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here, and was opened Oct. 1873. Nuneham Hall, Cam-, William Edward Forster, vice-president of the committee of

council on education; admitted to the cabinet, July, 1870. bridge, in connection with it, was opened 18 Oct. 1875.

The above formed the cabinet. Miss Charlotte Angas Scott, aged about 22, attained the posi- Lord lieutenant of Ireland, George, earl Spencer. tion of "wrangler” (for mathematics), Jan. 1880.

Office of works, Austen Layard; succeeded by Acton S. Ayr. Gisors, BATTLE OF (France), on 20 Sept. or 10 Oct. Postmaster - general, Spencer C. Cavendish, marquess of Har

ton, Nov. 1869; by William Patrick Adam, Aug. 1873. 1198, when Richard I. of England defeated the French.

tington; succeeded by William Monsell (not in the cabinet), His parole for the day, “ Dieu et mon droit(God and Jan. 1871; by Dr. Lyon Playfair, Nov. 1873. my right "), afterwards became the motto to the arms This ministry carried the disestablishment of the Irish

church, in 1869; the Irish tenant act, in 1870; was censured of England.

in the house of lords for advising the royal warrant abolishGitschin (Bohemia) was captured by the Prussians ing purchase in the army (162–82), 1 Aug. 1871; carried the after a severe conflict with the Austrians, 29 June, 1866. ballot in 1872 (see letter in note, Disraeli Administration). Near Gitschin, the same evening, the crown-prince of

SECOND ADMINISTRATION (28 April, 1880). Prussia was victor in another engagement.

First lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer, Will

jam Ewart Gladstone. Giurgevo (Wallachia). Here the Russians were

Lord chancellor, Roundell Palmer, baron Selborne. defeated by the Turks, aided by some English officers, 7 Lord privy seal, George Douglas Campbell, duke of Argyll; re

Lord president of the council, George, earl Spencer. July, and repulsed in an attack, 23 July, 1854.

signed ; succeeded by Chichester S. Fortescue, lord Carling

ford, April, 1881. Glaciarium, at King's road, Chelsea ; containing a Secretaries - home, sir William Harcourt; foreign affairs, surface of artificially made ice for rinking, constructed George Leveson-Gower, earl Granville; the colonies, John by Dr. John Gamgee, and opened March, 1876. The

Wodehouse, earl of Kimberley; India, Spencer C. Caven.

dish, marquess of Hartington; war, Hugh C. E. Childers. freezing was accomplished by Raoul Pictet's process, First lord of the admiralty, Thomas George Baring, earl of and W. E. Ludlow's rotary gine and pump were em- Northbrook. ployed.

Chief secretary for Ireland, W. E. Forster.

Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, John Bright. Gladiators were originally malefactors who fought President of local government board, John George Dodson. for their lives, or captives who fought for freedom. They President of board of trade, Joseph Chamberlain.

The above form the cabinet. were first exhibited at the funeral ceremonies of the Romans, 263 B.C., and afterwards at festivals, about 215 Lord lieutenant of Ireland, Francis Thomas de Grey, earl

Their revolt under Spartacus, 73 B.C., was quelled Postmaster-general, Henry Fawcett. by Crassus, 71. When Dacia was reduced by Trajan, Chief commissioner of works, W. P. Adam; succeeded by G.

Shaw Leferre. 1000 gladiators fought at Rome in celebration of his

Attorney-general, sir Henry James. triumph, for 123 days, A.D. 103. These combats were Solicitor-general, Farrer Herschell. suppressed in the East by Constantine the Great, 325, Governor general of India, George Frederick Samuel Robin. and in the West by Theodoric in 500.

son, marquess of Ripon.

Chairman of ways and means, Dr. Lyon Playfair. Gladstone Administrations.* Mr. Disraeli

Glasgow (Lanarkshire), the largest city in Scotresigned 2 Dec., and was succeeded by Mr. Gladstone, land. Its prosperity greatly increased after the union whose ministry received the seals 9 Dec. 1868. In con- in 1707, in consequence of its obtaining some of the sequence of a majority of three against the Irish Uni- American trade. “Population in 1707 about 12,000; in versity bill, early on 12 March, 1873, Mr. Gladstone ten- 1861, 394,857; in 1871, 477,144. dered his resignation, but withdrew it a few days after, The cathedral or high church, dedicated to St. Kentias Mr. Disraeli declined office with the existing house gern, or Mungo, began.......

about 1181 of commons. Changes were made Aug.-Sept. 1873; the Erected into a burgh..

1190 Charter was obtained from James II.

1451 ministry resigned 17 Feb. 1874.

University founded by bishop Turnbull

.about FIRST ADMINISTRATION (1868-74). Made a royal burgh by James VI..

1611 First lord of the treasury, Wm. Ewart Gladstone (and chancel

Town wasted by a great fire...

1652 lor of exchequer, Aug. 1873).

Charter of William and Mary.

1690 Lord chancellor, sir Wm. Page Wood, baron Hatherley; re

Glasgow Courant, the first newspaper published.

1715 signed; sir Roundell Palmer, baron Selborne, Oct. 1872.

