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The meetings, publications, and petitions of these bodies then to imprisonment for fraudulent deception, 15 July,

1870. were treated respectfully until the development of cotton- Dr. Tanner, at New York, fasted forty days and nights, drinkplanting in the early part of the nineteenth century raised ing a little water occasionally ; losing 36 lbs. from 157} lbs. : the value of slaves. Then began the struggle between noon 28 June to noon 7 Aug. 1880; see Fasts, Teetotalers. the antislavery and proslavery interest, which culmi- Mr. Griscom, of Chicago, said to have fasted thirty-six days,

5 July, 1881. nated in the emancipation proclamation of 1 Jan. 1863. By the 13th article of amendment to the coustitution,

Abstinents, an ascetic sect in Gaul and Spain: adopted by congress, 31 Jan. 1865, and proclaimed, after about 288. ratification by the requisite number of state legislatures, Abydos, see Hellespont. The tablet of Abydos, ded18 Dec. 1865, slavery was forever prohibited within the icated to the memory of his ancestors by Pharaoh RameUnited States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” ses II. (1311-1245 B.C.), was bought for the British MuAborigines (without origin), a name given to the seum,

1837. earliest known inhabitants of Italy (whence came the Abyssinia, the country of the Habese, N. E. Africa. Latini); now applied to the original inhabitants of any Its ancient history is very uncertain. The kingdom of country:– The Aborigines Protection Society was estab- the Auxumitæ (its chief town Auxume) flourished in lished in 1838. Reports on the condition of the abori- the first and second centuries after Christ. The religgines in the British colonies were presented to parlia- ion of the Abyssinians is a corrupt form of the Christiment in 1834 and 1837. The society was active in 1874. anity introduced about 329 by Frumentius. About 960,

Aboukir (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. In the Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a great part of the bay Nelson defeated the French fleet, 1 Aug. 1798; see

royal family, and reigned forty years. The young king Nile. A Turkish army of 15,000 was defeated here by escaped; and the royal house was restored in 1268 in the 5000 French under Bonaparte, 25 July, 1799. A British person of his descendant Icon Amlac. In the middle expedition to Egypt under general sir Ralph Abercrom- ages it was said to be ruled by Prester John, or Prete by landed here, and Aboukir surrendered to them after Janni. The Portuguese missions, commenced in the fif

teenth an obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, 8

century, after much struggling against opposition, March, 1801; see Alexandria,

were expelled about 1633. The encroachments of the

Gallas and intestine disorders soon after broke up the emAbraham, ERA OF, used by Eusebius; so called pire into petty governments. From the visits of James from the patriarch Abraham, who died 1822 B.C. The Bruce, 1768-73; Henry Salt, 1809-10; Edward Rüppel, era began 1 Oct. 2016 B.C. To reduce this era to the 1834-7; major Harris, 1841; Mansfield Parkyns, 1844-7, Christian, subtract 2015 years and three months.- much information respecting Abyssinia has been gained. Nicolas.

Several expeditions into Abyssinia have been organized Abrahamı, Heights of, near Quebec, Lower Cana- by the French government. The brothers Antoine and da. The French were defeated and Montcalm, their Arnauld Abbadie visited the country 1837-45. Abyscommander, killed here by general Wolfe, who fell in the sinia was divided into four provinces. In 1847 Ras Ali moment of victory, 13 Sept. 1759; see Quebec.

was ruler of Amhara; Ras Ubie of Tigré and Samien; Abrahamites, a sect holding the errors of Paulus, and Sahela Selassie of Shoa. Population between 3,000,was suppressed by Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch,

000 and 4,000,000. early in the ninth century. A deistical sect of this name Treaty of commerce with the king of Shoa concluded by

captain Harris..

16 Nov. 1841 was banished from Bohemia by Joseph II. in 1783.

Mr. Plowden (made British consul at Massowah, 1848) Abrantes (Portugal). By a treaty between France

concludes treaty with Ras Ali, ruler of Amhara, 2 Nov. 1849 and Portugal, signed here 29 Sept. 1801, the war was

Ras Ali deposed by his son-in-law Theodore, who is

crowned, and takes the title of negus, or king of kings, closed, and the French army withdrew; a money com

11 Feb. 1855 pensation having been agreed to, and territories in Gui- Protestant missionaries received, replacing Roman Cath

olics.... ana ceded to France.

Mr. Plowden (who had joined the party of Theodoro) killed Absalom's Rebellion and death (1024–23 B.c.) is by rebels, Feb.; his friend Bell killed soon after, when described 2 Sam. XV.-xix.

avenging him ; Theodore overcomes the rebels and

massacres about 150 prisoners as a sacrifice to their Absconding Debtors' Act, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

1860 Absentee Tax (4s. in the pound), levied in Ireland Captain C. D. Cameron appointed to succeed consul Plow:

.Nov. 1861 in 1715 on the incomes and pensions of absentees (long He arrived at Massowah 9 Feb., goes to Abyssinia, May; complained of), ceased in 1753. A tax of 2s, in the

received by Theodore, 7 Oct. ; is sent away with a let

ter for the queen, desiring alliance against the Turks; pound was proposed in vain by Mr. Flood in 1773 and

which arrived...

