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.180-254 Plutarch

Much discussion with negotiations respecting Greek and tioned Richard Bentley, died 1742; professor Richard

Turkish frontiers (see Turkey)........ Oct. 1880-May, 1881 Porson, died 1808; Dr. Samuel Parr, died 1825; and Dr.
Convention between Turkey and Greece agreed to at
Constantinople; Thessaly ceded to Greece, 24 May;

Charles Burney, died 1817. “ Society for Promoting signed.

.2 July,

Hellenic Studies " formed 16 June, 1879. Modern Greek Carried into effect; Greek tlag raised in Arta ....6 July,

literature is now cultivated.
Homer flourished.

.about B.C. 962-927 1832. Otho I., prince of Bavaria; born 1 June, 1815; elected Hesiod......

..about 850 king, 7 May, 1832; under a regency till 1 June, 1835; Æsop.. married, 22 Nov. 1836, to Maria Frederica, daughter of


.. about 559 the grand-duke of Oldenburg; deposed 23 Oct. 1862; died Æschylus.

525-456 in Bavaria, 26 July, 1867.


about 443 1863. George I. (son of Christian IX. of Denmark), king of the Pindar..

522-439 Hellenes; born 24 Dec. 1845; accepted the crown, 6 June, Aristophanes.

427 1863; declared of age, 27 June, 1863; married grand Euripides.

480-406 duchess Olga of Russia, 27 Oct. 1867.


495-405 Heir : Constantine, duke of Sparta, born 2 Aug. 1868. Thucydides.

470-404 Xenophon.

443–359 Greek Architecture, see architecture.


429-347 Isocrates

436–338 Greek Church,or EASTERN CHURCH, established in Aristotle..

384-322 Russia and Greece, disowns the supremacy of the pope, Menander



about 321 and is strongly opposed to many of the doctrines and Æschines..

389-314 practices of the Roman church. The Greek orthodox Theocritus.

about 272

342-270 confession of faith appeared in 1643; see Fathers of the Epicurus.


287 Church. This church in 1876 had 279 dignitaries, un- Archimedes..

287-212 der the patriarch of Constantinople; 136 bishops—66 in Polybius .


.B.C. 50-A.D. 13 Russia, 24 in Greece, 15 in Jerusalem, 11 in Austria, etc. Diodorus...

Strabo Catechetical school at Alexandria (Origen, Clemens,

Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

.about 30 etc.)...

.about 96 Rise of monachism. .. about 300 Epictetus..


118 Foundation of the churches of Armenia, about 300; of Appian. .

.about 147 Georgia or Iberia....

318 Arrian.,

.. about 148 First council of Nice (sce Councils).

325 Athenæus..

.about 194 Rivalry between Rome and Constantinople begins about 340 Lucian

about 120-200 Ulphilas preaches to the Goths.

.about 204 .about 376 Herodian Nestorius condemned at the council of Ephesus.

431 Longinus..

.dies 273 Monophysite controversy; churches of Egypt, Syria,

Julian, emperor

331-363 and Armenia separate from the church of Constanti

(See Fathers and Philosophy.) nople...


Green Cloth, BOARD OF, in the department of the Close of the school of Athens; extinction of the Platonic theology:

629 lord-steward of the household, included an ancient court The Jacobite sect established in Syria by Jacobus Bara- (abolished in 1849), with jurisdiction of all offences comdæus..

541 The struggle with the Mahometans begins..

mitted in the verge of the court.

634 The Maronite sect begins to prevail

about 676 Green Park (near Buckingham Palace, London) The Paulicians severely persecuted.

690 forms a part of the ground enclosed by Henry VIII. in Iconoclastic controversy begins..

about 726 Pope Gregory II. excommunicates the emperor Leo,

1530, and is united to St. James's and Hyde parks by the which leads to the separation of the Eastern (Greek)

road named Constitution hill. Over the arch at the enand Western (Roman) churches......

trance, the Wellington statue was placed in 1846. On Image.worship condemned...

734 Foundation of the church in Russia; conversion of prin.

the north side was a reservoir of the Chelsea watercess Olga, 955; of Vladimir..

988 works, filled up in 1856. The Maronites join the Roman church.

1182 Reunion of Eastern and Western churches at the coun.

Greenbacks, a name given, from the predomicil of Lyons, 1274; again separated...

1277 nating color of the ink, to notes for a dollar and upProposed union with the Church of England..

1723 wards, first issued by the United States government in The patriarchate of Moscow established, 1582; suppressed

1862. Notes for lower sums (even 3 cents) were termed in..

1762 The archimandrite Nilos, representing Constantinople

" fractional currency.” For Greenbuckers, see United and 4 patriarchates, visits London on behalf of the States, 1878.

Greek clergy in the Danubian principalities.... 1863 The pope's invitation to an ecumenical council, 8 Dec.