First vessel sailed to America for its still great import,

tobacco... Lord president of the council, Geo. Fred. Samuel Robinson,


1725 earl de Grey and Ripon (marquess of Ripon, 1871); succeeded Great Shawfield riot.. by Mr. Austin Bruce, made lord Aberdare, Aug. 1873.

Calico-printing begun...

.about 1742 Lord privy seal, John Wodehouse, earl of Kimberley; suc

Plundered by rebels..

1745 ceeded by viscount Halifax, July, 1870.

Theatre opened....

1764 Chancellor of the exchequer, Robert Lowe; succeeded by Mr.

Power.loom introduced.

1773 Gladstone, Aug. 1873.

Theatre burned; Glasgow Herald published.


Chamber of commerce formed Secretaries home, Henry Austin Bruce; succeeded by Mr.


Trades' Hall built... Lowe, Aug. 1873; foreign, Geo. Wm. Fred. Villiers, earl of

1791 Clarendon (died 27 June, 1870); succeeded by earl Gran

Walter Stirling's public library founded, by will.. ville; colonies, Granville Geo. Leveson-Gower, earl Gran Spinning-machinery by steam introduced.

1795 ville; succeeded by earl of Kimberley, July, 1870; war, Ed.

Anderson's university founded.

.7 May, ward Cardwell; India, George Douglas Campbell, duke of

New college buildings erected..

1811 Argyll.

Great popular commotion

. April, Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, Frederick, lord Dufferin, ap Theatre again burned.

Trials for treason followed.

...July, pointed governor-general of Canada; succeeded by H. C. È.

..Jan. 1829 Childers, Aug. 1872; by John Bright, Sept. 1870.

The Royal Exchange opened.

.3 Sept. First lord of admiralty, Hugh Culling Eardley Childers; suc

Great tire, loss 150,0001.

14 Jan. 1832 ceeded by G. Joachim Göschen, 9 March, 1871.

The Glasgow lotteries, the last drawn in Britain, were Chief secretary for Ireland, Chichester S. Fortescue; succeed

granted by license of parliament to the commissioners ed by the marquess of Hartington, 1 Jan. 1871.

for the improvement of Glasgow. The third and final President of board of trade, John Bright; succeeded by Chich.

Glasgow lottery was drawn in London, at Coopers' ester S, Fortescue, Dec. 1870.

Hall, 28 Aug. 1834. Their repetition was forbidden by President of poor-law ( now local government) board, George British Association meet here..

4 Will. IV. c. 37...

1834 Joachim Göschen; succeede i by James Stansfeld, 9 March, Wellington's statue erected.

.24 Sept. 1840 1871.

.8 Oct. 1844 False alarm of fire at the theatre, when 70 persons are crushed to death ..

17 Feb. 1849 * William Ewart Gladstone, born 29 Dec. 1809; master of British Association mect (20 time)..

.12 Sept. 1855 the mint, Sept. 1841; president of the board of trade, May, Failure of Western Bank of Scotland and City of Glas1843-Feb. 1845; secretary for colonies, Dec. 1845-July, 1846; gow banks, and other firms...

.Nov. 1857 chancellor of the exchequer, Jan. 1853-Feb. 1855, June, 1859– In which great frauds were discovered..

..Oct. 1858 June, 1866; lord high commissioner extraordinary to the New water-works at Loch Katrine opened by the queen, Ionian Isles, Nov. 1858; M. P. for Newark, 1832-16; for Ox

14 Oct. 1859 ford, 1847-65; for South Lancashire, 1865–8; for Greenwich, [Supplies 25,000,000 gallons daily ;. can supply Nov. 1868; announced the dissolution of parliament, 23 Jan. 50,000,000; engineer, J. F. Bateman; cost about 1874; resigned, 17 Feb. 1874; resigned leadership of liberal 918,0001., independent of price paid for old works.] party, 13 Jan. 1875; elected M.P. for Mid-Lothian (1579-1368), Self-supporting cooking establishments for working6 April, 1880.

classes begun by Mr. Thomas Corbett. ........21 Sept. 1860


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Glasgow visited by the empress of the French...27 Nov. 1860 | The glass-manufacture established in England at Crutch-
Theatre burned again...
31 Jan. 1863 ed-friars and in the Savoy.-Stow...

1557 Visited by lord Palmerston; installed lord rector,

Great improvements have been made in the manufact29 March,

ure, through the immense increase of chemical knowlIndustrial exhibition opened.

.12 Dec. 1865 edge in the present century. Prof. Faraday published Fine stained glass windows, by German artists, put up his researches on the manufacture of glass for optical in the cathedral by private munificence.. 1859-66 purposes in..

1830 Site of the old university sold to railway company; new The duties on glass, first imposed 1695; repealed, 1698; buildings to be erected near Western park. 1866 re-enacted, 1745; finally remitted..

24 April, 1815 Great reform demonstration; visit of John Bright.16 Oct. GLASS-PAINTING was known to the ancient Egyptians. It The duke of Edinburgh inaugurates the statue of the was revived about the tenth century, and is described prince-consort, in George's square...

18 Oct.

in the treatise by the monk Theophilus; was practised Glasgow and Aberdeen universities to elect one M.P.,

at Marseilles in a beautiful style, about 1500, and atand Glasgow to elect three instead of two M.P.'s, by tained great perfection about 1530. Specimens of the the Scotch reform act, passed..

