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1751. William IV.; retired on the invasion of the French in

Holy Alliance was ratified at Paris, 26 Sept. 1815, 1795; died in 1806. 1795. (Holland and Belgium united to the French republic.]

between the emperors of Russia (its originator) and Aus

tria and the king of Prussia, by which they ostensibly KINGS.

bound themselves, among other things, to be governed 1806. Louis Bonaparte made king of HOLLAND by his brother by Christian principles in all their political transactions,

Napoleon, 5 June, 1806; abdicated, 31 July, 1810. 1810. (Holland again united to France.]

with a view to perpetuating the peace they had achieved. 1813. House of Orange restored. William Frederick, prince The compact was severely censured in this country as

of Orange (born 1772), proclaimed 6 Dec. 1813; took opposed to rational liberty.
the oath of fidelity as sovereign prince, 30 March,
1814; assumed the style of king of the Netherlands,

Holy Brotherhood, see Hermandad.
16 March, 1815 ; formally abdicated in favor of his
son, 7 Oct. 1840; died 12 Dec. 1843.

Holy Cross, SOCIETY OF, formed in 1855, by sev. 1840. William II

. ; born 6 Dec. 1792 ; succeeded on his father's eral clergymen of the church of England, “for deepen1849. William III., son; born 19 Feb. 1817; married Sophia ing spiritual life in their brethren; president, the rev.

of Würtemberg, 18 June, 1839. (she died 3 June, A. H. Mackonochie. It favors auricular confession and 1877.) Married Emma of Waldeck-Pyrmont, 7 Jan. other Romanist practices. One of its books, “ The Priest

1879; issue : Wilhelmine, born 31 Aug. 1880. Son: William, prince of Orange, born 4 Sept. 1840; died in Absolution," was censured by the bishops in convo11 June, 1879.

cation, 6 July, 1877, and caused much public excitement. Heir : Alexander, born 25 Aug. 1851.

Holy Ghost, see Esprit.
Holland, New, see Australia and Australasia.

Holy Island, see Lindisfarne.
Holloway College FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION
OF Women, near Virginia Water. First brick laid, 12

Holy League, see Leagues. Sept. 1879. Mr. Holloway gave 250,0001., and promised Holy of Kent. Elizabeth Barton was in100,0001. additional for endowment.

cited by the Roman Catholic party to oppose the ReforHolloway Hospitals. Thomas Holloway, pro- mation by pretending to inspirations from heaven. She prietor of the popular ointment, etc., offered the govern- foretold the speedy and violent death of Henry VIII. if ment 250,0001, to erect for the use of the middle classes he divorced Catherine of Spain and married Anne Bolan asylum for the insane, and hospitals for incurables eyn, and direful calamities to the nation. She and her and convalescents. The asylum was erected at St. confederates were executed at Tyburn, 5 May, 1534. Anne's Hill, near Virginia Water, 1873 et seq.

Holy Places in PALESTINE. These places have Holmfirth Flood. On 5 Feb. 1852, the Bilberry been a source of contention between the Greek and Latin reservoir above Holmfirth, near Huddersfield, Yorkshire, churches for several centuries. In the reign of Francis burst its banks, and levelled four mills and many ranges I. they were placed under Latin monks, protected by the of other buildings, killing more than 90 persons, and de- French government; but the Greeks from time to time vastating property estimated at above half a million. obtained firmans from the Porte invalidating the rights