Green-bag Inquiry took its name from a Green 1869, firmly declined by the patriarch of Constantino. Bag, full of documents of alleged seditions, laid before ple...

......about 3 Oct. 1868 parliament by lord Sidmouth, 3 Feb. 1817. Secret comLetter from the patriarch Gregory to the archbishop of Canterbury acknowledging receipt of English prayer

mittees presented their reports, 19 Feb.; and bills were book, and objecting to some of “Thirty-nine Articles," brought in on the 21st to suspend the habeas corpus

dated 8 Oct. 1869 act, and prohibit seditious meetings, then frequent. Greek church at Liverpool consecrated by an archbishop,

16 Jan. 1870

Greenland, an extensive Danish colony in North Greek Empire, see Eastern Empire.

America, discovered by Icelanders, under Eric Raude,

about 980, and named from its verdure. It was visited Greek Fire, a combustible composition (now un- by Frobisher in 1576. The first ship from England to known, but thought to have been principally naphtha). Greenland was sent for the whale-fishery by the Musthrown from engines, said to have been invented by Cal- covy Company, 2 James I. 1604. In a voyage performed linicus, an engineer of Heliopolis, in Syria, in the seventh in 1630, eight' men were left behind by accident, who century, to destroy the Saracens' ships, which was effected suffered incredible hardships till the following year, when by the general of the fleet of Constantine Pogonatus, the company's ships brought them home.-- T'indal. The and 30,000 men were killed. A so-called “Greek fire,” | Greenland Fishing Company was incorporated in 1693. probably a solution of phosphorus in bisulphide of car- -Hans Egede, a Danish missionary, founded a new colbon, was employed at the siege of Charleston, U.S., in ony, called Godhaab, or Good Ilope, in 1720-3; and other Sept. 1863.

missionary stations have been since established. ScoresGreek Language. The study was revived in by surveyed Greenland in 1821; and capt. Graah, by orwestern Europe about 1450; in France, 1473. William der of the king of Denmark, in 1829-30. Population in Grocyn, or Grokeyn, an English professor of this lan- 1878, about 9408. guage, introduced it at Oxford, about 1491, where he Greenock (W. Scotland). Charters were granted taught Erasmus, who himself taught it at Cambridge in in 1635 and 1760 to John Shaw, of the barony of Green1510.-Wood's Athen. Oxon, England has produced ock. It was a fishing station till 1697, when the Scotmany eminent Greek scholars, of whom may be men- tish Indian and African Company resolred to erect salt



works in the Frith, and thus drew the attention of sir Grenadiers. The Grenadier corps was a company John Shaw, its superior, to its maritime advantages. It armed with a pouch of hand-grenades, established in was made a burgh of barony in 1757, and a parliamentary France in 1667 ; and in England in 1685.—Brown. See burgh in 1832. The erection of the new quay was in- Guards. trusted, about 1773, to James Watt, who was born here

Grenelle, see Artesian Wells. in 1736. The East India harbor was built 1805-19, and Victoria harbor 1846-50.

Grenoble (the Roman Gratianopolis), S. E. France.

Here Napoleon was received on his return from Elba, 8 Greenwich (Kent), anciently Grenawic, an ancient March, 1815, and here he issued three decrees. manor, near which the Danes murdered the archbishop Elphege, 1012. The llospital stands on the site of a

Grenville Administrations. The first sucroyal residence erected in the reign of Edward I., and ceeded the Bute administration, 8 April, 1763; and remuch enlarged by his successors. Here were born Henry signed in July, 1765. VIII., his daughters Mary and Elizabeth, and here his George Grenville (born 1712, died 1770), first lord of the treasury son Edward VI. died. Charles II. intended to build a and chancellor of the exchequer. new palace here, but erected one wing only.

Earl Granville (succeeded by the duke of Bedford), lord presi

dent. William III, and Mary converted the palace into a Royal Duke of Marlborough, privy seal.

Hospital for Seamen, 1694, and added new buildings, Earls of Halifax and Sandwich, secretaries of state. erected by Wren ...

1696 Earl Gower, lord chamberlain. 100 disabled seamen admitted.

1705 Earl of Egmont, admiralty. The estates of the attainted earl of Derwentwater (be. Marquess of Granby, ordnance. headed in 1716) bestowed upon it

1735 Lord Holland (late Mr. Fox), paymaster. A charter granted to the commissioners... ......6 Dec. 1775 Welbore Ellis, secretary-at-war. The chapel, the great dining-ball, and a large portion of Viscount Barrington, treasurer of the navy.

the buildings appropriated to the pensioners destroyed Lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade. by fire...

..2 Jan. 1779 Lord Henley (afterwards earl of Northington), lord chancellor. The chapel rebuilt.