..13 July, 1865 thirteenth century exist in England; C. Winston's Foundation of the new university buildings laid by the work is the best on the subject, 1846 (new edition). ... 1868 prince of Wales.....

.8 Oct. GLASS-PLATE, for coach-windows, mirrors, etc., made at Foundation of Albert bridge laid

.3 June, 1870 Lambeth by Venetian artists, under the patronage of The new university buildings opened..

7 Nov.
Villiers, duke of Buckingham..

1673 Technical college established..

...about The manufacture was improved by the French, who Scott centenary celebrated...

..9 Aug. 1871 made very large plates; and further improvements in Fraser and Maclaren's warehouse, Buchanan street, it were made in Lancashire, when the British Plateburned; about 100,0001. lost.. 27 March, 1872 glass Cornpany was established..

Explosion at Tradeston tlour mills; about 14 killed; Manufacture of British sheet-glass introduced by Messrs.
loss 70.0001....

...9 July,
Chance of Birmingham....

.about 1832 Mr. Disraeli installed lord rector..

19 Nov. 1873 Tempered or toughened glass : M. De la Bastie's process Mr. Stephen Mitchell bequeaths 70,0001. to found a free (plunging heated glass into a hot bath of oleaginous or library, etc..

... spring, 1874

alkaline compounds) announced April, 1875; largely Great fire in Buchanan street..

.22 April, 1876 manufactured in France, an sold cheap London... 1876
British Association meeting (3d)...
Rt. hon. R. A. Cross receives freedom of the city...2 Oct. Glastonbury (Somerset), said to have been the
Foundation of new post office laid by the prince of

residence of Joseph of Arimathea, and the site of the Wales..

.17 Oct. Statue of Burns in George's square uncovered by lord

first Christian church in Britain, about 60. A church Houghton..

.25 Jan. 1877 was built here by Ina about 708. The town and abbey New stock exchange opened..

.3 April,

were burned, 1184, and an earthquake did great damage Weaving-school opened.

....3 Sept. Freedom of city presented to gen. U. S. Grant, ex-presi.

in 1275. Richard Whiting, the last abbot, who had 100 dent U.S.

.13 Sept.

monks and 400 domestics, was hanged on 'Tor hill in his New Queen's dock opened.

.18 Sept. pontificals for refusing to take the oath of supremacy to Freedom of city presented to the marquess of Harting

Henry VIII., 14 Nov. 1539. The monastery was supton...

..5 Nov. Statue of Thomas Campbell, in George's square, uncov.

pressed 1540. ered..

28 Dec. Apothecaries' Hall burned ; loss about 30,0001... 9 June 1878 least three parts. Their composition began early in the

Glee, a piece of unaccompanied vocal music, in at Stoppage of City of Glasgow Bank, with many branches; total ruin to many (see Banks)..

.2 Oct. eighteenth century. Eminent composers, Samuel Webbe National fund formed to relieve sufferers, 9 Nov.;

(1740-1816), Stevens, Callcott, Horsley, Danby, Paxton, amount received about 118,0001...

12 Nov. Glasgow Relief Bank founded; 321,4231. received. 13 Dec.

lord Mornington, Spofforth, etc. The Glee Club, founded City of Glasgow Bank: Stronach and some directors by Dr. J. W. Callcott, Dr. Arnold, and others, 1787. •

sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment, others to 8 months' (see Trials).

Glencoe Massacre of the Macdonalds, a Jacobite

1 Feb. 1879 Theatre Royal burned.

.2 Feb. clan, for not surrendering before 1 Jan. 1692, the time Boiler explosion, Glasgow iron-works; 23 killed.5 March, stated in king William's proclamation. Sir John DalStatue of Livingstone, George's square, unveiled,

19 March,

rymple, master (afterwards earl) of Stair, their enemy,

obtained a decree “to extirpate that set of thieves," Glasgow, BISHOPRIC OF, Kennet, in his “An- which the king is said to have signed without perusing. tiquities,” says it was founded by St. Kentigern, alias Every man under 70 was to be slain. This mandate was Mungo, in 560; Dr. Heylin, speaking of the see of St. treacherously executed by 120 soldiers of a Campbell regAsaph, in Wales, says that thul see was founded by St. iment, hospitably received by the Highlanders, 13 Feb. Kentigern, a Scot, then bishop of Glasgow in 583. This 1692. About 60 men were slain, and many women and prelacy became archiepiscopal in 1491, ceased at the rev- children, turned out naked in a freezing night, perished. olution, and is now a post-revolution bishopric. The This excited great indignation, and an inquiry was set cathedral, commenced in 1121, has a noble crypt; see on foot, May, 1695, but no capital punishment followed. Bishops.