Holstein and Schleswig (N. W. Germany), of the Latins, who were at last (in 1757) expelled from duchies once belonging to Denmark. The country, in the sacred buildings, which were committed to the care habited by Saxons, was subdued by Charlemagne in the of the Greeks by a hatti-scherif, or imperial ordinance. beginning of the ninth century, and afterwards formed the holy sepulchre partially destroyed by fire and repart of the duchy of Saxony. In 1106 or 1110, Adolphus

built by the Greeks, who claim additional privileges,

and cause fresh dissensions... of Schauenberg became count of Holstein : his descend- The Russian and French governments sent envoys (M. ants ruled till 1459, when Adolphus VII. died without Dashkoff and M. Marcellus) to adjust the dispute; an issue, and the states of Holstein and Schleswig, elected the subject again agitated, and the Porte proposed that a

arrangement prevented by the Greek revolution.... Christian, king of Denmark, his nephew, as their duke, mixed commission should adjudicate on the rival through fear of his arms. In 1544, his grandson, Chris- claims. M. Titoff, the Russian envoy, acting on behalf tian II., divided his states among his brothers, with the

of the Greeks, and M. Lavalette, the French envoy, on condition that the duchies should remain subject to A firman issued by the Porte, confirming and consolidat

that of the Latins, took up the question very warmly, 1850 Denmark. The eldest branch of the family reigned in ing the rights previously granted to the Greek ChrisDenmark till the decease of Frederick VII., 15 Nov. tians, and declaring that the Latins had no right to 1863. From a younger branch (the dukes of Holstein

claim exclusive possession of certain holy places speci

fied, but permitting them to possess a key of the church Gottorp) descended, through marriage, the kings of Swe

at Bethlehem, etc., as in former times....... 9 March, 1852 den from 1751 to 1818, and the reigning family in Russia The French government acquiesced with much dissatissince 1762, when the duke, as the husband of Anne, be

faction; but the Russian envoy still desired the key

to be withheld from the Latin monks. M. D'Ozerot came czar. In 1773, Catherine II. of Russia ceded Hol

made a formal declaration of the right of Russia to stein-Gottorp to Denmark in exchange for Oldenburg, protect the orthodox in virtue of the treaty of Kai. etc. The duchies were occupied by the Swedes in 1813,

nardji in 1774, and demanded that the firman of 9 March, but restored to Denmark in 1814, and on 28 May, 1831,

1852, should be read at Jerusalem, although it militated

against his pretensions, which was accordingly done. constituent assemblies were granted to them. Since 1844 The dispute still continued, the Porte being exposed to disputes have been rife between the duchies and Den- the attacks of both the Russian and French governmark, and in 1848 the states-general of the duchies voted Prince Menschikoff arrives at Constantinople as envoy

... March, 1853 their annexation to the German Confederacy, in which extraordinary, and, in addition to the claims respectthey were supported by Prussia; war ensued, which last- ing the holy places, made demands respecting the proed till 1850, when they submitted to Denmark. The

tection of the Greek Christians in Turkey which led agitation in the duchies, encouraged by Prussia, revived

to the war of 1854–6 (see Russo-Turkish War)..28 Feb. in 1857. The Germans in Schleswig desired it to be

Holy Roman Empire. The German empire remade a member of the German Confederation, like Hol-ceived this title under the emperor Otho I. the Great, stein; but both duchies demanded a local government crowned at Rome by pope John XII., 2 Feb. 962; see more independent of Denmark, which changes were re- Rome and Germany. sisted by that power. For the events of the war of 1864, Holy Rood or Cross. A festival instituted on acsee Denmark. By the convention signed at Gastein count of the recovery of a large piece of the cross by (which see), 14 Aug. 1865, the government of Holstein the emperor Heraclius, after it had been taken away, on was left with Austria, and that of Schleswig with Prus- the plundering of Jerusalem, about 615. The feast of sia. The whole of Holstein and part of Schleswig were the Invention (or Finding) of the Cross is on 3 May; that ceded to Prussia by the treaty of Prague, signed 23 Aug. of the Exaltation of the Cross, 14 Sept. At Boxley ab1866. Population in 1860, 1,004,473. The 5th clause, bey, in Kent, was a crucifix, called the Rood of Grace; directing N. Schleswig to be given to Denmark if the at the dissolution it was broken in pieces as an impostpeople voted for it, was not acted on, although claimed; ure by Hilsey, bishop of Rochester, at St. Paul's cross, and was abrogated, Feb. 1879.

London, 1536.

1808

1821

ments..

