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Abydos: Leander was drowned in a tempestuous night, Charlemagne, about 800; and next to Frederick Barbaas he was swimming across the Hellespont (about one rossa, about 1152; it began and grew with the feudal mile), and Hero, in despair, threw herself into the sea, law.—Mackenzie. The great English works on Heraldabout 627 B.C. Lord Byron and lieut. Ekenhead also ry are those of Barcham or Barkham, published by swam across, 3 May, 1810; see Xerxes.

Gwillim (1610), Edmonson (1780), and Burke's “ArmHell-fire Clubs. Three of these associations were ory” (1842; new ed., 1878, contains a history and the suppressed, 1721. They met at Somerset House, and at

arms of above 60,000 British families). houses in Westminster and in Conduit street.

Edward III. appointed two heraldic kings-at-arms for the south and north (Surroy, Norroy)....

1340 Helmets, among the Romans, were provid with

Richard III. incorporated and endowed the HERALDS' vizor of grated bars, to raise above the eyes, and beaver COLLEGE

.........1483-4 to lower for eating; the Greek helmet was round, the Philip and Mary enlarged its privileges, and confirmed

them by letters-patent. Roman square. Richard I. of England wore a plain Formerly, in many ceremonies, the herald represented

15 July, 1554 round helmet; but most of the English kings had crowns the king's person, and therefore wore a crown, and was above their helmets. Alexander III. of Scotlaud, 1249, had

always a knight. a flat helmet, with a square grated vizor; and the helmet The college has an earl-marshal, 3 kings-of-arms (Garter,

Clarencieux, and Norroy), 6 heralds (Richmond, Lanof Robert I. was surmounted by a crown, 1306.-Gwillim. caster, Chester, Windsor, Somerset, and York), 4 purHelots, captives, derived by some from the Greek

suivants, and 2 extra heralds; see Earl-marshal, and

Rings-of. Arms. čleiv, to take; by others from Helos, a city which the The building in Doctors' Commons, London, was erected Spartans hated for refusing to pay tribute, 883 B.C. The by sir Christopher Wren (after the great fire in 1666).. 1683 Spartans, it is said, ruined the city, reduced the Helots HERALDS' Visitations were occasionally held in former

times, at which the landed gentry were required to to slavery, and called all their slaves and prisoners of

attend to prove their pedigrees, which were then enwar Helotæ. The number of the Helots was much en- tered in a book. The last is said to have been held in larged by the conquest of Messenia, 668 B.C. ; and is con

1687. Some of the records have been printed. sidered to have formed four fifths of the inhabitants of

Herat, on the confines of Khorasân, a strong city, Sparta. In the Peloponnesian war the Helots behaved called the key of Afghanistan. It was conquered by with uncommon bravery, and were rewarded with lib- Persia, early in the sixteenth century; by the Afghans, erty, 431 B.C.; but the sudden disappearance of 2000 in 1715; by Nadir Shah, 1731 ; recovered by the Afmanumitted slaves was attributed to Lacedæmonian ghans, 1749. The Persians, baffled in an attempt in treachery.Herodotus.

1838, took it 25 Oct. 1856, in violation of the treaty of Helvetian Republic. Switzerland having been 1853 ; and war ensued between Great Britain and Persia. conquered by the French in 1797, a republic was estab- Peace was made in April, 1857; and Herat was restored lished April, 1798, with this title; see Switzerland. 27 July following. It was seized again by Dost Ma

Helvetii, a Celto-Germanic people who inhabited homed, 26 May, 1863; taken by Yakoob Khan, rebelwhat is now called Switzerland. İnvading Gaul, 61 ling against his father, 6 May, 1871. Yakoob, reconciled B.C., they were defeated and massacred by Julius Cæsar, to his father, was made governor, 16 Sept. 1871; see 58 B.C., near Geneva.

Afghanistan. Hemp and Flax. Flax was first planted in Eng- Ayoub governor for bis brother Yakoob, ameer at Cabul,

May, 1879 land, when it was directed to be sown for fishing-nets, Mutiny; many officials killed..

.5 Sept. 1532-3. “Bounties were paid to encourage its cultiva- Ayoub invades Candahar (which see); defeated, i Sept.;

returns to Herat..... tion in 1783; and every exertion should be made by the His levies in Candahar defeated..

