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Great Britain, prince Leopold, with the consent of his Day of general prayer observed in Prussia.. 27 July, 1870

sovereign, declined the proffered crown. ...... 12 July, 1870 The emperor Napoleon joins the army; at Metz assumes The submission did not satisfy the French government the chief command, and issues a proclamation declar

and nation, and the demand for a guarantee against ing that the war will be long and severe...28, 29 July, the repetition of such an acceptance irritated the Repulse of a French attack at Saarbrück.......30 July, Prussian government, and led to the termination of 20 Badenese enter France at Lauterburg; Mr. Winsloe the negotiations, the king refusing to receive the killed; some captured; others escape with valuable count Benedetti, the French minister......... 13 July,

information...

..31 July, Energetic but fruitless efforts to avert the war were Proclamation of the king of Prussia to his people, grantmade by earl Granville, the British foreign minister, ing an amnesty for political offences, and resolving,

about 15 July,

like our forefathers, placing full trust in God, to accept War was announced by the emperor, with the hearty the battle for the defence of the fatherland....31 July,

consent of the great majority the chambers. The He leaves Berlin for the army, 1 Aug., and announces Left or republican party opposed the war; M. Thiers that all Germany stands united in arms"....3 Aug. and a few others only protested against it as prema- The French government announce that “they inake war, ture....

. 15 July,

not against Germany, but against Prussia, or rather (After his surrender on 2 Sept., the emperor told count against the policy of count Bismarck”,

.2 Aug. Bismarck that he did not desire war, but was driven The French under Frossard bombard and take Saarinto it by public opinion. He appears to have been

brück in the presence of the emperor and his son; the greatly deceived as to the numerical strength of his

Prussians, dislodged, retire with little loss. ... ..2 Aug. army, and its state of preparation.]

The duc de Grammont, French foreign minister, pub“The greatest national crime that we have had the pain lishes a circular replying to Bismarck's charges against of recording since the days of the first French revolu.

France.

.3 Aug. tion has been consummated. War is declared-an un. The crown - prince crosses the Lauter, the boundary just but premeditated war.”Times, 16 July, 1871.

of France, and defeats the French under Frossard, (For details of the battles, see separate articles.)

storming the lines of Wissembourg and Geisburg; general Douay killed...

4 Aug. FRENCH ARMY, about 300,000:

Battle of Woerth; in a desperate, long continued battle 1st corps, under marshal MacMahon.

the crown prince defeats marshal MacMahon and the 2d corps, under gen. Frossard.

army of the Rhine; they retire to Saverne to cover 3d corps, under marshal Bazaine.

Nancy...

..6 Aug 4th corps, under gen. Ladmirault.

Battle of Forbach: Saarbriick recaptured, and Forbach 5th corps, under gen. De Failly.

(in France) taken by gens. Von Goeben and Von 6th corps, under marshal Canrobert.

Steinmetz, after a fierce contest; all the French retreat, Imperial guard, under gen. Bourbaki. Commander - in-chief, the emperor; gen. Le Bæuf, second; Gen. Turr publishes, in a letter, statements of propossucceeded by marsbal Bazaine.

als by Bismarck for the annesation of Luxembourg PRUSSIAN ARMY, about 640,000 :

and Belgium by France in 1866 and 1867......6 Aug. 1. Northern, under gen. Vogel von Falckenstein, about 220,- | The emperor, reporting these defeats, says, “ Tout pout

se rétablir"

7 Aug. 000, defending the Elbe, Hanover, etc.

The Germans occupy Forbach, Haguenau, and Saargue2. Right, under prince Frederick Charles, about 180,000.

mines... 3. Centre, under gens. Von Bittenfeld and Von Steinmetz, Marshal Bazaine appointed to the chief command of the

about 80,000. 4. The left, under the crown-prince of Prussia, about 166,000.

French army at Metz (about 130,000); MacMahon has Commander-in-chief, king William; second, gen. Von Moltke

about 50,000 near Saverne; Canrobert about 50,000 near

Nancy.. The North German army, at the beginning of August, consist

..8 Aug. ed, firstly, of 550,000 line, with 1200 guns and 53,000 cav.

Nine French iron-clads pass Dover for the Baltic, 9 Aug.

...9 Aug. alry; secondly, of 187,000 reserve, with 231 guns and 18,000 St. Avold occupied by the Germans.. cavalry; and, thirdly, of 205,000 landwehr, or militia, with Marshal Bazaine takes command of the army at Meiz,

9 Aug. 10,000 cavalry, making a grand total of 944,000 men, with 1680 mobilized guns and 193,000 horses.

.9 Aug.

Phalsburg invested To these must be added, firstly, the Bavarians, 69,000 line, Treaty with Great Britain guaranteeing the neutrality of with 192 guns and 14,800 horses-25,000 reserve with 2400

Belgium, signed on behalf of Prussia, 9 Aug. ; of France, horses, and 22,000 landwehr; secondly, the Würtembergers Forced resignation of the Ollivier ministry .......9 Aug.

11 Aug -22,000 line with 54 guns and 6200 horses, 6500 reserve, and 6000 landwehr; and, thirdly, the Badenese-16,000 line New ministry, constituted under gen. Cousin Montau.

ban, comte de Palikao, war minister..

10 Aug. with 54 guns, 4000 reserve, and 9600 landwehr. All the German troops taken together as under arms at present, The king of Prussia, at Saarbrück, proclaims that

Strasburg invested by the Germans...

.10 Aug. 1,124,000 men. Aug. 1870.

“ he makes war against soldiers, not against French Four weeks previously, on the peace footing, they numbered

citizens

...10 Aug. only 360,000.

Lichtenburg capitulates to the Germans.