1789 Duke of Rutland, lords North, Trevor, Hyde, etc. Sixpence per month to be contributed by every seaman;

the payment advanced to one shilling, from. ....June, 1797 SECOND GRENVILLE ADMINISTRATION, formed after the death The payment abolished in 1829, and that of “the mer

of Mr. Pitt, on 23 Jan. 1806. From the ability of many of chant seamen's” sixpence also in....

1834 its members, their friends said it contained “all the talents, The hospital had lodging for 2710 seamen, and a revenue wisdom, and abilily of the country,'' a term applied to it deof about 150.0001. per annum.

1853 risively by its opponents. The death of Mr. Fox, 13 Sept. Greenwich Fair was discontinued..

.. April, 1857 1806, led to changes, and eventually the cabinet resigned, The office of the commissioners was abolished..

25 March, 1807 : Reported annual income, 155,5321..


Lord Grenville, first lord of the treasury. By an act of parliament, about 900 indoor pensioners re

Lord Henry Petty (afterwards marquess of Lansdowne), chanceived additions to their pensions, quitted the hospi

cellor of the exchequer. tal, 1 Oct. 1865; henceforth to be used as an infirmary. Earl Fitzwilliam, lord president. All the remaining inmates, except 31 bedridden per

Viscount Sidmouth (late Mr. Addington), privy seal. sons, had left the place....

.1 Oct. 1869 Charles James Fox, foreign secretary. The patients of the Dreadnought seamen's hospital re

Earl Spencer, home secretary. moved here. ....

. 13 April, 1870 William Windham, colonial secretary. Acts for the application of the revenues were passed in

Lord Erskine, lord chancellor.

1869-72 A part of the buildings appropriated for a naval college,

Sir Charles Grey (afterwards viscount Howick and earl Grey),

admiralty. opened..

...1 Feb. 1873

Lord Minto, board of control. Greenwich Royal Hospital Schools (on the industrial

Lord Auckland, board of trade. plan), opened under the auspices of Mr. Childers ..... 1870 Lord Moira, master general of the ordnance. Greenwich Observatory, built at the solicita- B: B. Sheridan, treasurer of the navy.

Richard Fitzpatrick, etc.. tion of sir Jonas Moore and sir Christopher Wren, by Lord Ellenborough' (lord chief - justice) had a seat in the Charles II., on the summit of Flamsteed hill, so called cabinet. from the first astronomer - royal. The building was founded 10 Aug. 1675, and Flamsteed commenced his Thomas Gresham in 1575, founder of the Royal Ex

Gresham College (London), established by sir residence 10 July, 1676. In 1852, an electric telegraph change. He left a portion of his property in trust to signal-ball in the Strand was completed, and put in connection with Greenwich observatory.

the city and the Mercers' Company to endow this college

for lectures in divinity, astronomy, music, geometry, ASTRONOMERS-ROYAL.

civil law, physic, and rhetoric; he died 21 Nov. 1579. John Flamsteed.

1675 The lectures commenced in Gresham's house, near Broad Edinund Halley.

1719 James Bradley.

1142 street, June, 1597 (where the founders of the Royal SoNathaniel Bliss

1762 ciety first met in 1615). The buildings were pulled Nevil Maskelyne..

1765 down in 1768, and the Excise office erected ou its site, John Pond...


the property having been acquired by the crown for an George Biddell Airy..

1835 (Under whose superintendence the apparatus have

annuity of 5007. The lectures were then read in a room been greatly increased and improved.)

over the Royal Exchange for many years. On the reGregorian Calendar, see Calendar and New the present building in Basinghall street, which was de

building of the exchange, the Gresham committee erected Style.—Gregorian Coast received its name from pope signed by G. Smith, and opened for lectures 2 Nov: Gregory I., who improved the Ambrosian chant, about

1813, It cost above 70001. In 1871 the college acquired 590.-GREGORIAN MODEs, musical scales as set in order

a valuable collection of books and pictures, bequeathed by pope Gregory the Great about 590. On these the

by Mrs. Hollier. Changes respecting the lectures were ritual music of the Western churches is founded.

advocated in 1875, and some made in 1876. Grenada, a West India island, discovered by Columbus in 1498; settled by the French, 1630; captured by border). Here runaway marriages were contracted for

Gretna Green (Dumfries, S. Scotland, near the the British, 5 April, 1762; retaken by the French, July, many years, as Scotch law ruled that an acknowledg1779; given up by them by treaty of Versailles, 3 Sept. ment before witnesses made a legal marriage. John 1783. Governor, Sandford Freeling, 1871; C. C. Graham, 1876 ; capt. G. C. Stralian, 1877; col. Robt. Wm. Paisles, a tobacconist, and termed a blacksmith, who

officiated from 1760, died in 1814. His first residence Harley, 1880; see Granada and New Grunadu,

was at Megg's Hill, on the common or green betwixt Grenade, an explosive missile, so named from the Gretna and Springfield, to the last of which villages he Spanish word granadu. invented in 1594. It is a small removed in 1782. A man named Elliot was lately the hollow globe, or ball, of iron, about two inches in diam- principal officiating person. The General Assembly, in eter, which is filled with fine powder, and set on fire by | 1826, in vain attempted to suppress this system; but an a fusce at a touch-hole.

act of parliament, passed in 1856, made these marriages







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illegal after that year, unless one of the persons married Grosser Kurfürst, see Wrecks, 1878. had lived in Scotland twenty-one days.