..Sept. 1880

..June, 1881 government and legislature to accomplish such a national good. In 1785 there were imported from Russia,

Herbert Hospital for SOLDIERS, Woolwich, in British ships, 17,695 tons of hemp and flax."-Sir erected 1866. John Sinclair. The importation of hemp and flax in

Herculaneum, an ancient city of Campania, over1870, 3,510,178 cwt.; in 1877, 3,502,447 cwt.; in 1879, whelmed, together with Pompeii, by an eruption of lava 2,943,738. The cultivation of flax was revived at the from Vesuvius, 23 or 24 Aug. 79. Successive eruptions dearth of cotton during the American civil war, 1861-4. laid them still deeper under the surface, and all traces

Hengestdown (Cornwall). Here Egbert is said of them were lost until excavations began in 1711; and to have defeated the Danes and West Britons, 835.

in 1713 many antiquities were found. In 1738 excava

tions were resumed, and works of art, monuments, and Henoticon (from the Greek_ěvórns, unity), an memorials of civilized life were discovered. 150 rolls edict of union for reconciling the Eutychians with the of MS. papyri were found in a chest in 1754; and many church, issued by the emperor Zeno at the instance of antiquities were purchased by sir William Hamilton, Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, 482. It was zeal- and sold to the British Museum, where they are deously opposed by the popes of Rome, and was annulled posited; but the principal relics are preserved in the by Justin I. in 518. The orthodox party triumphed, museum of Portici. The “ Antichità di Ercolano,” 8 and many heretic bishops were expelled from their sees. vols. folio, were published by the Neapolitan govern

Heptarchy (or government of seven rulers) in ment, 1757–92. England was gradually formed from 455, when Hengist Hereford was made the seat of a bishopric about became king of Kent. It terminated in 828, when Eg- 676, Putta being first bishop.

The cathedral was bert became sole monarch of England. There were at founded by a nobleman named Milfride, in honor of first nine or ten Saxon kingdoms, but Middlesex soon Ethelbert, king of the East Saxons, who was treacherceased to exist, and Bernicia and Deira were generally ously slain by his intended mother-in-law, the queen of governed by one ruler, as Northumbria; see Britain and Mercia. The tower fell in 1786, and was rebuilt by Mr. Octarchy.

Wyatt. The cathedral was reopened, after very exHeraclidæ, descendants of Hercules, who were ex- tensive repairs, on 30 June, 1863. The see is valued in the pelled from the Peloponnesus about 1200 B.C., but re- king's books at 768l. per annum. Present income, 42001. conquered it in 1048, 1103-4, or 1109 B.C., a noted epoch in chronology, all the history preceding being accounted 1803. Folliott H. W. Cornwall, translated to Worcester, 1808. fabulous.

1808. John Luxmoore, translated to St. Asaph, 1815.

1815. George Isaac Huntingford, died 29 April, 1832. Heraldry. Marks of honor were used in the first 1832. Hon. Edward Grey, died 24 June, 1837. ages.-Nisbet. The Phrygians had a sow; the Thra- 1837. Thomas Musgrave, translated to York, Dec. 1847. cians, Mars; the Romans, an eagle; the Goths, a bear; 1847. Renn D. Hampden, died 23 April, 1868. the Flemings, a bull; the Saxons, a horse; and the 1868. James Atlay; consecrated 24 June. ancient French, a lion, and afterwards the fleur-de-lis Heretics (from the Greek aipois, choice). Paul (which see). Heraldry, as an art, is ascribed first to says, “ After the way they call heresy, so worsinip I the


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God of my fathers,” 60 (Acts xxiv. 14). Heresy was to Turkey in 1699 at the peace of Carlowitz. In Dec.
unknown to the Greek and Roman religions. Simon 1861, an insurrection against the Turks broke out, fog-
Magus is said to have broached the Gnostic heresy about tered by the prince of Montenegro. It was subdued;
41. This was followed by the Manichees, Nestorians, and on 23 Sept. 1862, Vucatovitch, chief of the insur-
Arians, etc.; see Inquisition. It is stated that the prom- gents, surrendered, on behalf of his countrymen, to Kur-
ulgation of laws for prosecuting heretics was begun by schid Pacha, and an amnesty was granted.
the emperor Frederick II. in 1220, and immediately an insurrection against the Turks breaks out, chief
adopted by pope Honorius III.

leader said to be Lazzaro Socica; several conflicts with
varying results..

. 1 July, 1875
Epiphanius chosen bishop of Constantius in Cyprus, 367;
wrote “ Panarium," a discourse against heresies; died 402 The European powers counsel to send a commission to

Turks said to be defeated at Nevesinje.. ..12 July, Thirty heretics came from Germany to England to prop. redress grievances.

...22 Aug. agate their opinions, and were branded in the fore.

Server Pacha unsuccessful; Turkish victories reported, head, whipped, and thrust naked into the streets in the depth of winter, where, none daring to relieve


The insurgents, in a document, describe their sufferings, them, they died of hunger and cold (Speed)..


as Christians; demand full and real freedom, and deLaws against heretics repealed, 25 Henry VIII........1534-5

clare that they will not be subject to the Turks again, The last person executed for heresy in Britain was

12 Sept. Thomas Aikenhead, at Edinburgh

Futile intervention of foreign consuls

.Sept. (The orthodox Mahometans are Sonuites; the here

Sanguinary engagements; various results...29 Sept., 13 tics, Shiites, Druses, etc.)

Oct., 11-14 Nov. Heritable Jurisdictions (i.e. feudal rights) in Insurgents defeated near Trebinje; Bacevics, a leader,


18-20 Jan. 1876 Scotland, valued at 164,2321., were abolished by the act Negotiations of the Austrian general Rodich fail; the in. 20 Geo. II. c. 43 (1747), and restored to the crown for surgents ask too much...