..10 Aug The French and Germans in this war were considered to be MacMahon's army retreating upon the Moselle. .11 Aug.

equally brave and efficient; but the French generals appear The little fortress,“ La Petite Pierre,' evacuated, 11 Aug. to have acted greatly upon impulse. The Germans seem to Communication with Strasburg cut ofl. . .11 Aug have been invariably guided by a well-matured plan, their Nancy occupied by the Germans without resistanı e, tactics mainly consisting in bringing vast masses to bear on the point where they were anxious to prevail. From The Bavarians pass the Vosges. Saarbrück to Sedan, Moltke appears to have left nothing to The king at St. Avold forbids conscription for the French

chance; and all his arrangements were ably carried out. army in territories held by Germans. .13 Aug. The causes of the early ruin of the French army were: “1, Marshal Bazaine made commander of the army of the the enormous superiority of the Germans in regard to num. Rhine...

13 Aug bers; 2, the absolute unity of their command and concert Bombardment of Strasburg begun..

... 14 Aug. of operation; 3, their superior mechanism in equipment and The French government declare that "there can be, for supplies; 4, the superior intelligence, stradiness, and disci.

a moment, no question of negotiat.on of peace," pline of the soldiers; 5, superior education of the officers,

14 Aug. and the dash and intelligence of the cavalry.”Quarterly Blockade of the German ports on the Baltic, from 15 Review.

Aug., announced by the French admiral.......14 Aug. Estimated cost of the war to France, 395,400,0001., Jan. 1875 Many French volunicer sharpshooters (francs-tireurs)

take the field (not recognized as soldiers by the Ger War resolved on by the French government, 15 July;

mans)

.. about 14 Aug. declaration delivered at Berlin.. ..19 July, 1870 Toul refuses to surrender.

.14 Aug. The North German parliament meet at Berlin, and cn- The emperor retires to Verdun

14 Aug gage to support Prussia in the war.

..19 July, Marshal Bazaine's army defeated in several long - conWürtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, and Hesse. Darmstadt de

tinued sanguinary battles before Metz (which see): clare war against France, and send contingents to the

1. Battle of Courcelles (Pange, or Longeville) gained army....

.20 July,

by Von Steinmetz and the 1st army ....14 Aug. War proclamation of the emperor Napoleon, declaring

2. Battle of Vionville, or Mars-la-Tour, gained by that the national honor, violently excited, alone

prince Frederick Charles and the 20 army, takes in hand the destinies of the comtry....23 July,

16 Aug. Part of the bridge at Kehl blown up by the Prussians,

3. Battles of Gravelotte and Rezonville, gained by 23 July,

the combined armies commanded by the king, Proclamation of the king that "love of the common fa

18 Aug therland, and the unanimous uprising of the German French sortie from Strasburg repulsed; German attack races, have conciliated all opinions, and dissipated all

on Phalsburg repulsed.....

16 Aug. disagreements. ... The war will procure for Germany

MacMahon reaches Chalons, 16 Aug ; joined by the ema durable peace, and from this bloody seed will arise a peror; his arıny between 130.000 and 150,000, 20 Ang. harvest blessed by God--the liberty and unity of Ger- The king appoints governors general of Alsace and Lor

25 July,
raine..

17 Aug Skirmish at Niederbronn; a Bavarian officer killed, Energetic fortification of Paris by gen. Trochu, the

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goveruor, and the “defence committee''.....18 Aug.

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26 July,

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Estimated German losses: killed, wounded, and missing, Bridge at Creil over the Oise blown up.........12 Sept. 1870 2088 officers, 46, 480 men; up to..

18 Aug. 1870 Seven German corps (about 300,000 men) approaching Severe bombardment of Strasburg. .......19 Aug.

Paris, which is said to contain 300,000 combatants, MacMahon's army of the Rhine retreats as the Prus

13 Sept. sians under the king and crown. prince advance; M. Thiers arrives in London on a mission from the govprince Frederick Charles opposed to Bazaine at Metz;

ernment .....

....13 Sept. (German armies in France about 500,000; the French Colmar occupied by the Germans.

..14 Sept. armies about 300,000; communications between mar- Gen. Trochu reviews the troops in Paris, 13 Sept.; de. shals Bazaine and MacMahon very difficult),

livers a stirring address; the daily guard ordered to be about 20 Aug. 70,000...

...14 Sept. Lieut. Harth, a Prussian spy, tried and shot at Paris, 20 Aug. Estimated German loss: 60,000 killed and wounded; beMacMahon raises his camp at Chalons.. ..20 Aug.

tween 20,000 and 30,000 sick; about 1000 prisoners, The troops extended along the line of the Marne, 21 Aug.

15 Sept. Exportation of food prohibited...

:21 Aug French prisoners in Germany: 62 generals, 4800 oili. Bazaine at Metz said to be completely isolated, 22 Aug.

cers, 140,000 privates...

....about 15 Sept. MacMahon at Rheims with his army, including the re- Correspondence between count Bernstorff and earl Gran.

mains of the corps of Failly and Canrobert; be marches ville respecting neutrality said to have been broken; in hope of joining Bazaine, 23 Aug. ; the crown prince denied by the earl

....1-15 Sept. and prince of Saxony start in pursuit, 23 Aug; march Siege of Paris begun; ingress and egress prohibited with. upon Châlons...

24 Aug.
out a perinit..

..15 Sept. Prussian royal headquarters removed from Pont à Mous. Blockade of the Elbe and Weser non-eflective ...15 Sept.

son to Bar-le-Duc (125 miles from Paris). ..24 Aug. Circular letters of count Bismarck, recounting the lisThe alleged violation of the neutrality of Belgium de. tory of French aggressions on Germany, and asserting nied by its government.

.25 Aug

the necessity of obtaining material guarantees for the The Germans enter the arrondissement of Vassy, 25 Aug. future safety of Germany, and removing the frontiers Germans repulsed in an attack on Verdun.. .25 Aug.

and point of attack farther west.. ...13, 16 Sept. 800 French national guards captured at Ste. Menehould, Important circular of M. Favre, condemning the war and

25 Aug.

recognizing the obligations of the country....17 Sept. Châlons occupied by the Germans.

