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Canterbury, 10 miles off, 28 Dec. 1867. Another explosion pital by Mr. Hunt to provide accommodations for 100 adabout 21 Dec. 1868.

ditional patients. Dixon & Beck's works blown up; 9 lives lost; 25 July, 1868. Explosion at Hounslow mills; 3 lives lost; 6 Sept. 1872. Guzerat, a state in India, founded by Mahmoud the Milner's powder-magazines placed in fire at Woolwich arsenal Gaznevide, about 1020, was conquered by Akbar in 1572;

and found secure, 8, 9 Oct. 1872. About 5 tons of gunpowder in barrels exploded in the barge and became subject to the Mahrattas, 1732 or 1752. At

Tilbury, on the Regent's canal, near the North-bridge gate, the battle of Guzerat, near the Chenab, in the Punjab, Regent's park, nearly 5 A.M., 2 Oct. 1874.

21 Feb. 1849, lord Gough totally defeated the Sikhs and Three men on the barge killed; shock felt about 30 miles off; captured the town of Guzerat. destruction extended over about a square mile; some houses thrown down; the house of Mr. Alma Tadema, the artist, Gwalior, an ancient state in Central India; since

inuch injured; very many windows blown in. The powder was sent by Pigou and Wilks to Derbyshire for 1803, under British protection. Scindiah, the 'maha

blasting purposes. order of the barges: Ready (tug steam rajah, remained faithful during the revolt of 1857; visit

er), Jane, Dee, Tilbury, Limehouse, and Hawkesbury. of the prince of Wales, 31 Jan. 1876. 63331. had been subscribed for the sufferers up to 1 May, 1875. Verdict of inquest : Explosion caused by ignition of vapor

Gymnasium, a place where the Greeks performed from benzoline by a fire or light in the cabin of the Tilbury. public exercises, and where philosophers, poets, and The Junction Canal Company guilty of gross negligence, rhetoricians repeated their compositions. In wrestling and the present laws inadequate for public safety, 19 Oct. and boxing the athletes were often naked (gymnos),

1874. The company declared responsible on trial (by captain Jack whence the name. A London gymnastic society, formed son), 14 May, 1875.

in 1826, did not flourish. In 1862, M. Ravenstein set up One thousand and fifty-four claims had been settled for 63,- another gymnastic association. The German Gymnas6601., June, 1876.

tic Institution, in St. Pancras road, London, was opened Gunpowder Plot, for springing a mine under the on 29 Jan. 1865; and a large and perfect gymnasium at houses of parliament, and destroying the three estates Liverpool was inaugurated by lord Stanley, 6 Nov. 1865. of the realm-king, lords, and commons—there assem- A London athletic club existed in Nov. 1866. bled, was (liscovered on 4 Nov. 1605. It was projected by Robert Catesby early in 1604, and several Roman Gymnosophistæ, a set of naked philosophers in Catholics of rank were in the plot. Guy Faux was de- India. Alexander (about 324 B.c.) was astonished at tected in the vaults under the house of lords, hired for the sight of men who seemed to despise bodily pain, and the purpose, preparing the train for being fired on the endured tortures without a groan.— Pliny. next day. Catesby and Percy (of the family of North- Gypsies, GIPsies, or EGYPTIANS (French, Bohéumberland) were killed at Holbeach house, whither they miens; Italian, Zingari; Spanish, Gitanos; German, had Aed, 8 Nov.; and Guy Faux, sir Everard Digby, Zigeuner), vagrants, supposed to be descendants of lowRookwood, Winter, and others were executed, 30, 31 caste Hindus expelled by Timour, about 1399. They Jan. 1606. Henry Garnet, a Jesuit, suffered as an ac- appeared in Germany and Italy early in the fifteenth complice, 3 May following. An anonymous letter sent century, and at Paris in 1427. In England an act was to lord Monteagle led to the discovery. It contained made against their itinerancy, in 1530; and in the reign the following words: “ Though there be no appearance of Charles I. thirteen persons were executed at one asof any stir, yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow sizes for having associated with gypsies for about a this parliament, and yet they shall not see who hurts month. The gypsy settlement at Norwood was broken them.” The vault called Guy Faux cellar, in which up, and they were treated as vagrants, May, 1797. the conspirators lodged the barrels of gunpowder, re- There were in Spain alone, previously to 1800, more mained till 1825, when it was converted into offices. than 120,000 gypsies, and many communities of them

