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The first chancellor of the empire, prince Otho von Bismarck, | Lorraine ceded to France...

1766 May, 1871.

Joseph II. extends his dominions by the dismemberment Population of German empire, 1881, 45,194,172.

of Poland, 1772; many civil reforms and liberal changes. .

1782 The Teutones, united with the Cymry, defeat the Romans War with Turkey.

1788 in Illyria..

B.O. 113 Victory of the Austrians and Russians at Rimnik, After varying success are defeated by Marius.


22 Sept. 1789 Drusus invaded Germany..

12-9 J. G. Basedow, educational reformer, dies. 25 July, 1790 Battle of Teutoburg; Hermann, or Arminius, destroys the The Rhenish provinces revolt...

1793 Romans under Varus.


9 Francis I. joins in the second partition of Poland, 1795 Hermann assassinated..

19 In the ruinous wars between Germany and France, the The Franks invade Gaul ..

238 emperor loses the Netherlands, all his territories west Great irruption of Germanic tribes into Gaul.....

450 et seq.
of the Rhine, and his states in Italy..

. 1793-1803 Charlemagne, after a long contest, subdues the Saxons, Cessions of territory to France by the treaty of Luneville, who become Christians. 772-785

9 Feb. 1801 He is crowned emperor of the West at Rome by the Francis II. assumes the title of Francis I., emperor of pope.. ..25 Dec. 800 Austria..

.11 Aug. 1804 He adds a second head to the eagle, to denote that the Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wür.

empires of Rome and Germany are united in him .... 802 temberg, 1805; and of Westphalia, 1807; dissolution of Louis (le Débonnaire) separates Germany from France.839-40 the German empire; formation of the Confederation The Germans under Arnold take Rome

of the Rhine....

...12 July, 1806 The German princes assert their independence, and Con- North Germany annexed to France.

..13 Dec. 1810-11 rad I. of Franconia reigns...

..8 Nov. 911 Commencement of the war of independence; the order [The electorate began about this time; see Electors.)

of the Iron Cross instituted...

..March, 1813 Reign of Henry I. (king), surnamed the Fowler; he van: Final defeat of the French at Leipsic. ........ 16-19 Oct.

quishes the Huns, Danes, Vandals, and Bohemians ..918-34 Congress of Vienna. ...1 Nov. 1814 and 25 May, 1815 Otho I. extends his dominions, and is crowned emperor The Germanic Confederation (which see) formed. 8 June, by the pope.... 962 The Zollverein (which see) formed. ...

1818 Otho II. conquers Lorraine.

978 "Society for Promoting the knowledge of Ancient GerHenry III. conquers Bohemia.. 1042 man History" founded by Stein..

1819 Contest between Henry IV. and Gregory VII. (Hilde- A German scientific association formed, “Naturforscherbrand).

Verein " (see German Union). .

....Sept. 1822 Henry's humiliation at Canossa (which see). 1077 General depression in trade.

1824 He takes Rome, 1084; and Gregory dies in exile at Sa. Death of J. H. Voss, poet, etc.

29 March, 1826 lerno.

1085 Revolution at Brunswick (flight of the duke). ....7 Sept. 1830 Disputes with the pope relating to ecclesiastical investi- In Saxony (abdication of the king)..

.13 Sept. tures

1073-1123 Death of Goethe, poet, novelist, and philosopher, The Guelph and the Ghibelline feuds begin..


22 March, 1832 Conrad III. leads an army to the holy wars; it was de- Becker's song about the free German Rhine; and Alfred stroyed by Greek treachery....

1147 de Musset's song in reply, “Le Rhin Allemand " (see Frederick Barbarossa emperor, 1152; wars in Italy ...1154-77 Rhine), appear.

1841 He destroys Milan....

1162 Excitement about Ronge, the Catholic reformer, and the Ruins Henry the Lion (see Bavaria).. 1180 holy coat of Treves.

1844 Is drowned during the crusade in Syria.. .10 June, 1190 Insurrection at Vienna and throughout Germany (see Teutonic order of knighthood...

Austria, Hungary, )....

18 18 Hanseatic League established..

..about 1245 Revolt in Schleswig and Holstein (see Denmark). March, Reign of Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, chosen by the The king of Prussia takes the lead as an agitator, to proelectors.

1273 mote the reconsolidation of the German empire, by a The edict called the Golden Bull, by Charles IV

1356 proclamation...

.27 March, The Tyrol acquired.

1363 German national assembly meet at Frankfort (see Ger. Sigismund, king of Bohemia, elected emperor. He be.

manic Confederation)..

18 May, trays John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who are Archduke John of Austria elected vicar of the empire, burned alive (see Bohemia). 1414-16

12 July, Sigismund driven from the throne; Albert II., duke of The national assembly elects the king of Prussia emperor, Austria, succeeds... 1437 28 March; he declines....

.3 April, 1849 The Pragmatic Sanction confining the empire to the He recalls the Prussian members of the assembly, house of Austria 1439

14 May, Peasants' wars...

..1502, 1514, 1524 The Frankfort assembly transfers its sittings to Stult. Era of the Reformation (see Lutheranism).

1517 gart....

.30 May, Luther excommunicated by the diet at Worms.17 April, 1521 Treaty of Vienna between Austria and Prussia for the German Bible and liturgy published by Luther.. 1522-46 formation of a new central power for a limited time; War with the Pope--the Germans storm Rome..