.... April, money compensation after 25 March, 1748. Heritable Mukhtar Pacha said to have defeated insurgents, and reand Movable Rights, in the Scottish law, denote what in other engagements reported...

victualled Niksichs besieged

29 April,

. May, June, England is meant by real and personal property : real The new sultan, Murad, grants an armistice for negotiaproperty in England answering nearly to heritable


June, rights in Scotland, and personal property to the mov

All intelligence very uncertain ...July, 1875-July,

(See Turkey.) able rights.

Herzegovina was occupied by the Austrians in Aug. Hermandad, Santa (Spanish for "holy brother- 1878, in conformity with the treaty of Berlin. . 13 July, 1878 hood”), associations of cities of Castile and Aragon to Novi-Bazar quietly occupied by the Austrians ...8 Sept. 1879

Fighting at Mostar, the capital..

.4 Aug. defend their liberties, began about the middle of the thirteenth century. The brotherhood was disorganized

Hesse (W. Germany), the seat of the Catti, formed in 1498, order having been firmly established. It is said part of the empire of Charlemagne; from the rulers of it to have been continued as a species of voluntary police in his time, the present are descended. It was joined to

Thuringia till about 1263, when Henry I. (son of a duke Hermas, author of “The Shepherd,” a Christian of Brabant and Sophia, daughter of the landgrave of apocryphal book, supposed to have been written about Thuringia) became landgrave of Hesse. The most re131.

Some believe Hermas to be mentioned in Romans markable of his successors was Philip the Magnanimous xvi. 14.

(1509), an eminent warrior and energetic supporter of Hermits, see Monachism.

the Reformation, who signed the Augsburg Confession in Herne Bay, Kent, a watering-place, begun 1830; 1530 and the League of Smalcald in 1531. At his death, the pier, five eighths of a mile long, having decayed, a in 1567, Hesse was divided into HESSE-CASSEL and new one was opened, 27 Aug. 1873, by lord mayor HESSE-DARMSTADT, under his sons William and George, Waterlow.

and their descendants played an eminent part in the con“Hero,” British man-of-war, see Wrecks, 1811.

vulsions of Germany during the seventeenth and eighHerrera (Aragon). Here don Carlos of Spain, in teenth centuries* In 1803 Hesse - Cassel became an his struggle for his hereditary right to the throne, at electorate, and in 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt a grand-duchy; the head of 12,000 men, encountered and defeated gen. which titles were retained in 1814. In 1807 Hesse-Cassel Buerens, who had not much above half that number of

was incorporated with the kingdom of Westphalia, but the queen of Spain's troops. Buerens lost about 1000 in 1813 the electorate was re-established. Population in killed and wounded, 24 Aug. 1837.

(1875), grand-duchy, 884,218. Herring - fishery was largely encouraged by the 1803. William I. ; born 3 June, 1743; succeeded as landgrave, English and Scotch in very early times. The “statute 1785; made elector, 1803; deprived of his states, 1806; of herrings,” passed in 1357, placed the trade under restored, 1813; died 27 Feb. 1821. government control. The mode of preserving herrings 1821. William II.; born 28 July, 1777; diod 20 Nov. 1847. by pickling was discovered about 1397. – "Anderson. 1847. Frederick William; born 20 Aug. 1802.

The elector, in 1850, remodelled the constitution given The British Herring-fishery Company was instituted 2

in 1831 (by which the chamber had the exclusive right Sept. 1750. A scientific commission in relation to the

of voting the taxes), and did not convene the chamber

until the usual time for closing the session had arfishery was appointed in 1862.

rived, when his demand for money for 1851 was laid Herrings, BATTLE OF THE, fought 12 Feb. 1429,

before it. The chamber called for a regular budget,

that it might discuss its items. The elector dis. obtained its name from the duc de Bourbon being de

solved the chamber, and declared his dominions in feated while attempting to intercept a convoy of salt a state of siege, 7 Sept. 1850. fish, on the road to the English besieging Orleans.

He fled to Hanover, and subsequently to Frankfort;

and on 14 Oct. he formally applied to the Frankfort Herrnhuters, see Moravians.

diet for assistance to re-establish his authority in Herschel Telescope, see Telescopes.

Hesse. On 6 Nov an Austro-Bavarian force of 10,000

men entered Hesse-Cassel, under the command of Hertford College, Oxford, founded in 1312; dis- Prince Thurn und Taxis, who fixed his headquarters in solved 1805; revived, and Magdalen Hall incorporated Hanau; and on the next day a Prussian force entered with it, 1874.

Cassel. The elector returned to his capital, the taxes

having been collected under threats of imprisonment, Heruli, a German tribe which ravaged Greece and

27 Dec. 1850. Asia Minor in the third century after Christ. Odoacer,

The constitution of 1831 was abolished, and a new one

established, 1852. their leader, overwhelmed the Western empire and be

The conflict was soon resumed, and continued till, by came king of Italy, 476. He was defeated and put to death by Theodoric the Ostrogoth, 491-3.