...12 Feb. 1863 by Mr. Molyneux in 1783.

It is decided that this letter is not to be answered; Cam

eron, ordered by earl Russell to remain at Massowah, Absolution. Till the third century, the consent

returns to Abyssinia.

June, of the congregation was necessary to absolution; but Rev. H. Stern, missionary, beaten and imprisoned for alsoon after the power was reserved to the bishop; and in cameron, and all British subjects and missionaries, im

leged intrusion upon Theodore...

... Oct. the twelfth century the form “I absolve thee ” had be

prisoned for pretended insults, 3 Jan. ; report of imcome general; see Holy Cross.

prisonment reached London, 7 May; prisoners sent to Abstinence. It is said that St. Anthony lived to Mr.Horinuzd Rassam, a Chaldee Christian, first assistant

Magdala, and chained like criminals. ..... Nov. 1864 the age of 105 on twelve ounces of bread and water daily, British political resident at Aden, sent on mission to and James the hermit to the age of 104; that St. Epi

Abyssinia; arrives at Massowah, 24 July; lieut. Priphanius lived to 115; Simeon the Stylite to 112; and Mr. Rassam having negotiated without effect for a year,

deaux and Dr. Blanc appointed to accompany him.... Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, to 185 years of Mr. Gifford Palgrave is appointed by earl Russell to go to age.-Spottiswood.

Abyssinia, July; but is stopped on the intelligence that

Theodore has invited Rassam to come to him. . 12 Aug. 1865 Cicely de Ridgway, said to have fasted forty days rather than Mr. Rassam, lieut. Prideaux, and Dr. Blanc arrive at Ma.

plead when charged with the murder of her husband, John; temma from Massowah, 21 Nov. 1865; and are well re. discharged as miraculously saved, 1347.

ceived by Theodore.

29 Jan, 1866 Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, was Prisoners released, 12 March; all seized and imprisoned said to have lived twenty months without food ; but her

about 13 April, imposturo was detected by Dr. A. Henderson, Nov. 1808. Mr. Flad sent to England by Theodore to obtain British A man named Cavanagh at Newry, in Ireland, was reported workmen, April; arrives, July; introduced to queen

to have lived two years without meat or drink, Aug. 140. Victoria, and receives from her an autograph letter, His imposture was discovered in England, where he was dated. imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841.

Mr. Flad returned with workmen to Massowah, 29 Oct.; Sarahi Jacobs, the Welslı fasting girl, aged thirteen, said by Theodore received the queen's letter.... about 19 Dec.

her father to have lived for more than a year without food, Lord Stanley's ultimatum to Theodore, demanding release after being closely watched for a week, died from exhaus. of the captives in three months (not received), sent tion 17 Dec. 1869. Her parents were sentenced at Carmar.

16 April, 1967


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Mr. Flad received by the king; and made to join his Academical Study, see Education, 1872. family in prison...

. May, 1867 Preparations for war; sir Robert Napier appointed com

Academies. Academia was a shady grove withmander of an expedition; pioneer force sails from Bom- out the walls of Athens (bequeathed by Academus for bay....

...14 Sept. A formal letter from the British government sent to

gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosoTheodore (never arrived)..

.9 Sept.

phy, and his followers took the title of Academics, 378 Advanced brigade (3500) sail from Bombay, 7, 8 Oct.; laud B.C. Stanley.-- Rome had no academies.* --Ptolemy Soat Zoulla ..

21 Oct.

ter is said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, Napier's proclamation issued in Abyssinia.

...... 26 Oct. Captives at Magdala reported well..

11 Nov.

about 314 B.C. Abderahman I., caliph of Spain, founded Report that the Gallas have joined the revolt against academies about A.D. 773. Theodosius the Younger, Theodore...

.25 Nov. Charlemagne, and Alfred are also named as founders of The British parliament meets; the queen's speech an

academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies; and nounces the war, 19 Nov. ; 2,000,0001. voted.26, 27 Nov. Third ultimatum sent by sir R. Napier; intercepted by a Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in Milan. In

rebel chief and given to Mr. Rassam, who suppressed it 1874 Girolamo Ponti, of Milan, bequeathed about 35,0001. as likely to endanger the lives of the captives..


to the academies of science of London, Paris, and Vienna. Arrival of sir R. Napier at Annesley bay.

. 4 Jan. The captives relieved of their chains... .29 March,

PRINCIPAL ACADEMIES. Sir R. Napier arrives below Magdala.