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ease which it has a tendency to induce, such disease dis- | 1524, and used in brewing; but the physicians having appears, because two similar diseased actions cannot si- represented that they were unwholesome, their use was multaneously subsist in the same organ.-Brande. Infin- prohibited in 1528.— Anderson. In the year ending 5 Jan. itesimal doses of medicine, such as the millionth of a grain 1853, there were 46,1573 acres under hops in England and of aloes, have been employed, it is said, with efficacy. Wales, chiefly in Herefordshire, Kent, and WorcesterThe system requires the patient to regulate his diet and shire, which paid 447,1441. duty; the quantity yielded habits carefully. It has led to a more accurate study of was 51,102,494 lbs., whereof 955,855 lbs. were exported. the materia medica. Introduced into England, 1827. The duty on hops was repealed in 1862, after many apThe Hahnemann hospital was opened in Bloomsbury plications. An act for preventing fraud in the trade square, 16 Sept. 1850. " The World's Convention of was passed in June, 1866.-The Hop and Malt Exchange, Homeopathic Physicians" opened at Philadelphia, 26 Southwark, was opened in Oct. 1867.-Large quantities June, 1876. London School of Homeopathy, founded are raised in the United States, especially in western 15 Dec. 1876. Homeopathic congress met at Liverpool, New York, Wisconsin, Michigan, California, and Ver14 Sept. 1877.

mont. The production in the United States has rapidly Homoousion AND Homoiousion (Greek, opooú- increased. It amounted in 1850 to 3,497,029 lbs.; in Glov, same essence; òpolovolov, similar essence or being), 1860 to 10,991,996 lbs.; in 1870 to 25,456,669 lbs. terms employed with respect to the nature of the Father Horatii And Curiatii, see Rome, 669 B.C. and the Son in the Trinity. The orthodox party adopt- Horn; Hornpipe. The horn is thought to be, ed the former term as a party cry at the council of Nice, next to the reed, the earliest wind-instrument, and has 325; the Arians adopted the latter at Seleucia, 359. been found among most savage nations. It was first

Homs, Syria. Here Ibrahim Pacha and the Egyp- made of horn, hence the name; afterwards of brass, with tians severely defeated the Turks, 8 July, 1832. key's for the semitones, in the last century.—The dance

Honduras, discovered by Columbus in 1502, and called the Hornpipe is supposed to be so named from its conquered by the Spaniards 1523, is one of the republics having been performed to the Welsh pib-corn, that is of Central America; see America. Great Britain ceded hornpipe, about 1300.-Spencer. Many hornpipes were the Bay Islands to Honduras, 28 Nov. 1859. President, composed in the eighteenth century. The "College gen. J. M. Medina, elected i Feb. 1864, and in 1869. Hornpipe” was very popular. Provisional president, C. Arias (Dec. 1872). P. Leiva, Horne Tooke, etc. The trial of Messrs. Hardy, 1875; M. A. Soto, 29 May, 1877. War with San Salva- Tooke, Joyce, Thelwall, and others, on a charge of highdor, May, 1871, and May, 1872. The town of Omoa, treason, caused a great sensation. They were taken Spanish Honduras, was bombarded by H.M.S. Niobe, to into custody on 20 May, 1794. Mr. Hardy was tried 29 obtain redress for injuries to British subjects, 19 Aug. Oct., and, after a trial of eight days, was honorably ac1873. Population, about 350,000 (1877).

quitted. John Horne Tooke was tried and acquitted, 20 British Honduras, Central America, was settled by Nov.; and Mr. Thelwall was acquitted, 5 Dec.; the English from Jamaica soon after a treaty with Spain in others were discharged. Acts were passed to prohibit 1667. They were often disturbed by the Spaniards, and Mr. Thelwall's political lectures in 1795. sometimes expelled, till 1783. Balize or Belize, the cap- Horology, see Clocks. The British Horological Inital, is a great seat of the mahogany trade. In 1861 the stitute, Clerkenwell, London, established in 1858, for the population was 25,635, and the revenue, 35,7571. Gov- benefit of watchmakers, publishes a monthly journal. ernor, James R. Longden, 1867; William W. Cairns,