.25 Aug

Prussian headquarters at Meaux (20 miles from Paris), Capitulation of Vitry, a small fortress.. ..25 Aug

18 Sept. Formation of three German armies of reserve in Ger- 32 German merchant-ships reported to have been capt. many, and a fourth army in the field, under the crown.

ured by the French fleet up to..

..19 Sept. prince of Saxony, to co-operate with the crown-prince Vessels sunk in the Seine and Marne, and other vigor. of Prussia against Paris.

26 Aug

ous defensive measures adopted... ...18, 19 Sept. Strasburg sutloring much by bombardment... 23–26 Aug. Paris said to be completely invested; the fortifications Powerful sortie of Bazaine from Metz repulsed ..26 Aug.

reconnoitred by the king, who has fixed his headquar. Phalsburg heroically resisting...

26 Aug.

ters at Baron Rothschild's château at Ferrières, near Thionville invested by the Germans.

.27 Aug.
Lagny...

.19 Sept. Engagement at Busancy, between Vouziers and Stenay: Three French divisions under gen. Vinoy attack the a regiment of French chasseurs nearly annihilated, Germans on the heights of Sceaux; repulsed with loss

27 Aug

of 7 guns and 2500 prisoners; the defeat attributed to Two German armies (220,000) marching on Paris, 28 Aug.

the disorder of the Zouaves; the national guard behave Continued retreat of MacMahon's army; severe fighting

well.

...19 Sept. at Dun, Stenay, and Mouzon...

.28 Aug

Count Bismarck consents to receive Jules Favre (about Nicholas Schull, German spy, shot at Metz.... 28 Aug.

16 Sept.); they meet at Château de la Haute Vrizy, between Vouziers and Attigny, stormed by the 19 Sept. ; and at the king's headquarters, Ferrieres, Germans..

29 Aug
near Lagny..

..20 Sept. Municipal meetings at Berlin, Königsberg, and other Jules Favre reports to the government the result of his German cities, protest against foreign intervention for

interviews with count Bismarck: Prussia demands the peace.

.30, 31 Aug

cession of the departments of the upper and Lower MacMahon's army, about 150,000, accompanied by the

Rhine and part of that of Moselle, with Metz, Château emperor, retreating northwards; part of it, under De Salins, and Soissons, and would agree to an armistice Failly, surprised and defeated near Beaumont, be

in order that a French constituent assembly might tween Mouzon and Moulins; several otherengagements,

meet; the French to surrender Strasburg, Toul, and unfavorable to the French, occurred during the day, Verdun (or Phalsburg, according to Favre), and Mont

30 Aug.

Valérien if the assembly meet at Paris; these terms are Count Bismarck-Bohlen installed governor of Alsace at positively rejected by the French government, 21 Sept. Hagueniu..

.30 Aug

Versailles and the troops there surrender, 19 Sept.; en. The Germans enter Carignan; attack the French in the tered by the crown prince of Prussia, .. 20 Sept. plain of Douzy; the French, at first successful, are de- A lunette captured at Strasburg

..20 Sept. feated, and retreat to Sedan..

.31 Aug

Gen von Steinmetz sent to Posen as governor general; A French army of old soldiers, about 100,000, is said to prince Frederick Charles sole commander before Metz, be forming near Lyons. 1.31 Aug

21 Sept. Bazaine defeated in his endeavor to escape from Metz; Sèvres surrenders..

after a fierce struggle, retreats into Metz, 31 Aug. 1 Sept. The blockade of German ports raised ; officially anBattle round Sedan: begun at 4 A.M. between Sedan and

nounced in London...

22 Sept. Douzy; the French at first successful; after a severe The French government issues a circular expressing readstruggle and dreadful carnage, the Germans victori. iness to consent to an equitable peace, but refusing ous; MacMahon wounded, 5.30 P. M.; gen. de Wimpf

"to cede an inch of our territory or a stone of our forfen refuses to accept the terms offered by the king of

tresses )

..23 Sept. Prussia

..1 Sept.

Three conflicts before Paris: at Drancy, Pierrefitte, and Capitulation of Sedan and the remainder of Maclia. Villejuil; the two last reported favorable to the French, hon's army; the emperor surrenders to the king (see

23 Sept. Sedan)

...2 Sept. Toul surrenders after a most vigorous resistance, 23 Sept. Vigorous artillery action at Strasburg; a sortie repulsed, Levée en masse of men under 25 ordered by the French

2 Sept.
government.

.23 Sept. Revolution at Paris after the declaration of the capture Germans repulsed in conflicts before Paris; said by them of MacMahon's army; proclamation of a republic (see

to be unimportant

.23 Sept. France).. 4 Sept. Verdun invested by the Germans.

25 Sept. Rheims occupied by the Germans and the king ..5 Sept. Desperate ineffective sallies from Metz...23, 24, 27 Sept. Jules Favre, the French foreign minister, in a circular to All the departments of the Seine and Marne occupied by the French diplomatic representatives, says, “We will

Germans

.26 Sept. not cede either an inch of our territories or a stone of The iron cross given by the crown-prince of Prussia to our fortresses "

.6 Sept.

more than 30 soldiers beneath the statue of Louis Gen. Vinoy and a corps sent too late to aid Mac Ma

XIV. at Versailles...

...26 Sept. hon; retreat and arrive in Paris..

.6, 7 Sept. Circular of Von Thile, Prussian foreign minister, stating St. Dizier occupied by the Germans.

...7 Sept.

that, as the ruling powers in France decline an armis. Strasburg invested by 60.000 men.

..8 Sept.

