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Gosport (Hampshire), contains the royal Clarence to aged governesses annuities and an asylum; and to victualling-yard. The great Haslar hospital, near Gos-governesses in distress a temporary home and assistance. port, was built in 1762.

Government Annuities Act, see Annuities. Gotha, capital of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The building of the few GOVERNMENT OFFICES began Here is published the celebrated Almanach de Gotha, in 1861. which first appeared in 1764, in German,

Gowrie Conspiracy. John Ruthven, earl of Gothard, see Gotthard and Tunnels.

Gowrie, in 1600, reckoning on the support of the burghs

and the kirk, conspired to dethrone James VI. of ScotGothenburg System (in Sweden). By this al- land, and seize the government. For this purpose the coholic drinks are dispensed by persons deriving no king was decoyed into Gowrie's house in Perth, on 5 profit from the sale. It was advocated in England by Aug. 1600. The plot was frustrated, and the earl and Mr. Chamberlain, M.P., and much discussed, 1876-7. his brother, Alexander, were slain on the spot. At the

Gothic Architecture began about the 9th century time, many persons believed that the young men were after Christ, and spread over Europe. Its great feature rather the victims than the authors of a plot. Their is the pointed arch; hence it has been suggested to call father, William, was treacherously executed in 1584 for it the pointed style. “Gothic” was originally a term his share in the raid of Ruthven, in 1582; and he and of reproach given to this style by the Renaissance archi- his father, Patrick, were among the assassins of Rizzio, tects of the 16th century. Its invention has been claimed 9 March, 1566. for several nations, particularly for the Saracens. The Grace, a title assumed by Henry IV. of England, on following list is from Godwin's " Chronological Table of his accession in 1399. Excellent Grace was assumed by English Architecture:”

Henry VI. about 1425. Till the time of James I., 1603, ANGLO-ROMAN—B.c. 55 to about A. D. 250—St. Martin's church, the king was addressed by that title, but afterwards by Canterbury

the title of Majesty only. “ Your Grace" is the manner ANGLO-SAXON-A. D. 800 to 1066—Earl's Barton church, St. of addressing an archbishop and a duke in this realm.

Peter's, Lincolnshire.
Gothic ANGLO-ROMAN—A. D. 1066 to 1135 -- Rochester cathedral The term “Grace of Godis said to have been taken

nave; St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield; St. Cross, Hants, etc. by bishops at Ephesus, 431 (probably from 1 Cor. xv. 10), EARLY' English, or POINTED --- A.D. 1135 1.0 1272.- Temple by the Carlovingian princes in the ninth century, by

church, London; parts of Winchester, Wells, Salisbury, and Durham cathedrals, and Westminster Abbey.

popes in the thirteenth century; and about 1440 it was POINTED, called pure Gothic-A.D. 1272 to 1377—Exeter cathe- assumed by kings as signifying their divine right.

dral, Waltham Cross, etc.; St. Stephen's, Westminster. FlorID POINTED--A. D. 1377 to 1509–- Westminster Hall; King's of England, and on his gold coin by Edward III. The

Dei gratia” was put on his great seal by William II. College, Cambridge; St. George's Chapel, Windsor; Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster.

king of Prussia's saying that he would reign" by the ELIZABETHAN---A. D. 1509 to 1625 — Northumberland House. grace of God” gave much offence, 18 Oct. 1861. Strand; part of Windsor Castle; Hatfield House; Schools at Oxford.

Grace at Meat. The ancient Greeks would not Revival of Grecian architecture about 1625. Banqueting partake of any meat until they had first offered part of

House, Whitehall, etc. The revival of Gothic architecture commenced about 1825, it, as the first-fruits, to their gods. The short prayer mainly through the exertions of A. W. Pugin. The contro said before, and by some persons after meat, in Christian versy as to its expediency was rise in 1860-1.

countries, is in conformity with Christ's example, John Gothland, an isle in the Baltic sea, was conquered by

vi. 11, etc. the Teutonic knights, 1397-8; given up to the Danes,

Græcia Magna, colonies planted by the Greeks, 1524; to Sweden, 1645; conquered by the Danes, 1677; 974–748 B.C.; see Italy. and restored to Sweden, 1679.

Graffiti, a term given to the scribblings found on Goths, a warlike nation that inhabited the country'

the walls of Pompeii and other Roman ruins; selections between the Caspian, Pontus, Euxine, and Baltic seas.

were published by Wordsworth in 1837, and by Garrucci

in 1856. They entered Mesia, took Philippopolis, massacring thousands of its inhabitants; defeated and killed the

Grafton Administration succeeded that of lord emperor Decius, 251; but were defeated at Naissus Chatham, Dec. 1767. The duke resigned, and lord North by Claudius, hence surnamed Gothicus, 320,000 being became prime-minister, Jan. 1770; see North's Adminisslain, 269. Aurelian ceded Dacia to them in 272; but tration. they long troubled the empire. After the destruction Augustus Henry, duke of Grafon, first lord of the treasury of the Roman Western empire by the Heruli, the Ostro- Frederick, lord North, chancellor of the exchequer.