* Six thousand Hessian troops arrired in England, in con

sequence of an invasion being expected, in 1756. The sum Herzegovina, or HERTSEK (European Turkey), of 171,0001. three per cent. stock was transferred to the landoriginally a part of Croatia, was united with Bosnia in grave of Hesse, for Hessian auxiliaries lost in the American 1326, and made the duchy of St. Saba by the emperor again brought to this realm at the close of the last century,

war, at 301. per man, Nov. 1786. The Hessian soldiers were Frederick III. in the following century. It was ceded and served in Ireland during the rebellion in 1798.

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law of 20 Sept. 1866, Hesse-Cassel was annexed to court, erected by 1 Eliz. c. 1, 1559, by which all spiritual

Prussia, 8 Oct. 1866.
The ex-elector's property sequestrated for intriguing jurisdiction was vested in the crown. It originally had

against Prussia, 2 Nov. 1868, and Feb. 1869. He died no power to fine or imprison; but under Charles I. and
6 Jan. 1875.

archbishop Laud it assumed illegal powers, was comHESSE-DARMSTADT. (Population, Dec. 1875, 884,218.) plained of by the parliament, and abolished in 1641. 1806. Louis I. ; born 14 June, 1753; died 6 April, 1830.

High Constable, see Constable. 1830. Louis II.; born 26 Dec. 1777; died 16 June, 1848.

High Court of Justice, see Supreme Court. 1848. Louis III.; born 9 June, 1806. By treaty with Prussia,

15 Sept. 1866, he ceded the northern part of Hesse. High Court of Justiciary, see Supreme Court
Darmstadt, and paid a war contribution; supported and Law.
Prussia in the Franco-Prussian war, Aug. 1870; died
13 June, 1877.

Highgate Archway, over a road made to avoid 1877. Louis IV., nephew, born 12 Sept. 1837; married princess the hill; first stone laid by Edward Smith, 31 Oct. 1812; Alice of Great Britain (born 25 April

, 1843), 1 July; toll through ceased 1 May, 1876.
1862; died of diphtheria after nursing her husband
and children, 14 Dec. 1878.

Highgate School, founded by sit Roger Cholme-
Heir: Ernest Louis, born 25 Nov. 1868.
Frederick William, 2d son, killed by a fall, 29 May, 1973;

ley, 1565. and other children.

Highlands (of Scotland), long held by semi-barbarHESSE-HOMBURG, a landgraviate, established by Freder

ous clans, were greatly improved by the construction of ick, son of George of Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1596. His descendant, Augustus Frederick, married (7 May, 1818) military roads by gen. Wade, about 1725-6; by the aboElizabeth, daughter of George III. of England, who had lition of heritable jurisdiction of feudal rights in 1747, no issue,

and by the establishment of the Highland and AgricultThe landgraviate was absorbed into the grand-duchy of ural Society in 1784; see Regiments.

Hesse in 1806, but re-established in 1815 with addi.
tional territories. The landgrave Ferdinand succeed- Highness. The title of Highness was given to
ed his brother, 8 Sept. 1848, and died 24 March, 1866.

Henry VII.; and this, and sometimes Your Grace, was Hesse-Homburg annexed to Prussia, 8 Oct. 1866.

the manner of addressing Henry VIII.; but about the Heterogeny, see Spontaneous Generation.

close of the reign of the latter, the titles of “Highness” Hewley's Charity, see Unitariuns.

and “ Your Grace” were absorbed in that of “Majesty." Hexameter, the most ancient form of Greek verse, Louis XIII. of France gave the title of Highness to the six measures or feet, each containing two long syllables prince of Orange in 1664; this prince had previously (a spondee), or a long one and two short (a dactyl), the only the distinction of Excellency. Louis XIV. gave form of verse in which Homer wrote his “Iliad” and the princes of Orange the title of High and Mighty "Odyssey," and Virgil the “ Æneid.”

Lords, 1644.-Henault. Hexham, or HAGULSTAD, Northumberland. The High-priest, see Priest. see of Hexham was founded about 678; it had ten bish- High - treason. To regulate the trials for this ops successively, but by reason of the rapine of the Danes crime, the statute so favorable to liberty, the 25th of it was discontinued; the last prelate appointed 810. At Edward III. 1352, was enacted, by which two living the BATTLE OF HEXHAM the Yorkist army of Edward witnesses are required; parliament having refused to IV. obtained a complete victory over the Lancastrian sanction the sentence of death against the duke of Somarmy of Henry VI., 15 May, 1464.

erset, By the 40 Geo. III. 1800, it was enacted that Hibbert Fund. Robert Hibbert on 19 July, 1847, where there was a trial for high-treason in which the established a trust fund " for the promotion of compre-overt act was a direct attempt upon the life of the sorhensive learning and thorough research in relation to creign, such trial should be conducted in the same manreligion as it appears to the eye of the scholar and ner as in the case of an indictment for murder; see philosopher, and wholly apart from the interest of any

Treason. particular church or system."