Gunter's Chain, used in measuring land, invented yet exist in England. Notwithstanding their interby Edmund Gunter, in 1606.

course with other nations, their manners, customs, visGurney's Act, 31 & 32 Vict. c. 116 (1868), amends their pretended knowledge of futurity gives them power

age, and appearance are almost wholly unchanged, and the law relating to larceny and embezzlement.

over the superstitious. Esther Faa was crowned queen Gutta Percha is procured from the sap of the of the gypsies at Blyth, on 18 Nov. 1860. The Bible has Isonandra gutta, a large forest tree, growing in the been translated into gypsy dialects. Gypsy parliaments Malayan peninsula and on the islands near it. It was are occasionally held. made known in England by Drs. De Almeida and Mont- George Borrow fraternized with the gypsies and wrote sevgomery, at the Society of Arts, in 1843. As a non-con- cral works describing his adventures, especially - The Zin. ductor of electricity it is invaluable in constructing sub

cali” (1841 ), “The Bible in Spain" (1842), “ Larengro

(1850), and a “Dictionary of the Gypsy Language" (1874). marine telegraphs, an application suggested by Faraday He was born in 1803, and died in Aug. 1881. and Werner Siemens independently, 1847.

Gyroscope (from gyrere, to revolve), the name of Guy's Hospital (London). Thomas Guy, a a rotatory apparatus invented by l'essel of Cologne(1852), wealthy bookseller, after bestowing large sums on St. and improved by prof. Wheatstone and M. Foucault of Thomas's, determined to found a new hospital. At the Paris. It is similar in principle to the rotatory apparaage of seventy-sis, in 1721, he commenced the present tus of Bohnenberger of Tiibingen (born 1765, died 1831). building, and lived to see it nearly completed. It cost - The gyroscope, by exhibiting the combined effects of bim 18,7931., and, in addition, he endowed it with 219,- the centrifugal and centripetal forces, and of the cessa4991. In 1829, 196,115l. were bequeathed to this hos- ' tion of either, illustrates the great law of gravitation.

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Haarlem, an ancient town in Holland, once the res- herself, he may have a writ of habeas corpus to bring

1 idence of the counts, was taken by the duke of Alva, in him before the court of queen's bench or common pleas, July, 1573, after a siege of seven months. Ile violated which shall determine whether his committal be just, the capitulation by butchering half the inhabitants. This act (founded on the old common-law) is next in imThe lake was drained 1849-51.

portance to Magna Charta. The llabeas Corpus act Habeas Corpus. The subjects' Writ of Right, can be suspended by parliament for a specified time passed “ for the better securing the liberty of the sub- when the emergency is extreme. In such a case the ject,” 31 Charles II. c. 2, 27 May, 1679. If any person nation parts with a portion of its liberty to secure its be imprisoned by the order of any court, or of the queen 'own permanent welfare, and suspected persons may then

1803 here,

In May,

be arrested without cause or purpose being assigned.- his kingdom, 872. A millenary festival was held throughBlackstone.

out Norway, and a monument to his memory, at HangeAct suspended for a short time in. 1689, 1696, 1708 sund, inaugurated by prince Oscar of Sweden, 18 July, Suspended for Scots' rebellion...

1715-16 1872. Suspended for twelve months..

1722 Suspended for Scots' rebellion in.

.1744-5

Hague, capital of the kingdom of Holland, once called Suspended for American war...

.1777-9 the finest village in Europe; the place of meeting of the Again by Mr. Pitt, owing to French revolution..

1794 states - general, and residence of the former earls of Suspended in Ireland, on account of the great rebellion... 1798 Holland since 1250, when William II. built the palace Suspended in England. ......28 Aug. 1799; and 14 April, 1801 Again, on account of Irish insurrection.... Again, owing to alleged secret meetings (see Green Bag), Here the states abjured the authority of Philip II. of 21 Feb. 1817 Spain....

1580 Bill to restore the Habeas Corpus brought into parlia- A conference upon the five articles of the remonstrants, ment.. .28 Jan. 1818 which occasioned the synod of Dort..