(born 1735; died 1811). goths, under Theoderic, became masters of the greater Earl Gower

, lord president. part of Italy, where they retained their dominion till Earl of Chatham, lord privy seal. 553, when they were finally conquered by Narses, Jus- Earl of Shelburne and viscount Weymouth, secretaries of state.

Sir Edward Hawke, first lord of the admiralty. tinian's general. The Visigoths settled in Spain, and Marquess of Granby, master-general of the ordnance. founded a kingdom, which continued until the country Lorus Sandwich and Le Despencer, joint postmasters-general. was subdued by the Saracens,

Lords Hertford, duke of Ancaster, Thomas Townshend, etc.

Lord Camden, lord chancellor, succeeded by Charles Yorke Gotthard, St., near the river Raab, Hungary.

(created lord Morden), died (it is said by his own hand) 20

Jan. 1770. Here the Turks, under the grand-vizier Kupriuli, were totally defeated by the Imperialists and their allies, com- Graham's Dike (Scotland), a wall built in 209 by manded by Montecuculi

, i Aug. 1664. Peace followed Severus Septimus, the Roman emperor, or, as others say, this great victory.

by Antoninus Pius. It reached from the Firth of Forth Göttingen (Hanover), a member of the Hanseatic siderable remains of this wall in his time, and vestiges

to the Clyde. Buchanan relates that there were conLeague about 1360. The university “Georgia Augusta," of it are still to be seen. founded by George II. of England in 1734, was opened 1737. It was seized by the French, 1760, and held till

Grail, Holy (Sangreal). The publication of Ten1762. In 1837 several of the most able professors were

nyson's poem with this title, Dec. 1869, led to much disdismissed for their political opinions.

cussion. Tennyson treats it as the cup in which Christ

drank at the Last Supper. The mediæval romances “Gouvernour, The," a moral and educational work, treat it as the dish which held the paschal lamb. The full of anecdotes, by sir Thomas Elyot, first published in word is probably old French, gréal, from the old Latin 1531; an annotated edition with a glossary by Mr. H. grudalis, a dish. H. S. Croft was published in 1880.

Grain. Henry III. is said to have ordered a grain Governesses' Benevolent Institution was of wheat gathered from the middle of the ear to be the established in 1843, and incorporated in 1848. It affords original standard of weight: 12 grains to be a penny. weight, 12 pennyweights one ounce, and 12 ounces a Grandees, see Spanish Grandees. pound troy.-Lawson.

Grandmontines, a monastic order established in An act for the safe carriage of grain (13 & 44 Vict. c. 43), Limousin, in France, by Stephen, a gentleman of Aupassed 7 Sept. 1880.

vergne, about 1076. They came to England in the Grammar Schools, see Education.

reign of Henry I. (1100-35).- Tanner. Grammarians. A society of grammarians was Granicus (a river, N.W. Asia Minor), near which, formed at Rome so early as 276 B.C.Bluir. Apollo- on 22 May, 334 B.C., Alexander the Great signally dedorus of Athens, Varro, Cicero, Messala, Julius Cæsar, feated the Persians. The Macedonian troops (30,000 Nicias, Ælius Donatus, Remmius, Palemon, Tyrannion foot and 5000 horse) crossed the Granicus in the face of of Pontus, Athenæus, and other distinguished men were the Persian army (600,000 foot and 20,000 horse).-Jusof this class. A Greek grammar was printed at Milan in tin. The victors lost fifty-five foot-soldiers and sixty 1476; Lily's Latin grammar (“ Brevis Institutio "), 1513; horse.

Sardis capitulated, Miletus and Halicarnassus Lindley Murray’s English grammar, 1795; Cobbett's were taken by storm, and other great towns submitted English grammar, 1818.—Harris's “Hermes” was pub- to the conqueror. lished in 1750, Horne Tooke's “Epea Pteroenta; or, The Diversions of Purley,” in 1786, treatises on the philos- where Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, was defeat

Granson, near the lake of Neufchâtel, Switzerland, ophy of language and grammar. Cobbett declared Mr. ed by the Swiss, 3 March, 1476. Canning to have been the only purely grammatical orator of his time; and Dr. Parr, speaking of a speech of

Grant's Virginia Campaign (4 May, 1864Mr. Pitt's, said,“ We threw our whole grammatical mind 9 April, 1865). The grade of lieutenant - general was upon it, and could not discover one error." The science revived 2 March, and on the 9th Grant received this of grammar has been recently much studied with ex- rank, thus becoming, under the president, the commander cellent results.

of all the armies of the United States. He had left the

western field under Sherman's control, and a plan had Gramme, see Metrical System.Gramme machine, been agreed upon between these officers for a simultasee under Electricity.

neous advance in May against the armies of Johnston Grampian Hills (central Scotland). At Ardoch, and Lee. The army of the Potomac at the commencenear Mons Grampius of Tacitus, the Scots and Picts ment of Grant's Virginia campaign numbered (including under Galgacus were defeated by the Romans under Burnside's corps, which acted and was soon incorporated Agricola, 84 or 85.

with it) 140,000 men. In and around Washington were Grampound (Cornwall) was disfranchised in 1821, 42,000; in West Virginia 31,000; and in the department for bribery and corrupt practices in 1819. Sir Manasseh of Virginia and North Carolina gen. Butler had 25,000 Lopez was sentenced by the Court of King's Bench to a available men. The confederate army of northern Virfine of 10,0001. and two years' imprisonment.

ginia, under Lee, had lain in winter-quarters on the

south bank of the Rapidan. By 1 May this army numGran (Hungary). Here the Hungarians defeated

bered about 60,000. Grant began his campaign against the Austrians, 27 Feb. 1849.