The last two cases of execution for high-treason :

I. William Cundell, alias Connell, and John Smith; tried Hibbert Lectures, first course of, seven by prof. Max on a special commission, 6 Feb. 1812, being two of fourteen

Müller (given at Westminster) “On the Origin and British subjects taken in the enemy's service in the isles of Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religions of France and Bourbon. Mr. Abbot, afterwards lord Tenterden India'

.25 April-30 May, 1878 and chief-justice, and sir Vicary Gibbs, attorney-general, con. Since given by M. Renouf, in 1879; M. Ernest Renan, ducted the prosecution, and Mr. (afterwards lord) Brougham 6-14 April, 1880; by Mr. T. W. Rhys Davids,

defended the prisoners. The defence was, that they had

26 April-24 May, 1881 assumed the French uniform to aid their escape to England. Hibernia, IBERNIA, IVernia, and lerne, a name. They were banged and beheaded on the lodge of Horsemongiven to Ireland by ancient writers (Aristotle, Prolemy, serlang dadil on 26 March, 1812.

All the other convicts were pardoned, upon condition of etc.); see Ireland, and Wrecks, 1833.

serving in colonies beyond the seas. Hicks's Hall, Clerkenwell, London. The sessions- 1820.

II. The Cato-street Conspirators (which see), executed 1 May, house of the justices of Middlesex was long so named on account of its having been erected for them by sir Bap

Highways, see Roads. tist Hicks, at his own expense, 1611-12.

Hill, Rowland, MEMORIAL FUND, see Mansion

House. Hieroglyphics (sacred engrarings), picture-writing, the expression of ideas by representation of visible

Hillabee Towns, ATTACK on, by gen. White, objects, used chiefly by the Egyptians; said to have with 360 mounted Tennessee militia and some friendly been invented by Athotes, 2112 B.C.Usher. Young, Cherokees. This place is on the Tallapoosa, in Alabama. Champollion, Rosellini, and others (in the present centu- The attack was made on 18 Nov. 1813. 61 warriors ry) have much elucidated Egyptian hieroglyphics; see were killed and 256 made prisoners without the loss of Rosetta Stone.

High And Low Church, sections in the church Hillsborough (Down, N.E. Ireland), founded by sir of England, became prominent in the reign of Anne. A. Hill, in the reign of Charles I. Here were held two Dr. Sacheverell, preacher at St. Saviour's, Southwark, great Protestant meetings in favor of the Irish church : was prosecuted for two seditious sermons preached (14 (1) on 30 Oct. 1834, to protest against the “

" appropriaAug. and 9 Nov. 1709) to create apprehension for the tion clause;" (2) 30 Oct. 1867, in consequence of a comsafety of the church, and to excite hostility against dis- mission of inquiry into the Irish church establishment, senters, His friends were called High-church and his and the agitation consequent thereon. opponents Low-church, or moderate, men, 1720. The

Himera (Sicily). Here (in 480 B.C.) Theron and queen favored Sacheverell, and presented him with the Gelon of Agrigentum defeated the Carthaginians; and rectory of St. Andrew's, Holborn. He died in 1724.

at Ecnomus, near here, the latter defeated Agathocles of High Commission, COURT OF, an ecclesiastical Syracuse, 311 B.C.

a man.

One 1813.

Hindoo Era (sce Cali-yuga) began 3101 B.C., or the Prussian army, commanded by Frederick II., was 756 before the Deluge, in 2348. The Hindoos count surprised and defeated by the Austrians commanded by their months by the progress of the sun through the zo- count Daun. Marshal Keith, a Scotsman, in the Prussian diac. The Samoat era begins 56 B.C.; the Saca era service, was killed. The Austrian generals shed tears, A.D. 79.

and ordered his interment with military honors. A conHindostan, see India.

flict between the Russians and Prussians and the French,

in which the last were victorious, took place 21 May, Hippodrome, a circus for horse-riding. opened by Mr. John Whyte, near Notting hill, London, on 29 May, 1837, was closed in 1841 by the Kensington which several important battles have been fought: (1.)

Hochstadt, a city on the Danube, in Bavaria, near vestry.

20 Sept. 1703, when the Imperialists were defeated by Hippophagy, see Florse.

the French and Bavarians, under marshal Villars and Hippopotamus (Greek in Totótapos, river- the elector of Bavaria. (2.) 2 (N. s. 13) Aug. 1704, called horse), a native of Africa, known to, but incorrectly de- the battle of Blenheim (which see). (3.) 19 June, 1800, scribed by, ancient writers. Ilippopotami were exhibited when Moreau totally defeated the Austrians, and avenged at Rome by Antoninus, Commodus, and others, about the defeat of the French at Blenheim. 138, 180, and 218. The tirst brought to England arrived

Hofwyl, see Pestalozzian System. 25 May, 1850, and was placed in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, London (died 11 March, 1878), another,

Hogue, see La llogue. a female, four months oll, was placed there in 1854. Hohenlinden (Bavaria). Here the Austrians, comOne born here, 21 Feb. 1871, and another born 1 Jan. manded by archduke John, were beaten by the French 1872, lived a few days only; another born 5 Nov. 1872. and Bavarians, commanded by Moreau, 3 Dec. 1800. The Two young ones, born at Paris in May, 1858, and June, peace of Luneville followed. 1859, were killed by their mother. One born at Amster

Hohenstaufen, see Germany and Guelphs. dam, 29 July, 1865. Hispania, Latin name of Spain.