Glendalough, or “Seven Churches," an ancient Glasites (in Scotland) and SANDEMANIANS (in Eng- Irish bishopric, said to have been founded by St. Keven land). In 1727, John Glas, a minister of the Church of in 498; united with Dublin, 1214. Scotland, published “The Testimony of the King of Globe. The globular form of the earth, the fire Martyrs concerning his Kingdom (John xviii. 36)," in zones, some of the principal circles of the sphere, the which he opposed national churches, and described the opacity of the moon, and the true causes of lunar eclipses original constitution of the Christian church, its doc- were taught, and an eclipse predicted, by Thales of Mitrines, ordinances, officers, and discipline, as given in the letus, about 610 B.C. Pythagoras demonstrated, from New Testament. Having been deposed in 1728, he and the varying altitudes of the stars by change of place, others established several churches formed upon the that the earth must be round; that there might be anprimitive models. The publication of a series of letters tipodes on the opposite part of the globe; that Venus on Hervey's “Theron and Aspasio," by Robert Sande- was the morning and evening star; that the universe man, in 1755, led to the establishment of churches in consisted of twelve spheres—the sphere of the earth, the London and other places in England, and also in North sphere of the water, the sphere of the air, the sphere of America. The meeting-house at Barnsbury, London, N., fire, the spheres of the moon, the sun; Venus, Mercury, was erected in 1862.

Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the spheres of the stars; about Glass. The Egyptians are said to have been taught 506 B.C.-Aristarchus of Samos maintained that the earth the art of making glass by Hermes. The discovery of turned on its own axis and revolved about the sun, which glass took place in Syria.Pliny. Glass-houses were doctrine was held by his contemporaries as so absurd that erected in Tyre. It was in use among the Romans in the philosopher nearly lost his life, 280 B.C. ; see Circumthe time of Tiberius; and we know, from the ruins of

navigators. Pompeii, that windows were formed of glass before 79. To determine the figure of the earth, a degree of latitude has

been measured in different parts of the world: by Bouguer Glass is said to have been brought to England by Bene

and La Condamine, in Peru, and by Maus ortuis and others, dict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, in...

676 in Lapland, 1735.

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Estimated density, 5.6 that of water; weight, 6,000,000,000,- 1 of their sees by each receiving a glove, 1002. In Eng

000,000,000,000 tons.-Proctor, 1875. France and Spain measured by Mechain, Delambre, Biot, and land, in the reign of Edward II., the deprivation of Arago between 1792 and 1821.

gloves was a ceremony of degradation. The Glovers' Measurements made in India by col. (afterwards sir George) Company of London was incorporated in 1556. Embroi

Everest, published in 1830.
Measurements made on a meridian by long.continued astro dered gloves are presented to judges at maiden assizes.
nomical observations, the points being connected by tele. The importation of foreign gloves was not permitted till
graph, between Caluis, Me, and Nantucket, Mass., by the 1825.

United States Coast Survey, in 1866-7.
Experiments made by pendulums to demonstrate the rotation

Glucinum (from yukús, sweet). In 1798 Vauqueof the earth by Foucault in 1851, and to determine its den lin discovered the earth glucina (so termed from the sity by Maskelyne, Bailly, and others; and in 1826, 1828, and sweet taste of its salts). It is found in the beryl and 1854 by Mr. (afterwards sir) G. B. Airy, the astronomer other crystals. From glucina Wöhler and Bussy obroyal ARTIFICIAL GLOBES. It is said that a celestial globe was tained the rare metal glucinum in 1828.Gmelin.

brought to Greece from Egypt, 368 B.C., and that Ar- Glucose, see Sugar.

chimedes constructed a planetarium about 212 B.C. The globe of Gottorp, a concave sphere, eleven feet in diame

Gluten, an ingredient of grain, particularly wheat, ter, containing a table and seats for twelve persons, and the termed the vegeto-animal principle (containing nitroinside representing the visible surface of the heavens, the gen). Its discovery is attributed to Beccaria in the stars and constellations, all distinguished according to their

eighteenth century. respective magnitudes, and being turned by means of cu. rious mechanism, their true position, rising and setting, are Glycerine, discovered by Scheele about 1779, and shown. The outside is a terrestrial globe. The machine, termed by him the “sweet principle of fats,” and further called the globe of Gottorp, from the original one of that name, which, at the expense of Frederick II., duke of Hol studied by Cherreul, termed the • father of the fatty stein, was erected at Gottorp. under the direction of Adam acids.” It is obtained pure by saponifying olive-oil or Olearius, and was planned after a design found among the animal fat with oxide of lead, or litharge. Glycerine is papers of the celebrated Tycho Brahe. Frederick IV. of Denmark presented it to Peter the Great in 1713.

now much employed in medicine and the arts. nearly destroyed by fire in 1757; but it was afterwards re- Glyoxyline (invented by Mr. F. A. Abel, the chem

constructed. --Core. The globe at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, erected by Dr. Long ist of the war department, in 1867), an explosive mixture (master, 1733), 18 feet in diameter.

of gun-cotton, pulp, and saltpetre saturated with nitroIn 1851 Mr. Abrahams erected in Leicester square, for Mr. glycerine. It was abandoned for compressed gun-cotton.