Lee 4 May, 1864. It had two distinct periods : 1st, that Granada, a city, S. Spain, was founded by the Moors of the advance from the Rapidan to the James; and, 20, in the eighth century, and formed at first part of the that of the siege of Petersburg, terminating finally in kingdom of Cordova. In 1236, Mohammed-al-Hamar the capture of Lee's army. The events of these two made it the capital of his new kingdom of Granada, periods we give in their chronological order. which was highly prosperous till its subjugation by the Grant crossed the Rapidan and encamped in the Wil"great captain," Gonsalvo de Cordova, 2 Jan. 1492. In derness

.4 May, 1864 1609 and 1610 the industrious Moors were expelled from Battles of the Wilderness, in which Lee failed in his at

tempt to intercept and defeat Grant's columns. Spain by the bigoted Philip III., to the lasting injury

Wadsworth killed. National loss about 20,000; conof his country. Granada was taken by marshal Soult

federate, 10,000..

..5, 6 May, in 1810, and held till 1812; see Nero Granada.

Butler attacked Petersburg.

.. 10 May,

Battle of Spottsylvania. Grant made a movement on Granaries were formed by Joseph in Egypt, 1715 this place to flank Lee. The latter reached Spottsyl. B.C. (Gen. xli. 48). There were 327 granaries in Rome.

vania first. Sedgwick killed (9 May). Hancock capt. ured Johnson's division..

..11 May, - Univ. Hist. Twelve new granaries were built at Grant moved to the North Anna

..21 May, Bridewell to hold 6000 quarters of corn, and two store- Butler occupied City Point on the James (6 May); made houses for sea-coal to hold 4000 loads, thereby to pre

an unsuccessful attack on Fort Drury (13 May); was

attacked by Beauregard, who, after a partial success, vent the sudden dearness of these articles by great in

was repulsed....

.26 May, crease of inhabitants, 7 James I. 1610.-Stow.

Battle of Cold Harbor. Grant recrossed the North Anna

(26 May), and moved to and across the Pamunkey (28 Grand Alliance between the emperor and the

May); after a severe conflict Grant secured a position Dutch states-general (principally to prevent the union at Cold Harbor (1 June). Grant attacked Lee, and, of the French and Spanish monarchies in one person),

after a loss of about 10.000 men, was repulsed, 3 June, Grant crossed the James river..

14 June, signed at Vienna, 12 May, 1689, to which England, Second attack on Petersburg..

...16 June, Spain, and the duke of Savoy afterwards acceded. Investment of Petersburg began.

.19 June,

Attack on the Weldon railroad by Birney and Wright Grand Junction Canal (central England), joins

repulsed with a loss of from 3000 to 4000 men, several others, and forms a water communication be

21, 22 June, tween London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull. The canal Early made a movement up the Shenandoah, threaten!

ing Washington...

28 June-4 July commences at Braunston, on the west borders of North- Assault on the Petersburg lines. Explosion of mine. amptonshire, and enters the Thames near London, Ex- National loss 4000.

.30 July, ecuted 1793-1805.

Warren's attack on the Weldon railroad succeeded, with
pational loss of 4400 men..

.18-21 Aug Grand Juries, see Juries.

Battle of Winchester. Sheridan defeated Early, 19 Sept.

Sheridan routed Early at Fisher's Creek... 22 Sept. Grand Pensionary, a chief state functionary in Ord and Birney attacked the confederate works north Holland in the sixteenth century. In the constitution of the James, and captured Fort Harrison....28 Sept. given by France to the Batavian republic, previously to

Warren and Parke repulsed in an attack on Lee's right

at Peebles's farm. National loss 2685.... 30 Sept. the erection of the kingdom of Holland, the title was

Battle of Cedar Creek. Sheridan, after the repulse of revired and given to the head of the government, 29 his army in the morning, attacked and defeated Early, April, 1805, Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck being made capturing 54 guns and a large number of prisoners, the grand pensionary ; see Holland.

National repulse at Hatcher's Run.. Grand Remonstrance, see Remonstrance.

Second national repulse at Hatcher's Run.... ..5 Feb. 1865

Lee attacked Grant and captured Fort Stedman, which Grand-duke, see Duke.

was afterwards retaken...

25 March,


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Sheridan, after his destructive raid on the James River wounded, while the Virginians had not a single man

Canal, joined Grant at City Point....... . 26 March, 1865 slain in the engagement. The Great Bridge is over
Battle of Five Forks. Sheridan and Warren turned
Lee's right, capturing 4000 prisoners,

the Elizabeth river, near the northern verge of the Dis

31 March-1 April, mal Swamp, a few miles from Norfolk. Grant assaulted and carried the Petersburg lines. Rich mond evacuated. ...