Horse. The people of Thessaly were excellent 1870; major Robert Miller Mundy, 1874; F. P. Barlee, equestrians, and probably first among the Greeks who

broke them in for service in war; whence probably arose Honeymoon. It was a custom to drink of diluted the fable that Thessaly was originally inhabited by cenhoney for thirty days, or a moon's age, after a wedding taurs. ** Solomon had 40,000 stalls of horses for his feast, and hence arose the term honeymoon, of Teutonic chariots, and 12,000 horsemen," 1014 B.C. 1 Kings iv. 26. origin. Attila the Hun drank, it is said, so freely of hy- The Greeks and Romans had some covering to secure dromel on his marriage-day that he died of suffocation, their horses' hoofs from injury. In the ninth century 453.

horses were only shod in time of frost. Shoeing was inHong-Kong, an island off the coast of China, was troduced into England by William I., 1066; see Races. taken by capt. Elliott, 23 Aug. 1839, and ceded to Great The horse tax was imposed in 1784. Its operation was Britain 20 Jan, 1841. Its chief town is Victoria, built extended, and its amount increased, in 1796; and again in 1842, and erected into a bishopric in 1849. Sir John

in 1808. The existing duty upon " horses for riding

only, in England, amounts to about 350,000l. per year. 1862 Bowring, gorernor from 1854 to 1859, was succeeded by Annual license duty on horses and mules, 108. 6d. each; sir Hercules Robinson. Governors: sir Richard G. Mac- horse-dealers' license, 121. 108. (act passed 1869).... Donnell, 1865; sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, 1872; John Mr. J. S. Rarey, an American, made a great sensation in

London by taming vicious and wild horses, and even Pope Hennessy, Nov. 1876.

a zebra from the Zoological Gardens. His system is Honi soit qui mal y pense, “Evil be to him founded on a profound study of the disposition of the who evil thinks." It is mythically said that the count

animal, and on kindness. He initiated many illustri.

ous persons in his method (on 20 rch, lord Palmeress of Salisbury, at a ball at court, happening to drop her

ston and twenty others) binding them to secrecy; from garter, the king, Edward III., took it up and presented it which they were released in June, when his book was to her with these words, which afterwards became the reprinted in England without his consent... motto of the order of the Garter; see Garter.

He was engaged to instruct cavalry officers and riding masters of the army..

..July, 1859 Honor. Temples were erected to Honor by Scipio He gave a lecture to the London cabmen, which was well Africanus, about 197 B.C.; and by C. Marius, about 102

received, 12 Jan. 1860; and in the saine year he re

ceived a present of 20 guineas from the Society for the B.C.–The Legion of Honor was created by Bonaparte Prevention of Cruelty to Animals....

May, 1860 in 1802.

Great annual horse-shows held at the Agricultural Hall,

Islington, began.... Honveds, the militia of Hungary. They supported Horse.jleshAn establishment for the sale of it as hu?

...July, 1864 the rebellion against the emperor in 1819, but on the man food was opened at Paris on 9 July, 1866, with completion of the changes whereby the independence of success, and its use as food strongly advocated. About

150 persons (including sir Henry Thompson and sir Hungary was secured, in 1868, they offered a loyal ad

John Lubbock) dined on horse-flesh at the Langham dress to the emperor-king.

hotel, London....

.6 Feb. 1868 Hooks And Codfish, party names; see Holland, A great Franco Anglo-American horso, mule, and donkey

banquet was held at Paris.....

..3 April, 1875 1347,

Subscriptions (of 1001, each person for five years) to im. Hoop-petticoat, see Crinoline.

prove the breed of horses, proposed by earl Calthorpe,

headed by the prince of Wales, many nobles and genHops, in use in England in 1425.Harleian MS.

tlemen, the London General Omnibus Company, and Introduced from the Netherlands into England about others.