Wyld, a globe 60 feet 4 inches in diameter, lit from the centre by day, and by gas at night. It was closed in July, Gnostics (from the Greek yvūois, knowledge), a 1861; the models were sold, and the building eventually sect who, soon after the preaching of Christianity, entaken down.

deavored to combine its principles with the Greek phiGlobe Theatre, BANKSIDE (London), see Shake- losophy. Among their teachers were Saturnius, ill; speure's Theatre.—The Globe “Theatre," erected on the Basilides, 134; and Valentine, 140. Priscillian, a Spansite of Lyon's inn, Strand, was opened 28 Nov. 1868, Mr. iard, was burned at Treves as a heretic, in 381, for enSefton Parry manager.- The Globe evening newspaper; deavoring to revive Gnosticism. formerly whig, now conservative; established 1803.

Goa (S.W. Hindostan) was taken by the Portuguese “Gloire," French steam frigate; see Nary, French. under Albuquerque in 1510, and made their Indian cap

Glory, the nimbus drawn by painters round the ital. It was visited by the prince of Wales, 27 Nov. 1875. heads of saints, angels, and holy men, and the circle of Goat Show at Alexandra Palace, 16-22 Sept. 1880, rays on images, adopted from the Cæsars and their flat- supported by the British Goat Society, recently estabterers, were used in the first century. The doxology, lished. Gloria Patri," is very ancient, and originally without Gobelin Tapestry, so called from a house at Paris, the clause “as it was in the beginning,” etc. In the formerly possessed by wool - dyers, whereof the chief Greek it began with Aóža, glory.

(Jehan Gobelin), in the reign of Francis I., is said to Gloucester (Roman Glevum) submitted to the have found the secret of dyeing scarlet. This house was Romans about 45, and to the Saxons 577. The statutes purchased by Louis XIV. about 1662 for a manufactory of Gloucester, passed at a parliament held by Edward I., of works for adorning palaces (under the direction of 1278, relate to actions at law. This city was incorpo- Colbert), especially tapestry, designs for which were rated by Henry III.; and was fortified by a strong wall, drawn by Le Brun, about 1666. Present establishment which was demolished after the Restoration, in 1660, by (1878) costs about 8000l. a year. order of Charles II., as a punishment for the successful “God bless you !" see Sneezing. resistance of the city to Charles I., under col. Massey, Aug., Sept. 1643. The Gloucester and Berkeley canal have been composed by John Bull, Mus. D., in 1606, for

“God Save the King." This melody is said to was completed in April, 1827. Gross bribery took place bere at the election for the parliament in 1859.-The others ascribe it to Henry Carey, author of “Sally in

a dinner given to James I. at Merchant Taylors' Hall; BISHOPric was one of the six erected by Henry VIII. in Our Alley," who died 4 Oct. 1743. 1541, and was formerly part of Worcester. It was united 1745-6. It has been claimed by the French. The con

It was much sung to Bristol in 1836. The church, which belonged to the abbey, and its revenues, were appropriated to the main ular Music of the Olden Times" (1859). The melody

troversy on the subject is summed up in Chappell’s “ Poptenance of the see. The abbey, which was founded by has been adopted for the German national anthem king Wulphere about 700, was burned in 1102, and again (“ Heil dir im Siegerkranz”), and also for the Danish. in 1122. In it are the tombs of Robert, duke of Nor. mandy, and Edward II. In the king's books this bish

Goderich Administration. Viscount Godeopric is valued at 315l. 178. 2d. per annum. Present

rich * (afterwards earl of Ripon) became first minister income, 50001.

on the death of Mr. Canning, 8 Aug. 1827; he resigned

8 Jan. 1828. 1802. George Isaac Huntingford, translated to Hereford, June, Duke of Portland, president of the council.

Viscount Goderich, first lord of the treasury. 1815. Hon. Henry Ryder, translated to Lichfield, 1824.

Lord Lyndhurst, lord chancellor, 1824. Christopher Bethell, translated to Exeter, 1830.

Earl of Carlisle, lord privy scal. 1830. James Henry Monk, died.

Viscount Dudley, Mr. Huskisson, and the marquess of Lans1856. Charles Baring, translated to Durham, Sept. 1861.

downe. foreim, colonial, and home secretaries. 1861. William Thomson, translated to York, 1862.

Lord Palmerston, secretary-at-war. 1862. Charles John Ellicott (present bishop).

* Born 1782; held various inferior appointments from 1809 Gloves. Woodstock and Worcester leather gloves to 1818. when he became president of the board of trade; was are of ancient celebrity. In the middle ages, the giving chancellor of the exchequer from 1818 to April, 1827, when he a glove was a ceremony of investiture in bestowing lands cabinet, Nov. 1830; created carl of Ripon, 1833; died 28 Jan.

became colonial secretary, which office he held in the Grey and dignities; and two bishops were put in possession 1859.

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Mr. C. W. Wynn, president of the India board.

pounds troy (the mark being eight ounces), was found near Mr. Charles Grant (afterwards lord Glenelg), board of trade. La Paz, a town of Peru, 1730. Mr. Herries, chancellor of the exchequer.

Gold discovered in Malacca in 1731; in New Andalusia in Mr. Tierney, master of the mint, etc.