.2 April

Great Britain, the name given in 1604 to EngPursuit and capture of Lee's army.

.3-9 April, land, Wales, and Scotland (which see). Capture of Jefferson Davis...

.11 May,

Great Britain, Great Eastern, etc., see under Grapes. Previously to the reign of Edward VI. Steam.—The Eastern Counties Railway assumed the grapes were brought to England in large quantities name of GREAT EASTERN in 1862. - The GREAT from Flanders, where they were first cultivated about NORTHERN Railway Company was incorporated in 1276. The vine was introduced into England in 1552 ; | 1846. Their station at King's-cross, London, was opened being first planted at Bloxhall, in Suffolk. In the gar- in Oct. 1852. The GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY was dens of Hampton Court palace is a vine stated to sur- opened as far as Maidenhead, 4 June, 1838; as Twyford, pass any in Europe; it is 72 feet by 20, and has in one 1 July, 1839; between London and Bristol, 30 June, 1841. season produced 2272 bunches of grapes, weighing 18

Great Exhibition, sce Exhibition. cwt.; the stem is 13 inches in girth; it was planted in 1769.-Leigh.

Great Seal of England. The first seal used by

Edward the Confessor was called the broad seal, and Graphic, London, illustrated weekly journal, es- affixed to the grants of the crown, 1048.- Baker's Chron. tablished 4 Dec. 1869.

The most ancient seal with arms on it is that of RichGraphite (from the Greek ypapev, to write), a pe- ard I. James II., when fleeing from London in 1688, culiar form of mineral carbon, with a trace of iron, im- dropped the great seal in the Thames. The great seal properly termed black-lead and plumbago. In 1809 sir of England was stolen from the house of lord chancellor Humphry Davy investigated into the relations of three Thurlow in Great Ormond street, and carried away, forms of carbon — the diamond, graphite, and charcoal. with other property, 24 March, 1784, a day before the A rude kind of black-lead pencil is mentioned by Gesner dissolution of parliament; it was never recorered, and in 1565. Interesting results of sir B. C. Brodie's re- was replaced the next day. A new seal was brought searches on graphite appeared in the International Ex- into use on the union with Ireland, 1 Jan. 1801. A new hibition of 1862. Fresh discoveries were made in the seal for Ireland was brought into use and the old one nearly exhausted Borrowdale mines, Cumberland, in defaced, 21 Jan. 1832. The Great Seal Offices act, 1875.

passed 7 Aug. 1874, abolished certain offices, transferred Graphoscope, an optical apparatus for magnify- lates to appointment of judges, patents, etc.

duties, etc. The Great Seal act, passed 2 Aug. 1880, reing and giving fine effects to engravings, photographs, etc., invented by C. J. Rowsell; exhibited in 1871.

Great Seal of the United States was adopted

on 20 June, 1782. Immediately after the adoption of Graphotype, a new process for obtaining blocks for surface-printing, the invention of Mr. De Witt Clin- the Declaration of Independence

, on the 4th of July, ton Hitchcock in 1860. It was described by Mr. Fitz- for a seal, but the matter was not consummated until

1776, a committee was appointed to prepare a device Cook at the Society of Arts, 6 Dec. 1865. Drawings the date above mentioned. The device is, on one side, a were made on blocks of chalk with a silicious ink; when dried, the soft parts were brushed away, and the draw- spread eagle, with a shield with thirteen stripes paleways,

and a chief azure; in one talon a bundle of arrows, in the ings remained in relief; stereotypes were then taken other an olive branch ; in its beak a scroll with the motto from the block.

E PLURIBUS UNUM; and over its head a glory breakGrates. The Anglo-Saxons had arched hearths, ing from the clouds, surrounding thirteen stars. On the and chating-dishes were in use until the introduction reverse is an unfinished pyramid, symbolling the growth of chimneys about 1200; see Chimneys and Stores. and strength of the states; over it the All-seeing Eye

Gravelines (N. France). Here the Spaniards, in a triangle, surrounded by a glory, and around the rim aided by an English fleet, defeated the French on 13 the words AnnuiT CEPTIS (God has favored the underJuly, 1558.

taking), and Novus ORDO SECLORUM (a new order of

things). This seal has never been changed, and is in Gravelotte, BATTLE OF, 18 Aug. 1870; see Metz.

charge of the secretary of state. Gravitation, as a supposed innate power, was noticed by the Greeks, and also by Seneca, who speaks of said to have been the progeny of Javan, fourth son of

Greece, anciently termed Hellas, The Greeks are the moon attracting the waters, about 38. Kepler investigated the subject about 1615; and Hooke derised Japheth. Greece was so called from an ancient king, a system of gravitation about 1674. The principles of Græcus, and Hellas from another king, Hellen, the son

of Deucalion. From Hellen's sons, Dorus and Æolus, gravity were demonstrated by Galileo at Florence, came the Dorians and Æolians; another son Xuthus about 1633; but the great law on this subject, laid down

was father of Achæus and Ion, the progenitors of the by Newton in his “ Principia” in 1987, is said to have Achæans and Ionians. Homer calls the inhabitants inbeen proved by him in 1670. The fall of an apple differently Myrmidons, Hellenes, and Achaians. They from a tree in 1666 is said to have directed his atten

were also termed Danaï, from Danaus, king of Argos, tion to the subject.