..June,

1877.

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1870

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Holy Sepulchre, a Byzantine church in modern | Death of Mr. Butt, 5 May; succeeded as leader by Mr. Jerusalem. Fergusson, Robinson, and others consider Mr. Parnell proposes election of a convention to meet at

1879 the true site of the Holy Sepulchre to be the mosque of Dublin, 11 Sept. ; this is opposed by Mr. William Shaw, Omar, the “dome of the Rock.” The question is still Mitchell Henry, and others. ....

..Sept. undecided. The Order of the Holy Sepulchre was found Meeting at Dublin; pronounced opposition to British

...20, 21 Jan. 1880 ed by Godfrey of Bouillon, 1099; revived by pope Alex- About 65 home-rulers in the new parliament, under Mr. ander VI. 1496; reorganized 1847 and 1868.

Shaw and Mr. Parnell.

... April,

Mr. Parnell chosen by 45 as parliamentary chairman, Holy Wars, see Crusades.

17 May, Holy Water is said to have been used in churches 31 home.rulers voted with the government; 16 with Mr.

Parnell...

..13 July, as early as A.D. 120.—A she.

Home-rule convention at Newcastle-on-Tyne.....9 Aug. Holy Week, or the “Week of Indulgences,” is the Meeting at Dublin; Mr. Justin McCarthy appointed vice

president ; resolution to resist coercion in Ireland week before Easter.

adopted..?

.27 Dec. Holydays Act, see Bank Holidays.

Trial of Mr. Parnell and others at Dublin (see Trials),

28 Dec., 1880-25 Jan. 1881 Holyhead (W. Anglesea). A college was estab- Strong manifesto of Mr. Parnell; a counter one by Mr. lished here in the twelfth century. The harbor was im

Shaw..

Feb. proved by Rennie, and Holyhead was made the chief

(See Ireland and Parliament.) packet station for Ireland. The breakwater, erected by Home Secretary, see Secretaries, and all the adRendel and Hawkshaw (1846 et seq.), was inaugurated ministrations under the name of their premier. New by the prince of Wales, 19 Aug. 1873; and a new har- Home Office, Westminster, occupied 6 Aug. 1875. bor and railway extension inaugurated by the prince, 17 Homer's Iliad AND Odyssey, the earliest and June, 1880.

most perfect epic poems in the world. The first begins Holyoke (Massachusetts, U.S.). A Roman Catholic with the wrath of Achilles, and ends with the funeral of church here took fire; a panic ensued; and about 80 Hector; the second recounts the voyages and adventwere burned or trampled to death, 26, 27 May, 1875. ures of Ulysses, after the destruction of Troy. Various

Holyrood Palace (Edinburgh), formerly an ab- dates are assigned to these works, from 962° to 915 B.C. bey, was for several centuries the residence of the mon- Among the thousands of volumes burned at Constantiarchs of Scotland. The abbey, of which some vestiges nople, A.D. 477, are said to have been the works of remain, was founded by David I. in 1128, and in the Homer, written in golden letters on the great gut of a burial-place within its walls are interred several of his dragon, 120 feet long. successors. The palace is a large quadrangular edifice F. A. Wolf, in his Prolegomena, in 1795, argued that the Hoof hewn stone, with a court within surrounded by piaz

meric poems were composed of independent epic songs, col

lected and arranged by Pisistratus about 550 B.C. This zas. In the northwest tower is the bedchamber which

theory occasioned much controversy. was occupied by queen Mary; and from an adjoining the first English version of the Iliad, by Arthur Hall, appeared cabinet to it David Rizzio, her favorite, was dragged

in 1581. The most celebrated versions of Homer's works

are Chapman's, 1616; Hobbes's, 1675; Pope's, 1715-25; Cow. forth and murdered, 9 March, 1566. The northwest

per's, 1791; and Bryant's, 1870-1. The translation of the towers were built by James V., and the remaining part İliad by the earl of Derby (1864) is much commended. of the palace was added during the reign of Charles II.