64

tice, and as no recognized government exists in Paris Verdun vigorously resisting

.8 Sept.

(the government de facto being removed to Tours), all The German army, in tive corps, advancing on Paris, cominunications with and from Paris can only be car

9 Sept.

ried on so far as the military events may permit, Laon surrendered to save the town from destruction;

27 Sept. by the accidental or treacherous explosion of a maga. Clermont occupied by the Germans after a brief vigorous zine some of the German staff and many French perish,

resistance, overcome by artillery.

...27 Sept. 9 Sept. Commencement of attack on Soissons.

.28 Sept. Metz, Strasburg, Thionville, Phalsburg, Toul, Bitsche, and Capitulation of Strasburg, 27 Sept. ; formally surrenother fortified places holding out..

10 Sept.
dered..

.28 Sept. Messages between belligerents transmitted by lord Lyons Sortie of gen. Vinoy's army (at Paris); repulsed, after

(at Paris) and count Bernstorff (Prussian minister) in two hours' fighting - crown-prince present; above 200 London

..9, 10 Sept.

prisoners taken; gen. Giulham killed.. ....30 Sept. Gerinan attack on Toul repulsed

.10 Sept. Above 375,000 national guards said to be in Paris, 30 Sept.

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Conflict near Rouen; at first favorable to the French; Garibaldi appointed commander of the French irregulars, their loss 1200 killed and wounded; 300 prisoners,

12 Oct. 1870 30 Sept. 1870 Epinal captured by the Germans..

..12 Oct. Beauvais captured by the Germans..

.30 Sept.

M. Arlès Dufour, of Lyons, appeals to the people of Great Mantes occupied by the Germans

.1 Oct.

Britain for active sympathy in endeavoring to obtain Circular from count Bismarck, disclaiming any inten.

peace.....

12 Oct. tion of reducing France to a second-rate power. .1 Oct. Breteuil occupied by the Germans after a sharp resist. The American gen. Burnside visits M. Favre......1 Oct.

ance...

12 Oct. Surgeon-major Wyatt writes that Paris is well provis- Slight engagements (termed victories by the French) be. ioned, and nearly inexpugnable

1 Oct.
fore Paris..

13 Oct. M. Thiers's fruitless visit to Vienna, 23 Sept. ; to St. Pe. All the Vosges district in arms; no regular army; the tersburg, 27 Sept. ; dined with the czar.. ..2 Oct.

defiles occupied by the francs-tireurs. ..13 Oct. The grand-duke of Mecklenburg at Rheims appointed Reported successful sorties ; Neu-Breisach completely governor of the country conquered in addition to Al

invested..

.13 Oct. sace and Lorraine.

..2 Oct Reported French success at Bagneux, near Paris-the M. Favre, in the name of the diplomatic body, requests Prussians surprised .

.....13 Oct. count Bismarck to give notice before bombarding St. Cloud fired on by the French and burned..13, 14 Oct. Paris, and to allow a weekly courier: the count declines Frequent sorties from Metz...... ..... about 14 Oct. both requests, but permits the passage of open letters; Sharp fight at Écouis; the French escape from being reported.

3 Oct.
surrounded

14 Oct. Count Bismarck, in a circular, corrects Favre's report of Gambetta aunounces that the Germans are dislodged the negotiations, and accuses the French government

from their innermost belt round Paris... ..14 Oct. of keeping up the difficulties opposed to a conclusion M. Thiers arrives at Florence; Garibaldi at Besançon, of peace; reported... .3 Oct.

14 Oct. Épernon and La Ferté occupied by the Germans after Gen. Boyer, aide-de-camp to marshal Bazaine, arrives at an engagement

..4 Oct.
Versailles and meets count Bismarck.

.14 Oct. The king's headquarters removed to Versailles; arrival Gen. Trochu's letter to the mayors of Paris on reorganiz. of the king, Bismarck, Moltke, and others.......5 Oct.

ing the national guard and repressing the ardent de. The Germans victors in several small engagements,

sire for immediate action..

15 Oct. 2-6 Oct. Soissons surrenders after three weeks' investment and Gen. Treskow, in command of a German army, to ad

four days' bombardment.

.16 Oct. vance into southern France,

...5 Oct. French successes before Paris denied by the Prussians, Colmar occupied by the Prussians for an hour....5 Oct. who hold the same position as on 19 Sept......16 Oct. Battle at Thoury; gen. Reyan, with the advanced guard M. Gambetta proceeds to the army of the Vosges; gen.

of the army of the Loire under gen. La Motte Rouge, Bourbaki appointed commander of the army of the defeats the Germans between Chaussy and Thoury, north; gen. Mazicre appointed to a command in the and captures some prisoners and cattle. ........5 Oct.

ariny of the Loire..

17 Oct. Fictitious manifesto of the emperor Napoleon III., enti- Montdidier attacked by the Germans; 150 mobile guards tled "Les Idées de l'Empereur," advocating peace on

captured

.17 Oct. moderate terms, dated 26 Sept., published in the im- The emperor Napoleon declares that “there can be no perialist journal in London, La Situation, and in Daily prospect of peace, near or remote, on the basis of ced

News, 4 Oct. ; disclaimed by the emperor.......6 Oct. ing to Prussia a single foot of French territory; and M. Thiers's mission to foreign courts reported to be quite no government in France can attach its signature to abortive..

...6 Oct.

such a treaty and remain in power a single day,” Part of the army of Lyons, under gen. Dupré, defeated

17 Oct. by the Badenese under gen. Von Gegenfeld near St. 4000 French attacked and defeated near Châteaudun Rémy; French loss about 1500, and 660 prisoners; Ger- after ten hours' lighting, and the barricaded town man loss about 430.

6 Oct.
stormed ..

18 Oct. Gen. Burnside leaves Paris in order to meet count Bis- Circular of Jules Favre asserting that Prussia “coldly marck..