.2 April, Theodore massacres about 300 native prisoners. .9 April,

American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780. Battle of Arogee; Theodore's troops attack the British

American Philosophic Society, 1743; Natural Science, Phila.,

1818. first brigade; defeated with much slaughter (Good Friday)..

..10 April,

Amiens, 1750.
Theodore requests Mr. Rassam to mediate; lieut. Prideaux Ancona, of the Caglinosi, 1642.

sent to sir R. Napier returns with a letter; Theodore Angers, Belles lettres, 1685.
receives it indignantly, and sends an insulting reply,

Basil, 1460 11 April,

Berlin, Royal, 1700; of Princes, 1703; Architecture, 1799. Theodore sends a letter of apology offering a present of

Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687; Mathematics, 1090; Sciences and cattle; Mr. Rassam, understanding this present to have

Arts, 1712. been accepted, tells the king's agents; the European Bordeaux, Arts, Sciences, and Belles lettres, 1703. artisans and families sent to the British camp.12 April,

Brescia, of the Erranli, 1626. Part of the Abyssinian troops mutiny; Magdala bom.

Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682. barded and stormed; Theodore kills himself..13 April,

Brussels, Belles lettres, 1773. [" I fail to discover a single point of view from which it Caen, Belles-lettres, 1705. is possible to regard his removal with regret."- Sir R.

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, 1799. Napier...

18 June.)

Copenhagen, of Sciences, 1713. Magdala burned to the ground..

....17 April Cortona, Antiquities, 1726. Death of Theodore's queen

...10 May,

Dijon, 1710. Henry Dufton of the "Intelligence department” shot by

Dresden, Fine Arts, 1697. Shosho robbers.

28 May,

Dublin, Arts, 1742; Painting, Sculpture, etc., 1823. Immediate return of the troops ;- all had embarked Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754.

2 June,

Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612. Troops arriv at Plymouth, 21 June; sir R. Napier at

Florence, Belles lettres, 1272; Della Crusca (now united with Dover..

.2 July,

the Florentine, under that name), 1582; Del Cimento, 1657 (Cattle said to have been employed in the expedition: 45 (by card. de' Medici); Antiquities, 1807.

elephants, 7417 camels, 12.920 mules and ponies, 7033 Geneva, Medical, 1715.
bullocks, 827 donkeys. Natives largely employed in Genoa, Painting, etc., 1751; Sciences, 1783.
the transport service.)

Germany, Naturæ Curiosi, now Leopoldine, 1662.
Theodore's son Alamayoú, aged 7, arrives at Plymouth, Göttingen, 1734-7.
14 July; presented to queen Victoria...

.16 July,

Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760.
Pension of 3501. to col. Cameron (he died 30 May, 1870); Irish Academy, Royal, Dublin, 1782.

50001, given to Mr. Rassam; 20001. to Dr. Blanc; 20001. Lisbon, History, 1720; Sciences, 1779.
to lieut. Prideaux; announced.

.23 Dec.

London, see Societies. Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1768; Prince Alamayoú sailed to India for education (returned

of Music, 1734-44; and 18:22. to England end of 1871)...

20 Jan. 1869 Lyons, Sciences, 1710; Physic and Mathematics added, 1758. Expenses of the war : 5,000,0001. voted 18 Dec. 1868; Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713; History, 1730; Painting and 3,300,0001. more voted...

4 March,

the Arts, 1753. (Total: 8,977,5001...

. Feb. 1880) Manheim, Sciences, 1755; Sculpture, 1775. Report of a commission on the expenses of the expedi. Mantua, the Vigilanli, Sciences, 1701. tion disclosed much waste, attributed to urgency and

Marseilles, Belles lettres, 1726. divided authority..

.. Aug. 1870 Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. War between Gobazye, king of Amhara, and Kassa, king Milan, Architecture, 1380; Sciences, 1719. of Tigré; Kassa victor..

.21 June, 1871 Montauban, 1714. Gobazye beaten and taken prisoner..

.11 July,

Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759; Sciences, 1779. Kassa proposes to be crowned emperor and negus of all Naples, Rossana, 1510 ; Mathematics, 1560; Sciences, 1695 ;

Abyssinia, 21 Nov.; punishes the Catholic missionaries Herculaneum, 1755.

for partisanship; and forms alliance with Egypt..July National Academy (American) of Sciences, 1863. Kassa crowned at Axom as Johanni II ......... 12 Jan. 1872 National Academy of Design, New York, 1828. Said to be ruling tyrannically..

.1873-4 New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. War with Egypt; the Khedive's troops enter Abyssinia; Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682.

the natives retire, but surprise and defeat the Egyp- Padua, for Poetry, 1613; Sciences, 1792.
tians at Kherad Iska (a massacre) and at Gonda Goud. Palermo, Medical, 1615.
di (a desperate fight)....