1527 appeal to be made to the governments of Germany, Diet at Spires; Protestants condemned.......13 March, 1529

30 Sept. Confession of Augsburg published. ........ ..25 Jan. 1530 Protest of Austria against the alliance of Prussia with Protestant League of Smalcald.. ..31 Dec. 1531 the smaller German states....

.12 Nov. The anabaptists seize Münster, 24 June, 1535; defeated, Treaty of Munich between Bavaria, Saxony, and Würand John of Leyden slain.

1536 temberg for a revision of the German Confederation, Death of Luther.. ..18 Feb. 1546

27 Feb. 1850 War with the Protestants.

26 June,
Parliament meets at Erfurt...

.. March, Who are helped by Henry II. of France-Peace of Re- The king of Würtemberg denounces the insidious ambiligion at Passau. ..31 July, 1552 tion of the king of Prussia..

.15 March, Abdication of Charles V. announced. ... 25 Oct. 1555 German diet meets at Frankfort..

.10 May, Hungary joined to the empire...

1570 Hesse-Cassel sends no representative to Erfurt, 7 June; The Thirty Years' war begins between the Evangelic Hesse-Darmstadt withdraws from the Prussian league, Union under the elector - palatine, and the Catholic

20 June, League under the duke of Bavaria, ...,

1618 Austria calls an assembly of the German Confederation, Battle of Prague, which ruined the elector palatine.8 Nov. 1620 19 July; which meets at Frankfort..

..2 Sept. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invades Germany..June, 1630 Austrian, Bavarian, and Prussian forces enter Hesse-t'as. Gustavus Adolphus, victor, killed at Lutzen.....16 Nov. 1632 sel (see Hesse-Cassel).........

.12 Nov. Treason of Wallenstein; he is assassinated. .. 25 Feb. 1634 Conferences on German affairs at Dresden, End of the Thirty Years' war; treaty of Westphalia, es

23 Dec. 1850, to 15 May, 1851 tablishing religious toleration...

.24 Oct. 1648 Max Schneckenburger, author of the song “Die Wacht War with France..

1674 am Rhein," died.. John Sobieski, king of Poland, after defeating the Turks, Re-establishment of the diet of the Germanic Confederaobliges them to raise the siege of Vienna.....12 Sept. 1683 tion at Frankfort..

..30 May, Peace of Ryswick (with France).

.20 Sept. 1697 Conference at Nuremberg relative to a general code of The peace of Carlowitz (with the Turks). 26 Jan. 1699 commerce....

15 Jan. 1857 War with France, etc., 6 Oct. 1702; Marlborough's vic- Great excitement in Germany at the French successes tory at Blenheim...

.13 Aug. 1704 in Lombardy; warlike preparations in Bararia, etc., Peace of Utrecht. .11 April, 1713

May and June, 1859 The Pragmatic Sanction (which ser).

1722 Meetings of new liberal party in Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar, Francis I., duke of Lorraine, marries the heiress of Aus

17 July; seven resolutions put forth recommending tria, Maria Theresa (1736); she succeeds her father, and that the imperfect federal constitution be changed, becomes queen of Hungary.

20 Oct. 1740 that the German diet be replaced by a strong central The elector of Bavaria elected emperor as Charles VII., government; that a national assembly be summoned;

22 Jan. 1742 and that Prussia be invited to take the initiative, He dies 20 Jan. ; Francis I., duke of Lorraine, elected

14 Aug. emperor.

. 15 Sept. 1745 This proposal not accepted by Prussia, and warmly opThe Seven Years' war between Austria and Prussia and

posed by Hanover....

. Sept. their respective allies begins Aug. 1756; ends with the The Austrian minister, Rechberg, severely censuring the peace of Hubertsburg...

.15 Feb. 1763 duke of Saxe-Gotha for a liberal speech, 4 Sept.; and

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accusing the Prussian government of favoring the lib. Count Arnim, German representative at Rome, protests erals, meets with cutting retorts ..Sept. 1859 against the doctrine of papal infallibility

. May, 1870 Death of Ernst Moritz Arndt, patriot and poet... 29 Jan. 1860 | German parliament opened by the king, 14 Feb.; closed, The federal diet maintains the Hesse-Cassel constitution

26 May, of 1852 against Prussia..

..24 March, Count Bismarck announces the declaration of war by Meeting of the French emperor and the German sover: France, and terms it groundless and presumptuous, eigns at Baden, 16, 17 June; and of the czar and the

19 July, emperor of Austria and the regent of Prussia at Top- Bavaria, Würtemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Baden suplitz.

.26 July, etc.

port Prussia in the war declared by France (see FranMeeting at Coburg in favor of German unity against

co Prussian War)...

20 July, French aggression..

5 Sept.

Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities declare for union Dispute with Denmark respecting the rights of Holstein with North Germany.

... about 6 Sept. and Schleswig

Nov. Socialists declare against annexation of Alsace, etc., First meeting of a German national shooting match at

Sept. - Nov. Gotha..

.8-11 July, 1861 Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt join the North German ConMeeting of German national association at Heidelberg; federation by treaty, about 15 Nov. ; also Würtemberg, decides to form a flect..

..23 Aug.

25 Nov. ; and Bavaria, 23 Nov. ; retaining certain pow. Subscriptions received for fleet. .Sept. and Oct. ers in military and diplomatic affairs.

.Nov. The national association meet at Berlin; they recom- The North German parliament opened at Berlin by Dr. mend the formation of a united federal government

Simson on behalf of the king..