.7 Oct.

and systematically pursues her task of annihilating us. Great sortie from Metz; the Germans surprised; 40,000

France has now no illusions left. For her it is now a French engaged; repulsed after severe contlicts; French question of existence. . . . We prefer our present sufloss about 2000; German, about 600 ..

7 Oct.

ferings, our perils, and our sacrifices to the conseEstimated number of French prisoners in Germany, 3577 quences of the inflexible and cruel ambition of our enoflicers and 123.700 men..

.8 Oct.

emy. France needed, perhaps, to pass through a suNeu-Breisach bombarded...

..8 Oct.

64

preme trial-she will issue from it transtigured," Breton volunteers organizing by M. Cathelineau; volun.

18 Oct. teers in the west organizing by gen. Charette (from Asserted repulse of the Germans at Fort Issy before Rome).

......8 Oct.
Paris..

..18 Oct. German attack on St. Quentin vigorously repulsed.8 Oct. Despatch from earl Granville to count Bismarck urging Long despatch from count Bernstorff to earl Granville, the negotiations for peace on terms lenient to the complaining of the British supplying arms to France,

French.

...20 Oct. 8 Oct. Conclusive reply of earl Granville to count Bernstorff's M. Thiers again at Vienna. ...

.8 Oct.
charge of breach of neutrality...

......21 Oct. Garibaldi arrives at Tours; enthusiastically received; Vigorous sortie from Mont Valérien against Versailles; reviews the national guard at Tours..

.9 Oct.

an engagement at Malmaison; the French retire after Direct mediation declined by Russia, Great Britain, and three hours' fighting, losing about 400 killed and Spain

..10 Oct.

wounded and 100 prisoners; German loss about 230 Prussian circular to the European powers regretting the

killed and wounded...

..21 Oct. obstinate resistance of the French government to Chartres occupied by the Germans under Wittich, peace, and foretelling the consequences-social disor

21 Oct. ganization and much starvation..

10 Oct.

Intervention of the British government (supported by Ablis, near Paris, burned for alleged treachery (killing the neutral powers) to obtain an armistice for the sleeping soldiers)

.10 Oct.
election of a national assembly

21 Oct. M. Gambetta escapes from Paris by a balloon, 7 Oct.; in Vesoul occupied by the Germans.

.21 Oct. his proclamation at Tours, states that Paris possesses Many deserters from Metz, .

20-22 Oct. 560,000 troops; that cannon are cast daily, and that Schelestadt bombarded vigorously

22 Oct. women are making cartridges; he urges unanimous Engagement near Evreux

.22 Oct. devoted co-operation in carrying on the war... 10 Oct. Fighting at l'ouray, Cussey, etc., in the Vosges; French Part of the army of the Loire defeated at Arthenay, near * army of the cast" defeated.

.22 Oct. Orleans, by Bavarians under von der Tann; about German attack on Châtillon le Duc repulsed by gen. 2000 prisoners taken ....

10 Oct.
Cambriels

..22 Oct. Prussian attack on Cherizy repulsed..

..10 Oct. M. de Kératry assumes command of the army in BritFrench reply to Bismarck's circular on the negotiations,

tany

.23 Oct. 10 Oct. St. Quentin taken by the Germans after half an hour's About 20 villages burned, and 150 peasants shot for illicit cannonading, 21 Oct.; evacuated by them..... 23 Oct. Warfare

..up to 11 Oct. Reported failure of the suggestions concerning an armis. The French fleet appears off Heligoland.. 11 Oct.

tice, through Prussia demanding that France should 3000 national guard mobilized at Rouen

.11 Oct.
consent to a cession of territory..

. 24 Oct. Three first shots fired at Paris

11 Oct. Gambetta inforins the mayors of towns that resistance Orleans captured by gen. Von der Tann after nine hours' is more than ever the order of the day": .24 Oct.

fighting; the army of the Loire, defeated, retires be- Reported negotiations for the surrender of Metz. . 24 Oct. hind the Loire

11 Oct. Thiers undertakes the mission to obtain an arınistice, Stenay captured by a sortie from the French garrison of

about 24 Oct. Montmedy...

...11 Oct. Capitulation of Schelestadt (2400 prisoners and 120 guns Gen. Bourbäki accepts the command at Tours; gen. La taken)...

.24 Oct. Motte Rouge superseded in the command of the army A girl calling herself a successor of Jeanne d'Arc at of the Loire by gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines....12 Oct.

Tours

24 Oct. Battalions of Amazons said to be forming in Paris, 12 Oct. Marshal Bazaine surrenders Metz and his army, "con. Favorable intelligence from Paris by balloons received, quered by famine” (see Metz and France, Oct.-Dec.

12 Oct.
1873). .

27 Oct.

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The French defeated near Gray (Haute-Saône) by Von
Werder

.27 Oct. 1870 About 2000 sick and wounded of both nations in Versailles...

....27 Oct. Le Bourget, near Paris, recaptured by the French.28 Oct. A safe conduct given to M. Thiers to enter Paris for negotiation

28 Oct. Despatch from count Bismarck to earl Granville, ex:

pressing desire for the meeting of a French national assembly to consider terms of peace; but stating that

overtures must come from the French........28 Oct. Badenese troops defeated near Besançon; Prussian at

tack on Formerie on the Oise repulsed.. ..28 Oct. Gen. Von Moltke created a count on his 70th birthday,

28 Oct. Vigorous proclamation of Bourbaki to the French army of the north.

29 Oct. The crown-prince and prince Frederick Charles created field-marshals

29 Oct. Dijon captured after bombardment,

.29 Oct. The francs-tireurs defeated by the Würtembergers be. tween Montereau and Nangis..

.29 Oct. Estimated : 856,000 Germans in France; French prisoners in Germany, 223,000.

