. house of Valois; stabbed by Jacques Clement, a Do. yon; succeeded by

minican friar, 1 Aug.; died 2 Aug. 1589. Thierry IV., son of Dagobert III., surnamed de Chelles ; died in 737. Charles Martel now reigns under the

HOUSE OF BOURBOX. new title of "duke of the French."-Henault.

1589. Henry IV., tbe Great, of Bourbon, king of Navarre; son737. Interregnum, till the death of Charles Martel, in 741.

in-law of Henry II.; murdered by Francis Ravaillac, 742. Childeric III., son of Chilperic II., surnamed the Stupid. Carloman and Pepin, the sons of Charles Martel, share 1610. Louis XIII., the Just; son; died 14 May.

14 May the government.

1643. Louis XIV., the Great, Dieudonné; son; died 1 Sept.

1715. Louis XV., the Well-beloved; great-grandson; died 20 THE CARLOVINGIANS.

May. 752. Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel; he is succeeded 1774. Louis XVI., his grandson; ascended the throne in his by his two sons:

20th year; married the archduchess Marie Antoinette, 768. Charles the Great (Charlemagne) and Carloman; Charles

of Austria, May, 1770; dethroned, 14 July, 1789; guil. crowned EMPEROR OF THE WEst, by Leo ÍII., 800.

lotined, 21 Jan. 1793, and his queen, 16 Oct. following. Carloman reigned but three years.

[Louis was executed Monday, 21 Jan. 1793, at eight o'clock 814. Louis I., le Débonnaire, EMPEROR; dethroned, but re- A.M. On the scaffold he said, "Frenchmen, I die innocent stored to his dominions.

of the offences imputed to me. I pardon all my enemies, 840. Charles, surnamed the Bald, King; EMPEROR in 875; and I implore of Heaven that my beloved France-" At poisoned by Zedechias, a Jewish physician.

this instant Santerre ordered the drums to beat, and the 877. Louis II., the Stammerer, son of Charles the Bald, Kixg.

executioners to perform their office. When the guillotine 879. Louis III. and Carloman II. ; the former died in 882, and descended, the priest exclaimed, “Son of St. Louis! ascend Carloman reigned alone.

to heaven." The bleeding head was then held up, and a 884. Charles III., le Gros; a usurper, in prejudice to Charles few of the populace shouted, "Vive la République !” The the Simple.

body was interred in a grave that was immediately after. 887. Eudes, or Hugh, count of Paris.

wards filled up with quicklime, and a strong guard was 898. Charles III. (or IV.), the Simple; deposed, and died in placed around until it should be consumed.]

prison in 929; he married Edgiva, daughter of Ed. 1793. Louis XVII., son of Louis XVI. He never reigned; and ward the Elder, of England, by whom he had a son,

died in prison, supposed by poison, 8 June, 1795, aged king Louis IV.

10 years 2 months. It is believed by some that he 922. Robert, brother of Eudes; crowned at Rheims; Charles

escaped to England, and lived there some time as killed him in battle.- Hénault.

Augustus Meves. * In 1874 a person calling himself 923. Rudolph, or Raoul, duke of Burgundy; elected king, but

Auguste de Bourbon claimed to be his son. In France never acknowledged by the southeru provinces.

also Albert de Bourbon, son of one Naundorff, claimed Hénault.

to be son of Louis XVII. At a trial in Paris, when 936. Louis IV., d'Outremer, or Transmarine (from having

Jules Favre was his counsel, the verdict was strongly been conveyed by his mother into England), son of

against his claim, 27 Feb. 1874. Charles III. (or IV.), died by a fall from his horse. 954. Lothaire, his son; reigned jointly with his father from

THE FIRST REPUBLIC. 952, and succeeds him at 15 years of age, under the 1792. The National CONVENTION (750 members), first sitting,

protection of Hugh the Great; poisoned. 986. Louis V., the Indolent, son of Lothaire; also poisoned, 1795. The DIRECTORY (Lareveillère-Lépaux, Letourneur, Rew.

21 Sept. it is supposed by his queen, Blanche; last of the race

bell, Barras, and Carnot) nominated 1 Nov.; abolished, of Charlemagne.

and Bonaparte, Ducos, and Sieyès appointed an execuTHE CAPETS.

tive commission, Nov. 1799. 987. Hugh Capet, the Great, count of Paris, etc., eldest son

1799. The CONSULATE. Napoleon Bonaparte, Cambacérès, and of Hugh the Abbot, 3 July; he seizes the crown, in

Lebrun appointed consuls, 24 Dec. Napoleon apprejudice to Charles of Lorraine, uncle of Louis Trans

pointed consul for 10 years, 6 May, 1802; for life, 2 marine. From him this race of kings is called Cape.

Aug. 1802. vingians and Capetians. He died 24 Oct.

FIRST EMPIRE. (See article Bonaparte Family.) 996. Robert II., surnamed the Sage; son; died lamented, 20 July

[Established by the senate 18 May, 1804. ] 1031. Henry I., son; died 29 Aug.