24 Nov. with a central executive, under the leadership of Prus- The parliament vote 100,000,000 thalers to continue the

..13 March, 1862

..28 Nov. Meetings of plenipotentiaries from German states on fed The king of Bavaria, in a letter to the king of Saxony, eral reform.

.8 July-10 Aug. proposes the king of Prussia to be nominated emperor Deputies from German states meet at Weimar, and de. of Germany.

.. about 4 Dec. clare that Germany wants formation into one federal The parliament in an address request the king to become state...

28, 29 Sept.
emperor (votes for, 188; against, 6)..

. 10 Dec. Congress of deputies from German states declare in The address solemnly presented to the king in an assemfavor of unity. 21 Aug. 1863 bly of princes by Dr. Simson..

..18 Dec. The emperor of Austria invites the German sovereigns Re-establishment of the German empire, 1 Jan.; Will.

to a congress at Frankfort, 31 July; king of Prussia iam I. of Prussia proclaimed emperor at Versailles, declines, 4 Aug. ; nearly all the sovereigns meet, 16,

18 Jan. 1871 17 Aug: ; they approve the Austrian plan of federal re- Several German bankers condemned to imprisonment form, 1 Sept. ; which is rejected by Prussia. .22 Sept.

for subscribing to the French loan...

.3 Jan. The diet determines to have recourse to federal execu. Preliminaries of peace with France signed at Versailles, tion in Holstein if Denmark does not fulfil her obliga

26 Feb. tions...

..1 Oct. The emperor reviews part of his army at Longchamps, 50th anniversary of the battle of Leipsic celebrated,

near Paris.

.1 March, 18 Oct. First Reichstag, or imperial council, opened at Berlin by Death of Frederick VII. of Denmark.

15 Nov,
the emperor...

.21 March, German troops euter Holstein for “ federal execution" The new constitution of the empire comes into force, (see Denmark for events). .... .....23 Dec.

4 May, Death of Maximilian II. of Bavaria.. ...10 March, 1864 Chancery of the empire: prince Bismarck chancellor, Prussia retains the duchies; discussion between Austria

12 May, and Prussia; the diet adopt the resolution of Bavaria The treaty of peace ratified...

..16 May, and Saxony, requesting Austria and Prussia to give up Dr. Döllinger, of Munich, excommunicated for opposing Holstein to the duke of Augustenburg; rejected,

the dogma of papal infallibility, 18 April; made D.C.L. 6 April, 1865 of Oxford..

..June, 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Germanic Triumphal entry of the German armies into Berlin; Confederation....

.8 Juno,

statue of Frederick William IV. inaugurated. 16 June, The Gastein convention (which see)... ......14 Aug. Dr. Döllinger elected rector of the university of Munich, Condemned by the diet at Frankfort.. ......1 Oct.

29 July, The diet calls on Austria and Prussia to disarm. 19 May, 1866 The emperors of Austria and Germany meet at Salzburg, Meeting of deputies from smaller German states condemn

Bismarck and Beust present.

.6-8 Sept. the impending war..

. 20 May, The Bavarian minister of public worship declares against Austria declares that Prussia has broken the treaty by the dogma of papal infallibility in a letter to the archinvading Holstein, 11 June; the diet adopts this, by 9 bishop of Munich...

....27 Sept. votes; the Prussian representative declares the Ger- The German parliament opened by the emperor, who manic Confederation at an end, and invites the mem

expresses his conviction “that the new German embers to form a new one, excluding Austria. ...14 June,

pire will be a reliable shield of peace". ...16 Oct. The Prussians enter Saxony, and the war begins,

Reform in the coinage: introduction of a gold coin ap15 June, proved by the federal council.

about 6 Nov. The diet determines for war, 16 June; proclaims prince Law forbidding the clergy to meddle with politics in the Charles of Bavaria general of the confederation troops,


.about 26 Nov. 27 June, Triennial war-budget voted..

.....1 Dec. [For the war and its consequences, see Prussia and Sharp despatch from count Bismarck to the German amGerman Confederation, North. ]

bassador at Paris respecting the acquittal of murderTreaty of alliance between Prussia and the northern

ers of Germans at Melun and Paris...

.7 Dec. states; ratified......

.8 Sept. Ultramontane agitation against the government; exciteContinued disputes between the diet and Austria and

ment among the Polish Romanists; count Bismarck Prussia respecting Schleswig - Holstein, Oct. and Nov.

carries his school inspection bill against the Roman Draft of new constitution for North Germany settled, Catholic clergy

March, 1872 9 Feb. 1867 | The empress-queen visits England.

May, Elections commence..

.12 Feb. Bismarck reports to the parliament the pope's refusal North German parliament opened at Berlin by the king to receive cardinal Hohenlohe as ambassador. 14 May, of Prussia, 24 Feb.; Dr. Simson elected president,

Bill for the expulsion of the Jesuits passed in the Ger2 March,

man parliament (131-93); end of session, 19 June; the The federal constitution adopted (printed in Almanach de law published. .

.5 July, Gotha, 1868); the parliament closed.........17 April, Inauguration of a memorial to Von Stein, the patriotic The constitution put in action..

.1 July,

statesman at Nassau, by the emperor... .9 July, Meeting of 50 deputies from parliaments of Bavaria, Imperial congress: the czar arrives at Berlin, 5 Sept. ; Würtemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt, declare ne

the emperor of Austria, 6 Sept. ; both leave; prince cessity of union with North Germany..