1610 Suspended in Ireland (insurrection).

.24 July, 1848 Treaty of the Hague (to preserve the equilibrium of the Restored there...

.1 March, 1849 North), signed by England, France, and Holland, Suspended again (see Fenia'.8), 17 Feb. 1866; 26 Feb. and

21 May, 1659 31 May, 1867; and 28 Feb. 1868 till... .25 March, 1999 The De Witts torn in pieces here

4 Aug. 1672 The constitution of the United States provides that "the The French, favored by a hard frost, took possession of privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, un

the Hague; the inhabitants and troops declared in less when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public their favor; general revolution ensued, and the stadt. safety may require it;" but does not specify the de. holder and his family fled to England..

.........19 Jan. 1795 partment of the government having the power of sus.

The Hague evacuated by the French. ....... Nov. 1813 pension. A series of contests on this subject between The stadtholder returned......

...Dec. the legal and military authorities began in Maryland,

May, 1861 Haileybury College (Herts), wherein students Habeas Corpus act was suspended by Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States, 24 Sept. 1862, to pre

were prepared for service in India; it was founded by the vent the release of military and state prisoners. In

East India Company in 1806; was closed in 1858, and April, 1863, congress upheld president Lincoln's right became a private educational establishment, to suspend the habeas corpus. Again, in Sept. 1863, president Lincoln suspended the habeas corpus for the

Hainault, a province in Belgium, anciently govretention of recruits whose parents, on false oaths, erned by counts, hereditary after Regnier I., who died in tried to reclaim them as being under age.

916. The count John d'Arsenes became count of Hol1864, the president, by the hand of Edwin M. Stanton,

land in 1299. Hainault henceforth partook of the fortsecretary-of-war, ordered all prisoners held under the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus to be dis- unes of Flanders.

charged. In consequence of the affair of John Anderson (sce Slav

Hainault Forest (Essex), disafforested in 1851. ery in England, note), an act was passed in 1862, en

Here stood the Fairlop wak (which see). acting that no writ of Habeas Corpus should issue out

Hair. In Gaul, hair was much esteemed; hence the of England into any colony, etc., having a court with authority to grant such writ.

appellation Gallia comata; cutting off the hair was a Habitual Criminals Act, for the more effectual privilege to wear long hair artfully dressed and curled.

punishment. The royal family of France held it as a prevention of crime, giving powers for the apprehension of habitual criminals on suspicion, passed 11 Aug, 1869; dorus Hispalensis. Pope Anicetus forbade the clergy to

“The clerical tonsure is of apostolic institution!”-Isi117,568 reported in the metropolis, 1873.

wear long hair, 155. Long hair was out of fashion durA black book, printed at Brixton prison, contained the names ing the protectorate of Cromwell, and hence the term

and aliases of 12, 164 criminals, selected from 179,601 entered Roundheads, in 1795, and also 1801.-luir-powder came on the register, 1869-76.

into use in 1590; and in 1795 a tax of a guinea was laii Habitual Drunkards, see Drunkards.

upon persons using it, which yielded at one time 20,0001. Habsburg, see Hapsburg.

per annum.

The tax was repealed 24 June, 1869, when

it yielded about 10001. a year; see Beard. Hackney, a parish N. E. of London; by the division of the Tower Hamlets, was made a metropoļitan borough

Haiti, see Hayti. by the Reform act, 15 Aug. 1867. Two members are

Hakluyt Society, established for the publication elected. The election 4 Feb. 1876, void, through neglect of rare voyages and travels, 15 Dec. 1846, was named in officers.

after Richard Hakluyt, who published his “Principal Hackney Coaches (probably from the French English Nation," in 1589; and died 23 Nov. 1616.

Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries made by the coche-à-haquenée, a vehicle with a hired horse, haquenée. Their supposed origin in Hackney, near London, is a

Half Crowns, see under Coinage and Crowns. vulgar error; see Cabriolets and Omnibuses.

Haliartus, a town in Baotia, near which Lysander, Four were set up in London by a capt. Bailey; their

the Spartan general, was killed in battle with the Thenumber soon increased.