.. 16 Oct. 1875 Paris, Sorbonne, 1253; Painting, 1391; Music, 1543 and 1672; Abyssinians defeated in three days' conflict..17-19 Feb. 1876 French (by Richelieu), 16:35; Fine Arts, 1648; Inscriptions Col. Gordon said to be negotiating peace for Egypt..June, 1877 et Belles-lettres (by Colbert), 1663; Sciences (by Colbert), King Johanni totally defeats Menelek, king of Shoa, 1666; Architecture, 1671; Surgery, 1731; Military, 1751;

middle of June,

Natural Philosophy, 1796. Menelek subunits, permitted to rule;-reported great bat. Parma, the Innominati, 1550. tle; Menelek said to be killed.

......17 Sept. Perousa, Insensati, 1561; Filigirti, 1574. Col. Gordon concludes peace; Abyssinia to have a port Philadelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1818.

Oct. 1879 Portsmouth, Naval, 1722; enlarged, 1806. Prince Alamayoú dies at Leeds, 14 Nov., buried at Wind- Rome, Umoristi, 1611; Fantascici, 1625; Infecondi, 1653; Paint. sor...

ing, 1665; Arcadi, 1690; English, 1752; Lincei, about 1600; King Jobanni, said to have been killed in battle, suc

Nuori Lincei, 1847. ceeded by his son Michael (?)..... ...... April, 1881 Rouen, Science and Art, 1737.

Soissons, 1675. Abyssinian Era is reckoned from the creation, St. Petersburg, Sciences, 1725; Military, 1732; the School of which the Abyssinians place in the 5493d year B.C., on

Arts, 1764.

Stockholm, of Science, 1741; Belles-lettres, 1753; Agriculture, 29 Aug. old style; their dates consequently exceed ours

1781; Royal Swedish, 1786. by 5192 years, 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian time to Toulon, Military, 1692. the Julian year, subtract 5492 years, 125 day's.

Toulouse, Floral Gaines (Jeux Floraux), 1323; Scienco, In

seriptions, and Blles-leltres, 1782. Acacians. 1. Followers of Acacius, bishop of Cæs- Turin, Sciences, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778. area, in the fourth century, who held peculiar doctrines Turkey, Military School. 1775. respecting the nature of Christ. 2. Partisans of Acacius, United States American Institute of Instruction, 1830; Amer. patriarch of Constantinople, promoter of the Henoticon

* Cicero termed his villa “Academia," and here composed (which see), 482-4.


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ican Association for the Advancement of Education, 1819; | first used by the French in the reign of Louis XIII. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1845;

(about 1610). Association of American Geologists, 1840. Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720.

Accession, The, i.e. that of the House of HanoVenice, Medical, etc., 1701.

ver to the throne of Great Britain, in the person of Verona, Music, 1543; Sciences, 1780. Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705; Surgery, 1783; Oriental, George I., elector of Hanover, son of Sophia, daughter

of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. He succeeded, 1 Warsaw, Languages and History, 1753.

Aug. 1714, by virtue of the act of settlement passed in Washington, United States, America, 1863.

the reign of William III., 12 June, 1702, which limited Academy. An educational institution, in grade be- the succession to his mother (as a Protestant) in the tween a school and a college. Among the most impor- event of queen Anne dying without issue. tant in the United States are: the Free Academy of Accessories TO CRIMES. The law respecting New York, established 1851; Phillips Academy of Ando- them consolidated and amended in 1861. ver, Mass., 1780; Phillips Academy, Exeter, 1781; Gro

Accidents, see under Coal, Fires, Railways, etc. ton (now Lawrence) Academy, 1815; Boston Latin School, 1635; Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic In- For compensation for accidents, see Cumpbell's Act and stitute, 1854.

Passengers. In 1865 it was computed that, in one year,

about 250 persons are killed, and 1200 injured, in the Academy, Military. A special school for the in- streets of London ; 231 were killed in 1875; 237 killed, struction of youth in military or naval science and art. 3185 injured, 1 Jan. 1878-31 Jan. 1879; 136 killed in Such are, for instance:

1879. Addiscombe, East India Company.


Accident Relief Society, London, established 1836. Alabama, Military.

Society for Preventing Street Accidents and Dangerous Driv. Annapolis, Md., Naval.

ing, formed in 1879; met at the Mansion House, London, 30 Brest, Military


Jan. 1880; wound up, 1 July, 1881. Kentucky, Military

.1846 Lexington, Va., Military University of Chicago, Military.

1856, 9716 1862, 9005 1868, 11,033 1874, 11,783 Louisiana, Military

1857, 8930 1863, 9952 1869, 10,725 1875, 12,254 Lehigh University, Pa., Military.


1858, 8947 1864, 10,997 1870, 10,906 1876, 11,681 North Carolina, Military.


1859, 9241 1865, 11,397 1871, 11,316 1877, 11.194 Norwich, Vl., Military


1860, 9225 1866, 11,262 1872, 11, 435 1878, 12, 109 Portsmouth, England, Naval.