Bismarck declares the meeting to be merely an act of Luxemburg evacuated by the Prussian garrison..9 Sept. friendship; “prince Gortschakoff thankful that nothNew North German parliament meets, 10 Sept.; closed,

ing was written'.

.... about 6 Sept. 26 Oct. Great emigration of young men to America to avoid the Opened by king of Prussia, 23 March; closed...20 June, 1868 conscription; forbidden by government.........Sept. Delegates from the Zollverein meet, April; close. 23 May, The German parliament opened...

12 March, 1873 Inauguration of the Luther monument at Worms by the Treaty with France settling the total evacuation of the king of Prussia.

25 June, departments held by German troops on payment of the German ritle association meeting at Vienna, 26 July; ad

indemnity in Sept. signed..

15 March, dressed by Von Beust at the close, giving as toast, The emperor William warmly received at St. Petersburg, "Peace and Reconciliation ". .....6 Aug.

27 April-11 May, After negotiations between Bavaria, Würtemberg, and The monetary reform law passed, 23 June; the parlia. Baden, July, a South German military commission

ment closed...

.25 June, appointed.


Last payment of French war indemnity...... ...5 Sept. Wilhelmshaven, at Hippens, bay of Jahde, Oldenburg, The emperor's visit to Vienna..

17 Oct. the first German military port, inaugurated by the king Elections for the parliament (397 members; about two of Prussia..

.17 June, 1869 thirds nationalist liberals, about 100 ultramontanists), Centenary of the birth of Alexander von Humboldt cele

10 Jan. 1874 brated.. .14 Sept. Parliament opened......

..5 Feb.

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Letter from earl Russell to the emperor, expressing sym- New code of laws, made in 1877, come into operation, pathy of himself and others with the struggle against

Nov. 1879 the pope, 28 Jan.; the emperor replies........ 18 Feb. 1874 Bill for enlargement of the army (by 27,000 men) proBismarck confined by illness.

March, April,

...Jan. 1880 Constitutional struggle in the parliament respecting the German parliament opened; pacific speech from the emarmy bill...


12 Feb. The government require 401,659 men (instead of 360,000) In the Federal Council 22 small states out-vote Prussia,

permanently; compromise—the army to be settled for Saxony, and Bavaria, respecting new stamp duties,
seven years..
.. about 10 April,

3 April, The parliament session closed by the emperor with a pa- Bismarck's resignation not accepted by the emperor; cific speech..

.26 April,
the states give in..

.. April German Liberal Association, formed against particular- The new army bill passed (186-96).

..9 April, ists and ultramontanists... ..about June, The parliament prorogued..

10 May, Count Harry Arnim, formerly ambassador at Rome and “New Liberal” party formed by secession from the reParis, suddenly arrested and imprisoned in Berlin, os

actionary “National Liberals".

Aug. tensibly for refusing to give up official papers, 4 Oct.; Grand army maneuvres in a plain 10 miles south of released on bail.

28 Oct.

10 Sept. et seq. Parliament opened by the emperor; declaration of firm German parliament opened..

..16 Feb. 1881 legislative and defensive policy...

..29 Oct.

(See Prussia.) Bismarck resigns the chancellorship after an adverse

KINGS AND EMPERORS OF GERMANY. vote in the parliament, 16 Dec. ; on a vote of confidence (199-71) retains it...

..18 Dec.

CARLOVINGIAN RACE. Important registration law for births, deaths, and mar. 800. Charles I., the Great, or Charlemagne. riages passed.

...Jan. 1875

814. Louis I., le Débonnaire, king of France. Civil marriage bill passed..

25 Jan.

840. Lothaire I., or Lother, son of Louis; died in a monasInternational rifle meeting at Stuttgart. ..1 Aug

tery at Treves, Sept. 855. Statue of Hermann (or Arminius), by Von Bandel, at Det

855. Louis II., son of Lothaire. mold, uncovered by the emperor William.....16 Aug. 875. Charles II., the Bald, king of France; died 877. Parliament meets; pacific speech of the emperor read, 881. Charles III., the Fat, crowned king of Italy; deposed;

27 Oct.

succeeded by The imperial bank of Germany opens..

..1 Jan. 1876 887. Arnulf, or Arnoul; crowned emperor at Rome, 896. Proposal for purchase of all the railways by the imperial 899. Louis III., the Blind. government (opposed in the south).. .20 March,

Louis IV., the Child, son of Arnulf; the last of the CarThe czar at Berlin..

11 May,

lovingian race in Germany. Parliament opened with a royal pacific speech...30 Oct.

SAXOX DYNASTY. Elections: liberal majority; socialist deinocrats elected for Berlin...

10, 11 Jan. 1877 911. Otho, duke of Saxony; refuses the dignity on account Parliament opened by the emperor; he hopes for peace in the East..

22 Feb.

Conrad I., duke of Franconia, king. Supreme Court for Germany settled to be at Leipsic by 918. Henry I., the Fowler, son of Otho, duke of Saxony, king. parliament.

.21 March, 936. Otho I., the Great, son of Henry, crowned by pope John New code of laws enacted.

XII., 2 Feb. 962; the beginning of the holy Roman emResignation of Bismarck as chancellor, 3 April; with:

pire. drawn...

.8 April, 973. Otho II., the Bloody; massacred his chief nobility at an Exportation of horses forbidden.

.7 July,

entertainment, 981; wounded by a poisoned arrow. Parliament reopened..