1804. Napoleon (Bonaparte) I.; born 15 Aug. 1769.

He mar1060. Philip I., the Fair, l'Amoureur; son; succeeded at 8

ried, age; ruled at 14; died 3 Aug.

1st, Josephine, widow of Alexis, vicomte de Beauhar. 1108. Louis VI., surnamed the Lusty, or le Gros; son; died 1

nais, & March, 1796 (who was divorced 16 Dec. 1809, Aug.

and died 29 May, 1814). 1137. Louis VII. ; son; surnamed the Young, to distinguish

2d, Maria Louisa of Austria, 2 April, 1810 (she died 17 him from his father, with whom he reigned for some

Dec. 1847). Son, Napoleon Joseph, duke of Reichyears; died 18 Sept.

stadt, born 20 March, 1811; died 22 July, 1832. 1180. Philip II. (Augustus); son; succeeds at 15; crowned at

He renounced the thrones of France and Italy, and acRheims in his father's lifetime; died 14 July.

cepted the isle of Elba for his retreat, 5 April, 1814. 1223. Louis VIII. Cæur de Lion; son; died 8 Nov.

Again appeared in France, 1 March, 1815. 1226. Louis IX. ; son; called St. Louis; ascended the throne Was defeated at Waterloo, 18 June, 1815.

at 15, under the guardianship of his mother, who was
also regent; died iu his camp before Tunis, 25 Aug.

* He died insane, Jan. 1880.

years of

men.

Abdicated in favor of his infant son, 22 June, 1815. Ban- | stored by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 2 May, 1668; ished to St. Helena, where he dies, 5 May, 1821. (See France, 1840.)

again conquered ; and finally annexed to France by

treaty, 1678. BOURBONS RESTORED.

Franchise. A privilege or exemption from ordi1814. Louis XVIII. (comte de Provence), brother of Louis XVI. ;

born 17 Nov. 1755 ; married Marie Josephine Louise nary jurisdiction, and anciently an asylum or sanctuary of Savoy ; entered Paris, and took possession of the where the person was secure. In Spain, churches and throne, 3 May, 1814 ; obliged to flee, 20 March, 1815; monasteries were, until lately, franchises for criminals, returned 8 July, same year; died without issue, 6

as formerly in England; see Sanctuaries. In 1429, the Sept. 1824. 1824. Charles X. (comte d'Artois), his brother; born 9 Oct. ELECTIVE FRANCHISE for counties was restricted to per

1757 ; married Marie Thérèse of Savoy ; deposed 30 sons having at least, 40s. a year in land, and resident; July, 1830.

He resided in Britain till 1832, and died for recent changes, see Reform. at Gratz, in Hungary, 6 Nov. 1836. [Heir : Henry, duc de Bordeaux, called comte de Cham. Franciscans. Gray or Minor Friars, an order bord, son of the duc de Berry; born 29 Sept. 1820; founded by St. Francis d'Assisi about 1209. Their rules married princess Theresa of Modena, Nov. 1846; no issue; styles himself Henri V.; see France, 1870 et

were chastity, poverty, obedience, and very austere regiseq.)

About 1220 they appeared in England, where, at HOUSE OF ORLEANS. (See Orleans.)

the time of the dissolution of monasteries by Henry 1830. Louis Philippe, son of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, VIII., they had 55 abbeys or other houses, 1536-8. called Egalité, descended from Philippe, duke of Or

Francis's Assault ox THE QUEEN. John Francis, leans, son of Louis XIII. ; born 6 Oct. 1773; married 25 Nov. 1809, Maria Amelia, daughter of Ferdinand I. a youth, fired a pistol at queen Victoria as she was riding (IV.), king of the Two Sicilies (she died 24 March, down Constitution hill, in an open barouche, accom1866). Raised to the throne as king of the French, 9 Aug. 1830; abdicated 24 Feb. 1848. Died in exile, in panied by prince Albert, 30 May, 1842. The queen was England, 26 Aug. 1850.

uninjured. Previous intimation having reached the (Heir : Louis Philippe, count of Paris; born 24 Aug. palace of the intention of the criminal, her majesty had 1838.)

commanded that none of the ladies of her court should SECOND REPUBLIC, 1848.

attend her. Francis was condemned to death, 17 June, The revolution commenced in a popular insurrection at Paris, 22 Feb. 1848. The royal family escaped by flight to Eng following, but was transported for life. He was liberated land, a provisional government was established, monarchy on ticket-of-leave in 1867.

abolished, and France declared a republic. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, declared by the National

Franconia, or FRANKENLAND (on the Maine), forAssembly (19 Dec.) PRESIDENT of the republic of France; merly a circle of the German empire, part of Thuringia, and proclaimed next day, 20 Dec.; elected for ten years, 22 was conquered by Thierry, king of the Franks, 530, and Dec. 1851.

colonized. Its count or duke, Conrad, was elected king FRENCH EMPIRE REVIVED. (See Bonaparte.) of Germany, 912; and his descendant was the emperor (1821. Napoleon II. (decreed to be so termed by Napoleon III. Conrad III., elected 1138, and another duke. Franconia

on his accession). Napoleon Josephı, son of Napoleon was made a distinct circle from Thuringia in 1512. At
1. and Maria Louisa, archduchess of Austria; born 20 its subdivision in 1806 various German princes obtained
March, 1811 ; created king of Rome. On the abdica-
tion of his father he was made duke of Reichstadt, in

a part; but in 1814 the largest share was awarded to Austria ; and died at tho palace of Schoenbrunn, 22 Bavaria.