1625 bans, 395 B.C. They were limited by the star-chamber in 1635; restrict

Halicarnassus, Caria (Asia Minor); the reputed ed in 1637 and in...

1652 The number was raised to 400 in 1662; to 700 in 1694; to

birthplace of Herodotus, 484 B.C.; the site of the tomb 800 in 1715; to 1000 in 1771; to 1100 in 1914; an final of Mausolus, erected 352; was taken by Alexander, 334 ; ly to 1300 in..

1815

see Mausoleum, Two hundred Hackney Chairs were licensed.

1711 Oflice removed to Somerset House

1782 Halidon Hill, near Berwick, where, on 19 July, Coach-makers made subject to a license. .

1785

1333, the English defeated the Scots, the latter losing Lost and Found Office for the recovery of property left in

hackney coaches, established by act 55 Geo. III. 1815 upwards of 14,000 slain, among whom was the regent One-horse hackney carriages (afterwards cabriolets) per

Douglas and a large number of the nobility; a comparamitted to be licensed

tively small number of the English suffered. Edward All restriction as to number ceased, by 2 Will. IV. (the original fare was 18. a mile).

Balliol thus became king of Scotland for a short time.

1831 All public vehicles to be regulated by the act 16 and 17 Halifax (Yorkshire). The woollen manufactory

Vict. cc. 33, 127, by which they are placed under the control of the commissioners of police. June and Aug. 1853

was successfully established here in the fifteenth cenBy the Metropolitan Carriages act, passed 12 Aug. 1869,

tury. The power of the town to punish capitally (by a various restrictions respecting the amount of fare, peculiar engine resembling the guillotine) any criminal etc., were removed, commencing.

..1 Jan. 1870 convicted of stealing to the value of upwards of thirteen Further regulations for cabs issued by the home secretary...

.10 March, 1871 pence halfpenny, was used as late as 1650. In 1857 Mr.

J. Crossley announced his intention of founding a college Hadrianople, see Adrianople.

here, and Mr. F. Crossley presented the town with a Hafsfiord (Norway). Here Harold Härfager, in a beautiful park. Boiler explosion at Batme & Pritchsea-fight, finally defeated his enemies, and consolidated / ard's; Mr. Pritchard and 5 men killed, 9 Oct. 1879.

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Canterbury, 10 miles off, 28 Dec. 1867. Another explosion pital by Mr. Hunt to pri

about 21 Dec. 1868. Dixon & Beck's works blown up; 9 lives lost; 25 July, 1868.

ditional patients. Explosion at Hounslow mills; 3 lives lost; 6 Sept. 1872.

Guzerat, a state in
Milner's powder-magazines placed in fire at Woolwich arsenal Gaznevide, about 1030.11

and found secure, 8, 9 Oct. 1872.
About 5 tons of gunpowder in barrels exploded in the barge and became subject to the M.

Tilbury, on the Regent's canal, near the North-bridge gate, the battle of Guzerat, tomato
Regent's park, nearly 5 A.M., 2 Oct. 1874.

21 Feb. 1849, lord Go! Three men on the barge killed; shock felt about 30 miles off; captured the town of Gilead

destruction extended over about a square mile; some houses thrown down; the house of Mr. Alma Tadema, the artist, Gwalior, an anciene much injured; very many windows blown in. The powder was sent by Pigou and Wilks to Derbyshire for

1803, under British blasting purposes.

Order of the barges: Ready (tug steam rajah, remained faith er), Jane, Dee, Tilbury, Limehouse, and Hawkesbury. of the prince of Wales id 63331. had been subscribed for the sufferers up to 1 May, 1875. Verdict of inquest : Explosion caused by ignition of vapor

Gymnasium, a pididka from benzoline by a tire or light in the cabin of the Tilbury. public exercises, and The Junction Canal Company guilty of gross negligence, rhetoricians repented the or and the present laws inadequate for public safety, 19 Oct. and boxing the athleton *

1874. The company declared responsible on trial (by captain Jack whence the name.

son), 14 May, 1875. One thousand and fifty-four claims had been settled for 63, another gymnastie an

in 1826, did not flourise. 6601., June, 1876.