Grosvenor Gallery, etc., Bond street, London, Grey Administration succeeded the Wellington W., for the exhibition of modern pictures, erected by sir administration, which resigned 16 Nov. 1830. It carried Coutts Lindsay, at a cost of about 100,0001., supported by the Parliamentary and Corporation Reform acts (which eminent artists, Aug. 1876; opened 1 May, 1877.

1 see), and terminated 9 July, 183t.

Grosvenor Gallery Library, opened 25 March, Earl Grey, * first lord of the treasury.

1880. Lord Brougham, lord chancellor.

Ground Game, see Game.
Viscount Althorpe, chancellor of the erchequer.
Marquess of Lansdowne, president of the council.

Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city of San Luis Potosi, Earl of Durham, privy seal.

Mexico, where, on 2 Feb. 1848, the Mexican and United Viscounts Melbourne, Palinerston, and Goderich, home, foreign, States commissioners concluded a treaty of peace be

and colonial secretaries. Sir James Graham, admiralty.

tween the two countries; see Mexican War. By that Lord Auckland and Mr. Charles Grant (afterwards, 1830, lord treaty, New Mexico and Upper California became terriGlenelg), boards of trade and control.

tories of the United States, for which the latter governLord Holland, chancellor of duchy of Lancaster.

ment paid the former $15,000,000, and assumed the payLord John Russell, paymaster of the forces. Duke of Richmond, earl of Carlisle, Mr. Wynne, etc.

ment of $3,500,000 due from Mexico to Americans for E. G. Stanley afterwards carl of Derby), chief secretary for property destroyed. Ireland, became colonial secretary, March, 1833.

Guadeloupe, a West India island, discovered by Grey Coat Hospital, Westminster, founded (for Columbus in 1493. The French took possession of it in girls) 1698; reconstituted 1873.

1635, and colonized it in 1664. Taken by the English

in 1759, and restored in 1763. Again taken by the EngGrey Friars, see Christ's Hospital.

lish in 1779, 1794, and 1810. The allies, in order to Greytown, see Mosquito Coast.

allure the Swedes into the late coalition against France, Griffith's Valuation of land in Ireland; that cal- gave them this island. It was, however, by the consent culated by Mr., afterwards sir, Richard Griffith (appointed of Sweden, restored to France at the peace in 1814. It commissioner in 1828), and published about 1850; 4th was again taken by the British, 10 Aug. 1815, and reedition, 1855; much discussed, 1880-1.

stored to the French, July, 1816. Grimm's Law of the transmutation of consonants

Guad-el-ras (N.W. Africa). Here the Spaniarols in the Aryan family of languages; propounded by Jacob signally defeated the Moors, 23 March, 1860, after a L. Grimm in his “ History of the German Languages," which he was ennobled. The preliminaries of peace

severe conflict; gen. Prim manifested great bravery, for in 1848.

Labials. Dentals. Gutturals. were signed on the 25th. Greck, Latin, Sanskrit..


Guano or HuanO (the Peruvian term for manure), Gothic

if P
b th t d

the excrement of sea-birds that swarm on the coasts of Old High German


ch k EXAMPLES: Sanskrit, pitri; Greek and Latin, pater ; Italian, Peru and Bolivia, and of Africa and Australia. It is padre; Spanish, padre; French, père ; Gothic, fadrein (pl.) mentioned by Herrera in 1601, and Garcilasso stated Old High German, vatar; English, father.

that the birds were protected by the incas. Humboldt Griqua - Land West, a colony in the diamond was one of the first by whom it was brought to Europe, fields, s. Africa; constituted 27 Oct. 1871; annexed to portation of guano into the United Kingdom appears to

in order to ascertain its value in agriculture. The imthe British dominions, by sir H. Barkly, Nov. 1874.

have commenced in 1839, 283,000 tons were imported Grisons, a Swiss canton; see Caddee. It was over- in 1845 (of which 207,679 tons came from the western run by the French in 1798 and 1799. The ancient coast of Africa); 243,016 tons in 1851 (of which 6522 league was abolished, and the Grisons became a member tons came from Western Australia); 131,358 tons in of the Helvetic confederation, 19 Feb. 1803.