Hohenzollern, the reigning family in Prussia. Its

origin is referred to Thassilo, abont 800, who built the Hispaniola, see Hayti.

castle of Hohenzollern. In 1417, Frederick of NuremHistology (from iotós, a web), the science which berg, his descendant, was made elector of Brandenburg. treats of the tissues which enter into the formation of The princes of Hohenzollern- Hechingen and Hohenanimals and vegetables; mainly prosecuted by the aid zollern-Sigmaringen abdicated in favor of the king of of the microscope. Schwam, Valentin, Kölliker, Quek- Prussia, 7 Dec. 1849. Charles, son of the prince of ett, and Robin are celebrated for their researches. Prof. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was elected prince of Roule Quekett's “ Lectures on Histology” were published in mania, 20 April, 1866; see Danubiun Principalities. His 1852 and 1854.

brother Leopold, nominated candidate for the throne

of Spain, withdrew July, 1870; see Brandenburg and History. The Bible, the Parian Chronicle, the Prussia. histories of Herodotus (“the father of history") and Ctesias, and the poems of Homer are the foundations of Holbein Society, for obtaining photo-lithographic early ancient history. Later ancient history is consid- representations of ancient wood engravings, established ered as ending with the destruction of the Roman em- in 1868, sir William Stirling Maxwell president. pire in Italy, 476. Modern history dates from the age Holborn (Holeborne, in Doomsday-book), said to of Charlemagne, about 800. There was not a professor- be identical with the river Fleet. Holborn hill, in the ship of modern history in either of our universities until time of Stow, 1600, was termed “Heavy hill.” Gerard, the years 1724 and 1736, when Regius professorships the herbalist, speaks of his “ house in Holborne," 1597. were established by George I. and George II.Royal The Holborn theatre was opened by Mr. Sefton Parry, 6 Historical Society, London, established 1868, Earl Russell Oct. 1866, with "Flying Scud," a new piece by Mr. Dion president, 1872. A commission was appointed 31 Aug. Boucicauit. The Holborn amphitheatre was opened 25 1869, to examine historical MSS. in the possession of in- May, 1867. The Holborn Valley viaduct, founded by Mr. stitutions and private families, and to publish any con- F. Ü. Fry, 3 June, 1867 (Mr. William Haywood chief sidered desirable. It has issued several reports, 1870 et engineer), was opened for foot-passengers 14 Oct., and

inaugurated by the queen, 6 Nov. 1869. “Middle row" Hittites, descendants of Ileth, second son of Canaan, was pulled down in 1867, Western Approach street a commercial tribe, from whom Abraham bought a grave opened 25 June, 1868. The statue of prince Albert unfor bis wife, 1860 B.C. (Gen. xxiii.). They opposed Joshua, covered by the prince of Wales, 9 Jan. 1874. Holborn 1451 B.C.; and the Egyptians, about 1310 B.C.

town-hall opened by the lord mayor, 18 Dec. 1879. The cistle of Jerablus, a mound and ruins, 20 miles below Be

Holidays, see bunk Holidays. redj k, on the Euphrates; was visited by Henry Maundrell, 1699; by Dr. Pocorke, 1715; and by J. H. Skene and Mr Holland (Ilollow land, or, some say, W'ooded land), George Smith (died 1876), who agreed in considering the remains to be those of Carchemisti, the ancient capital of the a kingdom, N. W. Europe, the chief part of the northern Hittites, captured and annexed by Sargon, king of Assyria Netherlands, composed of land rescued from the sea, and (about 721 B.C.). The site had been held successively by defended by immense dikes. It was inhabited by the Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, and Batavi in the time of Cæsar, who made a league with A rich harvest may be expected from its explora

them. It became part of Gallia Belgica, and afterwards Hobart Town, or Hobarton, a seaport and capi- fifteenth century it was governed by counts under the

of the kingdom of Austrasia. From the tenth to the tal of Van Diemen's Land, was founded in 1804 by col. German emperars. In 1861, the population of the kingCollins, the first lieutenant-governor, who died here in dom in Europe was 3,521,416; of the colonies, 18,175,1810.

910; of both in 1863, 21,805,607 ; of the kingilom, Jan. Hobhouse's Act, 1 & 2 Will. IV. c. 60, 1831, re- 1873, 3,767,263 ; 1876, 3,865,456 ; colonies, about 25,110,lates to vestries and charities.