tic Institution, in St. Gunpowder Plot, for springing a mine under the on 29 Jan. 1865 ; and 11. houses of parliament, and destroying the three estates Liverpool was inangurati of the realm-king, lords, and commons—there assem- A London athletic Clube bled, was discovered on 4 Nov. 1605. It was projected by Robert Catesby early in 1604, and several Roman

Gymnosophisto Catholics of rank were in the plot. Guy Faux was de- India. Alexander foto tected in the vaults under the house of lords, hired for the sight of men who a the purpose, preparing the train for being fired on the endured tortures Wirson's next day. Catesby and Percy (of the family of North- Gypsies, Girona umberland) were killed at Holbeach house, whither they miens ; Italian, toimis had fed, 8 Nov.; and Guy Faux, sir Everard Digby, Zigeuner), vagra.i Rookwood, Winter, and others were executed, 30, 31 caste Ilindus ei Jan. 1606. Henry Garnet, a Jesuit, suffered as an ac- appeared in Get complice, 3 May following. An anonymous letter sent century, and at P: to lord Monteagle led to the discorery. It contained made against the the following words: “Though there be no appearance of Charles I. ti. of any stir, yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow sizes for bevidsen this parliament, and yet they shall not see who hurts month. Ti them." The vault called Guy Faux cellar, in which up, and thing the conspirators lodged the barrels of gunpowder, re- There were mained till 1825, when it was converted into offices. than 120,10

Gunter's Chain, used in measuring land, invented yet evit !" by Edmund Gunter, in 1606.

course with Gurney's Act, 31 & 32 Vict. c. 116 (1868), amends their prices

age, and 1 the law relating to larceny and embezzlement.

Over tin Gutta Percha is procured from the sap of the of the Isonandra gutta, a large forest tree, growing in the bus Malayan peninsula and on the islands near it. It was made known in England by Drs. De Almeida and Mont- los gomery, at the Society of Arts, in 1843. As a non-conductor of electricity it is invaluable in constructing submarine telegraphs, an application suggested by Faraclay and Werner Siemens independently, 1847.

Guy's Hospital (London). Thomas Guy, wealthy bookseller, after bestowing large sums on Thomas's, determined to found a new hospital. It age of seventy-six, in 1721, he commenced the por building, and lived to see it nearly completed. him 18,7931., and, in addition, he endowed it will 4991. In 1829, 196,115l. were bequeathed to i!

Haarlem, an ancient town in Holla idence of the counts, was taken by the July, 1573, after a siege of seren 114, the capitulation by butchering ks. The lake was drained 1849-51. Habeas Corpus.

The sul passed " for the better securini ject," 31 Charles II. c. 2, 27 M be imprisoned by the order of

1810

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Pi ! very severely, 'ity to have been on the side of the English, was not sub

The county, stantiated. ; ; seized by the

Hanover (N.W. Germany), successively an elector«luchy of Frank- ate and a kingdom, chietly composed of territories which y, which was an

once belonged to the dukes of Brunswick (which see).

Population in 1859, 1,850,000; in 1861, 1,888,070; in The first was 1875, 2,017,393. It was annexed to Prussia, 20 Sept. di king George 1866. personis, being Hanover became the ninth electorate,

19 Dec. 1692 and 3+5 instru- Suffered much during the Seven Years' war, ... 1756-63 of three successive Seized by Prussia

.3 April, 1801 mos repeated in 1785, Delivered to Prussia in Occupied and hardly used by the French.. ..5 June, 1803

1805 Retaken by the French.

1807 *** of kins William Part of it annexed to Westphalia

.6 Nor. 1813 in Utd performers, Regained for England by Bernadotte Erected into a kingdom..

12 Oct. 1814 ou the centenary

The duke of Cambridge appointed viceroy, and a repre. Dinonie Society. sentative government established..

.Nov. 1916 117, 19 June, 1857, Visited by George IV...

.....Oct. 1821 Ernest, duke of Cumberland, king

20 June, 1837 30 June; Israel He granted a constitution with electoral rights, 1848; ** rensurt, the king

which was annulled in obedience to the decree of the There federal diet.

12 April, 1855 ristal performers, and The king claims from England crown jewels which be? The ret'eipts

longed to George III. (value about 120,0001.), 1857; by flere Bere deductarbitration, the jewels given up...