1864; 237,393 tons in 1865; 135,697 tous in 1866; Grissell Case, see Parliament, 1879-80.

280,311 in 1870; 114,454 in 1875; 152,989 in 1877. Grist-tax (imposta sul macinato). Principle of the Guarantees. The "Guarantee by Companies act," tax adopted by the Italian parliament, 1 April, 1868. relating to the security by means of sureties required for

Groat, from the Dutch groat, value of fourrence, persons employed in the public service, was passed 20 was the largest silver coin in England until after 1351. Aug. 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. c. 108). Fourpenny pieces were coined in 1836 to the value of Guardian, a moderate high-church weekly journal, 70,8811

. ; in 1837, 16,038l. ; discontinued since 1856. first published 21 Jan. 1846. Grocers anciently meant "ingrossers or monopo

Guards. The custom of having guards is said to lizers," as appears by a statute 37 Edw. III. 1363 : "Les have been introduced by Saul, 1093 B.C. marchauntz nomez engrossent totes maners de merchan- Body guards were appointed to attend the kings of England, dises vendables.” The Grocers' Company, one of the Horse guiards were raised 4 Edw. VI. 1550.

1 Hen. VII. 1485. twelve chief companies of London, was established in the royal regiment of guards was first raised by Charles II. 1345, and incorporated in 1429.

in Flanders in 1656, col. lord Wentworth; another regiment

was raised by col. John Russell, 1660, under whom they Grochow, near Praga, a suburb of Warsaw. Here

were combined in 1665. The Coldstream Guaruls, raised by took place a desperate conflict between the Poles and gen. Monk, were constituted the 2d regiment in 1661; sce Russians, 19, 20 Feb. 1831, the Poles remaining masters Ooldstream. These guards were the beginning of our stand

ing army. of the field of battle. The Russians shortly after re

Gen. sir F. Wm. Hamilton's "History of the Grenadier treated, having been foiled in their attempt to take War- Guards, an elaborate work, appeared 1874. saw. They are said to have lost 7000 men, and the The Horse Grenadier guards first troop, raised in 1693, was Poles 2000; see also Poland, 1861.

commanded by gen. Cholmondeley; the second troop was

raised in 1702, and was commanded by lord Forbes; this Grog, sea term for rum and water, derived its name corps was reduced in 1783, the officers retiring on full pay. from admiral Edw. Vernon, who wore grogram breeches, Guards’ INSTITUTE, Francis street. Vauxhall bridge roid;

reading and lecture rooms, etc., for all officers and soldiers and was hence called “Old Grog.” About 1745, he

in the metropolis, inaugurated by the duke of Cambridge, ordered his sailors to dilute their rum with water.

11 July, 1867

(See Horse-guards, Yeomen, National and Imperial Guards.) * Born 13 March, 1764; M. P., as Charles Grey, in 1786; first Guastalla (N. Italy), a city, near which the imlord of the admiralty and afterwards foreign secretary in 1806; resigned in 1806 on account of his favoring Roman perial army, commanded by the king of Sardinia, was Catholic emancipation; died 17 July, 1815.

+ He did great service in the West Indies, by taking Porto- in 1741, is said to have failed. He was dismissed the service bello, Chagre, etc.; but by his disagreement with the com- for writing two pamphlets attacking the admiralty; he died mander of the land forces, the expedition against Carthagena, / 30 Oct. 1757.

as compensation, Oct. 1874.

7 Nov. 1877.

defeated by the French, 19 Sept. 1734. The ancient tion. Paterson's “ British Itinerary” appeared in 1776; duchy, long held by the dukes of Mantua, was seized by the last edition in 1840 ; when it was superseded by railthe emperor of Germany, 1746, and ceded to Parma, ways. Galignani's “ Picture of Paris," 1814. Murray's 1748. After having been comprised in the Italian re- “Ilandbook for Travellers on the Continent,” the parent public, 1796, and subjected to other changes, it was an- of the series, appeared in 1836. nexed to Parma, 1815, and to Modena, 1847.

Guides, a corps in the French army, especially Guatemala. A republic in Central America, re- charged with the protection of the person of the genvolted from Spain 1821, and declared independent 21 eral, was formed by Bessières, under the direction of March, 1847. Constitution settled, 2 Oct. 1859. Presi- Bonaparte, who had been nearly carried off by the enemy, dent (1862), gen. Raphael Carrera, elected 1851; ap- 30 May, 1796. Several squadrons of “guides” were pointed for life, 1854; died 14 April, 1865; succeeded by formed in 1848, to guard the ministers. They formed a Vincent Cerna, 3 May, 1865-9; Manuel Garcia Granedos, portion of the imperial guard till Sept. 1870. Dec. 1872; R. Barrios, 7 May, 1873. A war between

