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The French defeated near Gray (Haute-Saône) by Von

.27 Oct. 1870 About 2000 sick and wounded of both nations in Versailles..

.27 Oct. Le Bourget, near Paris, recaptured by the French.28 Oct. A safe condact given to M. Thiers to enter Paris for negotiation

..28 Oct. Despatch from count Bismarck to earl Granville, ex

preasing desire for the meeting of a French national assembly to consider terms of peace; but stating that

overtures must come from the French. .28 Oct. Badenese troops defeated near Besançon; Prussian at

tack on Formerie on the Oise repulsed........28 Oct. Gen. Von Moltke created a count on his 70th birthday,

28 Oct. Vigorous proclamation of Bourbaki to the French army

of the north.. The crown-prince and prince Frederick Charles created field-marshals

29 Oct. Dijon captured after bombardment..

.......29 Oct. The francs-tireurs defeated by the Würtembergers between Montereau and Nangis..,

.29 Oct. Estinated: 856,000 Germans in France; French prisoners in Germany, 223,000....

29 Oct. Le Bourget retaken by the Germans; heavy losses on

both sides; about 1200 French prisoners.......30 Oct. Proclamation of Gambetta; accusing Bazaine of treason; the war to go on...

....30 Oct. M. Thiers enters Paris,

..30 Oct. Garibaldi defending Dóle (Jura) with about 7500 men,

31 Oct. M. Thiers receives powers from the French defence gov.

eroment to treat for an armistice, and has interviews with count Bismarck..

.31 Oct. and i Nov. Gen. Bourbaki attempting to form an army of the north near Lille.

.......Oct.-Nov. Thionville invested.

...1 Nov. The francs-tireurs dispersed in several slight engagements between Colmar and Belfort.

.2, 3 Nov. Letter from marshal Bazaine repelling the charge of treason...

.2 Nov. Count Bismarck offers an armistice of 25 days for the

election of a French national assembly.. .3 Nov. Defeat of an attempted revolution in Paris (see France),

3 Nov. 2. Favre declares to the national guard that the government has sworn not to yield an inch of territory, and

will remain faithful to this engagement..... .3 Nov. Proclamation of Garibaldi to the army of the Vosges, and appealing to other nations .

about 3 Nov. "Campagne de 1870; par un Oficier attaché à l'état ma

jor général” (a pamphlet ascribed to the emperor), appears in the Daily Telegraph..

.. 4 Nov. Failure of the negotiation, as count Bismarck will not

permit food to enter Paris during the armistice with.
out any military equivalent; M. Thiers ordered to
break off negotiation.

.6 Nov. Châteaudun recaptured by the French. ...6 Nov. The Prussian semi-official journal says, “The French

government having refused to listen to reason, the can-
non will be resorted to for giving them a lesson,"

7 Nov, Bombardment of Thionville...

7 Nov. Circulars on the armistice negotiations-of M. Favre, 7 Nov.; of count Bismarck..

...8 Nov. The king's permission for the election of a French national assembly declined by the French government,

7 Nov. Orders that no one shall enter or quit Paris...... 7 Nov. A Prussian column repulsed in an attack on the army of the Loire at Marchenoir.....

7 Nov. Capitulation of Verdan....

.8 Nov. Seven persons captured in balloons from Paris, sent to German fortresses to be tried by court - martial,

8 Nov. The French fleet of Heligoland..

8 Nov. German corps, under Manteuffel, advancing on Amiens and Rouen.

.8 Nov. Firm circular from M. Favre to French diplomatic representatives..

.about 8 Nov. The Germans enter Montbéliard (Doubs).........9 Nov. The Germans, under gen. Von der Tann, defeated be

tween Coulmiers and Baccon, near Orleans, retire to Thoury...

.9 Nov. M. Thiers's report of the unsuccessful negotiations for an armistice...

dated 9 Nov. Reported naval victory of the Prussian steamer Meteor

over the French steamer Bouvet off Havana....9 Nov. Continued fighting; Orleans retaken by gen. D'Aurelle de

Paladines; French losses, 2000; German, about 700,
apd 2000 prisoners..

10 Nov Capitulation of Neu - Breisach; 5000 prisoners and 100 guns taken...

10 Nov. The French repulsed near Montbéliard on the Swiss fron. tier.

10 Nov. Von der Tann's army reinforced by 30,000, now 70,000,

the grand-duke of Mecklenburg commander; the Loiro

army about 150,000, but only 12,000 regulars..12 Nov. Bankers at Berlin and Frankfort arrested for dealing in poncb war loan. .....

.... about 12 Nov. Döle, pear Dijon, occupied by the Germans...... 13 Nov.

Calm, truthful proclamation of gen. Trochu at Paris,

14 Nov. 1870 The armies in central France have been placed under

prince Frederick Charles and the grand duke of Mecklenburg..

..14 Nov. Eleven French towns, 3653 guns, 155 mitrailleuses, near

ly 500,000 chassepots, about 90 eagles and standards, and nearly 4,000,0001. in money taken by the Germans,

up to 14 Nov. Montmédy completely invested..

15 Nov. French sorties from Mézières repulsed, 15 Nov.; from Belfort repulsed. ,

.16 Nov. The grand-duke of Mecklenburg repulses the army of the Loire, near Dreux, which is captured by Von Treskow,

17 Nov. Successful French sortie from Mézières; 500 Germans said to be killed..

.17 Nov. Germans victorious in an engagement near Châteaudun; French claim the success.