.Jan. 1958 15,4"), two parts Stade dues given up for compensation ....12 June, 1861 HIV and one part to the In the war the king takes the side of Austria; and the .nord, original

Prussians enter and occupy Hanover. .13 June et seq. 1866 * relics were ex

The Hanoverians defeat the Prussians at Langensalza, 27

June; but are compelled to surrender 29 June, fili) performers,

Hanover annexed to Prussia by law, 20 Sept.; promul. main, 26, 29, 30 gated.

.6 Oct. 11. (about 23.000 pres.

Protest of the king of Hanorer addressed to Europe, ***,!!!) persons sub).

23 Sept. il present, 75,839); Arrangement with Prussia by a treaty ratified ...18 0t. 1867

; ***011, it, 124); 18, 21, 23, 25 | The king celebrates his "silver wedding” at Hietzing,

near Vienna, expressing hopes of recovering his king: dom, etc..

18 Feb. 1868 Fwlication of Handel's Part of his property sequestrated by Prussia..... March,

Still further, in consequence of his maintaining a Hano.

verian legion (the king protested against it)...... Feb. 1869 ved 1813-4; society ilmer & Co. completed,

ELECTORS.

1692. Ernest Augustus, youngest son of George, that son of hatons began 1858.

William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, who obtained i. l's., for performances by lot the right to marry (see Brunswick). He be.

came bishop of Osnaburg in 1662, and in 1679 inher.

ited the possessions of his uncle John, duke of Calen. sit and cuged with gold,

berg; created Elector of Hanover in 1692. uy gentlemen in their hats,

(He married, in 1659, the princess Sophia, daughter sin, the value of them being of Frederick, elector-palatine, and of Elizabeth, the triech in the reign of Eliza

daughter of James I. of England. In 1701 Sophia was

declared next heir to the British crown, after William Paisley handkerchiefs were III., Anne, and their descendants.)

1698. George Lewis, son of the preceding; married his cousin

Sophia, the heiress of the duke of Brunswick Zell; ul. was first performed by Moses became king of Great Britain, 1 Aug. 1714, as GEORGE I. Lissor Joshua (Numb. xxvii. 23); 1727. George Augustus, his son (GEORGE II. of England), 11

June
church, and in ordination, by the
11: 1 Tim. iv.11).

1760. George William Frederick, his grandson (GEORGE III.

of England), 25 Oct. 1840, AND QUARTERING, said to have

KINGAL 1. William Marise, a pirate, a no- 1814. George William Frederick (the preceding sovereign), 1!?!). III. 1241. Five gentlemen at

tirst king of Hanover, 12 Oct. it of Gloucester were arraigned and 1820. George Angustus Frederick, his son (GEORGE IV. of

Eugland), 29 Jan. 45011, and at the place of execution 1830. Williain llenry, his brother (William IV. of England), If down alive instantly, stripped naked, 26 June; died 20 June, 1837. marked for quartering, and then par

(Hanover separated from the crown of Great Brit

ain.) 11.1117.- Stow. The Cato-street con

1837. Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, brother to Will. i sie) were beheaded after deatlı by hang

iam IV. of England, on whose demise ho succeeded Ilanging in chains was abolished in

(as a distinct inheritance) to the throne of Hanover,

20 June.

1851. George V. (born 27 May, 1819), son of Ernest; ascended Rock, BATTLE AT. A few miles east

the throne on the death of his father, 18 Nov. His

states annered to Prussia, 20 Sept. 1866; visited Eng. Mount (which see), on the Catawba river,

land, May, June, 1876; died 12 June, 1878. Friller on the verge of a high bank, called 1878. Ernest Augustus II, son, born 21 Sept. 1845; mainPh. It gives the name to the place. There

tained his claims in a circular to the sovereigns of Hay of British and tories were attacked and

Europe, dated 11 July, 1878; married princess Thyra

of Denmark, 20 Dec. 1878.
sen. Sumter on 6 Aug. 1780. There was an
Int of about four hours, and Sumter lost 12 men Hanover Square, built about 1718; the concert
i 11 wounded. It was one of the most desperate rooms opened by John Gallini, 1 Feb. 1775; the house

I the war, considering the number engaged. taken for a club, Dec. 1874; rebuilt, 1875.
.Igo Bay (Finland). On 5 June, 1855, a boat Hanse Towns. The Hanseatic League (from

!!!d by lieut. Geneste left the British steamer hansa, association), formed by port towns in Germany
1 with a flag of truce to land some Russian pris- against the piracies of the Swedes and Danes: began

They were fired on by a body of ritlemen, and about 1140; the league signed 1241. At first it consisted were killed, several wounded, and the rest made only of towns situate on the coasts of the Baltic sea, but soners. The Russian account, asserting the irregular- | in 1370 it was composed of sixty-six cities and furty

B.C.