1785; in Ceylon, 1800; 2887 ounces of gold, value 99911., ob. Godfathers and Godmothers, or sponsors. The

tained from mines in Britain and Ireland in 1864; it has

been found in Cornwall, and in the county of Wicklow, in Jews are said to have had them at circumcision, but Ireland. there is no mention of them in Scripture. Tradition Gold discovered in California, Sept. 1847; and in Austra

lia, 1851. On 28 April, 1858, a nugget, said to weigh 146 says that sponsors were first appointed by Hyginus, a

pounds, was shown to the queen. It is estimated that beRoman bishop, about 154, during a time of persecution. tween 1851 and 1859 gold to the value of 88,889,435l. was In Roman Catholic countries bells have godfathers and exported from Victoria alone (see California and Australia godmothers at their baptism.


Gold discovered in what is now termed New Columbia in Godolphin Administrations (see Administra- 1856; much emigration there in 1858. tions), 1684 and 1690. Lord Godolphin became prime

Gold discovered in New Zealand, and in Nova Scotia in

1861. minister to queen Anne, 8 May, 1702. The cabinet was

Gold discorered in South Africa (Transvaal republic, etc.), notified in 1704. The earl resigned 8 Aug. 1710, and and discovered in Sutherlandshire; much excitement, Oct. died 1712.

1868; in West Australia, reported Sept. 1870; in the Bendi

go fields, Victoria, Nov. 1871; in Land of Midian, by capt. R. Sidney, lord (afterwards earl) Godolphin, treasury

Burton, announced May, 1877. Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper.

Gold obtained in l'nited Kingdom: value in 1861,10,8161.; Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, lord president. in 1862, 20,3901. ; in 1863, 17471. ; in 1864, 99911. ; in 1865, John Sheffield, marquess of Normanby (afterwards duke of 58941. ; in 1868, 35221. ; in 1876, 11381. Normanby and Buckingham), privy sral.

The gold obtained in the United States during 1880 Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer.

amounted to $36,000,000. Sir Charles Hedges and the earl of Nottingham (the latter suc

The imports of gold coin and bullion into the United ceeded by Bobert Harley, created earl of Oxford in 1704), States during the fiscal year ending 30 June, 1881, were secretaries of state.

$90,031, 259.

An ounce of Godwin Sands, sand-banks off the east coast of GOLD WIRE was first made in Italy about 1350.

gold is sufficient to gild a silver wire abore 1300 miles in Kent, occupy land which belonged to Godwin, earl of

length; and such is its tenacity that a wire the one eighKent, the father of king Harold II. This ground was teenth part of an inch will bear the weight of 500 pounds afterwards given to the monastery of St. Augustin at

without breaking. --Fourcroy.

GOLD-LEAF. A single grain of gold may be extended into a Canterbury; but the abbot neglecting to keep in repair

leaf of 56 square inches, and gold-leaf can be reduced to the the wall that defended it from the sea, the tract was 300,000th part of an inch, and gilding to the ten millionth submerged about 1100, leaving these sands, upon which part.-Kelly's Cambist. many ships have been wrecked.-Salmon.

GOLD Robbery. Three boxes, hooped and sealed, containing

gold in bars and coin to the value of between 18,0001, and Godwin's Oath. “ Take care you are not swear- 20.0001., were sent from London, 15 May, 1855. On their ing Godwin's oath.” This caution, to a person taking

arrival in Paris, it was found that ingots to the value of

12,0001. had been abstracted and shot substituted, although a voluntary and intemperate oath, or making violent the boxes bore no marks of violence. Many persons were protestations, had its rise in the following circumstance apprehended on suspicion, but the police obtained no trace

till Nov. 1856. related by the monks: Godwin, earl of Kent, was tried

Three men, named Pierce, Burgess, and

Tester, were tried and convicted, 13-15 Jan. 1857, on the evfor the murder of prince Alfred, brother of Edward the

idence of Edward Agar, an accomplice. They had been preConfessor, and pardoned, but died at the king's table paring for the robbery for eighteen months previous to its while protesting with oaths his innocence of the murder ;

perpetration. supposed by the historians of those times to have been Gold Coast, West Africa; settlements made by the choked with a piece of bread, as a judgment from heav- Dutch; transferred to Great Britain by treaty, signed 2 en, having prayed it might stick in his throat if he were Feb. 1872; joined with Lagos to form the “Gold Coast guilty of the murder; 1053.

Colony,” governor, capt. George Cumine Strahan, apGog and Magog, see Guildhall.

pointed 1874; Sandford Freeling, 1876; Herbert Taylor

Ussher, 1879; sir Samuel Rowe, 25 Jan. 1881. Gold (mentioned Gen. ii. 11), the purest and most

Golden Bulls, Rose, see Bulls, Rose, note. ductile of all the metals, for which reason it has been considered by almost all nations as the most valuable. Golden Fleece (see Argonauts). Philip the Good, It is too soft to be used pure, and to harden it it is al- duke of Burgundy, in 1429, at his marriage, instituted loyed with copper or silver: our coin consists of twenty- the military order of Toison d'or, or “golden fleece ;" two carats of pure gold and two of copper. By 17 & 18 it was said on account of the protit he made by wool. Vict. c. 96 (1854), gold wares are allowed to be manu- The number of knights was thirty-one. The king of factured at a lower standard than formerly-wedding- Spain, as duke of Burgundy, afterwards became grandrings excepted—by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 60 (1855). The master of the order. The knights wore a scarlet cloak present stated price is 31. 178. 101d. per oz.; sec Coin of lined with ermine, with a collar opened, and the duke's England and Guineas. In 1816 it was enacted by 56 cipher, in the form of a B, to signify Burgundy, together Geo. III. c. 68, that “gold coins only should be legal with flints striking fire, with the motto “ Ante ferit, tender in all payments of more than 40s."