..18 Nov. Ricciotti Garibaldi said to have beaten 700 or 800 men at Châtillon,...

..19 Nov. The national guard at Evreux repulse a German attack,

19 Nov. The German army under prince Frederick Charles and

the grand-duke of Mecklenburg (135,000) said to be retreating towards Paris....

19 Noy. Paris engirdled with a second line of investment, 20 Nov. French attempt to release La Fère repulsed with heavy loss. .

20 Nov. Several balloons from Paris captured..... about 20 Nov. French mobile guard defeated at Bretoncelles...21 Nov. Bombardment of Thionville begun...

22 Nov. Ham occupied by the Prussians.

.22 Nov. Prince Frederick Charles takes up a position near Orleans.

....24 Nov. Thionville in flames, capitulates with about 2000 prison. ers.

.24 Nov. The Germans repulsed near Amiens and near Stagil,

24 Nov. La Fère surrenders, after two days' bombardment, with about 70 guns and 2000 men...

..27 Nov. The Garibaldians defeated near Pasques (Côte d'Or) by Von Werder....

27 Nov. The French army of the north defeated by Manteuffel between Villers-Bretonneux and Soleur, near Amiens,

27 Noy. Amiens occupied by Von Goeben after a severe engagement..

..28 Nov. Severe engagement near Beaune la Rolande (Loiret) be.

tween part of the army of the Loire, under D'Aurelle de Paladines, and the Germans under Voigts-Rhetz; prince Frederick Charles arrives and turns the day; The French retire; heavy loss on both sides... 28 Nov. M. de Kératry resigns his command, accusing M. Gam.

betta of misconduct, 28 Nov. ; Bourbaki appointed to command an army corps.

29 Nov. Fruitless endeavors of the army in Paris and the army of the Loire to unite..

29 Nov. 4 Dec. Sorties from various parts of Paris repulsed with loss,

29 Nov. Great sortie of 120,000, under gens. Trochu and Du

crot, who cross the Marne; severest conflict between Champigny-sur-Marne, Brie-sur-Marne, and Villierssur-Marne; the French retain the taken possessions, but their advance is checked; great loss on both sides (chiefly Saxons and Würtembergers engaged)..30 Nov. The contest resumed at Avron; the Germans retake

Champigny and Brie; the French retreat.......2 Dec. The army of the Loire: Chanzy defeated by the grand

duke of Mecklenburg at Bazoche-des-Hautos, 2 Dec.; near Chevilly (the French report these engagements indecisive)....

..3 Dec. Prince Frederick Charles dislodges an encampment in the forest of Orleans..

..3 Dec. Ducrot bivouacs in the woods of Vincennes, 3 Dec.; he

issues a final order of the day, referring to two days' glorious battles..

...4 Dec. Gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines entrenched before Orleans;

proposes to retreat; the government opposes him, but yields; he determines to await the attack; part of his army defeated by prince Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Mecklenburg; he retreats with about 100,000 men; Orleans threatened with bombardment; surrenders at midnight..

.4 Dec. The Germans said to be in pursuit of D'Aurelle de Paladines (superseded)....

5 Dec. 10,000 prisoners, 77 guns, and 4 gunboats captured at Orleans...

...5 Dec. Rouen occupied by Manteuffel.

..6 Dec. General order of the king of Prussia, "We enter on a

new phase of the war. . . . Every attempt to break through the investment or relieve Paris has failed,”

6 Dec The grand-duke of Mecklenburg attacks gen. Chanzy and

the army of the Loire near Beaugency; indecisive, 7 Dec.; the Germans victorious, taking about 1100 prisoners and 6 guns, and occupying Beaugency (severe loss to Germans).

.8 Dec. Gen. Manteuffel's army in two parts-one occupies

Évreux, and marching to Cherbourg; the other marching to Havre....

.8 Dec.

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Continuod severe engagements between the Germans pulsed with loss of about 1000 dead and 5000 wounded, and the army of the Loire; the defeated French retreat

19 Jan. 1871 (7 battles in 9 days)....

......9, 10 Dec. 1870 Bourbaki hard pressed by Von Werder.. . 19 Jan. Vigorous siege of Belfort; obstinately defended...9 Dec. Armistice for two days at Paris refused.. .22 Jan. Pamphlet (attributed to the emperor Napoleon) published Bombardment of St. Denis and Cambrai.

.22 Jan. under the name of his friend, the marquis de Gri- Faidherbe asserts that the German successes are exagcourt, throwing the blame of the war upon the French gerated...

22 Jan, nation..

.. early in Dec. Resignation of Trochu; Vinoy, governor of Paris, Fighting along the whole line of the army of the Loire,

23, 24 Jan. under gen. Chanzy and others; it retreats, but obsti- Favre opens negotiations with Bismarck........24 Jan. nately resists.

...5-10 Dec. Longwy capitulates; 4000 prisoners, 200 guns....25 Jan. Brilliant action by Chanzy.

..11 Dec. Letter from M. Guizot to Mr. Gladstone proposing the The delegate government transferred from Tours to Bor.

demolition of fortresses on both sides of the Rhine; deaux; Gambetta remains with the army of the Loire, and the maintenance of the balance of power by con

11 Dec.
gresses; published...

.... 26 Jan. Dieppe occupied by the Germans..

12 Dec. Capitulation of Paris; armistice for 21 days signed by La Fère tbreatened by Faidherbe, commander of the

count Bismarck and Jules Favre..