1474 B.C. Greece anciently consisted of the peninsula Newton says, “I do not anywhere take on me to define the of the Peloponnesus, Greece outside of the Peloponnesus,

kind or inanner of any action, the causes or physical rea; Thessaly, and the islands. The principal states of Greece sous thereof, or attribute forces in a true and physical sense to certain centres, when I speak of them as attract- were Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, Arcadia, and aftering, or endued with attractive powers."

wards Macedou (all which see). The limits of Modern On 15 July, 1867, M. Chasles laid before the Paris Academy Greece are much more contined. Greece became subof Sciences some letters alleged to be from Newton to Pascal and others tending to show that to Pascal was due the ject to the Turkish empire in the tifteenth century. theory of gravitation. The authenticity of these letters The population of the kingdom, established in 1829, was authoritatively denied, and their forgery and his own 96,810; in 1861, 1,096,810, with the loniau Isles (added delusion were acknowledged by M1. Chasles before the Acad. in 1864), about 1,318,522; in 1870, 1,457,894. The early emy 13 Sept. 1869.

history is mythic. Great Bethel, sec Big Bethel,

Sicyon founded (Eusebins).. Great Bridge, BATTLE OF, was fought 9 Dec. 1775, Vrapus arrives in Greece (Lenglel).. between some royal troops sent out from Norfolk to at- Revolt of the Titans; War of the Giants. taek Virginians under col. Woodford. The British were Kingdom of Argos begin by Inachus (Eusebius)..

Inachus, king of the Argives.. repulsed with a loss of sixty-two men in killed and Reign of Ogyges in Bæotia (Eusebius).


.B.C. 2039


1910 1856


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Sacrifices to the gods introduced by Phoroncus..
1773 | The Morea held by Venice..

1687-1715 Sicyon now begun (Lenglet)..

Great struggle for independence with Russian help, 1770 Deluge of Ogyges (which see).

1764 et seq. ; fruitless insurrection of the Suliotes. ........ 1903 A colony of Arcadians emigrate to Italy under Enotrus: Secret Society, the Hetairia, established.

1815 the country tirst called Enotria, afterwards Magna Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia, in which the Græcia (Eusebius).. 1710 Greeks join, suppressed...

1821 The Pelasgi hold the Peloponnesus, 1700-1550; succeeded Proclamation of prince Alexander to shake off the Turk. by the Hellenes...

1550-1300 ish yoke, March; he raised the standard of the cross Chronology of the Arundelian marbles commences (Eu

against the crescent, and the war of independence be. sebius). 1582 gan.

.6 April, Cecrops arrives from Egypt..

.about 1550 The Greek patriarch put to death at Constantinople, The Areopagus established..


23 April, Deluge of Deucalion (Eusebius)..

1503 The Morea gained by the Greeks...

..June, Panathenaan games instituted.. 1495 Missolonghi taken by Greeks.....

Nov. Cadmus with the Phænician letters settles in Baotia, Independence of Greece proclaimed.

...27 Jan. 1822 and founds Thebes.. about 1493 Siege of Corinth by the Turks...

...Jan. Lelex, first king of Laconia, afterwards called Sparta. ... 1490 Bombardment of Scio; its capture; most horrible massaDanaus said to have brought the first ship into Grecce, cre recorded in modern history (see Chios)....11 April, and to have introduced pumps (see Argos)...

1485 The Greeks victors at Thermopylæ, etc.... .13 July, Reign of Hellen (Eusebius).

1459 Massacre at Cyprus....

...July, First Olympic games at Elis, by the Idæi Dactyli. 1453 Corinth taken.

.16 Sept. Who are said to have discovered iron...

1406 National congress at Argos.

... 10 April, 1823 Corinth rebuilt and so named.

1384 Victories of Marco Bozzaris, June; killed 10 Aug. Eleusinian mysteries instituted by Eumolpus (1356) and Lord Byron lands in Greece to devote himself to its Isthmian games.... 1326 cause..

.Aug. Kingdom of Mycenæ created out of Argos. 1313 First Greek loan...

. Feb. 1824 Pelops, from Lydia, settles in south Greece (Peloponne. Death of lord Byron at Missolonghi, . ..19 April, sus)....

.about 1283 Defeat of the capitan pacha at Samos. ...16 Aug. Argonautic expedition (which see).

1263 Provisional government of Greece set up.. ...12 Oct. The Pythian games begun by Adrastus.

Ibrahim Pacha lands, 25 Feb.; takes Navarino, 23 May; War of the seven Greek captains against Thebes.

1225 Tripolitza.....

.30 June, 1825 The Amazonian war.....