Guienne, a French province, was part of the doGuatemala and San Salvador broke out in Jan. 1863 ; minions of Henry II. in right of his wife Eleanor, 1152. and on 16 June the troops of the latter were totally de Philip of France seized it in 1293, which led to war. It feated. An insurrection became formidable, July, 1871. was alternately held by England and France till 1453, Alliance with Honduras against San Salvador, March, when John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, in vain attempt1872. Population, 1872, about 1,190,754.

ed to retake it from the latter. Col. Gonzales, commandant of San José de Guatemala, im

Guildhall (London) was built in 1411. When it prisoned, flogged, and nearly killed Mr. John Magee, the British consul, who was rescued by capt. Morso, of the was rebuilt (in 1669), after the great fire of 1666, no part Pacific Mail Company's steamer Arizona, about 24 April, of the ancient building remained, except the interior of 1874.

The front was Announced that Gonzales had been sentenced to five years the porch and the walls of the hall. imprisonment, and that Mr. Magee had received 10,0001. erected in 1789; and a new roof built, 1864–5. Beneath

the west window are the colossal figures of Gog and Plot to kill the president and his ministry; conspirators shot, Magog, said to represent a Saxon and an ancient Briton;

replaced older ones, 1708; renewed, 1837. The ball can Guebres, see Parsees.

contain 7000 persons. Here were entertained the allied Guelphic Order of knighthood was instituted for sovereigns in 1814, and Napoleon III., 19 April, 1855; Hanover by the prince regent, afterwards George IV., and here the city industrial exhibition was held, 6 12 Aug. 1815.

March, 1866, and the International Botanical banquet, Guelphs and Ghibellines, names given to the 22 May, 1866. A memorial window, the gift of the cotpapal and imperial factions who destroyed the peace of ton-workers of Lancashire, to commemorate the muItaly from the twelfth to the end of the fifteenth cen- nificence of the metropolis towards them in the famine tury (the invasion of Charles VIII. of France in 1495). of 1862-4, was uncovered, 15 July, 1868.

The princeThe origin of the names is ascribed to the contest for consort memorial window was unveiled in the presence the imperial crown between Conrad of Hohenstaufen, of prince Arthur, 3 Nov. 1870. A library existed in the duke of Swabia, lord of Wiblingen (hence Ghibelin), and Guildhall in 1426, from which books were taken by the Henry, nephew of Welf, or Guelf, duke of Bavaria, in protector Somerset in the reign of Edward VI. The 1138. The former was successful; but the popes and library was again set up; and reopened, Jan. 1828. The several Italian cities took the side of his rival. Hie

new handsome building by Horace Jones was opened by Guelf and lie Gibelin are said to have been used as

the lord chancellor Selborne, 5 Nov. 1872; see London. war-cries in 1140. at a battle before Weinsberg, in Wür- Guilds (of Saxon origin, about the eighth century), temberg, when Guelf of Bavaria was defeated by the associations of inhabitants of towns for mutual benefit, emperor Conrad IV., who came to help the rival duke, resembling our religious and friendly societies, chartered Leopold.* The Ghibellines were almost totally expelled by the sovereign since the time of Henry II. from Italy in 1267, when Conradin, the last of the Ho- The London guilds became livery companies in the fourteenth henstaufens, was beheaded by Charles of Anjou. Guelph is the name of the present royal family of England; see The guild of Corpus Christi, York, had 14.800 members when Brunswick and Hanover.

a return respecting these guilds was ordered to be made,

1388. Guernsey, see Jersey.

The Early English Text Society published the " Ordinances " Guerrilla, Spanish, “ a little war;" a term applied The Guild of Literature and Art” (including sir E. B. Lyt

of more than 100 guilds, 1870. to the armed peasants who worried the French armies ton, C. Dickens, and others) founded an institution (on during the Peninsular war, 1808–14.

ground given by sir E. B. Lytton, at Stevenage) consisting

of thirteen dwellings, retreats for artists, scholars, and men Gueux (beggars), a name given by the comte de of letters, which were completed and inaugurated, 29 July, Barlaimont to the 300 Protestant deputies from the Low

1865. Countries, headed by Henri of Brederode and Louis of The revival of religious guilds began in 1851. with that of St.