28 Jan. army of the north..

... 12 Dec. The forts round Paris occupied by the Germans. , 29 Jan. Phalsburg surrenders, subdued by famine; commence- Advance of German troops into France suspended, 30 Jan. ment of bombardment of Montmédy..

..12 Dec.

Bourbaki and his army, about 80,000, driven by ManEvreux and Blois occupied by the Germans.....13 Dec. teuffel into Switzerland, near Pontarlier, about 6000 Montmédy surrenders...

.14 Dec.
having been captured..

...30 Jan., 1 Feb. Sharp engagement at Fréteval, which is taken and aban- French loss about 350,000 men, 800 guns up to......Jan. doned by the Germans.. 14 Dec. Dijon occupied by the Germans...

....1 Feb. Nuits, near Dijon, captured by the Badenese under Von Belfort capitulates with military honors. ......13 Feb. Werder, after a severe conflict..

...18 Dec. Negotiations for peace between Thiers and Bismarck, The French government issue a circular against the

22-24 Feb. propagation of false news....

.20 Dec. Preliminaries of a treaty accepted by Thiers, Favre, and Conflict at Monnaie; about 6000 French gardes mobiles 15 delegates from the national assembly: it includes driven back to Tours..

20 Dec.

cession of parts of Lorraine, including Metz and ThionVigorous sortie from Paris repulsed-an artillery action, ville and Alsace less Belfort; and payment of 5 mill

21 Dec.

jards of francs, 200,000,0001., 25 Feb.; signed 26 Feb.; Tours partially shelled; submits, but not occupied by accepted by the national assembly... .....1 March, Germans..

..21 Dec. German loss in battles throughout the war: killed or Chanzy and part of the army of the Loire said to have died soon after, 17,570; died of wounds eventually,

reached Le Mans and joined the Bretons, about 21 Dec. 10,707; total killed and wounded, 127,867.
Seven hours' battle at Pont à Noyelles between Manteuf- German troops enter Paris and remain 48 hours.
fel and the army of the north under Faidherbe; both

1-3 March, claim the victory; Faidherbe retreats.. .... 23 Dec. They quit Versailles..

.....12 March, Six English colliers, said to have had Prussian permits, Conference for peace open at Brussels. .....28 March

after delivering coal at Rouen, are sunk in the Seine Treaty of peace signed at Frankfort, 10 May; ratified by at Duclair, near Havre, by the Prussians, for strategic the French national assembly...

.18 May, reasons.

.21 Dec. Explanation given by Bismarck and compensation prom- Francs-tireurs, free-shooters, took an active part ised.

26 Dec. in the Franco-Prussian war from about 14 Aug. 1870; Chanzy, in a letter to the German commandant at Ven. dôme, accuses the Germans of cruelly pillaging St.

and more especially after the surrender of MacMahon's Calais, and, denying his defeat, says, "We have fought

army at Sedan, 2 Sept. Their conduct was much cenyou and held you in check since 4 Dec."......26 Dec. sured. Trochu said to be making Mont Valérien a vast citadel,

27 Dec.

Frankenhausen (N. Germany). Near this place Mont Avron, an outlying fort near Paris, after a day's Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and his allies defeated the

bombardment, abandoned and occupied by the Ger- insurgent peasantry, headed by Munzer the anabaptist, mans.

.29 Dec. Alleged defeat of the Germans by detachment of Chan

15 May, 1525. zy's army near Montoire..

27 Dec. Several small engagements in Normandy--reported suc

Frankfort-on-the-Main (central Germany), cessful to the French..

28-31 Dec. founded in the fifth century; was the residence of Char. Capitulation of Mézières, with 2000 men and 106 guns, lemagne in 794; walled by Louis I., 838; a capital city,

1, 2 Jan. 1871 843; an imperial city, 1245. Severe battles near Bapaume, between the army of the

north under Faidherbe and the Germans under Man- Union of Frankfort: treaty between France, Sweden, teuffel and Von Goeben; victory claimed by both; the

Prussia, and other German states led to war with AusFrench retreat...

2, 3 Jan.

.22 May, 1744 Indecisive conflict near Dijon le Mans, between gen. Frankfort captured by the French by a surprise. . 2 Jan. 1769

Chanzy and prince Frederick Charles.. .6 Jan. Captured by Custine, 28 Oct.; retaken by the Prussians, Daujoutin, south of Belfort, stormed by the Germans,

2 Dec. 1792 6 Jan. Bombarded by the French; surrendered to Kleber, Bombardment of eastern front of Paris and of the south

16 July, 1796 ern forts, 4 Jan.; forts of Issy and Vanvres silenced, Made part of the confederation of the Rhine.

1806 6 Jan. A grand-duchy under Carl von Dalberg.

1810 Fortress of Rocroy taken by the Germans......5, 6 Jan. Republic restored; appointed capital of the Germanic Gen. Roy defeated near Jumiéges...

.7 Jan.

1815 Von Gooben in the north, Manteuffel sent to the east, Vain attempts at insurrection by students.. .. April, 1833 about 7 Jan.

May, 1834 Conflicts in the east) between Von Werder and Bourbaki The Frankfort diet publish a federative constitution, at Villarais, south of Vesoul.. 9, 10 Jan.

30 March, 1848 Bombardment of Paris, many buildings injured, and The plenipotentiaries of Austria, Bararia, Saxony, Han

people killed; the French government appeal to for- over, Würtemberg, Mecklenburg, etc., here constitute eign powers.