29 Oct. Le Bourget retaken by the Germans; heavy losses on

both sides; about 1200 French prisoners... ..30 Oct. Proclamation of Gambetta; accusing Bazaine of trea. son; the war to go on..

...30 Oct. M. Thiers enters Paris..

.30 Oct. Garibaldi defending Dôle (Jura) with about 7500 men,

31 Oct. M. Thiers receives powers from the French defence gov.

ernment to treat for an armistice, and has interviews with count Bismarck..

.31 Oct, and i Nov. Gen. Bourbaki attempting to form an army of the north near Lille.....

Oct.-Nov. Thionville invested.

...1 Nov, The francs-tireurs dispersed in several slight engagements between Colmar and Belfort..

2, 3 Nov. Letter from marshal Bazaine repelling the charge of treason..

,2 Nov. Count Bismarck oflers an armistice of 25 days for the

election of a French national assembly.. .3 Nov. Defeat of an attempted revolution in Paris (see France),

3 Nov. M. Favre declares to the national guard that the govern.

ment has sworn not to yield an inch of territory, and

will remain faithful to this engagement.... .3 Nov. Proclamation of Garibaldi to the army of the Vosges,

and appealing to other nations .......... about 3 Nov. “Campagne de 1870; par un Oficier attaché à l'état ma

jor general" (a pamphlet ascribed to the emperor), appears in the Daily Telegraph...

4 Nov. Failure of the negotiation, as count Bismarck will not

permit food to enter Paris during the armistice without any military equivalent; M. Thiers ordered to break off negotiation.

.6 Nov. Châteaudun recaptured by the French. ...6 Nov. The Prussian semi-official journal says, “The French

government having refused to listen to reason, the can. non will be resorted to for giving them a lesson,"

7 Nov. Bombardment of Thionville..

7 Nov. Circulars on the armistice negotiations-of M. Favre, 7 Nov. ; of count Bismarck

.8 Nov. The king's permission for the election of a French national assembly declined by the French government,

7 Nov. Orders that no one shall enter or quit Paris...... 7 Nov. A Prussian column repulsed in an attack on the army of the Loire at Marchenoir..

....7 Nov. Capitulation of Verdun..

..8 Nov. Seven persons captured in balloons from Paris, sent to German fortresses to be tried by court - martial,

8 Nov. The French fleet off Heligoland..

.8 Nov. German corps, under Manteuffel, advancing on Amiens and Rouen..

..8 Nov. Firm circular from M. Favre to French diplomatic representatives..

about 8 Nov. The Germans enter Montbéliard (Doubs). .....9 Nov. The Germans, under gen. Von der Tann, defeated be.

tween Coulmiers and Baccon, near Orleans, retire to Thoury.

.9 Nov. M. Thiers's report of the unsuccessful negotiations for an armistice.

.dated 9 Nov. Reported naval victory of the Prussian steamer Meteor

over the French steamer Bouret off Havana....9 Nov. Continued fighting; Orleans retaken by gen. D'Aurelle de

Paladines; French losses, 2000; German, about 700, and 2000 prisoners....

.10 Nov. Capitulation of Neu - Breisach; 6000 prisoners and 100 guns taken...

10 Nov. The nch repulsed near Montbeliard on the Swiss on tier..

10 Nov. Von der Tann's army reinforced by 30,000, now 70,000,

the grand-duke of Mecklenburg commander; the Loire

army about 150,000, but only 12,000 regulars..12 Nov. Bankers at Berlin aud Frankfort arrested for dealing in rouch war loan. ....

about 12 Nov. Dôle, near Dijon, occupied by the Germans...... 13 Nov.

Calm, truthful proclamation of gen. Trochu at Paris,

14 Nov. 1870 The armies in central France have been placed under

prince Frederick Charles and the grand duke of Meck. lenburg..

..14 Nov. Eleven French towns, 3653 guns, 155 mitrailleuses, near

ly 500,000 chassepots, about 90 eagles and standards, and nearly 4,000,0001. in money taken by the Germans,

up to 14 Nov. Montmédy completely invested..

..15 Nov. French sorties from Mézières repulsed, 15 Nov.; from Belfort repulsed....

.16 Nov. The grand-duke of Mecklenburg repulses the army of the Loire, near Dreux, which is captured by Von Treskow,

17 Nov. Successful French sortie from Mézières; 500 Germans said to be killed...

.17 Nov, Germans victorious in an engagement near Châteaudun; French claim the success

.18 Nov. Ricciotti Garibaldi said to have beaten 700 or 800 men at Châtillon........

...19 Nov. The national guard at Évreux repulse a German attack,

19 Nov. The German army under prince Frederick Charles and

the grand-duke of Mecklenburg (135,000) said to be re. treating towards Paris..

19 Nov. Paris engirdled with a second line of investment, 20 Nov. French attempt to release La Fère repulsed with heavy loss.

20 Nov. Several balloons from Paris captured..... about 20 Nov. French mobile guard defeated at Bretoncelles... 21 Nov. Bombardment of Thionville begun...

22 Nov. Ham occupied by the Prussians.

22 Nov. Prince Frederick Charles takes up a position near Orleans...

.24 Nov. Thionville in flames, capitulates with about 2000 prison.

.24 Nov. The Germans repulsed near Amiens and near Stagil,

24 Nov. La Fère surrenders, after two days' bombardment, with about 70 guns and 2000 men.

27 Nov. The Garibaldians defeated near Pasques (Côte d'Or) by Von Werder...

27 Nov. The French army of the north defeated by Mantenfel between Villers-Bretonneux and Soleur, near Amiens,

27 Nov. Amiens occupied by Von Goeben after a severe engagement....

.28 Nov. Severe engagement near Beaune la Rolande (Loiret) be.

tween part of the army of the Loire, under D'Aurelle de Paladines, and the Germans under Voigts. Rhetz; prince Frederick Charles arrives and turns the day; the French retire; heavy loss on both sides... 28 Nov. M. de Kératry resigns his command, accusing M. Gam.

betta of misconduct, 28 Nov.; Bourbaki appointed to command an army corps.