Halifax Administration. Charles, earl of Hali- | The ancient chapel was taken down 1745; and a church fax, was appointed first lord of the treasury, 5 Oct. 1714. was consecrated 8 Oct. 1747. An act authorizing the He died 19 May, 1715, and was succeeded by Charles, Metropolitan Board of Works to purchase the heath earl of Carlisle, on 10 Oct. following; and Robert Wal- from sir John Maryon Wilson, bart., passed 29 June, 1871, pole became premier.

and the heath was formally taken possession of by the Charles, earl of Halifax, first lord of the treasury.

Metropolitan Board of Works, 13 Jan. 1872, 45,0001. beWilliam, lord Cowper, afterwards earl, lord chancellor. ing paid. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, lord president.

Temporary small-pox hospital established at Hampstead, 1871 Thomas, earl of Wharton, privy seal.

Charges of mismanagement against the officers; oflicial Edward, earl of Oxford, admiralty. James Stanhope, afterwards earl Stanhope, and Charles, vis

inquiry (33 meetings, from 23 Sept. to 3 Nov.); inquiry

respecting disappearance of a child, Elizabeth Bellue; count Townshend, secretaries of state.

medical oflicers exonerated from blame,

...Dec. Sir Richard Onslow, chancellor of the exchequer. Dukes of Montrose and Marlborough, lord Berkeley, Robert

A small pox hospital erected here by Metropolitan Dis.

trict Asylum Board was much opposed, and led to liti. Walpole, Mr. Pulteney, etc.

gation (see Trials, 1878); finally, the house of lords, on Halifax Award, see Canada, 1877.

appeal, decided in favor of the inhabitants... 7 March, 1881 Hall, principal apartment in mediæval mansions.

Hampton Court Palace (Middlesex), built by Westminster and Eltham halls are fine examples; see cardinal Wolsey on the site of the manor-house of the Westminster Hall.

knights hospitallers, and in 1525 presented to Henry

VIII.; perhaps the most splendid offering ever made by Hall Mark, see Goldsmiths and Standard.

a subject to a sovereign. Here Edward VI. was born, Halle, Saxony (N. Germany), first mentioned in 801, 12 Oct. 1537; here his mother, Jane Seymour, died, 24 was made a city by the emperor Otho II., in 981. The Oct. following; and here Mary, Elizabeth, Charles, and orphan house here was established by August Francke, others of our sovereigns resided. Much was pulled 1698-9. Halle suffered much by the Thirty years' and down, and the grand inner court built by William III. Seven years' wars. It was stormed by the French, 17 in 1694, when the gardens, occupying 40 acres, were laid Oct. 1806, and added to the kingdom of Westphalia; but out. The vine was planted 1769. Here was held, 14given up to Prussia in 1814.

16–18 Jan. 1604, the CONFERENCE between the Puritans Hallelujah and Amen (Praise the Lord, and so and the Established church clergy, which led to a new be it), expressions used in the Hebrew hymns; said to translation of the Bible; see Conference. have been introduced by Haggai, the prophet, about 520 Hampton Roads (Virginia), CONFLICT BETWEEN

Their introduction into Christian worship is as- THE Mositor anD THE MERRIMAC. The Merrimac, cribed to St. Jerome, about A.D. 390.

which had been sunk when the Norfolk navy yard was Halls in London, see Agricultural, Egyptian, Ere- abandoned by national vessels, was subsequently raised ter, Floral, Freemasons', Independents, James's, Si., and ! by the confederates, converted into a formidable ironMusic.