..9, 10 Jan.

themselves the council of the Germanic diet... 1 Sept. 1850 Capitulation of Péronne with garrison.

1.9 Jan. The German sovereigns (excepting the king of Prussia) Chanzy retreating; defeated near Le Mans by prince met at Frankfort (at the invitation of the emperor of Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, Austria), to consider a plan of federal reform, i7 Aug.;

11 Jan.

the plan was not accepted by Prussia........22 Sept. 1863 Prince Frederick Charles enters Le Mans after 6 days' Meeting of diet of Germanic confederation; condemn fighting (about 20,000 French prisoners made; German the treaty of Gastein....

.1 Oct. 1865 loss about 3400)...

The diet adopts the Austrian motion, that Prussia has Vigorous sorties from Paris repulsed.. ......13 Jan.

broken the treaty; the Prussian representative de. Chanzy retreating, 14 Jan.; defeated near Vosges, clares the confederation at an end, and proposes a new

15, 16 Jan.

.,14 June, 1866 Indecisive conflicts between Bourbaki and Von Werder, Entered by the Prussians, who exact heavy supplies, near Belfort... ....15, 16 Jan

16 July, St. Quentin recaptured by Isnard, under Faidherbe, Annexed to Prussia by law of 20 Sept. ; promulgated at

16 Jan.

Frankfort (the legislative corps and 15,000 citizens Bourbaki defeated near Belfort after three days' fight. protest against it)..

.8 Oct. ing, 15–17 Jan.; retreats south.

.18 Jan. Visited by the king of Prussia; an ancient cathedral, The grand-duke of Mecklenburg enters Alençon, 17 Jan. St. Bartholomew's (founded 1315, completed 1512), deBombardment of Longwy begun..

17 Jan.
stroyed by fire...

.14, 16 Aug. 1867 Faidherbe defeated near St. Quentin, after seven hours' Frankfort supported Prussia in the war. .....July, 1870

fighting, by Von Goeben; 4000 prisoners taken, 19 Jan. Treaty of peace between France and Germany, signed Great sortie from Paris of Trochu and 100,000 men, re- here

10 May, 1871

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........12 Jan.


..... Oct.

Riots through rise in price of beer; suppressed by N. 10. H.M.S. Herald, capt. Kellett, C. B., which had sailed German soldiers: 37 of the people killed; about 100 in 1848, made three voyages to Behring's Strait, and wounded.. ...21, 22 April, 1873 returned in...

1851 Population in Dec. 1867, 78,277; see Germany.

Lieut. Pim went to St. Petersburg with the intention of

travelling through Siberia to the mouth of the river Frankfort-on-the-Oder (N. Germany), a mem- Kolyma; but was dissuaded from proceeding by the ber of the Hanseatic league; suffered much from ma

Russian government..

18 Nov. rauders in the middle ages and in the Thirty Years' war.

[The Enterprise and Investigator (see No. A above) not

having been heard of for two years.] The university was founded in 1506, and incorporated 11. Sir Edward Belcher's expedition-consisting of Aswith that of Breslau in 1811. Near Frankfort, 12 Aug. sistance, sir Edward Belcher, C. B. ; Resolute, capt. Kel. 1759, Frederick of Prussia was defcated by the Russians

lett, C.B.; North Star, capt. Pullen; Intrepid, capt.

M'Clintock; and Pioneer, capt. Sherard Osborn--sailed and Austrians; see Cunnersdorf.

from Woolwich..

15 April, 1852 Franking Letters, passing letters free of postage,

[This expedition arrived at Beechy Island 14 Aug

1852. The Assistance and Pioneer proceeded through was claimed by parliament about 1660. The privilege

Wellington Channel, and the Resolute and Intrepid to was restricted in 1839, and abolished after the introduc- Melville Island; the North Star romaining at Beechy tion of the uniform penny postage, 10 Jan. 1840. The Island.) queen was among the first to relinquish her privilege.

LADY FRANKLIN'S EQUIPMENTS. The franking privilege in the United States formerly Lady Franklin, aided by a few friends (and by the “Tasbelonged to the president during life, and to senators manian Tribute" of 15001.), equipped four expeditions, and members of the house of representatives during 12. The Prince Albert, capt. Forsyth, sailed from Aber

(Nos. 12, 13, 14, 16). their terms of office. The frank was abolished July 1, deen to Barrow's Straits

....5 June, 1850 1873; but certain classes of mail matter, chiefly relating (Returned 1 Oct. 1850.) to public business, may still be sent free in what are

13. The Prince Albert, Mr. Kennedy, accompanied by

lieut. Bellot, of the French navy, and John Hepburn, called penalty envelopes.

sailed from Stromness to Prince Regent's Inlet, Franklin, the English freeholder in the middle ages;

4 June, 1851 see “the Franklin's Tale” in Chaucer's “Canterbury 14. The Isabel, commander Inglefield, sailed for the head

[Returned Oct. 1852.) Tales" (written about 1364).

of Baffin's Bay, Jones's Sound, and the Wellington Channel, 6 July; and returned..

Nov. 1852 Franklin, SEARCH FOR. Sir John Franklin, with 15. Mr. Kennedy sailed again in the Isabel, on a renewed capts. Crozier and Fitzjames, in H.M. ships Erebus and search to Behring's Strait....