Alban, which held its 21st anniversary 20 June, 1872. Nassau, who petitioned Margaret, governess of the Low Guilds Inquiry Commission, see Companies. Countries, to abolish the inquisition, 5 April, 1566. The

Guilford Court-house, BATTLE AT. Gen. Greene deputies at once assumed the name as honorable, and

retreated from the Catawba river, in South Carolina, immediately organized armed resistance to the govern-into Virginia, before pursuing Cornwallis, in the winter ment; see Holland,

of 1781. He soon returned, and at Guilford Court-house, Guiana (N.E. coast of South America), discovered in North Carolina, he, with his army, fought Cornwallis by Columbus in 1498, visited by the Spaniards in the and the British for more than two hours desperately. sixteenth century; and explored by sir Walter Raleigh The Americans were repulsed, and the British took posin 1596 and 1617. The French settlements here were session of the field, but at a cost that made the victory a formed in 1626-43; and the Dutch, 1627–67. Demera- sad disaster. " Another such victory," said Fox, in the ra and Essequibo were ceded to Great Britain in 1814; British Parliament, “ will ruin the British army." The see Demerura. Governor of British Guiana, John Scott, British lost over 600 men; the Americans about 400 in 1868; James Robert Longden, 1874; C. H. Kortright, killed and wounded, and 1000 who deserted to their 1876.

homes. Guide-books for travellers are an English inven

Guillotine, an instrument for causing immediate

and painless death, named after its supposed inventor, a * It is stated, traditionally, that the emperor condemned all physician named Joseph Ignatius Guillotin. In 1866 the men to death, but permitted the women to bring out what M. Dubois, of Amiens, stated that the idea only was due ever they most valued; on which they carried out their husbands on their shoulders.

to Guillotin, who at a meeting of the legislative assen


bly in 1789 expressed an opinion that capital punish-sociation also appointed a scientific committee to consider ment should be the same for all classes. Accordingly, The first trial of English-made gun-cotton was made in the

its merits. A completo decision was not arrived at. at the request of the assembly, M. Louis, secretary of the spring of 1864, at the manufactory at Stowmarket, Suffolk, "Académie de Chirurgie," submitted to it on 20 March, by Messrs. Prentice. 1792, a mode of capital punishment, “sure, quick, and There was menufactured, by a company, the "patent safety

gun-cotton,” according to Mr. Abel's patent (including the uniform,” which he had invented. The first person ex- pulping, compressing, and wet processes), based on re. ecuted by it was a highway robber named Pelletier, on searches commenced in 1866. The cotton was said to be 25 April; and Dangremont was its first political victim,

explosive by detonation, and not by ignition. A great ex

plosion took place at Stowmarket; 24 persons were killed 21 Aug. following. Guillotin died in 1814. The guil

(including A. E. H. an W. R. Prentice, managers); about lotine at Paris was burned by the communist insurgents, 60 were dreadfully wounded, and nearly the whole town 7 April, 1871. A similar instrument (called the Man- was destroyed as if by a bombardment, il Aug. 1871. naia) is said to have been used in Italy, at Halifax in The verdict at the inquest attributed the explosion to the cul

pable " addition of sulphuric acid to the gun.cotton subse. England (see Ilalifax), and in Scotland, there called the

quent to its passing the tests required by government,” 6 Maiden and the Widow.

Sept. 1871.

A government commission, appointed in Sept. to consider the Guinea (W. coast of Africa) was discovered by the manufacture and use of gun-cotton, reported in favor of Portuguese about 1446. From their trade with the both, with special regard to compressed gun-cotton, 13 Dec.

1871. Moors originated the slave-trade, sir John Hawkins being the first Englishman who engaged in this traffic. Another report recommended this gun-cotton to bo stored

wet, with drying apparatus near; and to be kept in slighter Assisted by English gentlemen with money for the pur- boxes, 25 July, 1872. pose, he sailed from England in Oct. 1562, with three Mr. E. O. Brown, of the war department, Woolwich, discovers

that wet gun-cotton can be exploded by concussion by a deships, proceeded to the coast of Guinea, purchased or

tonating fuse, about Nov. 1872. forcibly seized 300 negroes, sold them profitably at His- It is used as an explosive agent in mining, etc. paniola, and returned home richly laden with hides, GUN-CLOTH, made on a similar principle, was patented by Mr. sugar, ginger, and other merchandise, in Sept. 1563. Cortos GUNPOWDER, patented by Mr. R. Punshon, 1871.

W.A. Dixon, about 1866. This voyage led to similar enterprises. --Hakluyt. See A modified form was tried and reported successful, near Fav. Slave - trade. An African company to trade with ersham, 3 Feb. 1875. Guinea was chartered 1588. The Dutch settlements

Gundamuk, see Gandamak. here were transferred to Great Britain, 6 April, 1872; see Elmina, and Ashantees.

Gun-license Act, passed 9 Aug. 1870. Annual

license, 10s. Guineas, English gold coin, so named from having

Licenses issued: year 1876 – 7, 77,068; been first coined of gold brought by the African com

1877-8, 75,571. pany from the coast of Guinea in 1663, valued then at Gunpowder. The invention of gunpowder is gen20s. ; but worth 30s. in 1695. Reduced at various times; erally ascribed to Bertholdus or Michael Schwartz, a Corin 1717 to 21s. In 1810 guineas were sold for 228. 6d.; delier monk of Goslar, south of Brunswick, in Germany, in 1816, for 278. In 1811 an act was passed forbidding about 1320. But many writers maintain that it was their exportation, and their sale at a price above the known much earlier in various parts of the world. Some current value, 21s. The first guineas bore the impres- say that the Chinese and Hindus possessed it centuries sion of an elephant, having been coined of African gold. before. Its composition, moreover, is expressly menSince the issue of sovereigns, 1 July, 1817, guineas have tioned by Roger Bacon, in his treatise “ De Nullitate not been coined.