000 ; 1879, kingdom, 4,037,010. Hobkirk's Hill, Souri CAROLINA, BATTLE AT, The parties termed Hooks (followers of Margaret, countegs fought 25 April, 1781, between the British under lord of Holland) and Codfish (supporters of her son Will. Rawdon, and the Americans under Greene. The Ameri

iam, who endeavored to supplant her) create a civil

war, which lasts many years. cans were worsted and retired. British loss, 258; Ameri- Holland united to Hainanit, 1299; and Brabant.. can, 266.

Annexed to Burgundy by duke Philip, who wrests it from

his niece Jaqueline of Holland, daughter of the last Hochkirchen (Saxony). Here, on 14 Oct. 1758,


Arabs. t.on.

1317 1416


1436 son.

...3 Aug.


.1 July,

Annexed to Austria through marriage of Mary of Bur- Restored to the house of Orange, and Belgium annexed
gundy with archduke Maximilian..
1477 to its dominions...

.17 Nov. 1813 Government of Philip of Austria..

1495 The prince of Orange proclaimed soveröign prince of the or Margaret of Austria and Charles V.

United Netherlands.

.6 Dec. Of Philip II...

1555 Religious discord between Holland and the southern Philip II. establishes the Inquisition ; the Hollanders provinces...

..1817, etc. having zealously embraced the Reformed doctrines; The revolution in Belgium.

25 Aug. 1830 the Confederacy of Gueux (Beggars) formed by the Belgium separated from Holland.

.12 July, 1831 nobles against it....

1566 Holland makes war against Belgium.. Compromise of Breda presented..

.Jan. Treaty between Holland and Belgium, signed in London, Commencement of the revolt under William, prince of

19 April, 1839 Orange..

1572 Abdication of William I...

.7-10 Oct. 1840 Elizabeth of England declines the offered sovereignty, Death of the ex-king William I.

.12 Dec. 1843 but promises help...

1575 Louis Bonaparte, count de St. Leu, ex-king of Holland, The pacification of Ghent-union of the north and south dies of apoplexy at Leghorn...

25 July, 1846 provinces

1576 The king agrees to political reform, March; a new con. The seven northern provinces contract the league of

stitution granted...

17 April, 1848 Utrecht...

1579 Death of William II.

..17 March, 1849 And declare their independence...

.29 Sept. 1580 Re-establishment of a Roman Catholic hierarchy anAssassination of William of Orange.. 10 July, 1584 nounced..

12 March, 1853 The ten southern provinces conquered by the prince of Inundations: 40,000 acres submerged ; nearly 30,000 Parma..

1585 villages made destitute.

.Jan. and Feb. 1861 The provinces solicit help from England and France; Great fire at Enschede, the Manchester of Holland, loss expedition of the earl of Leicester; English and Dutch about a million pounds...

.7 May, 1862 disagree...

. 1585–7 The states-general pass a law for the abolition of slavery Battle of Zutphen--sir Philip Sidney mortally wounded,

in the Dutch West Indies (after 1 July, 1863)....6 Aug.

22 Sept. 1586 Treaty for capitalizing Scheldt dues signed.. ...12 May, 1863 Prince Maurice appointed stadtholder.

1587 Slavery ceases in the Dutch West Indies..
Death of Philip II. His son Philip III. cedes the Nether- 50th anniversary of deliverance from France....17 Nov.

lands to Albert of Austria and the infanta Isabella... 1598 Commencement of canal to connect Amsterdam with the
Campaigns of Maurice and Spinola....
1599-1604 North sea...

.8 March, 1865
Maurice defeats the archduke at Nieuwport......2 July, 1600 The government undertake a canal to connect Rotter-
The independence of the United Provinces recognized;

dam with the sea..

..March, truce of Antwerp for twelve years..9 April (30 March), 1609 Commercial treaty with France.

.7 July, Batavia in Java built.....

1610 New ministry (protectionist)..

.1 June, 1866 Fierce religious dissensions between the Arminians and Correspondence with Prussia respecting the Prussian Gomarists... 1610-19 garrison in Luxemburg..

..July-Aug. Maurice favors the latter and intrigues for royal power.. 1616 The lower chamber barely passes a vote of censure on Synod of Dort; persecution of the Arminians.

1618-19 the ministry respecting government of Java, etc.; the Execution of the illustrious Barneveldt.. .13 May, 1619 king dissolves the chamber..

.10 Oct Renewal of the war; Maurice saves Bergen-op-Zoom.. 1622 Alleged treaty with France respecting cession of LuxemHis tyrannical government: plot against him, and six

burg (which see)..

22 March, 1867 teen persons executed.... 1623 The fortifications of Luxemburg razed..

. May, 1868 His death; his brother Frederick succeeds him, and an- Long struggle beween the ministry and the chambers, nuls the persecution...

1625 Nov. 1867-May, 1868; the ministry resign; a new min. Manhattan (now New York), North America, founded; istry formed by M. de Thorbecke.