1853 Terror (carrying in all 138 persons), sailed on his third 16. H.M.S. Rattlesnake, commander Trollope, despatched

to assist the Plover, capt. Máguire (who succeeded arctic expedition of discovery and survey, from Green

capt. Moore), at Point Barrow in April; met with it bithe, on 24 May, 1845; see Northwest Passage. Their

Aug. last despatches were from the Whalefish islands, dated 17. The second United States expedition, the Advance,

under Dr. Kane.. 12 July, 1845. Their protracted absence caused intense 1s. The Phænix (with the Bredalbane transport), com

..early in June, anxiety, and several expeditions were sent from Eng- mander Inglefield, accompanied by lieut. Bellot, sailed land and elsewhere in search of them; and coals, provis- in May; he returned, bringing despatches from sir E. ions, clothing, and other necessaries were deposited in The Investigator and sir E. Belcher's squadron were safe; various places in the arctic seas by our own and by the but no traces of Franklin's party had been met with United States government, by lady Franklin, and nu- Lieut. Bellot was unfortunately drowned in August merous private persons. The Truelove, capt. Parker,

while voluntarily conveying despatches for sir E.

Belcher. Capt. M'Clure had left the Herald (10) at which arrived at Hull 4 Oct. 1849, from Davis's Strait, Cape Lisburne, 31 July, 1850. On 8 Oct, the ship was brought intelligence (not afterwards confirmed) that the frozen in, and so continued for nine months. On 26 natives had seen sir John Franklin's ships in the previous

Oct. 1850, while on an excursion party, the captain

discovered an entrance into Barrow's Siraits, and thus March, frozen up by the ice in Prince Regent's Inlet.

established the existence of a N.E.-N. W. passage. Other accounts were equally illusory. Her majesty's gor- In Sept. 1851 the ship was again fixed in ice, and so ernment, on 7 March, 1850, offered a reward of 20,0001. remained till lieut. Pim and a party from capt. Kel

lett's ship, the Resolute (11), fell in with them in April, to any party of any country that should render efficient

1853. The position of the Enterprise (4) was still unassistance to the crews of the missing ships. Sir John's known. first winter - quarters were found at Beechy Island by A monument to Bellot's memory was erected at Green

1854 capts. Ommandey and Penny.

wich. His "* Journal” was published in.....

Dr. Rae, in the spring of 1853, again proceeded towards 1. I 2.S. Plover, capt. Moore (afterwards under capt. the magnetic pole; and in July, 1854, he reported to

Maguire), sailed from Sheerness to Behring's Strait, the admiralty that he had purchased from a party of in search.

...1 Jan. 1848 Esquimaux a number of articles which had belonged 2 Land expedition under sir John Richardson and Dr.

to sir J. Franklin and his party-namely, sir John's Rae, of the Hudson's Bay Company, left England, star or order, part of a watch, silver spoons, and forks

25 March

with crests, etc. He also reported the statement of (Sir John Richardson returned to England in 1849, the patives, that they had met with a party of white and Dr. Rae continued his search till 1851.1

men about four winters previous, and had sold them 3. Sir James Ross, with the Enterprise and Investigator a seal; and that four months later, in the same season, (12 June, 1848), having also sailed in search to Barrow's

they had found the bodies of thirty men (some buried), Straits, returned to England (Scarborough).....3 Nov. 1849 who had evidently perished from starvation; the place 4. The Enterprise, capt. Collinson, and Investigator, com

appears, from the description, to have been in the mander M'Clure, sailed from Plymouth for Behring's neighborhood of the Great Fish River of Back. Dr. Strait.

.20 Jan. 1850 Rae arrived in England on 22 Oct. 1854, with the rel(Both ships proceeded through to the eastward.)

ics, which have since been deposited in Greenwich hos. 5. Capt. Austin's expedition, viz. : Resolute, capt. Austin, pital. He and his companions were awarded 10,0001.

C.B.; Assistance, capt. Om manney; Intrepid, lieut. Ber.' for their discovery. tie Cator; and Pioneer, lieut. Sherard Osborn, sailed 19. The Phænir, North Star, and Talbot, under the com. from England for Barrow's Straits.......

..........25 April, mand of capt. Inglefield, sailed in May, and returned in (Returned Sept. 1851.)

Oct. 6. The Lady Franklin, capt. Penny; and Sophia, capl. Sir E. Belcher (No. 11), after mature deliberation, in Stewart, sailed from Aberdeen for Barrow's Straits, April, 1854, determined to abandon his ships, and gave

13 April,

orders to that effect to all the captains under his com[Returned home Sept. 1851.)

mand; and capt. Kellett gave similar orders to capt. 7. The United States expedition in the Advance and Res

M'Clure, of the Investigator. The vessels had been cue, under lieut. De Haven and Dr. Kane (son of the abandoned 15 May* when the crews of the Phæni: judge), towards which Mr. Grinnell subscribed $30,000, sailed for Lancaster Sound and Barrow's Straits; after drifting in the pack down Baflin's Bay, the ships were * Capt. Kellett's ship, the Resolute, was found adrift 1000 released in 1851 uninjured...