1722 1861, 9213 1867, 11, 172 1873, 11,284 1879, 10,787 St. Cyr, Military. St. Petersburg, Military.


Acclimatization of ANIMALS. This has been Sandhurst, Military.

.1812 prosecuted with great vigor since the establishment of Toulon, Military.

.1682 the Zoological Society of London in 1829, and of the Turin, Military. Vincennes, Military


Société d'Acclimatation in Paris. Numbers of European West Point, Military*.

.1802 animals have been naturalized in Australia; the camel Woolwich, Artillery and Engineering.

1761 has been conveyed to Brazil (1859); alpacas are bred at Acadia, see Nova Scotia.

Paris; and ostriches in Italy (1859). On 6 Oct. 1860, Acanthus, the foliage forming the volutes of the the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, was opened as a zooCorinthian capital, ascribed to Callimachus, about 540 B.C.

logical garden, containing only acclimatized animals.

An English acclimatization society was founded 10 June, Acapulco, Mexico. A Spanish galleon, from Aca- 1860, by hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. pulco, laden with gold and precious wares (estimated at F. Buckland, etc., and the prince of Wales became presabove 1,000,000/. sterling), taken by commodore Anson, ident in April, 1865. It was not successfull. An accliwho had previously acquired booty in his voyage amount- matizing garden was established at Melbourne, Ausing to 600,0001., June, 1743. He arrived at Spithead in tralia, in Feb. 1861, and efforts made to naturalize Eug. the Centurion, having circumnavigated the globe, 15 lish birds, fishes, etc. June, 1744.

Accoltellatori (gladiators), secret assassins, at Acarnania, N. Greece. The people became prom- Ravenna and other places in Italy, 1874. inent in the Peloponnesian war, having invited the help of the Athenians against the Ambracians, 432 B.C. The

Accordion, a small free-reed wind-instrument with Acarnanians were subdued by the Lacedæmonians in keys, invented at Vienna by Damian about 1829, and 390 ; they took part with Macedon against the Romans soon after introduced into England. in 200, by whom they were defeated in 197, and subju

Accountant-General in CHANCERY, etc., an ofgated in 145.

fice instituted in 1726, and abolished by an act passed 6

In 1841, the office of accountant-general of Accadians, a name now given to the primitive in- Aug. 1872. habitants of Babylon. The rev. A. H. Sayce (1877) con- the court of exchequer was abolished, and the duties siders them to have been the earliest civilizers of East- transferred to the accountant in chancery. ern Asia, and the source of the philosophy and arts of Accountants' Institute, established at a meetthe Assyrians and Phænicians, and hence of Greece. ing, 30 July, 1870; the Accountants' Society in 1872. Their libraries are said to have existed seventeen centu- Five societies were incorporated as “ The Chartered ries B.C.

Institute of Accountants of England and Wales” in

1880. Accents were first introduced in the Greek language by Aristophanes of Byzantium, a granımarian and critic Accusers. By occult writers, such as Agrippa, acwho taught at Alexandria about 264 B.C. Accents were cusers are the eighth order of devils, whose chief is

called Asteroth, or Spy In Rer. xii. 10, the devil is * "This admirable institution has supplied the nation with called “the accuser of the brethren." False accusers 2200 accomplished officers, of which any army might well be were to be hanged, by 24 leury VI. 1446; and burned proud; les filled every arm of the service with talent, atlicien in the face with an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1515.Stow. cy, and integrity; has materially aided in successfully conducting three great wars; has constructed and armed our for- Aceldama, a field said to have been the one bought titications, improved our harbors, lakes, and rivers, defined with the thirty pieces of silver given to Judas Iscariot our boundaries, surveyed and lighted our coasts, and explored the length and breadth of our land; has given to our militia for betraying Christ, is still shown to travellers. Matt. and volunteers large numbers of valuable officers, and to our xxvii, 8; Acts i. 19.-This name was given to an estate colleges able presidents and professors; has furnished distin purchased by judge Jeffreys after the “ bloody assizes" guished civil engineers, who have bound our territory together with a network of railways and cinals; ... and through

in 1685. the contributions and text books of its graduates has greatly elevated the soient fic standard of most of the educational

Acephali (Greek a, no; kepalń, head), a term apinstitutions throughout our country, and even extended its plied to certain sects who resisted their bishops and met influence abro..d.-G. W. Cullom.

privately, about 150; and since to levellers,

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Acetylene, a luminous hydrocarbon gas resembling | have been discovered through the advance of organic coal gas, discovered by Berthelot, and made known in chemistry.-Watts. 1862.