29 Nov. Fruitless endeavors of the army in Paris and the army of the Loire to unite...

29 Nov.4 Dec. Sorties from various parts of Paris repulsed with loss,

29 Nov. Great sortie of 120,000, under gens. Trochu and Du

crot. who cross the Marne; severest contlict between Champigny-sur-Marne, Brie-sur-Marne, and Villiers. sur-Marne; the French retain the taken possessions, but their advance is checked; great loss on both sides (chiefly Saxons and Würtembergers engaged)..30 Nov. The contest resumed at Avron; the Germans retake

Champigny and Brie; the French retreat.......2 Dec. The army of the Loire: Chanzy defeated by the grand

duke of Mecklenburg at Bazoche-des-Hautes, 2 Dec.; near Chevilly (the French report these engagements indecisive).....

...3 Dec. Prince Frederick Charles dislodges an encampment in the forest of Orleans.

..3 Dec. Ducrot bivouacs in the woods of Vincennes, 3 Dec.; he

issues a final order of the day, referring to two days' glorious battles..

.4 Dec. Gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines entrenched before Orleans;

proposes to retreat; the government opposes him, but yields; he determines to await the attack; part of his army defeated by prince Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Mecklenburg ; he retreats with about 100,000 men; Orleans threatened with bombardment; surrenders at midnight...

4 Dec. The Germans said to be in pursuit of D'Aurelle de Paladines (superseded)...

5 Dec. 10,000 prisoners, 77 guns, and 4 gunboats captured at Or. Jeans..

.5 Dec. Ronen occupied by Manteuffel.

..6 Dec. General order of the king of Prussia, “We enter on a

new phase of the war... Every attempt to break through the investment or relieve Paris has failed,"

6 Dec. The grand-duke of Mecklenburg attacks gen. Chanzy and

the army of the Loire near Beangency; indecisive, 7 Dec.; the Germans victorious, taking about 1100 pris. oners and 6 guns, and occupying Beaugency (severe loss to Germans).

..8 Dec. Gen. Manteuffel's army in two parts one occupies

Evreux, and marching to Cherbourg; the other marching to Harre.

...8 Dec.

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Conflict near Rouen; at first favorable to the French; Garibaldi appo'nted commander of the French irregulars, their loss 1200 killed and wounded; 300 prisoners,

12 Oct. 1870 30 Sept. 1870 Epinal captured by the Germans..

..12 Oct. Beauvais captured by the Germans.

.30 Sept. M. Arlès Dufour, of Lyons, appeals to the people of Great Mantes occupied by the Germans

.1 Oct.

Britain for active sympathy in endeavoring to obtain Circular from count Bismarck, disclaiming any inten

peace...

.12 Oct. tion of reducing France to a second-rate power. .1 Oct. Breteuil occupied by the Germans after a sharp resist. The American gen. Burnside visits M. Favre......1 Oct.

ance..

.12 Oct. Surgeon-major Wyatt writes that Paris is well provis- Slight engagements (termed victories by the French) be. ioned, and nearly inexpugnable

..1 Oct.
fore Paris.

13 Oct. M. Thiers's fruitless visit to Vienna, 23 Sept. ; to St. Pe. All the Vosges district in arms; no regular army; the tersburg, 27 Sept.; dined with the czar.. 2 Oct.

defiles occupied by the francs-tireurs.

13 Oct. The grand-duke of Mecklenburg at Rheims appointed Reported successful sorties ; Neu-Breisach completely governor of the country conquered in addition to Al

invested..

13 Oct. sace and Lorraine.

...2 Oct. Reported French success at Bagneux, near Paris-the M. Favre, in the name of the diplomatic body, requests

Prussians surprised

.13 Oct. count Bismarck to give notice before bombarding St. Cloud fired on by the French and burned. .13, 14 Oct. Paris, and to allow a weekly courier: the count declines Frequent sorties from Metz...

.about 14 Oct. both requests, but permits the passage of open letters; Sharp fight at Écouis; the French escape from being reported.

...3 Oct.
surrounded

14 Oct. Count Bismarck, in a circular, corrects Favre's report of Gambetta avnounces that the Germans are dislodged the negotiations, and accuses the French government

from their innermost belt round Paris..... 14 Oct. of keeping up the difficulties opposed to a conclusion M. Thiers arrives at Florence; Garibaldi at Besançon, of peace; reported... .3 Oct.

14 Oct. Épernon and La Ferté occupied by the Germans after Gen. Boyer, aide-de-camp to marshal Bazaine, arrives at an engagement

4 Oct.

Versailles and meets count Bismarck....... 14 Oct. The king's headquarters removed to Versailles; arrival Gen. Trochu's letter to the mayors of Paris on reorganizof the king, Bismarck, Moltke, and others. ......5 Oct.

ing the national guard and repressing the ardent deThe Germans victors in several small engagements,

sire for immediate action....

..15 Oct. 2-6 Oct.

Soissons surrenders after three weeks' investment and Gen. Treskow, in command of a German army, to ad

four days' bombardment..

.16 Oct. vance into southern France...

..5 Oct. French successes before Paris denied by the Prussians, Colmar occupied by the Prussians for an hour....5 Oct. who hold the same position as on 19 Sept......16 Oct. Battle at Thoury; gen. Reyan, with the advanced guard M. Gambetta proceeds to the army of the Vosges; gen.

of the army of the Loire under gen. La Motte Rouge, Bourbaki appointed commander of the army of the defeats the Germans between Chaussy and Thoury, north; gen. Maziire appointed to a command in the and captures some prisoners and cattle..... ..5 Oct.

army of the Loire...