clad ram, and named the Virginia. John Ericsson reHalys, a river (Asia Minor), near which a battle was and this vessel was completed early in the following

ceived his contract for building the Monitor 5 Oct. 1861, fought between the Lydians and Medes. It was inter- January. On 5 March she was despatched to Fortress rupted by an almost total eclipse of the sun, which led Monroe. Just before she reached her destination the to peace, 28 May, 585 B.C. (the fourth year of the 48th Virginia had come out (8 March) and attacked the naOlympiad). Plin. Nat. Hist. ii. Others give as the tional vessels in Hampton Roads. She was commanded date 584, 603, and 610 B.C. This eclipse is said to have by Franklin Buchanan. She had sunk the Cumberland, been predicted many years before by Thales of Miletus. captured the Congress

, and pushed the Minnesota aground. --Herodotus, i. 75.

At night she returned to Norfolk. The next morning Ham, on the Somme (N. France). The castle was she reappeared; but the Monitor, commanded by lieut. built in 1470 by the constable Louis of Luxembourg, John L. Worden, had arrived. After a short conflict comte de St. Pol, beheaded by Louis XI., 19 Dec. 1475. with this new antagonist, the Virginia, finding the odds Here were imprisoned the ex-ministers of Charles X., against her, again retired. After the evacuation of Nor1830; and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte after his attempt folk by the confederates, she was blown up by her comat Boulogne, from Oct. 1840 till 25 May, 1816, when he mander, Josiah Tatnall, May 11, 1862. The Monitor escaped.

sank

passage to Charleston, 31 Dec. 1862. Hamburg, a free city (N.W. Germany), founded by Hampton Roads Conference. In Jan. 1865, Charlemagne about 809. It joined the Hanseatic league Francis P. Blair twice visited Richmond, Va., to confer in the thirteenth century, and became a flourishing com- with Jefferson Davis. He believed that a suspension of mercial city. Population in 1860, 229,941; in 1871, 338,- hostilities, resulting ultimately in a settlement of the 974; in 1875, 388,618.-Ilumburg Massacre. See Mas- questions involved, by the restoration of the Union, sacres, 1876.

might be brought about, by the common desire, north A free imperial city by permission of the dukes of Hol

and south, to enforce the Monroe doctrine against the stein, 1296; subject to them till 1618; purchased its French in Mexico. Out of Mr. Blair's visits grew an total exemption from their claims...

arrangement for a conference, whic was held on board French declared war upon Hamburg for its treachery in giving up Napper Tandy (see Tandy)..

Oct. 1799 a vessel in Hampton Roads, 3 Feb. 1865, between Mr. British property sequestrated...

March, 1801 Lincoln and Mr. Seward upon one side, and Messrs. A. Hamburg taken by the French after the battle of Jena, in 1806 H. Stepbens, R. M. T. Hunter, and John A. Campbell Incorporated with France. Evacuated by the French on the advance of the Russians

on the other. The conference was informal, and practiinto Germany

1813 cally came to naught, no basis for negotiation being Restored to independence by the allies.. ....... May, 1814 found upon which both sides would agree to discuss Awful fire here, which destroyed numerous churches and

plans looking to peace. public buildings, and 2000 houses; it continued for three days.

4 May, 1842 Hanaper Office (of the court of chancery), where Half the city inundated by the Elbe..

.1. Jan. 1855 writs relating to the business of the subject, and their New constitution granted by the senate, July, 1860; the

new assembly (of 191 members) first met.......6 Dec. 1860 returns, were anciently kept in hanaperio (in a wicker The constitution began..

1 Jan. 1861 hamper); and those relating to the crown, in parra buga Hamburg joined the N. German confederation... 21 Aug. 1866 (a litle bag). Hence the names llanaper and Petty Bag Joined the German empire, Jan.; its privileges as a free port confirmed, .......

.16 April, 1871 Office. The office was abolished in 1842.

Hanau (Hesse-Cassel), incorporated 1303. Here a Hampden Clubs, see Radicals and Chalgrove.

division of the combined armies of Austria and Bavaria Hampstead, N.W. of London; originally a chapel- of 30,000 men, under gen. Wrede, encountered the French, ry of Hendon, was made a parish after the Reformation. 70,000 strong, under Napoleon I., on their retreat from

on her

1768

1810

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