Acolytes, an inferior order of clergy in the Latin Achaia (N. Peloponnesus), Greece, said to have been church, unknown to the Greek church for four hundred settled by Achæus, the son of Xuthus, about 1330 B.C. (?). years after Christ. The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the

Acoustics (from Greek árouw, I hear), the science Ætolians until about 284 B.C. The Achæi, descendants of sound, so named by Sauveur in the 17th century: of Achæus, originally inhabited the neighborhood of the formation of sound in the air by the vibrations of Argos; but when the Heraclidæ drove them thence the atmosphere, strings, etc., was explained by Pythagthey retired among the Ionians, expelled the natives, oras about 500 B.C., and by Aristotle, 330 B.C.; see Teleand seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pellene, Ægira, Ægi-phone, Microphone, Megaphone. um, Bura, Tritæa, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, Olenos, Helice, Patræ, Dyme, and Pharæ, forming the ACHÆAs The speaking trumpet said to have been used by Alexander

the Great, 335 B.C. LEAGUE.

Galileo's discoveries, about A. D. 1600. Achaia invaded by Epaminondas.

His theorem of the harmonic curve demonstrated by Dr. The ACHÆAN LEAGUE revived by four cities about 280.

Brook Taylor in 1714; further perfected by D'Alembert, Euand by others..

275, 274

ler, Bernouilli, and La Grange, at various periods of the Aratus made prator.


eighteenth century. The league joined by Corinth (captured 243), Megara,

Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the striking of 212-228

tbe teeth of brass wheels, 1681. Supported by Athens and Antigonus Doson

Sauveur determined the number of vibrations belonging to a The Achæans defeated at Ladocea, by the Spartans, un.

given note, about 1700. der Cleomenes 1II., 226; totally defeat them at Sellasia 221 Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second by Casscndi; The Social war begun; battle of Caphyæ in Arcadia;

1172 feet by Cassini, Römer, and others; 968 feet by NewAratus defeated

ton; 1090 feet, at the temperature of 32° Fahrenheit. by The Peloponnesus ravaged by the Ætolians.

Tyndall. The velocity increases with the rise of temperaPeace of Naupactus. Aratus poisoned at Ægium.

Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent science) pubPhilopoemen, Jeader of the league, defeats the Spartan

lished his important discoveries on the figures produced in tyrant Machanidas.


layers of sand by harmonic chords, etc., in 1787, and since. Alliance of the league with the Romans.


Cagniard-Latour, invented the Sirène (which see), 1819. Philopomen defeated by Nabis in a naval battle.


Savart determined the range of the perception of the human All the Peloponnesus joins the league..


ear to be from 7 to 24,060 vibrations a second, 1830. War with Messene : Philopæmen made prisoner and

Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajous, Helmholtz, Tyndall, and slain..

others, in the present century, 183

have greatly increased our The Achaeans overrun Messenia with fire and sword. 182

knowledge of acoustics. The Romans enter Achaia, and carry off numbers, in

Over-tones, harmonies, well invest gated by Helmholtz; 19cluding Polybius the historian..


der-tones by Auerbach, 1878. War with Rome, 150; Metellus enters Greece.

147 Tyndall's experiments of the South Foreland on sog signals The Achæans defeated by Mummius at Leucopetra, 147;

and gun-cotton demonstrated that the transmission of sound the league dissolved; Corinth taken; Greece subjected

is checked by the non-bomogeneity of the air, independentto Rome, and named the province of Achaia. .


ly of fog and rain, July, 1873. Achaia made a Latin principality by William of Cham. A.D.

The results of Tyudall's experiments showed that the paraplitte..


bolic-muzzle gun with gun-cotton, and that of sir Richard Obtained by Geoffrey Villehardouin, 1210; by Geoffrey II, 1218

Collinson's gun-cotton rocket, are very effective fog signals. By his brother William, 1246; who conquers the Moors,

Fine-grain gunpowder with howitzers is the best sound. 1248; makes war with the emperor Michael, 1259; and

producer; pebble powder the worst, 1874-7. gains three fortresses.


Sound produced by electricity, light, and from radiant heat, Succeeded by Isabella, 1277; who marries Florenz of

see Telephone and Photophone, 1881. Hainault,

1291 Their daughter Maud, princess, 1311; thrice married;

Acre, a land measure, formerly of uncertain quantiforcibly married to John de Gravina, and dies in pris. ty, and differing in various parts of the country, was re

1324 duced to a standard by Edward I., about 1305. In 1824 Achaia, a fief of Naples.


the standard acre was ordered by statute to contain 4840 Conquered by the Turks..

... about 1540

square yards. Acheen, capital of a kingdom N.W. of Sumatra, was visited by the Portuguese about 1509. Factories by the Saracens in 638 ; by the crusaders under Baldwin

Acre, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken were set up here by the Dutch, 1596; by the English, I. in 1104; by Saladin in 1187; and again by Richard I. 1602; by ihe French, 1621. For the war with the and other crusaders, 12 July, 1191, after a siege of 2 Dutch, see Sumatra.

years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, Achonry, Sligo (N. Ireland), a bishopric founded 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. It was then named by St. Finian, who erected the church of Achad, or St. Jean d'Acre. It was retaken by the Saracens in Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on his disciple 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished, and the nuns, Nathy (Dathy, or David), the first bishop. The see, who had mangled their faces to preserve their chastity, held with Killala, since 1612, was united with Tuam in were put to death. Acre was gallantly defended by 1834.