6 Feb. 1878 983. Otho III., the Red, his son, yet in his minority, poisoned. In consequence of the attempted assassination of the em- 1002. Henry II., duke of Bavaria, surnamed the Holy and the peror by Hödel, 11 May, a stringent bill to repress so

Lame. cialism is brought into the parliament, and rejected


...24, 25 May,

1024. Conrad II., surnamed the Salique. Grosser Kurfürst, iron-clad, sunk by collision with König

1039. Henry III., the Black, son. Wilhelm ofl Folkestone; about 300 lost.......31 May,

1056. Henry IV., son; a minor; Agnes, regent; deposed by The emperor fired at and wounded by Dr. Karl Eduard

his son and successor; Rudolph (1077) and Herman Nobiling, a professor of philology and socialist, at Berlin..

..2 June,

(1082) nominated by the pope; and Conrad (1087).

1106. Henry V.; married Maud, or Matilda, daughter of Henry The crown-prince authorized to direct public affairs,

I. of England. 4, 5 June,

1125. Lothaire II., surnamed the Saxon. Parliament dissolved...

. 12 June, Death of king George of Hanover.

.12 June,

Emil Heinrich Max Hödel condemned. ...10 July, 1138. Conrad III., duke of Franconia.
Elections held (severe struggle)...

..30 July,

1152. Frederick I., Barbarossa; drowned by his horse throwThe Berlin conference (which see)......13 June-13 July,

ing him into river Saleph, 10 June, 1190. Hödel executed at Berlin...

.16 Aug.

1190. Henry VI., son, surnamed Asper, or Sharp; detained New parliament opened: national liberals, 123; 119 im

Richard I. of England a prisoner; died 1197. perialists and conservatives; 105 centre (Roman Cath

[Interregnum and contest for the throne between Philip olics, etc.).....

.9 Sept.

of Suabia and Otho of Brunswick.) Dr. Nobiling dies of self-inflicted wounds,

..10 Sept. 1198. Philip, brother to Henry; assassinated at Bamberg by The emperor quite recovered; announced.

..14 Sept.

Otto of Wittelsbach. The repressive socialist bill passed (72 majority)..19 Oct. 1208. Otho IV., surnamed the Superb; excommunicated and Decree for expulsion of socialists and others, issued, Nov.

deposed; died 1218. The emperor returns to Berlin and resumes government, 1215. Frederick II., king of Sicily, son of Henry VI.; desosed

5 Dec.

by his subjects, who elected Henry, landgrave of Thu174 clubs, 44 newspapers, and 157 other papers sur

ringia, 1246; Frederick died in 1250, naming his son pressed by injunctions up tu...

Conrad his successor; but the pope gave the imperial Parliamentary Discipline bill (to “ muzzle" speakers);

title to a "gagging bill” introduced.

.. about 9 Jan. 1879 1247. William, earl of Holland (nominal). Bismarck's negotiations with the Roman curia respect- 1250. Conrad IV., son of Frederick. ing the Falk laws (Kulturkampf) fruitless... ....Jan.

[His son Conradin was proclaimed king of Sicily, which "Gagging bill ” rejected by the parliament....7 March,

was, however, surrendered to his uncle Manfred, 1254; Prince Bismarck's protectionist tarif bill virtually passed,

on whose death it was given by the pope to Charles about 9 May,

of Anjou, in 1263. Conradin, on the invitation of the Resignation of Von Forckenbeck (liberal), president of

Ghibelline party, entered Italy with a large army, was the parliament, 20 May; election of an ultramontane,

defeated at Tagliacozzo, 23 Aug. 1268; and beheaded about 22 May,

at Naples, 29 Oct., thus ending the Holienstaufen The emperor's golden wedding kept.... .11 June,

family] Resignation of Falk and other ministers; announced, 1256. [Interregnum.]

30 June, 1257. Richard, earl of Cornwall, and Alphonso of Castile, mereBismarck, in the parliament, disclaims connection with

ly nominated. the liberal party.......

..9 July, The customs bill finally passed (217–117); session closed,


12 July, 1273. Rudolph, count of Hapsburg. Ministry reconstituted.

..about 14 July, 1291. [Interregnum.] Adm. Batsch tried and sentenced to 6 months' imprison. 1292. Adolphus, count of Nassau, to the exclusion of Albert, inent for loss of Grosser K’urfürst (see 31 May, 1878),

son of Rodolph; osed; slain at the battle of Gel July,

heim, 2 July, 1298, by Grand military maneuvres at Königsberg.....5-9 Sept. 1298. Albert I., duke of Austria, Rodolph's son; killed by his Meeting of Bismarck and Jacobini, papal nuncio, at Gas

nephew at Rheinfels, 1 May, 1303. tein..

... about 16 Sept. 1308. Henry VII. of Luxemburg. Bismarck visits Vienna; renews friendship with An- 1313. [Interregnum.]

drassy, 21-24 Sept.; supreme court for all Germany, 1314. Louis IV. of Bararia, and Frederick III. of Austria, son opened at Leipsic...

.1 Oct.

of Albert, rival emperors; Frederick died in 1330.

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mia in 1419.