25 May,

miles distant from where she was left, by Mr. George Henry, 8. The Felix, sir John Ross, fitted out chiefly by the Hud- commanding an American whaler, who brought her to New son's Bay Company, sailed to the same locality, 22 May, " York. The British government having abandoned their claim [Returned in 1851.)

on the vessel, it was bought by order of the American con9. H.M.S. North Star, commander Saunders, which had gress, thoroughly repaired and equipped, and intrusted to capt.

sailed from England in 1849, wintered in Wolsten- H. J. Hartstene, to be presented to queen Victoria. It arrived bolme Sound, and returned lo Spithead.......28 Sept. at Southampton, 12 Dec. 1856; was visited by her majesty on

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and Talbot (under capt. Inglefield) arrived (19). On of sir John D. Paul, the British Bank frauds, etc. It their return to England all the captains were tried

was brought in by sir R. Bethell, then attorney-general by court-martial and honorably acquitted, .17-19 Oct. 1855 Capt. Collinson's fate was long uncertain, and another

(afterwards lord Westbury), and is very stringent, expedition was in contemplation, when intelligence

Fraunhofer's Lines, see Spectrum. came, in Feb. 1855, that he had met the Rattlesnake (16) at Fort Clarence on 21 Aug. 1854, and had sailed

Fredericksburg (Virginia, U.S.). immediately, in hopes of getting up with capt. Ma

On 10 Dec. guire in the Plover (1), which had sailed two days pre- 1862, gen. Burnside and the federal army of the Potoviously. Capt. Collinson having failed in getting mac crossed the small deep river Rappahannock. On through the ice in 1850 with capt. M'Clure, returned to Hong-Kong to winter. In 1851 he passed through

11 Dec. Fredericksburg was bombarded by the fed

erals. On the 13th commenced a series of desperate Prince of Wales's Straits, and remained in the arctic regions without obtaining any intelligence of Franklin unsuccessful attacks on the confederate works, defended till July, 1854, when, being once more released from

by gens. Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, and others. Gen. the ice, he sailed for Fort Clarence, where he arrived

Hooker crossed the river with the reserves, and joined as above mentioned. Capts. Collinson and Maguire arrived in England in...

.May, 1855 | in the conflict in vain. On 15 and 16 Dec, the federal 20. The third United States expedition in search of Dr. army recrossed the Rappahannock. The battle was one Kane, in the Adrance, consisted of the Release and

of the most severe in the war. The national army numthe steamer Arctic, the bark Eringo, and another vessel under the command of lieut. H. J. Hartstene,

bered 100,000 men, the confederate army 80,000; the accompanied by a brother of Dr. Kane as surgeon, national loss was 10,500, the confederate 4600.

31 May, [On 17 May, 1855, Dr. Kane and his party quitted Frederickshald (Norway). Charles XII. of Swethe Advance, and journeyed over the ice, 1300 miles,

den was killed by a cannon-shot before its walls, while to the Danish settlement; on their way home in a Bañish vessel, they fell in with lieut. Hartstene,

examining the works, 11 Dec. 1718. His hand was on 18 Sept. ; and arrived with him at New York, 11 Oct. his sword, and a prayer-book in his pocket. 1855. Dr. Kane visited England in 1856; he died in 1857.]

Free Church (OF ENGLAND). The rev. H. HampThe Hudson's Bay Company, under advice of Dr. Rae ton, one of the curates of Islington, having been dis

and sir G. Back, sent out an overland expedition, June, missed, a part of his congregation erected a temporary 1855, which returned Sept. following. Some more remains of Franklin's party were discovered.....

church. The bishop of London, after inquiry, refused to 21. The 18th British expedition (equipped by lady Frank- license it. On this the congregation declared itself to

lin and her friends, the government having declined be the Free Church of England, March, 1859. Eventuto fit out another) — the Fox, screw steamer, under capt. (since sir) F. L. M'Clintock, R. N. (see No. 11)

ally he left the neighborhood, and re-entered the estabsailed from Aberdeen 1 July, 1857; returned. .22 Sept. 1859 lishment. Secessions from the Church of England tvok On 6 May, 1859, lieut. Hobson fold at Point Victory, place in 1872, in consequence of the decision in favor of near Cape Victoria, besides a cairn, a tin case, contain:

Mr. Bennett, 8 June, 1872; see Church of England. The ing a paper, signed 25 April, 1848, by capt. Fitzjames, which certified that the ships Erebus and Terror, on

establishment of a bishopric for a new Free Church at 12 Sept. 1846, were beset in lat. 70° 50' N. and long. Southampton was proposed Jan. 1873. 980 23' W.; that sir John Franklin died 11 June, 1847; and that the ships were deserted 22 April, 1848. Capt.

A Free Church of England founded; only two orders, presby. M'Clintock continued the search, and discovered skel.

ters or bishops and deacons, are recognized; a primus is etons and other relics. His “Journal” was published elected, Sept. 1874; see Reformed Episcopal Church. in Dec. 1859; and on 28 May, 1860, gold medals were given to him and to lady Franklin by the Royal Geo.

Free Church (or SCOTLAND) was formed by an act graphical Society.

of secession of nearly half the body from the national Mr. Hall, the arctic explorer, reported, in Aug. 1865, cir- church of Scotland, headed by Dr. Thos. Chalmers and

cumstances that led him to hope that capt. Crozier and others were surviving.

other eminent ministers, 18 May, 1843. The difference A national monument by Noble, set up in Waterloo arose on the question of the right of patrons to nominate

place, was inaugurated 15 Nov. 1866. It is inscribed to livings; see Patronage. The Free Church claims for to “ FRANKLIN, the great navigator, and his brave com

the parishioners the right of a veto. Much distress was panions who sacrificed their lives in completing the discovery of the Northwest Passage, A. D. 1847-8."

endured the first year by the ministers of the new church, Sir John Franklin discovered the northwest passage by although 366,7191. 148. 3d. had been subscribed. In 1853 sailing down Peel and Victoria Straits, now named

there were 850 congregations; in 1873, 954. A large Franklin Straits. " Franklin search expedition,” under lieut. Schwatka,

college was founded in 1846. In 1856 the sustentation of the United States navy, in an overland expedition fund amounted to 108,638l., from which was paid the in summer and autumn of 1879, discovers some hu- sum of 1381. each to 700 ministers. man remains of the crews of the ships and other things; he set up memorials, and brought away the The rev. Mr. Knight, censured for opinions respecting remains of lieut. John Irving, of the Terror; and re

prayer, seceded..