Djezzar Pacha against Bonaparte, till relieved by sir SidAchromatic Telescopes, in which color is got ney Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, rid of, were invented by John Dollond, and described in between 16 March and 20 May, 1799, w en Bonaparte Phil. Truns, of the Royal Society, London, 1753-8.

retreated. Acre, as a Turkish pachalic, was seized 27

May, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. On Acids (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are gener- 3 Nov. 1840, it was stormed by the allied fleet umder sir ally soluble in water, redden organic blues, decompose Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a carbonates, and destroy the properties of alkalies, form- few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2000 in killed ing alkaline salts. The number of acids was increased and wounded, and 3000 prisoners, while the British liad by the Arabs; Geber (8th century) knew nitric acid and but 12 killed and 42 wounded; see Syria and Turkey. sulphuric acid. Theories of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher (1669), Lemery (1675), and rock. Near it stood the temple of Minerva, the Parthe

Acropolis, the ancient citadel of Athens, built on a Stahl (1723). After the discovery of oxygen by Priest

which see.

Other cities bad similar fortresses, ley, 1 Aug. 1774, Lavoisier (1778) concluded that oxygen was a constituent of all acids ; but about 1810 Davy,

Acrostic, a poem in which the first or last letters Gay-Lussac, and others proved the existence of acids of each line, read downwards, form a word, is said to have free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong proposed the binary been invented by Porphyrius Optalianus in the fourth or hydrogen theory of acids, and in 1837 Liebig applied century. Double acrostics became very popular in 1867. the theories of Davy and Dulong to explain the consti- Acs, or Acz (Hungary). The Hungarians under tution of several organic acids. Oxygen acids were Görgey were defeated here by the Austrians and Rustermed anhydrides by Gerhardt (died 1856). Many acids sians on 2 and 10 July, 1819.


Act oF SETTLEMENT, etc., see Accession, Succession, New Index to acts 1235–1874, published 1876. Supremacy, and Uniformily Acts.

Publication of the revised edition of the statutes (1325–1868),

15 volumes published, 1870-8. Acta Diurna, see Newspapers.

Report of select committee on acts of parliament, published

July, 1875. Acta Sanctorum (" acts of the saints "), a work The greatest number of acts passed in any one year since 1800 begun by the Jesuits. The first volume appeared in was 570, in 1846 (the railway year); 402 were local and per1643: the publication was interrupted in 1794, when 54

sonal, 51 private, and 117 public acts. In 1841, only 13 were

passed (the lowest number), of which two were private. In volumes, bringing the work down to 15 Oct., had been

three instances only, the annual number was under a hun. published. The work was resumed by the Jesuits in dred. The average number of the first ten years of the 1837, and 6 more volumes had been published in 1867. present century was 132 public acts. in the ten years endThe writers have been named Bollundists, from John

ing 1850, the average number of acts, of public interest, was

112. Bolland, who published the first two volumes.

The number of public general acts passed in 1851 was 106; in Actinometer, an instrument to measure the heat

1852, 88; in 1853, 137; in 1854, 125; in 1855, 134; in 1856,

120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 109; in 1859, 101; in 1860, 154; in ing power of the solar rays, invented by sir John F.

1861, 134; in 1862, 114; in 1863, 125; in 1864, 121; in 1865, Herschel, and described by him in 1825; see Sun.

127; in 1866, 122; in 1867, 146; in 1869, 130; in 1869, 117;

in 1870, 112; in 1871, 117; in 1872, 98; in 1873, 91; in 1874, Actium, a promontory of Acarnania, W. Greece,

96; in 1875, 96; in 1876, 81; in 1877, 69; in 1878, 79; in near which was fought, 2 Sept. 31 B.C., the battle be- 1819, 78; in 1880, 19 and 48 (new parliament). tween the fleet of Octavius Cæsar and that of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, which decided the fate of Antony, Institute of Actuaries, founded in 1848, publishes its pro

Actuary, ACTUARIUS, the Roman accountant. The 300 of his galleys going over to Cæsar. This victory ceedings in the Assurance Magazine. made Octavius master of the world, and the Roman empire is commonly dated 1 Jan. 30 B.C. (the Actian Era). Adam and Eve, ERA in the English Bible, The conqueror built Nicopolis (the city of victory), and 4004 B.C.; see Creation. instituted the Actian games.