1330. Louis reigns alone. 1347. Charles IV. of Luxemburg. (At Nuremberg, in 1356, the meantime, was pushing forward into the interior of Penn

Golden Bull became the fundamental law of the Ger- sylvania. The national army moved in a parallel direcman empire.)

tion on the east side of the Blue Ridge. Lee was con1378. Wenceslas, king of Bohemia, son; twice imprisoned; siderably in the advance, and seriously threatened Har

forced to resign; but continued to reign in Bohemia. 1400. Frederick III., duke of Brunswick; assassinated imme. risburg. As in the former invasion (1862), the passes

diately after his election, and seldom placed in the of South Mountain afforded access to the Confederate list of emperors.

Meade took advantage of this fact, and (28 June) Rupert, count palatine of the Rhine; crowned at Co. Lee saw that he must halt and stake the issue of the

logne; died 1410. 1410. Jossus, marquess of Moravia; chosen by a party of the campaign upon a battle with the national army. The electors; died next year.

battle of Gettysburg ensued. The time and place of Sigismund, king of Hungary; elected by another party; this battle were determined more by accident and the on the death of Jossus recognized by all; king of Bohe- physical character of the region than by any purpose on

the part of either commander. Lee ordered the concen1438. Albert II., the Great, duke of Austria, and king of Hun-tration of his army at Gettysburg, to which point Ewell gary and Bohemia; died 27 Oct. 1439.

marched southwardly from Carlisle, and Longstreet and 1439. [Interregnum.]

Hill eastwardly from Chambersburg. Meade's right 1440. Frederick IV. (or III.), surnamed the Pacific;, elected wing (30 June) was near Gettysburg, and gen. Pleason

emperor 2 Feb., but not crowned until June, 1142. 1493. Maximilian 1., son; died in 1519. In 1477 he married ton, detecting the importance of that place, advanced and Mary of Burgundy.

occupied it-anticipating the Confederates, who were Francis I. of France and Charles I. of Spain became advancing on the same point. On 1 July there was a

competitors for the empire. 1519. Charles V. (1. of Spain), son of Joan of Castile and Philip collision of the opposing forces, in which gen. Reynolds

of Austria, elected; resigned both crowns, 1556; re- was killed; but, after losing 10,000 men, the national

tired to a monastery, where he died, 21 Sept. 1558. forces still held a position which was the key of the field 1556. Ferdinand I., brother; succeeded by his son. 1564. Maximilian II., king of Hungary and Bohemia.

of operations. On 2 July (both armies being well up 1576. Rodolph II., son.

and in position) there was a second battle, in which the 1612. Matthias, brother.

loss on both sides was severe. In this action Sickles 1619. Ferdinand II., cousin, king of Hungary.

was driven, but from a position which was of no material 1637. Ferdinand III., son. 1658. Leopold I., son.

importance. At night the Union forces still held Ceme1705. Joseph I., son.

tery Ridge from Culp's Hill to Round Top. On 3 July, 1711. Charles VI., brother. 1740. Maria Theresa, daughter, queen of Hungary and Bohe. after a bombardment of Cemetery from Seminary Ridge, mia; her right sustained by England.

Lee again assaulted. The assaulting column, under 1742. Charles VII., elector of Bavaria, rival emperor, whose Pickett and Heth, numbered 18,000. It was almost anclaim was supported by France.

nihilated. After this decisive repulse Lee retreated from [This competition gave rise to a general war. Charles VII. died Jan. 1745.]

the field. His army might have been utterly demoral1745. Francis I. of Lorraine, grand duke of Tuscany, consort ized and dispersed by prompt and relentless pursuit. The of Maria Theresa.

forces were about equal at Gettysburg, each numbering 1765. Joseph II., son.

from 70,000 to 80,000 infantry and artillery. The national 1790. Leopold II., brother. 1792. Francis II., son, became emperor of Austria only, as loss was 23,190, of whom nearly 7000 were missing. The Francis I., 1804.

Confederate loss was about 36,000, of whom 13,733,wound(See Austria.)

ed or unwounded, remained as prisoners. Lee's entire HOUSE OF HOHENZOLLERN. (See Prussia.)

loss, from the commencement to the close of the inva1871. William I., king of Prussia, 18 Jan. (born 22 March, 1797; sion, was nearly 60,000 men.--On 19 Nov. 1863, the batempress, Augusta, born 30 Sept. 1811).

tle-ground was consecrated as a national cemetery for Heir : Frederick William, son; born 18 Oct. 1831. (See Prussia.)

soldiers who fell in the July battles. Germinal Insurrection, in the faubourgs of serenth century, during the middle ages became very

Ghent (Belgium), an ancient city, built about the Paris, suppressed on 12th Germinal, year III. (1 April, rich. John, third son of Edward III. of England, is said 1795).

to have been born here in 1340 (hence named John of Gerona (N.E. Spain), an ancient city, frequently be-Gaunt) during the revolt under Jacob Van Artevelde, a sieged and taken. In June, 1808, it successfully resisted brewer, whose son Philip revived the insurrection against the French; but, after suffering much by famine, surren- Louis, count of Flanders, 1379–82. dered, 12 Dec. 1809.

Ghent rebelled against Philip of Burgundy, 1451; against the Gesta Romanorum, a collection of popular tales

emperor Charles V., 1539; severely punished, 1540.

Pacification of Ghent" (when the north and south provderived from Oriental and classical sources, written in

inces of the Netherlands united against Spain) proclaimed Latin by an unknown author, about the middle of the 8 Nov. 1576; broken up, 1579. The 300th anniversary celefourteenth century, and one of the first books printed in

brated 3-10 Sept. 1876. the fifteenth. These tales have been largely used by Ghent taken by Louis XIV of France, 9 March, 1678; and by

duke of , our early poets and dramatists, including Shakespeare. Ghent seized by the French, 1793; annexed to the Nether. The English translation, by the Rev. C. Swan (from an lands, 1814; made part of Belgium, 1830. edition printed at Hagenau, 1508), appeared 1824.