17 Oct. Fictitious manifesto of the emperor Napoleon III., enti- Montdidier attacked by the Germans; 150 mobile guards tled "Les Idées de l'Empereur," advocating peace on

captured

.17 Oct. moderate terms, dated 26 Sept., published in the im. The emperor Napoleon declares that "there can be no perialist journal in London, La Situation, and in Daily prospect of peace, near or remote, on the basis of ced. News, 4 Oct.; disclaimed by the emperor.......6 Oct.

ing to Prussia a single foot of French territory; and M. Thiers's mission to foreign courts reported to be quite no government in France can attach its signature to abortive..

..6 Oct.

such a treaty and remain in power a single day,” Part of the army of Lyons, under gen. Dupré, defeated

17 Oct. by the Badenese under gen. Von Gegenfeld near St. 4000 French attacked and defeated near Chateaudun Rémy; French loss about 1500, and 660 prisoners; Ger

after ten hours' fighting, and the barricaded town man loss about 430..

6 Oct.
stormed

.18 Oct. Gen. Burnside leaves Paris in order to meet count Bis- Circular of Jules Favre asserting that Prussia " coldly marck..

.7 Oct.

and systematically pursues her task of annihilating us. Great sortie from Metz; the Germans surprised; 40,000

France has now no illusions left. For her it is now a French engaged; repulsed after severe conflicts; French question of existence. . . . We prefer our present sutloss about 2000; German, abont 600.

7 Oct.

ferings, our perils, and our sacrifices to the conseEstimated number of French prisoners in Germany, 3577

quences of the inflexible and cruel ambition of our enofficers and 123,700 men...

.8 Oct.

emy.

France needed, perhaps, to pass through a suNeu-Breisach bombarded..

.8 Oct.

preme trial-she will issue from it traustigured,” Breton volunteers organizing by M. Cathelineau; volun.

18 Oct. teers in the west organizing by gen. Charette (from Asserted repulse of the Germans at Fort Issy before Rome)

...8 Oct.
Paris...

18 Oct. German attack on St. Quentin vigorously repulsed.8 Oct. Despatch from carl Granville to count Bismarck urging Long despatch from count Bernstorff to earl Granville,

the negotiations for peace on terms lenient to the complaining of the British supplying arms to France,

French..

.20 Oct. 8 Oct.

Conclusive reply of carl Granville to count Bernstorff's M. Thiers again at Vienna....

.8 Oct.
charge of breach of neutrality.

21 Oct. Garibaldi arrives at Tours; enthusiastically received; Vigorous sortie from Mont l'alerien against Versailles; reviews the national guard at Tours..

.9 Oct.

an engagement at Malmaison; the French retire after Direct mediation declined by Russia, Great Britain, and three hours' fighting, losing about 400 killed and Spain.

10 Oct.

wounded and 100 prisoners; German loss about 230 Prussian circular to the European powers regretting the

killed and wounded.

1.21 Oct. obstinate resistance of the French government to Chartres occupied by the Germans under Wittich, peace, and foretelling the consequences--social disor

21 Oct. ganization and much starvation..

..10 Oct.

Intervention of the British government (supported by Ablis, near Paris, burned for alleged treachery (killing the neutral powers) to obtain an armistice for the sleeping soldiers).

10 Oct.
election of a national assembly

21 Oct. M. Gambetta escapes from Paris by a balloon, 7 Oct. ; in Vesoul occupied by the Germans.

.21 Oct. his proclamation at Tours, states that Paris possesses Many deserters from Metz...

20-22 Oct. 560,000 troops; that cannon are cast daily, and that Schelestadt bombarded vigorously

22 Oct. women are making cartridges; he urges unanimous Engagement near Evreux

.22 Oct. devoted co-operation in carrying on the war... 10 Oct. Fighting at Vouray. Cussey, etc., in the Vosges; French Part of the army of the Loire defeated at Arthenay, near

"army of the east" defeated..

22 Oct. Orleans, by Bavarians under von der Tann; about German attack on Châtillon le Duc repulsed by gen. 2000 prisoners taken

10 Oct.
Cambriels

22 Oct. Prussian attack on Cherizy repulsed.

..10 Oct. M. de Kératry assumes command of the army in BritFrench reply to Bismarck's circular on the negotiations,

tany

23 Oct. 10 Oct. St. Quentin taken by the Germans after half an hour's About 20 villages burned, and 150 peasants shot for illicit cannonading, 21 Oct.; evacuated by them..... 23 Oct. warfare...

up to 11 Oct. Reported failure of the suggestions concerning an armis. The French fleet appears of Heligoland..

11 Oct.

tice, through Prussia demanding that France should 3000 national guard mobilized at Rouen

11 Oct.
consent to a cession of territory.

24 Oct. Three first shots fired at Paris

.11 Oct. Gambetta informs the mayors of towns that“ resistance Orleans captured by gen. Von der Tann after nine hours' is more than ever the order of the day", 24 Oct.

fighting; the army of the Loire, defeated, retires be- Reported negotiations for the surrender of Metz. . 24 Oct. hind the Loire.

....11 Oct. Thiers undertakes the mission to obtain an armistice, Stenay captured by a sortie from the French garrison of

about 24 Oct. Montmédy...

...11 Oct. Capitulation of Schelestadt (2400 prisoners and 120 guns Gen. Bourbaki accepts the command at Tours; gen. La taken).

.24 (ct. Motte Rouge superseded in the command of the army A girl calling herself a successor of Jeanne d'Arc at of the Loire by gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines....12 Oct.

Tours

24 Oct. Battalions of Amazons said to be forming in Paris, 12 Oct. Marshal Bazaine surrenders Metz and his army, "con. Favorable intelligence from Paris by balloons received, quered by famine” (see Metz and France, Oct-Dec.

12 Oct.
1873)..

..27 Oct.

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