......22 Oct. 1873 turned to Massachusetts...

.about 23 Sept. 1880 The Reformed Presbyterian church (see Cameronians), Remains of lieut. John Irving buried at Edinburgh,

joined the Free Church

..25 May, 1876 7 Jan. 1881 Professor Robertson Smith, generally censured for his

article “Bible, etc.," in the “Encyclopædia Britan. Franks (or freemen), a name given to a combina- nica,'' 1875, after long consideration by the assembly, tion of the Northwestern German tribes about 240, which Professor Robertson Smith expelled from his professor

admonished only..

.27 May, 1880 invaded Gaul and other parts of the empire with vari

ship, but to retain salary, by the general assembly ous success in the fifth century; see Gaul and France ; (394-231).....

....... 26 May, 1881 Frunking.

Free Church Society, or National Association Fraser's Magazine first appeared Feb. 1830.

for Freedom of Public Worship, established in 1857, to Fratricelli (Little Brethren), a sect of the middle abolish the pew-rent system and revive the weekly ages, originally strict Franciscan monks. Their num- offertory to defray the expenses of public worship. The bers increased, and they were condemned by a papal Free and Open Church Association was formed in 1866. bull in 1317, and suffered persecution; but were not ex- Free Companies and Lances, see Condottieri. tinct till the sixteenth century. They resembled the “Brethren of the Free Spirit.”

Free Hospital, Royal, Gray's Inn road, founded

in 1828. Patients admitted without letters. In 1878 Frauds, STATUTE OF. 29 Charles II. c. 3, 1677. Mr. Wm. Birks Rhodes, “ the Hounslow miser,” be“An act for prevention of frauds and perjuryes."

queathed to the hospital about 39,0001. Fraudulent Trustees Act, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 54, passed Aug. 1857, in consequence of the delinquencies

Free Labor Registration Society, estab

lished for the benefit of employers and non-unionist the 16th, and formally surrendered on the 30th. When the workmen, in opposition to trades-unions, about July, ship was broken up a desk was made of the wood, and pre- 1867. sented by queen Victoria to the president of the Cuited States, 29 Nov. 1880.

Free Libraries, see Libraries.


1793 1843

Freedmen's Bureaus, established in the South- | Würtz, and others. It held its first meeting at Bordeaux, ern States of North America in March, 1865, to protect 5 Sept. 1872, when many foreign scientific men were presthe freed negroes. The act of congress making them ent, M. de Quatrefages, president; second, Lyons, 21 Aug. permanent was vetoed by president Johnson in Feb. 1873; third, Lille, 20 Aug. 1874; fourth, Nantes, 19 Aug. 1866.

1875; fifth, Clermont-Ferrand, 19 Aug. 1876; sixth, Havre, Freeholders. Those under forty shillings per an- 30 Aug. 1877; seventh, Paris, 22 Aug. 1878; eighth, num were not qualified to vote for members of parlia- Montpellier, 28 Aug. 1879; ninth, Rheims, 11 Aug. 1880; ment by 8 Hen. VI. c. 7, 1429. Various acts have been tenth, Algiers, 14 April, 1881. passed for the regulation of the franchise at different

French Church, see Church of France. periods. The more recent were, the act to regulate polling, 9 Geo. IV. 1828; act for the disqualitication of free- Latin of the western nations subjugated by the Romans.

French Language is mainly based on the rude holders in Ireland, which deprived those of forty shillings of this privilege, passed 13 April, 1829; Reform German was introduced by the Franks in the eighth acts, 1832, 1867, 1868. County Elections act, 7 Will. IV. century. In the ninth the Gallo-Romanic dialeci be

came divided into the langue d'oc of the south and the 1836; see Chandos Clause.

langue d'oil of the north. The dialect of the Isle of Freemasonry. Writers on Masonry, themselves France became predominant in the twelfth century. The Masons, affirm that it has had a being “ ever since sym- French language as written by Froissart assimilates metry began and harmony displayed her charms." It more to the modern French, and its development was alis traced by some to the building of Solomon's temple; most completed when the Académie Française (estaband it is said the architects from the African coast, Ma- lished by Richelieu in 1634) published a dictionary of hometans, brought it into Spain about the ninth century: the language in 1674. The French language, la we and Its introduction into Britain has been fixed at 674; and customs were introduced into England by William I., in Scotland 1140. Many of our Gothic cathedrals are 1066. Law pleadings were changed from French to attributed to Freemasons. The grand lodge at York was English in the reign of Edward III., 1362.-Stow. founded 926. Freemasonry was interdicted in England,

PRINCIPAL FRENCH AUTHORS. 1424. In 1717, the grand lodge of England was estab

Born Died

Born Died lished; that of Ireland in 1730; and that of Scotland in Chanson de


1694 1778 1736. Freemasons were excommunicated by the pope Roland...... 11th century. J. J. Rousseau.... 1712 1778 in 1738; again condemned, 30 Sept. 1865. Freemasons' Roman d',


1717 1783 Hall , Great Queen street, London, built 1771; rebuilt, R. Wace, Ro

Alexandre... 12th century. Diderot

1713 1784 Buffon.