Adamites, a sect said to have existed about 130, Acton-Burnel, or Shrewsbury. At the parliament and to have been quite naked in their religious assemheld here by Edward I., Oct. 1283, the “statute of mer- blies, asserting that if Adam had not sinned there would chants" against debtors was enacted.

have been no marriages. Their chief was named ProdiActon Murder, see Trials, 1880.

cus; they defied the elements, rejected prayer, and said Actresses appear to have been unknown to the an

it was not necessary to confess Christ. Eusebius. A cients , men or eunuchs performing the female parts. tury, under Tandemus or Tanchelin, whose followers,

sect with this name arose at Antwerp in the 12th cenCharles II. is said to have first encouraged the public 3000' soldiers and others, committed many crimes. It appearance of women on the stage in England in 1662; but Anne, queen of James I., had previously performed became extinct soon after the death of its chief; but anin a theatre at court.-Theat . Biog. Mrs. Colman was ly after in Savoy and Dauphiny. Picard, a Fleming,

other of the same kine', nimed Turlupins, appeared shortthe first English public actress; she performed the part revived this seci in Bohemia, about 1415; it was supof Ianthe in Davenant's "Siege of Rhodes,” in 1656.— Victor.

pressed by Ziska, 1420. Acts, in dramatic poetry, first employed by the

Adda, a river N. Italy, passed by Suwarrow after deRomans. Fire acts are mentioned by Horace (“ Art of feating the French, 27 April, 1799. Poetry ") as the rule (about 8 B.C.).

Addington Administration. Mr. Pitt, having Acts of the Apostles, supposed to have been engaged to procure Roman Catholic emancipation to prowritten by Luke in continuation of his Gospel. It ter- mote the union with Ireland, and being unable to do so minates A.D. 63.

as a minister, resigned 3 Feb. 1801. A new ministry was Acts of Parliament, or STATUTES, see Parlia- formed by Mr. Addington, March-July, 1801; after vament. The following are among the most celebrated rious changes it terminated about 10 May, 1804. early statutes:

Henry Addington,* first lord of the treasury and chancellor of

the exchequer. Provisions of Merton, 1235-0.

Lord Eldon, lord chancellor. Statute of Marlborough, 1267. of Bigamy. 1275-6.

Duke of Portland, lord president. of Gloucester, the earliest statute of which any record

Earl of Westmoreland, lord privy seal.

Lord Pelbam, home secretary.
exists, 6 Edw. I. 1278.
of Mortmain, 1279.

Mr. R. B. Jenkinson (Lord Hawkesbury, 1803; and earl of LivQuo Warranto, Oct. 1230.

erpool, 1803), foreign secretary.

Lord Hobart, colonial secretary. Statute of Merchants or Acton-Burnel, 1283.

Earl St. Vincent, first lord of admiralty. Statutes of Wales, 1284. of Winchester, Oct. 1284.

Earl of Chatham, ordnance. of Westminster, 1275, 1285, 1290.

Charles Yorke, secretary-at-roar.
Statute forbidding the levying of taxes without the consent

Viscount Lewisham, lord Auckland, etc.
of parliament, 1.297.
of Pramunire, 1306.

Addiscombe College, near Croydon, Surrey, Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 1483. purchased by the East India company in 1809, for edu

of the Realm, from Magna Charta to George I., print cation of candidates for scientific branches of the Indian

ed from the original records and MSS. in 12 vols.
folio, under the direction of commissioners ap army, was closed in 1861.

pointed in 1801, 1811-28.
The statutes passed during cach session were formerly print-

Addison's Disease, a dangerous affection of the ed annually in ito and svo, now in 8vo only. Abstracts are renal capsules, described by its discoverer, Dr. Thomas given in the Cabint Lawyer.

Addison, in 1855. Between 1923 and 1829, 1126 acts were wholly repealed, and 443 repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the consolidation

Additional Curates, the society for their emof the laws by vr. (afterwards sir Robert) Peel. or these ployment in populous places was founded in 1837 (High acts, 1:344 related to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ire. Church). land solely; and in 1856 many obsolete statutes (enacted between 1285 and 1777) were repealed.

Addled Parliament, see Parliament. By the Statite Law Revision Act of 1861. 770 arts were whorly repealed, and a great many partially. By similar acts Addressers, see Abhorrers. since passed, a great number of enactments have been repealed, commencing with the Provisions of Merton, 20 Hen.

Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, was ry III. (12:35-9), and end ng 1844. " Acts of parliament abbreviation bill," introduced by lord * Born 1757; became viscount Sidmouth, Jan. 1803; held Brougham 12 Feb., passed 10 June, 1850.

various offices afterwards, and died in 1844. His circular to 1410 arts (pissed belween 1689 and 1770) partially or wholly the lords lieutenants, dated 27 March, 1817, directing them to repealed. 1867.

adopt severe measures against the authors of blasphemous "Chronological Table and Index to the Statutes to the end of and seditious pamphlets, was greatly censured, and not car1969," published 1870.

ried into effect.


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