Peace of Ghent, between Great Britain and the United States,

signed 24 Dec. 1814. Gettysburg (Pennsylvania), BATTLE OF, fought

Ghibellines, see Guelphs. 1-3 July, 1863. The Confederate victory at Chancellorsville led to a universal clamor in the South for an in- Gaznevides, who founded the city, 969. They were ex

Ghiznee, or GhUZNEE (E. Persia), the seat of the yasion of the northern states by Lee's army. As early as May movements were made indicating that Lee con- der sir John Keane attacked the strong citadel of Ghiz

pelled by the Seljuk Tartars in 1038. The British untemplated such an invasion. Early in June his entire army was concentrated at Culpepper, except A. P. Hill's

At 3 o'clock the gates

nee at 2 A.M., 23 July, 1839. division, which was left at Fredericksburg. At the mid-/were blown in by the artillery, and, under cover of a dle of June, when the movement was fairly commenced, and at 5 fixed the British colors on its towers.

heavy fire, the infantry forced their way into the place,

It capitLee's army numbered fully 100,000 men. On 12 June, Hooker began to fall back from the Rappahannock to

ulated to the Afghans, 1 March, 1812, who were defeated cover Washington. Lee advanced to Winchester, and

6 Sept., and gen. Nott re-entered Ghiznee 7 Sept, same on 15 June dispersed Milroy's force at Winchester (7000 year. Seized for Musa Khan by Mahomed Jan in Jan.; strong), capturing 2300 prisoners. He then crossed the retaken after a conflict, 19, 20 April, 1880. Potomac with his main force (24, 25 June), and advanced

Ghoorkas, see Goorkas. to Chambersburg. Hooker also crossed on 26 June, and Ghosts, produced by optical science. Mr. Dircks the next day was relieved by gen. Meade. Lee, in the described his method at the British Association meeting


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in 1858. Dr. John Taylor produced ghosts scientifically barking the forces covered the bay. For weeks toin March; and Mr. Pepper exhibited the ghost illusion

gether 6000 shells were daily thrown into the town. Blockade ceased..

......5 Feb. 1783 at the Royal Polytechnic Institution, July, 1863; see Royal battery destroyed by fire.

..... Nov. 1800 Cock-lane Ghost.

Engagement between the French and English fleets in

the bay; H.M.S. Hannibal, 74 guns, lost.......6 July, 1801 Giants are mentioned in Gen. vi. 4. The bones of the Royal Carlos and St. Hermenigildo, Spanish ships, reputed giants, 17, 18, 20, and 30 feet high, have been each of 112 guns, blew up, with their crews, at night. proved to be remains of animals.—The battle of Marig

time, in the straits here, and all on board perished, nano (1515) has been termed the “ battle of the Giants ;" | A malignant disease caused great mortality.......Sept. 1804

12 July, see Dwarfs.

A dreadful plague raged Og, king of Bashan, of the remnant of the giants: his bed

A malignant fever raged.

. Aug. 1814 stead was 9 cubits long (about 16 feet). 1451 B.C. (Deut. Again; courts of justice and places of worship closed by jii. 11).


...5 Sept. 1828 Goliath of Gath's "height was 6 cubits and a span.” Killed

The fatal epidemic ceased.

.. 12 Jan. 1829 Destructive storm.

.17 Nov. 1834 by David about 1063 B.C. (1 Sam. xvii. 4).

1842 Four giants, sons of Goliath, killed (2 Sam. xxi. 15–22) about Bishopric of Gibraltar established..

Gen. sir. Richard Airey appointed governor. 1018.

.Sept. 1865 The emperor Maximin (A. D. 235) was 84 feet in height, and of Popular discussion respecting its exchange for Ceuta,

Dec. 1868-Jan. 1869 great bulk. Some say between 7 and 8 feet; others above 8.

Destructive fire "The tallest man that hath been seen in our age was one

.. 28 June, 1874

Gen. sir Fenwick Williams of Kars governor, named Gabara, who in the days of Claudius, the late em

Aug. 1870-Nov. 1875 peror, was brought out of Arabia. He was 9 feet 9 inches

Destructive storm and floods... high.”Pliny.

23, 24 Nov. John Middleton (born 1578), commonly called the Child of

Lord Napier of Magdala governor.

.Jan. 1876 Hale (Lancashire), whose hand, from the carpus to the end

Visit of prince of Wales

.15 April, of his middle finger, was 17 inches long; his palm 8} inches

Gibson Gallery, see Royal Academy. broad; his whole height 9 feet 3 inches. — Plot, Nat. Hist. of Staffordshire, p. 295.