Magiæ." He died in 1292 or 1294. Various substitutes Guinegate, BATTLES OF, 11 July, 1302, and 16 Aug. for gunpowder have been recently invented, such as the 1513; see Spurs.

white gunpowder of Mr. Horsley and Dr. Ehrhardt, and Guise, a French ducal family:

gun-paper by Mr. Hochstödten. A new gunpowder by

M. Newmayer of Toya, near Leipsic, was discussed in Claude of Lorraine, first duke, a brave warrior, favored Nov. 1866. “Pellet gunpowder” was ordered to be used by Francis I. ; died...

. April, 1550 in gun-charges in the army, March, 1868. An act to Francis, the great general, born, 1519; assassinated,

24 'Feb. 1563 amend the law concerning the making, keeping, and car. Henry, head of the Catholic league; born, 1550; revenged riage of gunpowder, etc., was passed 28 Aug. 1860, and

his father's death; assassinated by order of Henry other acts since; see Birmingham, 1870. In May, 1872, III..

.23 Dec. 1588 Charles, tirst opposed, and then submitted to, Henry IV.;

a company was formed to manufacture Mr. R. Punshon's died.

1640 patent cotton gunpowder, asserted to be very safe and Henry died without issue.

....... 1664 controllable; see Chronoscope. Gulliver's Travels, by Dean Swift, first published its use was denounced by Ariosto, 1516; by Jean Marot, 1532; 1726-7.

by Cervantes, 1604; termed“ villanous salt petre,” by ShakeGun, see Artillery, Fire-arms.-Gun Club, for pig- ENGLISH'War GUNPOWDER: 75 parts nitrate of potash (salt

speare, about 1598. eon-shooting, founded by sir Gilbert East, in 1862, had petre), 10 sulphur, 15 carbon. These proportions may be 200 members, noblemen and gentlemen, in July, 1867. slightly varied. The new gun-licenses produced in the tinancial year

W. Hunter, after a careful examination of the question, in

1847, thus states the result: “July and August, 1346, may 1871-2, 62,4371.

be safely assumed to be the time when the explosive force Gun-cotton, a highly explosive substance, invented

of gunpowder was first brought to bear on the military oper

ations of the English nation." by professor Schönbein, of Basel, and made known in Above 11 tons of gunpowder on board the Lottie Sleigh, in the 1846. It is puritied cotton, steeped in a mixture of Mersey, exploded; much damage done in Liverpool and Birequal parts of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, and after-About 104,000 lbs. of gunpowder exploded at the Belvedere

kenhead, but no lives lost, 16 Jan. 1864. wards dried, retaining the appearance of cotton wool;

powder magazines of Messrs. Hall & Co., at Plumstead, near see Collodion. Its nature was known to Bracconot and Woolwich; 13 persons perished, and the shock was felt at 50 Pelouze.

miles' distance, 1 Oct. 1864. Searching inquiries were made

into the circumstances, and now regulations for the keeping The diet of Frankfort voted, 3 Oct. 1846, a recompense of 100,- and transmission of powder issued in Nov.; see Dartford.

000 florins to prof. Schönbein and Dr. Bættger, as the in- Mr. Gale, a blind gentleman of l’lymouth, on 22 June, 1865, ventors of the cotton powder, provided the authorities of patented his method of rendering gunpowder uninflammable Mayence, after seeing it tried, pronounced it superior to by combining with it finely powdered glass, which can be gunpowder as an explosive.

readily separated by a sieve when the powder is required Improvements were made in the manufacture of gun.cotton

for use.

Successful public experiments were made. by an Austrian officer, Baron von Lenk, about 1852, and it Mr. Gale exhibited his process before the queen at Windsor, was tried by a part of the Austrian army in 1855, but did 10 Nov. 1865; and it was severely tested at a martello townot obtain favor.

er, near Hastings, 20 June, 1866. The attainment of perfect In 1862 details of the manufacture were communicated by the security was still doubtful. Gale's Protected Gunpowder

Austrian government to our own government, and Mr. Abel, Company was formed Oct. 1865, and wound up March, 1867. our war-office chemist, was directed to experiment on the Great explosion at Messrs. Hall's powder mills, near Farer. constitution and desirability of gun-cotton. The British As- sham; 11 men killed; much damage dono; shock felt at

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