July, 1832, aged 21.) 1852. Napoleon III., formerly president of the French republic, Franco-Prussian War originated in the French

elected emperor, 21, 22 Nov. 1852; proclaimed 2 Dec. emperor's jealousy of the greatly increased power of
1852 ; surrendered himself a prisoner to the king of Prussia, through the successful issue of the war with
Prussia at Sedan, 2 Sept. 1870; deposed at Paris, 4
Sept. ; arrives at Wilhelmshöhe, near Cassel, 5 Sepi.; Denmark in 1864, and with Austria in 1866. The
deposition confirmed by the national assembly, 1 German Confederation was thereby annulled, and the
March; he protested against it, 6 March, 1871; died North German Confederation established under the su-
at Chiselhurst, England, 9 Jan. 1873; buried there 15
Jan.

premacy of the king of Prussia, to whose territories were Empress : Eugénie Marie (a Spaniard, countess of Téba), further annexed Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Frankborn 5 May, 1826; married 29 Jan. 1853.

fort, and other provinces. This great augmentation of Heir: Napoleon Eugene Louis Jean Joseph, son; styled

Napoleon IV., born 16 March, 1856 ; killed in Zulu- the power of Prussia was mainly due to the energetic land, 1 June, 1879; buried beside his father at Chisel policy of count Bismarck-Schönhausen, prime minister hurst (the prince of Wales and other princes present), since Sept. 1862.

12 July, 1879; see Wills. At the celebration of the fête Napoleon, 15 Aug. 1873, In a draft treaty, secretly proposed to the Prussian gov.

the prince declared the policy of his family to be ernment by the French emperor in 1866 : “1. The “Everything by the people, for the people."

emperor recognizes the acquisitions which Prussia has [On 18 Dec. 1852, the succession, in default of issue from made in the last war; 2. The king of Prussia promises

the emperor, was determined in favor of prince to facilitate the acquisition of Luxembourg by France; Jerome Napoleon and his heirs male.)

3. The emperor will not oppose a federal union of the northern and southern states of Germany, excluding

Austria; 4. The king of Prussia, in case the emperor I. Louis Adolphe Thiers (born 16 April, 1797) appointed chief

should enter or conquer Belgium, will support him in of the executive power, 17 Feb., and president of the French arms against any opposing power; 5. They enter into republic, by the national assembly, 31 Aug. 1871; resigned,

an alliance offensive and defensive." 24 May, 1873; died 3 Sept. 1877.

[This draft treaty was published in the Times, 25 July, II. Marshal M. E. Patrice Maurice MacMahon, duc de Magenta,

1870. After some discussion, its authenticity was ad. elected president, 24 May; nominated for seven years, 20

mitted ; count Bismarck asserting that it emanated Nov. 1873.

entirely from the French emperor, and that the scheme III. François Paul Jules Grévy (born 15 Aug. 1813); elected

had never been seriously entertained by himself.) 30 Jan. 1879.

In March, 1867, a dispute arose through the French em.

peror's proposal for purchasing Luxembourg from the France, Isle of, see Mauritius.

king of Holland, which was strongly opposed by Prussia,

as that province had formed part of the dissolved Ger. Franche-Comté, in upper Burgundy, E. France, manic Confederation, and the affair was only settled was conquered by Julius Cæsar, about 45 B.C.; by the by a conference of the representatives of the great Burgundians, early in the fifth century A.D.; and by the

powers in London, at which the perfect neutrality of Franks about 534. It was made a county for Hugh the

Luxembourg was determined, together with the with

drawal of the Prussian garrison and the destruction of Black in 915, and received its name from having been the fortifications...

... 7-11 May, 1867 taken from Renaud III. (1127-48) an restored to him. Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (connected By marriage with the count's daughter, Beatrice, the

with the Prussian dynasty, and brother of Charles,

prince of Roumania), consented to become a candidate emperor Frederick I. acquired the county, 1156. Their for the throne of Spain.

. 4 July, 1870 descendant, Mary of Burgundy, by marriage with the This was denounced by the French government. Threatarchduke Maximilian, conveyed it to the house of Aus

ening speeches were made in the French chamber by

the duc de Grammont, the foreign minister, and event. tria, 1477. It was conquered by the French, 1668; re- ually, after some negotiation and the intervention of

THIRD REPUBLIC.

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