Homicide was tried at Athens by the Areopagites, Mr. Pinkerton states that the palace was burned in 1650,

1507 B.C. and rebuilt in 1659. Great improvements were made in of skill, or who killed another that lay hid to do a person

He that killed another at any public exercise 1857. The queen held her court here, 30 Aug. 1850.

mischief of a grievous nature, was not deemed guilty. Home and Colonial School Society, Gray's He who killed a man taken with another's wife, sister, Inn road; founded 1836. Governesses and teachers are daughter, or concubine, or killed a man who, without trained.

just grounds, assaulted another violently, was not deemHome Hospitals' Association for PAYING ed a homicide. Among the Jews wilful murder was PATIENTS, founded in July, 1877. The first home hos- capital; but for chance-medley the offender was to flee pital, in Fitzroy square, London, was opened 28 June, to one of the cities of refuge, and there continue till the 1880.

death of the high-priest, 1451 B.C. (Numb. xxxv.). 9 Geo. Home Missionary Society, founded 1819. In IV. c.31 (1828) distinguishes between justifiable homi1878 it had 192 stations, and employed 187 agents and cide and homicide in its various degrees of guilt, and cir243 lay preachers.

cumstances of provocation and wilfulness; see Murder. Home Rule. The Home Government Association Animals have been tried and punished for killing human (for Home Rule), established in Dublin in 1870; held its

beings. A bull was hanged for homicide near the ab

bey of Beauprès... first anniversary meeting, 26 June, 1871. It includes

.....May, 1499 both Catholics and Protestants among its members.

Homildon Hill (Northumberland), where the Scots, Mr. Isaac Butt, a leader of the movement, elected M.P.

headed by the earl of Douglas, were defeated by the Per. for Limerick.

.20 Sept. 1871 cies (among them Hotspur), 14 Sept. 1402. Douglas and Home rule advocated by archbishop McHale and others the earls of Angus, Murray, Orkney, and the earl of Fife, of the Romanist clergy in Ireland.

1873 son of the duke of Albany, and nephew of the Scottish The programme of the party requiring an Irish parliament of queen, lords, and commons, and other powers,

king, with many of the nobility and gentry, were taken published..

prisoners. A conference at the Rotondo, Dublin, reported a failure,

Homilies, in early Christian times, were discourses

18-21 Nov. A motion in the commons in favor of home rule defeated

delivered by the bishop or presbyter, in a homely man(314 to 52)..

20 March, 1874 ner, for the common people. Charlemagne's “ HomilaMr. I. Butt's motion for a committee on the subjcct, 30 rium” was issued 809. The Book of Homilies drawn up

June; was negatived (458 to 61), 2, 3 July, 1875; again (291 to 61), 30 June, 1 July, 1876; again (417 to 67),

by abp. Cranmer, and published 1547, and another pre

24 April, 1877 pared by an order of convocation, 1563, were ordered to Stormy convention at Dublin, Mr. Butt chairman,

be read in those churches that had not a minister able

21, 22 Aug. The home-rule party in the house of commons very ob

to compose proper discourses. structive (see Parliament)..

Homeopathy, an hypothesis promulgated in his Meeting of homo-rule M.P.'s at Dublin; Mr. Butt still leader...

“ Organon of Medicine," 1810, and in other works, by Dr.

.9 Oct. He virtually gives in to the obstructionists, Jan. ; resigns,

Samuel Hahnemann of Leipsic (died 2 July, 1843), ac

April, 1878 cording to which every medicine has a specific power of Meeting at Dublin, 14 Oct ; continued dissensions be.

inducing a certain diseased state of the system (similią tween moderate party (Mr. Butt and others) and obstructives (Mr. Charles Stewart Parnell and others),

similibus curantur, likes are cured by likes); and if such Oct.-Nov. medicine be given to a person suffering under the dis

25 Oct.

6

66

mont.