...June, massacre of English at Amboyna, East Indies.. 1624 International exhibition opened at Amsterdam by prince Victories of Van Tromp, who takes two Spanish fleets Henry....

..15 July, 1869 off the Downs.....

.16 Sept. and 21 Oct. 1639 Meeting of the chambers; strict neutrality in the FrancoPeace of Westphalia; the republic recognized by Europe. 1648 Prussian war to be maintained..

19 Sept. 1870 War with England --- naval actions. Blake defeats De Cession of Dutch possessions in Guinea to Great Britain, Ruyter, 22 Oct.; but is surprised by Van Tromp, who


. 7 July, 1871 takes some English ships, and sails through the Chan- Tercentenary celebration of the commencement of Dutch nel with a broom at his mast-head...

.29 Nov. 1652 independence by the capture of Briel.... .1 April, 1872 Indecisive sea-lights. 12–14 June; death of Van Tromp,

Death of De Thorbecke, a great statesman.......4 June, 21 July; peace follows...

1653 A new ministry formed by Devries...

29 June, Victorious war with Sweden..


Discussions respecting the war against the sultan of Another war with England..... 1665 Achin in Sumatra (which see)..

. April, 1873 Indecisive sea-fights, 1-4 June; victory of Monk over De New port at Flushing opened by the king.. .....8 Sept. Ruyter..

... 25 July, 1666 | Expedition against the Achinese (see Sumatra) embarks, Triple alliance of England, Holland, and Sweden against

Dec. France

1668 New ministry, under Dr. Heemskirk.......... 28 July, 1874 Charles II. deserts Holland; joins France... 1670 New penal code issued........

Aug. 1875 The French overrun Holland.

1671 Tercentenary of Pacification of Ghent celebrated...Sept. 1876 Desperate condition of the states--the populace massacre Canal between North sea and Amsterdam passed by a the De Witts-William III, made stadtholder.

1672 monitor (see 1865), 4 Oct. ; inaugurated by the king, The French repelled by the sluices being opened.

1 Nov. Indecisive campaigns...

. 1673-7 New ministry; president, baron Kappeijne van de CopWilliam marries princess Mary of England..


...3 Nov. 1877 Peace with France (Nimeguen)...

1678 Marriage of prince Henry, the king's brother, to princess William becomes king of England..

1689 Marie Elizabeth of Prussia..

.24 Aug. 1878 Sanguinary war with France...

.1689–96 | Death of prince Henry, the king's brother, aged 58, Peace of Ryswick signed. .. 20 Sept. 1697

13 Jan. 1879 Death of William...

..8 March, 1702 New cabinet, under M. Van Lynden........ ... 19 Aug. No stadtholder appointed-administration of Heinsius.. War against France and Spain; campaigus of Marl

PRINCES OF ORANGE (see Orange), STADTHOLDERS. borough...

1702-13 1502. Philibert de Chalons. Peace of Utrecht..

...30 March, 1714 | 1530. René de Nassau, his nephew. Holland supports the empress Maria Theresa.. .......1743–8 1544. William of Nassau, styled the Great, cousin to René, reWilliam Henry hereditary stadtholder..


covers the principality of Orange in 1559. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle...

18 Oct. 1748 Nominated STADTHOLDER, 1579; killed by an assassin War with England for naval supremacy-Holland loses

hired by Philip II. of Spain, 10 July, 1584. colonies.

.1781-3 1584. Philip William, his son; stolen away from the university Civil wars in the Low Countries..


of Louvain; the Dutch would never suffer him to reThe French republicans march into Holland; the people

side in their provinces; died 1618, declare in their favor...

1793 1618. Maurice, the renowned general; became STADTHOLDER Unsuccessful campaign of the duke of York.....


in 1584; he was a younger son of William by a second The Batavian republic established in alliance with France 1795

marriage. Battle of Camperdown, Duncan signally defeats the Dutch, 1625. Frederick Henry (brother), STADTHOLDER.

11 Oct. 1797 1647. William II., STADTHOLDER; married Mary, daughter of The Texel fleet, of twelve ships of the line, with thirteen

Charles I. of England, by whom he had a son, who Indiamen, surrenders to the British admiral, without

succeeded in 1672. firing a gun..

..30 Aug. 1799 1650-72. John De Witt, grand pensioner; no stadtholder. A new constitution is given to the Batavian republic; 1660. William Henry; STADTHOLDER in 1672; married Mary, the chief ofiicer (R. J. Schimmelpenninck) takes the

eldest daughter of James II. of England, 1677. title of grand pensionary.

.26 April, 1805 | 1702-47. NO STADTHOLDER. Holland erected into a kingdom, and Louis Bonaparte, 1702. John William, nephew of William III., loses the princi. father of Napoleon III, declared king... .5 June, 1806

pality of Orange, which is annexed to France. The ill-fated Walcheren expedition... .July, Sept. 1809 1747. William Henry becomes HEREDITARY STADTHOLDER ; Louis abdicates..

,1 July, 1810

married princess Anne of England; succeeded by his Holland united to France..

..9 July,

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