1213 The Greek fleet defeats the capitan pacha.. ....June, Rape of Helen by Theseus..

The provisional government invite the protection of Rape of Helen by Paris..

1198 England...

..July, Commencement of the Trojan war.

1193 Ibrahim Pacha takes Missolonghi by assault, after a Troy taken and destroyed on the night of the 7th of the long and heroic defence...

23 April, 1826 month Thargelion (27 May or 11 June).

1184 70,0001. raised in Europe for the Greeks.. Æneas said to arrive in Italy.. .about 1182 Reschid Pacha takes Athens...

.2 June, 1827 Migration of Æolians, who build Smyrna, etc..

1123 Egypto-Turkish fleet destroyed at Navarino. ...20 Oct. Return of the Heraclida...

.about 1103 Treaty of London, between Great Britain, Russia, and Settlement of the Ionians in Asia Minor..

1044 France, on behalf of Greece, signed. ... ..6 July, The Rhodians begin navigation laws...

916 Count Capo d'Istria president of Greece.. ......18 Jan. 1828 Lycurgus flourishes...

846 The Panhellenion, or Grand Council of State, established, Olympic games revivod at Elis, $34; the first Olympiad. 776

2 Feb. The Messenian wars... .743-669 National bank founded..

.14 Feb. Sea-fight, the first on record, between the Corinthians Convention of the viceroy of Egypt with sir Edward and the inhabitants of Corcyra..

664 Codrington for the evacuation of the Morea and deByzantium built..

657 livery of captives.. Seren sages of Greece (Solon, Periander, Pittacus, Chilo, Patras, Navarino, and Modon surrender to the French, Thales, Cleobulus, and Bias) flourish. .about 590

6 Oct. Persian conquests in lonia...

544 The Turks evacuate thc Morea.

.. Oct. Sybaris in Magna Græcia destroyed: 100,000 Crotonians Missolonghi surrendered to Greece..

16 May, 1829 under Milo defeat 300,000 Sy barites...

508 Greek National Assembly commences its sittings at Sardis burned by the Greeks, which occasions the Per.


23 July, sian invasion..

504 The Porte acknowledges the independence of Greece by Thrace and Macedonia conquered.

the treaty of Adrianople...

.14 Sept. Athens and Sparta resist the demands of the king of Persia 491 Prince Leopold declines the sovereignty. 21 May, 1830 The Persians defeated at Marathon..

28 Sept. 490 Count Capo d'Istria, president of Greece, assassinated by Xerxes invades Greece, but is checked at Thermopyla the brother and son of Mavromichaelis, a Mainote chief by Leonidas... Aug. 480 whom he had imprisoned..

.9 Oct. 1831 Battle of Salamis (which see)..

. 20 Oct.

The assassins immured within close brick walls, built Mardonius defeated and slain at Platæa; Persian tleet around them up to their chips, and supplied with food destroyed at Mycale..

.22 Sept.

until they died.

.29 Oct. Battle of Eurymedon (end of Persian war).

466 Otho of Bavaria made king of Greece by a convention Athens begins to tyrannize over Greeco..


.7 May, 1832 The sacred war begun.

448 Colocotroni's conspiracy..

..Sept. War between Corinth and its colony Corcyra.

435 He is condemned but spared...

..7 June, 1834 Leads to the Peloponnesian war... 431-404 Otho I assumes the government..

.1 June, 1835 Disastrous Athenian expedition to Syracuse.

415-413 University at Atheus established, 1837; building comRetreat of the 10,000 under Xenophon...


1839 Death of Socrates...

399 A bloodless revolution at Athens is consummated, estabThe sea fight at Cnidus..


lishing a new constitution, enforcing ministerial reThe peace of Antalcidas


sponsibility and national representation......14 Sept. 1843 Rise and fall of the Theban power in Grecce. .370-360 The king accepts the new constitution... ..16 March, 1844 Battle of Mantinea; death of Epaminondas..

362 Admiral Parker, in command of the British MediterraAmbitious designs of Philip of Macedon..

353 nean fleet, blockades the harbor of the Piræus, the Sacred wars ended by Philip, who takes all the cities of Greek government having refused the payment of the Phocians......

348 moneys due to British subjects, and to surrender the Battle of Chæronea (which ser).

338 islands of Sapienza and Caprera.

18 Jan. 1850 Philip assassinated by Pausanias.

335 France interposes her good offices, and the blockade is Alexander, his son, subdues the Athenians, and destroys


.1 March, Thebes..

Negotiations terminate, and the blockade of Athens is Alexander conquers the Persian empire.. .334-331 renewed...

.25 April, Greece harassed by his successors; the Ætolian and

Dispute with France accommodated.

.21 June, Achaian leagues revived..

284-280 Insurrections against Turkey in Thessaly and Epirus, Greece invaded by the Gauls, 280; they are defeated at favored by the Greek court, Jan, and Feb. ; lead to a Delphi, 279, and expelled.

277 rupture between Greece and Turkey.... ..28 March, 1854 Dissensions lead to Roman intervention.

200 After many remonstrances, the English and French govGreece conquered by Mummius and made a Roman ernments send troops which arrive at the Piraus; province..