ease which it has a tendency to induce, such disease dis- | 1524, and used in brewing; but the physicians having appears, because two similar diseased actions cannot si- represented that they were unwholesome, their use was multaneously subsist in the same organ.-Brande. Intin- prohibited in 1528.— Anderson. In the year ending 5 Jan. itesimal doses of medicine, such as the millionth of a grain 1853, there were 46,1573 acres under hops in England and of aloes, have been employed, it is said, with efficacy. Wales, chiefly in Herefordshire, Kent, and WorcesterThe system requires the patient to regulate his diet and shire, which paid 447,1441. duty; the quantity yielded habits carefully. It has led to a more accurate study of was 51,102,494 Ibs., whereof 955,855 lbs. were exported. the materia medica. Introduced into England, 1827. The duty on hops was repealed in 1862, after many apThe Hahnemann hospital was opened in Bloomsbury plications. An act for preventing fraud in the trade square, 16 Sept. 1850. “The World's Convention of was passed in June, 1866.—The Hop and Malt Exchange, Homeopathic Physicians” opened at Philadelphia, 26 Southwark, was opened in Oct. 1867.—Large quantities June, 1876. London School of Homeopathy, founded are raised in the United States, especially in western 15 Dec. 1876. Homeopathic congress met at Liverpool, New York, Wisconsin, Michigan, California, and Ver14 Sept. 1877.

The production in the United States has rapidly Homoousion and Homoiousion (Greek, ouooú- increased. It amounted in 1850 to 3,497,029 lbs.; in olov, same essence; duonovoiov, similar essence or being), 1860 to 10,991,996 lbs.; in 1870 to 25,456,669 lbs. terms employed with respect to the nature of the Father Horatii And Curiatii, see Rome, 669 B.C. and the Son in the Trinity. The orthodox party adopt- Horn; Hornpipe. The horn is thought to be, ed the former term as a party cry at the council of Nice, next to the reed, the earliest wind-instrument, and has 325; the Arians adopted the latter at Seleucia, 359. been found among most savage nations. It was first

Homs, Syria. Here Ibrahim Pacha and the Egyp- made of horn, hence the name; afterwards of brass, with tians severely defeated the Turks, 8 July, 1832.

keys for the semitones, in the last century.—The dance Honduras, discovered by Columbus in 1502, and called the Hornpipe is supposed to be so named from its conquered by the Spaniards 1523, is one of the republics having been performed to the Welsh pib-corn, that is of Central America; see America. Great Britain ceded hornpipe, about 1300.-Spencer. Many hornpipes were the Bay Islands to Honduras, 28 Nov. 1859. President, composed in the eighteenth century. The “College gen. J. M. Medina, elected i Feb. 1864, and in 1869. Hornpipe” was very popular. Provisional president, C. Arias (Dec. 1872). P. Leiva, Horne Tooke, etc. The trial of Messrs. Hardy, 1875; M. A. Soto, 29 May, 1877. War with San Salva- Tooke, Joyce, Thelwall, and others, on a charge of highdor, May, 1871, and May, 1872. The town of Omoa, treason, caused a great sensation. They were taken Spanish Honduras, was bombarded by H.M.S. Niobe, to into custody on 20 May, 1794. Mr. Hardy was tried 29 obtain redress for injuries to British subjects, 19 Aug. Oct., and, after a trial of eight days, was honorably ac1873. Population, about 350,000 (1877).

quitted. John Horne Tooke was tried and acquitted, 20 British Honduras, Central America, was settled by Nov.; and Mr. Thelwall was acquitted, 5 Dec.; the English from Jamaica soon after a treaty with Spain in others were discharged. Acts were passed to prohibit 1667. They were often disturbed by the Spaniards, and Mr. Thelwall's political lectures in 1795. sometimes expelled, till 1783. Balize or Belize, the cap- Horology, see Clocks. The British Horological Inital, is a great seat of the mahogany trade. In 1861 the stitute, Clerkenwell, London, established in 1858, for the population was 25,635, and the revenue, 35,7571. Gov- benefit of watchmakers, publishes a monthly journal. ernor, James R. Longden, 1867; William W. Cairns,