quam flamma micat." At the end of the collar hung a Estimated amount of gold in the world : value, 1848, 560,000,- golden fleece, with this device, “ Pretium non rile luibo0001. ; 1875, 1,000,000,0001.

rum." The order afterwards became common to all the Tho value of gold compared with silver is said to have been princes of the house of Austria, as descendants of Mary,

estimated in the time of Herodotus, B.C. 450, about 10 to 1; daughter of Charles the Bold, last duke of Burgundy, of Plato, B.C. 38, 12 to 1; A. D. 1876, more than 15 to 1. See

who married Maximilian of Austria in 1477, and now beSilver. The Amalgamation of Gold is described by Pliny (about 77) longs to both Austria and Spain, in conformity with a

and Vitruvius (about 27 B.C.). The alchemist Basil Valen treaty made 30 April, 1725. tine (in the finteenth century) was acquainted with the solution of the chloride of gold and fulminating gold. An Golden Horde, a name given to the Mongolian dreas Cassius, in 1685, described the preparation of gold Tartars, who established an empire in Kaptchak (or Kibpurple, which was then adapted by Kunkel to make red zak), now S.E. Russia, about 1224, their ruler being Baglass, and to other purposes. --Gmelin. Gold has been subjected to the researches of eminent chemists, such as Berze. tou, grandson of Gengis Khan. They invaded Russia, lius and Faraday..

and made Alexander Newski grand-duke, 1252. At the GOLD-MINES Gold was found most abundantly in Africa, Ja battle of Bielawisch, in 1481, they were crushed by Ivan pan, and South America.

In the last it was discovered by III. and the Nogai Tartars. the Spaniards in 1492, from which time to 1731 they imported into Europe 6000 millions of pieces of eight, in regis

Golden Legend,“ Legenda Aurea.” The lives of ter gold and silver, exclusively of what were unregistered. Peter the Great reopened ancient gold-mines in Russia,

our Lord and the saints, written by Giacomo Varaggio, 1699.

or Jacobus de Voragine, a Dominican monk, about 1260; The Ural or Oural mountains of Russia long produced tirst printed 1470; a translation printed by Caxton, 1483, gold in large quantity.

A piece of gold weigbing ninety marks, equal to sixty Golden Number, the cycle of vineteen years, or

Association to lord North.


the number that shows the years of the moon's cycle; | thongs that served as harness to the wagon of Gordius, its invention is ascribed to Meton of Athens, about 432 a husbandman, afterwards king of Phrygia. Whosoever B.C. Pliny. To find the golden number or year of the loosed this knot, the ends of which were not discoverable, lunar cycle, add one to the date, and divide by 19; the the oracle declared should be ruler of Persia. Alesanquotient is the number of cycles since Christ, and the der the Great cut away the knot with his sword until he remainder the golden number. The golden number for found the ends of it, and thus, in a military sense at least, 1876, 15; 1877, 16; 1878, 17; 1879, 18; 1880, 19; 1881, interpreted the oracle, 330 B.C. 1; 1882, 2; 1883, 3; 1884, 4; 1885, 5.

Gordon's "No Popery" Riots, occasioned by Golden Wedding, see Wedding.

the zeal of lord George Gordon, 2-9 June, 1780. Gold-fish (the golden carp, Cyprinus auratus ), On 4 Jan. 1780, he tendered the petition of the Protestant brought to England from China in 1691, but not common on Friday, 2 June, he headed the mob of 40,000 persons who till about 1723.

assembled in St. George's Fields, under the name of the Prot

estant Association, to carry up a petition to parliament Goldsmiths' Company (London) began about for the repeal of the act which granted certain indulgences 1327, and incorporated 16 Rich. II., 1392. The old hall to the Roman Catholics. The mob proceeded to pillage, was taken down in 1829, and the present magnificent

burn, and pull down the chapels and houses of the Roman

Catholics first, but afterwards of other persons, for nearly edifice by Philip Hardwick was opened 15 July, 1835;

six days. The Bank was attempted, the jails opened (the see Assuy and Standard. The tirst bankers were gold- King's Bench, Newgate, Fleet, and Bridewell prisons). On smiths.

the 7th, thirty-six fires were seen blazing at one time.

length, by the aid of armed associations of the citizens, the Goldsmiths' Hall marks on gold and silver plate are five : 1. horse and foot guards, and the militia of several counties,

The sovereign's head (after 1784); 2. Lion passant (the then embodied and marched to London, the riot was quelled standard mark), probably introduced between 1538 and 1558; on the 8th. 3. The standard mark, fixed 8 & 9 Will. III. 1696-7; 4. Leop- 210 rioters were killed and 248 wounded, of whom 75 died ard's head, the Hall mark; 5. The maker's mark (an old cus- afterwards in the hospitals, and many were tried, convicted tom).