.147-146 change of ministry ensues, aud the king promises to observe a strict neutrality..

25, 26 May, Greece visited and favored by Augustus, 21 B.C.; and by A newspaper in the modern Greek language printed in Hadrian.. A.D. 122-133 London, beginning...

.9 July, 1860 Invaded by Alaric..

396 Great Britain, France, and Russia remonstrate with the Plundered by the Normans of Sicily..


Greek government respecting its debts. ......18 Oct. Conquered by the Latins, and subdivided into small gov- Agitation in the Ionian isles for annexation to Greece; ernments...

1204 the parliament prorogued....

... March, 1861 The Turks under Mahomet II. conquer Athens and part The king retires to Bavaria,

..July, of Greece..

1456 Attempted assassination of the queen by Darios, an inThe Venetians hold Athens and the Morea..

1466 sane student...

18 Sept. Greece mainly subject to the Turks...

1540 | Great carthquake in the Peloponnesus.. .20 Dec.

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7 June,


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Leopold of Bavaria proposed as heir to the throne...Jan. 1862 | The brigands retreating, and surrounded by troops, kill
Military revolt begins at Nauplia......
...............13 Feb.

Mr. Vyner, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Herbert, and the count de
Blockade of the coast decreed..

..9 March,

.21 April, 1870
The insurgents demand reforms and a new succession to Great excitement; the king shows great liberality; but
the throne.


many influential persons are charged with copnivance The royal troops enter the citadel of Nauplia; insurgents at brigandage.

.May, June, removed.

.25 April,

Several brigands killed; seven captured; tried and conChange of ministry : Colocotroni becomes premier, demned, 23 May; five executed. ....20 June,

A new ministry under M. Deligeorges....... . 19 July, Insurrection begins at Patras and Missolonghi, 17 Oct.; Greek college opened at Bayswater, London, W....1 Oct.

a provisional government, established at Athens, de Decree for suppression of brigandage issued. poses the king, 23 Oct.; he and the queer flee; arrive Two gentlemen carried off....

11 Oct. at Corfu, 27 Oct.; the European powers neutral; gen. A new ministry under M. Coumoundouros 22 Dec. eral submission to provisional government.....31 Oct. Coumoundouros ministry resigus.

.6 Nov. 1871 Great demonstrations in favor of prince Alfred of Great Succeeded by Zaimis.

..8 Nov. Britain, who is proclaimed king at Lamia in Phthiotis, Bulgaris minister, 7 Jan.; resigns; Deligeorges again 22 Nov. ; great excitement in his favor at Athens,

minister ..

26 July, 1872 23 Nov. The Laurium mines of lead, zinc, etc., were purchased The provisional government establish universal suffrage, by MM. Rous and Serpieri and a company, 1863; and

4 Dec.

worked profitably; roads being made and a village The national assembly meets at Athens...... 22 Dec.

built. The mines having been heavily taxed, and sco. The national assembly elects M. Balbis president, 29 Jan.; riæ claimed by the government, loss ensued; the comand declares prince Alfred king of Greece by 230,016

pany's offer to sell the mines to the government was out of 241,202 votes...

.....3 Feb. 1863 accepted, but payment evaded by the legislature. Military revolt of lieut. Canaris against Bulgaris and

Hence arose disputes with France and Italy, and minothers, who resign, 20 Feb.; a new ministry appointed isterial changes in Greece.....

autumn, under Balbis..

.23 Feb. Speech of the king to the legislature, announcing formaThe assembly decides to offer the crown to prince Will. tion of roads and other improvements. [The Laurium

iam of Schleswig-Holstein, 18 March; proclaim him mines had been purchased by M. Syngros, a Greek
as king George 1..
.30 March, capitalist, supported by the banks)...

25 Feb. 1873 Protocol between the three protecting powers-France, 52d anniversary of Greek independence kept in London, England, and Russia-signed at London, consenting to

5 April, the offer of the crown on condition of the annexation The university at Athens closed, through insubordinaof the lonian Isles to Greece..

.5 June,
tion of the students..

.... Dec. The king of Denmark accepts from the aged admiral New cabinet under Bulgaris, 22 Feb.; resigus, 27 April; Canaris the Greek crown for prince William, whom he

resumes office.

.7 May, 1874
advises to adhere to the constitution and gain the love Tricoupi minister, 8 May; dissolves chambers, 31 May;
of his people..

.....6 June

. Aug. 1875
Military revolt at Athens suppressed....30 June-9 July, Greece neutral in regard to insurrection in the Herzego-
The king arrives at Athens, 30 Oct.; takes the oath to


...July-Sept. the constitution...

.31 Oct. The prince of Wales warmly received at Athens.. 18 Oct. The Balbis ministry formed.

.. 28 April, 1864 New ministry under Coumoundouros...... about 27 Oct. Protocol annexing the Ionian Isles to Greece, signed by Several ex-ministers fined for extortion from bishops M. Zaïmis and sir H. Storks, 28 May; the Greek troops and others on appointment...

... April, 1876
occupy Corfu, 2 June; the king arrives there..6 June, | The king and queen travelling in England in July; at
New ministry under Canaris forined...