Gilbertines, an order of canons and nuns estabPatrick Couter, Irish giant, born in 1761, was 8 feet 7 inches in height; his hand, from the commencement of the palm to lished at Sempringham, Lincolnshire, by Gilbert of that

the extremity of the middle finger, measured 12 inches, and place, 1131-48. At the dissolution there were 25 houses his shoe was 17 inches long; died Sept. 1806.

of the order in England and Wales. Charles Byrne, called O'Brien, 8 feet 4 inches high; died

1783; his skeleton is in the Museum, Royal College of Sur- Gilding on wood formed part of the decorations of geons.

the Jewish tabernacle, 1490 B.C. (Exod. xxv. 11); was

; Big Sam, porter of the prince of Wales at Carlton palace, near

8 feet high, performed as a giant in “Cymon," at the Opera- practised at Rome about 145 B.C. The capitol was the house, 1809.

first building on which this enrichment was bestowed. M. Brice, a native of the Vosges, 7 feet 6 inches high. He Pliny. Of gold-leaf for gilding, the Romans made but

exhibited himself in London, Sept. 1862, and Nov. 1863. Robert Hales, the Norfolk giant, died at Great Yarmouth, 22 750 leaves, four fingers square, out of a whole ounce.

Nov. 1863 (aged 43). He was 7 feet 6 inches high, and Pliny. Gilding with leaf gold on bole ammoniac was weighed 452 lbs.

first introduced by Margaritone in 1273; see Electrotype. Chang Woo-Gow, a Chinese, aged 19, 7 feet 8 inches high, ex

hibited himself in London in Sept., etc., 1865. Grown to 8 Gin, ardent spirit, flavored with the essential oil of feet, exhibited at Westminster Aquarium;, with him. Brus- the juniper berry. The “ gin act,” 1735, laying an ex.

tav, a Norwegian, 7 feet 9 inches, aged 35, 11 June, 1880. Capt. Martin Van Buren Bates, of Kentucky, and Miss Ann cise of 5s. per gallon upon it, passed 14 July, 1736. In

Hanen Swann, of Nova Scotia, both about 7 feet high; ex. London alone 7044 houses sold gin by retail; and a man hibited themselves in London, in May; and married at St. could intoxicate himself for one penny.--Salmon. About Martin's-in-the-Fields, 17 June, 1871.

1700 gin-shops were suppressed in London in 1750,Giaour, Turkish for infidel, a term applied to all who Clarke. do not believe in Mahometanism.--Byron's poem “The

Gin (contracted from engine), a machine for sepaGiaour” was published in 1813.

rating cotton wool from the seed; see under Cotton. Gibraltar. The ancient Calpe (which, with Abyla,

Ginger, the root of the Amomum Zinziber, a native on the opposite shore of Africa, obtained the name of of the East Indies and China, now cultivated in the the Pillars of Hercules), a town on a rock in South Spain, West Indies. In 1842 the duty was reduced from 53s. on which is placed a British fortress, considered impreg- to 10s. per cwt. of foreign ginger, and from 11s. to 54. per nable. The height of the rock, according to Cuvier, is cwt, of that from British colonies. 1437 English feet. It was taken by the Saracens under Tarik, whence its present name (derived from Gibel el

Gipsies, see Gypsies. Tarik), in 711.

Giraffe, or CAMELOPARD, a native of the interior of Taken from the Moors, 1309;.surrendered to them, 1333;

Africa, was well known to the ancients. In 1827 one finally taken from them by Henry IV. of Castile, 1462; was brought to England for the first time as a present strengthened by Charles V.

1552 to George IV. It died in 1829. On 25 May, 1835, four Attacked by the British under sir George Rooke, the prince of Hesse Darmstadt, sir John Leake, and ad

giraffes, obtained by M. Thibaut, were introduced into miral Byng, 21 July; taken..

24 July, 1704 the Zoological Gardens, Regent's park, where a young Besieged by the Spanish and French; they lose 10,000 one was born in 1839. men; the victorious English but 400.

.11 Oct. Sir John Leake captured several ships, and raised the Girls, charities for. siege.. ..10 March, 1705 Girls' Industrial Home, Stockwell, established..

1857 Ceded to England by treaty of Utrecht.........11 April, 1713

Girls' Home, 22 Charlotte street, Portland place, estabThe Spaniards repulsed in an attack with great loss. ... 1720


1867 They again attack it with a force of 20,000 men, and lose 5000: English loss, 300..

22 Feb. 1727

Girls' Friendly Society, to provide homes, etc., for workSiege by the Spaniards and French, whose armaments

ing-girls, supported by the archbishops and bishops, founded....

1878 (the greatest brought against a fortress) wholly over. thrown..

16 July, 1779

Girondists, an important party during the French In one night their floating batteries were destroyed with red hot balls, and their whole line of works annihi

revolution, principally composed of deputies from the lated by a sortie commanded by gen. Eliott; the ene. Gironde. They were ardent republicans, but after the my's loss in munitions of war, on this night, was esti. cruelties of Aug. and Sept. 1792, labored in vain to remated at upwards of 2,000,0001. sterling; the army

strain the cruelties of Robespierre and the Mountain amounted to 40.000 men...

27 Nov, 1781 Grand defeat by a garrison of only 7000 British. .13 Sept. 1782 party; and their leaders, Brissot, Vergniaud, and many The duke of Crillon commanded 12,000 of the best troops others were guillotined 31 Oct. 1793. Lamartine's “ Hisof France. 1000 pieces of artillery were brought to

toire des Girondins,” published in 1847, tended to hasten bear against the fortress; besides which there were 47 sail of the line, all three-deckers; 10 great floating bat

the revolution of 1818. teries, esteemed invincible, carrying 212 guns; innu. merable frigates, xebecs, bomb ketches, cutters, and

Girton College, Cambridge, for the higher educa. gun and mortar boats; while small craft for disem

tion of women. It began at Hitchin, 1869; removed


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