and executed. (The date-letter is one of an alphabet of 20 letters; A to l'or The loss of property was estimated at 180,0001. V, J being omitted. The letter is changed ou 30 May annu- Lord George was tried for high-treason and acquitted, 5 Feb. ally, and the shape of the letter every 20 years; thus 1716, 1781. He died a prisoner for libel, 1 Nov. 1793. A, etc.; 1736, a, etc. ; 1756, A, etc., 1776, a, etc. ; 1796–1816, Alderman Kennett was found guilty of a dereliction of duty, A, etc. ; 1816-36, a, etc.; 1836-56, A, etc. ; 1856–76, a, etc.; 10 March, 1781. 1876–96, A, etc. The earliest known alphabetical series be

Goree, a station near Cape Verd, west coast of Africa, gan 1438-9.) A parliamentary commission on Hall marking reported in favor planted by the Dutch, 1617. It was taken by the Engof its continuance with modifications, May, 1879.

lish admiral Holmes in 1663 ; seized by the French, 1677, “Goliath," training-ship, burned 22 Dec. 1875; see and ceded to them by the treaty of Nimeguen in 1678; under Wrecks.

taken by the British in 1758, 1779, 1800, and 1804; ceded

to France, 1814. Governor Wall was hanged in London, Gomarists, see Arminians.

28 Jan. 1802, for the murder of sergeant Armstrong, comGonfalonier, or STANDARD-BEARER OF JUSTICE, mitted while governor at Goree in 1782. originally a subordinate officer in Florence; instituted 1292; became paramount in the fifteenth century, and

Gorey (S.E. Ireland). Near here the king's troops was suppressed 27 April, 1532, when the constitution under col. Walpole were defeated, and their leader slain, was changed and Alexander de' Medici made duke.

by the Irish rebels, 4 June, 1798. Good Friday (probably God's Friday), the Friday

Gorget, the ancient breastplate, was very large, before Easter day, on which a solemn fast has long been varying in size and weight. The present diminutive held, in remembrance of the crucifixion of Christ on Fri- breastplate came into use about 1660 ; see Armor. day, 3 April, 33, or 15 April, 29. Its appellation of good 3

Gorham Case, see Trials, 1849–50. appears to be peculiar to the church of England; our Gorilla, a powerful ape of W. Africa, about five feet Saxon forefathers denominated it Long Friduy, on ac- seven inches high. It is a match for the lion, and attacks count of the length of the offices and fastings enjoined on the elephant with a club. It is considered to be identithis day. Good Friday, 1883, 23 March ; 1884, 11 April; cal with the hairy people called Gorullai by the naviga1885, 3 April.

tor Hanno, in his “ Periplus," about 400 B.C. In 1847 Good Templars (first lodges formed in America) a sketch of a gorilla's cranium was sent to prof. Owen pledge themselves not to make, buy, sell, furnish, or by Dr. Savage, then at the Gaboon river, and preserved cause to be furnished, intoxicating liquors to others as a specimens have been brought to Europe, and a living beverage. The first English lodge was formed at Bir-one died on its voyage to France. In 1851 prof. Owen mingham in May, 1868. There were said to be 3743 lodges described specimens to the Zoological Society; in 1859 and 210,255 members in the United Kingdom in 1874. he gave a summary of our knowledge of this creature at Goodman's Fields Theatre, London, opened

the Royal Institution, London ; and in 1861 several skins 1729. Here David Garrick made his debut as Richard and skulls were there exhibited by M. Du Chaillu, who III., 19 Oct. 1741. The new theatre, erected about 1746, stated that he killed 21 of them in his travels in Central was burned down June, 1802. The Garrick Theatre

Africa. The gorilla was not known to Cuvier. here was opened in 1830; burned 4 Nov. 1846; and A young gorilla landed at Liverpool, 21 June, 1876; went to since rebuilt.

Berlin; was exhibited at Westminster aquarium 23 July:

died at Berlin, 13 Nov. 1877; another brought to the Crystal Goodwin, see Godwin.

Palace, England, soon died, Aug. 1879. Goodwood Races, see Ruces.

Gospellers, a name given to the followers of WickGoojerat (N. India), see Guzerat.

liffe, who attacked the errors of Popery, about 1377.

Wickliffe opposed the authority of the pope, the tempoGoorkhas, a warlike tribe of Nepaul, became prom- ral jurisdiction of bishops, etc., and is called the father inent in the seventeenth century. Their invasions were of the Reformation. defeated about 1791 by the Chinese, whose vassals they became. In a war with the British in 1814 they were and Mark's are conjectured to have been written between

Gospels (Saxon god-spell, good story). Matthew's at first successful, but were eventually subdued, and a treaty of peace was signed in Feb. 1816. Since 1811 the A.D), 38 and 65; Luke's, 55 or 65; John's, about 97. Trenative regiments have been largely recruited by Goor- neus in the 20 century refers to each of the gospels by khas, who have rendered valuable service in nearly all Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign

Dr. Robert Bray was one of the authors of the our Indian wars, and in Afghanistan, 1878-9.

Countries, incorporated in 1701. A body termed • Bray's Goose, see Michaelmas.

Associates" still exists; its object being to assist in Gordian Knot is said to have been made of the forming and supporting clerical parochial libraries.



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