Horse. The people of Thessaly were excellent 1870; major Robert Miller Mundy, 1874; F. P. Barlee, equestrians, and probably first among the Greeks who 1877.

broke them in for service in war; whence probably arose Honeymoon. It was a custom to drink of diluted the fable that Thessaly was originally inhabited by cenhoney for thirty days, or a moon's age, after a wedding taurs. “Solomon had 40,000 stalls of horses for his feast, and hence arose the term honeymoon, of Teutonic chariots, and 12,000 horsemen," 1014 B.C. 1 Kings iv. 26. origin. Attila the Hun drank, it is said, so freely of hy- The Greeks and Romans had some ing to secure dromel on his marriage-day that he died of suffocation, their horses' hoofs from injury. In the ninth century 453.

horses were only shod in time of frost. Shoeing was inHong-Kong, an island off the coast of China, was troduced into England by William I., 1066; see Races. taken by capt. Elliott, 23 Aug. 1839, and ceded to Great The horse tax was imposed in 1784. Its operation was Britain 20 Jan. 1841. Its chief town is Victoria, built extended, and its amount increased, in 1796; and again in 1842, and erected into a bishopric in 1849. Sir John

The existing duty upon “horses for riding

only, in England, amounts to about 350,0001. per year. 1862 Bowring, governor from 1854 to 1859, was succeeded by Annual license duty on horses and mules, 108. 6d. each; sir Hercules Robinson. Governors : sir Richard G. Mac- horse dealers' license, 121. 108. (act passed 1869).. 1870 Donnell, 1865; sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, 1872; John Mr. J. S. Rarey, an American, made a great sensation in Pope Hennessy, Nov. 1876.

London by taming vicious and wild horses, and even

a zebra from the Zoological Gardens. His system is Honi soit qui mal y pense, "Evil be to him founded on a profound study of the disposition of the who evil thinks." It is mythically said that the count

animal, and on kindness. Ho initiated many illustri.

ous persons in his method (on 20 March, lord Palmer. ess of Salisbury, at a ball at court, happening to drop her

ston and twenty others) binding them to secrecy; from garter, the king, Edward III., took it up and presented it which they were released in June, when his book was to her with these words, which afterwards became the reprinted in England without his consent...

1858

He was engaged to instruct cavalry officers and riding motto of the order of the Garter; see Garter.

masters of the army.........

... July, 1859 Honor. Temples were erected to Honor by Scipio He gave a lecture to the London cabmen, which was well

received, 12 Jan, 1860; and in the saine year he reAfricanus, about 197 B.C.; and by C. Marius, about 102

ceived a present of 20 guineas from the Society for the B.C.- The Legion of Honor was created by Bonaparte Prevention of Cruelty to Animals...

May, 1860 in 1802.

Great annual horse-shows held at the Agricultural Hall, Honveds, the militia of Hungary. They supported Horse-flesh. An establishment for the sale of it as hu

Islington, began...

....July, 1864 the rebellion against the emperor in 1849, but on the man food was opened at Paris on 9 July, 1866, with completion of the changes whereby the independence of success, and its use as food strongly advocated. About

150 persons (including sir Henry Thompson and sir Hungary was secured, in 1868, they offered a loyal ad

John Lubbock) dined on horse-flesh at the Langham dress to the emperor-king.

hotel, London.....

.......6 Feb. 1808 Hooks And Codfish, party wames; see Holland, A great Franco Anglo-American horso, mule, and donkey

banquet was held at Paris...

..3 April, 1875 1347.

Subscriptions (of 1001. each person for five years) to im Hoop-petticoat, see Crinoline.

prove the breed of horses, proposed by earl Calthorpe,

headed by the prince of Wales, many nobles and gen! Hops, in use in England in 1425.Harleian MS.

tlemen, the London General Omnibus Company, and Introduced from the Netherlands into England about others...

...June,

in 1808.

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