1707 1788 and consecrated 14 April, 1869. The charity instituted,

man de Brut, 12th cent ! Beaumarchais. ... 1732 1799 1788. The duke of Sussex and the earl of Zetland were Roman de la

Marmontel, 1723 1799 each twenty-tive years grand-master of England. Earl

Rose........ 12th century. Mme. Cottin...... 1773 1807 Villehardouin .... 1160 1213 Delille...

1738 1813 de Grey, afterwards marquess of Ripon, was installed Joinvillo... 1223 1319 Saint Pierre.. 1737 1814 grand-master of the English Freemasons in room of the Froissart.. 1333 1410 Mme. de Staël. ... 1766 1817 earl of Zetland, 14 May, 1870. The marquess (on becom- Monstrelet..about 1390 1453 Mme. de Genlis... 1746 1830

1509 Sismondi..

1773 1842 ing a Romanist) resigned 1 Sept. 1874. He was suc


1495 1544 C. Delavigne. ceeded by the prince of Wales; installed in the Royal Rabelais

1483 1653 Châteaubriand ... 1768 1848 Albert Hall, 28 April, 1875. The duke of Leinster, grand- Ronsard.

1524 1585 Balzac..

1799 1850 master for Ireland for 60 years, died 10 Oct. 1874; suc

Montaigne. 1533 1592 Augustin Thierry. 1795 1856
1519 1605 Béranger.

1780 1857 ceeded by the duke of Abercorn. The prince of Wales Malherbe.. 1555 1628 Eugène Sue .. 1804 1857 was installed at Edinburgh as patron of the Freemasons Des Cartes. 1596 1650 Alfred de Musset.. 1810 1857 of Scotland, 12 Oct. 1870. Prince Leopold installed as


1623 1662 A. Eugène Scribe. 1791 1861 Molière..

1622 1673 A. G. de Barante., 1782 1866 master of the “ Lodge of Antiquity” (held by sir Christo- La Rocbefoucauld 1613 1680 A. F. Villemain... 1790 1867 pher Wren), 25 June, 1879.


1606 1684 Victor Cousin .... 1792 1867

La Fontaine...... 1621 1695 A. de la Martine.. 1790 1869 Royal Masonic Institutions: for girls (Battersea), found.

Mme. de Sévigné.. 16:26 1696 Sainte-Beuve.... 1804 ed 1788; for boys (Wood Green), 1798; for the aged and widows

1645 1696 Alexandre Dumas. 1803 1870 1842

La Bruyère...

1639 1699 P. Mérimée....... 1803 The order is very strong in the United States; see


1627 1704 C.F. Montalembert 1810

Bourdaloue. 1632 1701 Amédéo Thierry.. 1797 1873 Antimasonry

1647 1706 F. Guizot.

1787 1874 Freethinkers, professors of natural religion; see Flécbier..

1632 1710 Jules Michelet.... 1798 1874

Boileau... Deists.

1636 1711 L. A. Thiers. 1797 1877 Fénelon. 1651 1715 Lanfrey..

1828 1877 Free-trade principles, advocated by Adam Smith Vertot...

1655 1735 Victor Hugo...... 1802 in his “Wealth of Nations" (1776), triumphed in Eng- Rollin..

1661 1741 Louis Blanc...... 1813 Massillon 1663 1742 Erckmann

1822 land when the corn-laws were abolished in 1846, and the

Le Sage..
1668 1747 Chatrian.

1826 commercial treaty with France was adopted in 1860. Montesquieu 1689 1755 E. About..

1828 Richard Cobden, who was very instrumental in passing these measures, and termed “ Apostle of Free Trade," French National Society, for social, commerdied 2 April, 1865. Since 1830 the exports have been cial, and artistic purposes, founded in London 15 Jan. tripled; see French Treaty. An agitation for free trade 1881. has begun in the United States. A reform league was French Navy, see Navy. formed at Boston, 20 April, 1869; and the movement became active in New York in Nov., and has since con

French Protestant Hospital, founded in 1708 tinued. A free-trade budget was brought in by the to maintain poor descendants of French Protestant resministry in Sydney in 1873.

A new free-trade league ugees; 40 females, 20 males. was inaugurated in London in Dec. 1873; and one at French Relief Fund, see Mansion-house Fund. Melbourne, Australia, Sept. 1876. Free trade warmly The French peasant relief fund, originated by the Daily advocated in New South Wales, supported in New News, in Sept. 1870, was closed April, 1871. Zealand; opposed in Canada and in Victoria, Australia,

French Revolutions, see France, 1789, 1830, 1818, 1877-80.

1870. Freezing, see Congelation and Ice.

French Revolutionary Calendar. In 1792, "Freiheit,” German newspaper; see Trials, 1881.

the French nation adopted a calendar prosessedly foundFrench Association FOR THE ADVANCEMENT ed on philosophical principles. The first year of the era OF THE SCIENCES was established by the general assem- of the republic began at midnight, between 21 and 22 bly 22 April, 1872, its chief founders being MM. Balard, Sept. 1792 ; but its establishment was not decreed until Claude Bernard, Delaunay, Dumas, Pasteur, Berthelot, the 4th Frimaire of the year II., 24 Nov. 1793. The


1870 1870

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