...7 Aug.
the Crystal Palace

. 19 July, The assembly recognizes the debt of 1824........5 Sept. Greece neutral in the Servian war..

...July, After much delay, and a remonstrance from the king, 19 Deligeorges forms a ministry, 8 Dec.; replaced by ZaiOct. a new constitution (with no upper house) is passed

mis and Coumoundouros...

10 Dec. by the assembly, 1 Nov.; and accepted by the king, Deligeorges prime-minister, 10 March-28 May; succeed.

28 Nov

ed by a coalition ministry, 29 May; reformed under New ministry under Coumoundouros.. 29 March, 1865 the aged Canaris...

.3 June, 1877 The anniversary of the beginning of the war of inde- National excitement for war allayed by the king, pendence (6 April, 1821) kept with enthusiasm.6 April,

29 May, The king visits the eastern provinces; general tranquillity, Discovery of relics at Spata, near Athens; tombs con.

20 April, taining bones, precious metal ornaments, etc. (removed The king opens chamber of deputies...

.9 June,
to Athens by M. Stamataki)..

.about 1 July, Death of Alexander Mavrocordato, one of the early pa- Revival of the Theban “sacred band," instituted by triots

18 Aug.

Epaminondas (to be 1000 instead of 300)... about July, The king gives up one third of his civil list to relieve tho Death of the aged Canaris, 14 Sept. ; the king takes his treasury.

25 Sept.
place as president..

.14 Sept. An economical financial policy proposed; a new ministry British and Turkish governments remonstrate with formed,


Greece for apparently arming against Turkey, Brigandage prevails; frequent ministerial changes under

Sept., Oct. Deligeorges, Coumoundouros, Bulgaris, and Roufos, Death of Bulgaris, statesman...

about 10 Jan. 1878 Oct. 1865-June, 1866 New ministry under Coumoundouros.. ..23 Jan. New ministry under Bulgaris and Roufos. 23 Jan. Insurrection in Thessaly against Turks, 28 Jan. ; 10,000 Chambers voto payments to themselves; suddenly dis. Greeks enter the country, retire at the armistice, solved by the king. 3 Feb.

early in Feb. Great agitation in favor of the Cretan insurrection (see Insurrection struggling; battles at Macrinitza, 28, 29 Candia)...

.Aug. -Dec. March; Mr. C. Ogle, Times correspondent, killed by
New ministry headed by Coumoundouros. ..Jan. 1867 Turks (investigation led to no result). ......29 March,
Manifesto of the so named “Greek pation," issued at Insurrection closed through British intervention; an-

19 April,

.6 May, Great sympathy with the insurrection in Candia; the Greece disappointed by the Berlin treaty 13 July; recti

blockade run by Greek vessels with volunteers, arms, fication of the frontiers by the sultan, proposed
and provisions.
April et seq.

about 24 July, Marriage of the king with the grand-duchess Olga of Safvet Pacha's despatch resisting the claims for Greece, Russia.

..27 Oct. Their cordial reception at Athens. .24. Nov. New ministry under Tricoupis..

.31 Oct New ministry under Moraïtinis, 1 Jan.; under Bulgaris, Defeated in assembly, 4 Nov. ; Coumoundouros forms a Feb. 1868 ministry...

......7-10 Nov. Constantine,duko of Sparta, heir to the crown, born 2 Aug. Recruiting law for the army (all men between 21 and 40 Greek vessel Enosis tires on Turkish vessels and enters


Nov. port of Syra... .....14 Dec. Death of Deligeorges, late minister..

26 May, 1879 Rupture between Turkey and Greece in consequence of Monument of Mr. Ogle set up at Athens. .. Aug. Greek armed intervention in Candia (which see). .. Dec. Recruiting law come into force..

1 Jan. 1880 After a conference of representatives of the Western Crisis; Coumoundouros remains.

.28 Jan. powers at Paris, Jan., their requisitions were accepted, Tricoupis ministry formed....

.22 March, and diplomatic relations between Turkey and Greeco Berlin conference to propose settlement of the Turkish resumed... ...26 Feb. 1869 and Greek frontiers meets.

..10 June, Prince and princess of Wales visit Athens......19 April, The king visits England; receives freedom of London; Law authorizing the cutting the isthmus of Corinth

16 June; leaves.

...5 July, passed..

.7 Nov. Order for mobilization of the army signed .......5 Aug. New ministry under M. Zaïmis.

.9 Jan. 1870 The king and queen arrive at Athens after a long EuroConcession to cut a canal through the Isthmus of Cor. pean tour; national feeling warliko; Thessaly and Epiinth granted to a French company...

. April,
rus demanded...

.17 Oct. Lord and lady Moncaster and a party of English travel. King's speech opening parliament, moderate and firm, lers seized by brigands at Oropos, near Marathon; lord

21 Oct Muncaster and the ladies sent to treat; 25,0001. de. Tricoupis ministry defeated; resigns,

.22 Oct manded as ransom, with free pardon........11 April, Coumoundouros forms a ministry. ......25 Oct


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