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The Miss ssippi explored...

1699 | Holland, France, and Spain, were signed in London by The Scotch settlement at Darien (1698-9) abandoned.. 1700 New Orleans built.....

lord Hawkesbury and M. Otto, on the part of England

1717 Georgia settled by gen. Oglethorpe.

1732 and France, 1 Oct. 1801; and the definitive treaty was Kentucky, by col. Boone.

1754 subscribed at Amiens, on 27 March, 1802, by the marCanada conquered by the English, 1759-60; ceded to

quis of Cornwallis for England, Joseph Bonaparte for Great Britain....

1763 American war-declaration of independence by the Unit

France, Azara for Spain, and Schimmelpenninck for Holed States, 1776; recognized by Great Britain... 1783 land. War was declared again in 1803. After a conLouisiana ceded to Spain, 1762; transferred to France, flict, in which the French were defeated, 27 Nov. 1870, 1800; sold to the United States.


the German general, Von Goeben, entered Amiens, 28 Florida ceded to Great Britain, 1763; taken by Spain,

1781; to whom it is ceded, 1783; ceded to the United Nov. States...


Ammonia, the volatile alkali, mainly produced by Revolution in Mexico-declaration of independence... 1821 Revolutions in Spanish America; independence estab. the decomposition of owganic substances. Its name is

lished by Chili, 1810; Paraguay, 1811; Buenos Ayres, ascribed to its having un procured from heated camels' and other provinces, 1816; Peru.


dung near the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya. The (See United States, Mexico, and other states, throughout the volume.)

discovery of its being a compound of nitrogen and hyAmerica, BRITISH, see British America.

drogen is ascribed to Joseph Priestley in 1774. By the

recent labors of chemists both the oxide of the hypoAmerica, Central, includes the republics of Gua-thetical metal ammonium, and ammonium amalgam, temala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa have been formed; and specimens of each were shown Rica (which see). They declared their independence 21 at the Royal Institution in 1856 by Dr. A. W. Hofmann, Sept. 1821, and separated from the Mexican confedera- who has done very much for the chemical history of tion 21 July, 1823. The states made a treaty of union

ammonia. between themselves, 21 March, 1847. There has been among them since much anarchy and bloodshed, aggra

Ammonites, descended from Ben-Ammi, the son vated greatly by the irruption of American filibusters of Lot (1897 B.C.), invaded Canaan and made the Israelunder Kenny and Walker, 1854-5. In Jan. 1863, a war

ites tributaries, but were defeated by Jephthah, 1143 B.C. began between Guatemala (afterwards joined by Nica- They again invaded Canaan, intending to put out the ragua) and San Salvador (afterwards supported by Hon right eye of all they subdued ; but Saul overthrew them, duras). The latter were defeated at Santa Rosa, 16 1095 B.C. They were afterwards many times vanquished; June, and San Salvador was taken 26 Oct.; the presi- and Antiochus the Great took Rabbah their capital, and dent of San Salvador, Barrios, fled; and Carrera, the dic- destroyed the walls, 198 B.C.--Josephus. tator of Guatemala, became predominant over the con- Amnesty (a general pardon after political disturbfederacy. See Darien and Panama..

ances, etc.) was granted by Thrasybulus, the Athenian America, Russian, sold to the Un States for patriot, after expelling the thirty tyrants, 403 B.C. Acts about 400,0001., March, 1867. See Alaska.

of amnesty were passed after the civil war in 1651, and America, South, see Brazil, Argentine, Peru, Para- after the two rebellions in England in 1715 and 1745. —

After his victorious campaign in Italy, Napoleon III. of guay, Uruguay, etc.

France granted an amnesty to all political offenders, 17 “ America," see Yacht.

Aug. 1859.-President Lincoln issued a proclamation of "American" steamer; see Wrecks, 1880.

conditional amnesty to persons engaged in the rebellion, American Association FOR

8 Dec. 1863. President Johnson issued amnesty proc

THE ADVANCEMENT of Science, resembling the British Association, lamations on 29 May, 1865; 7 Sept. 1867; 4 July, 1868; held its first meeting at Philadelphia, 20 Sept. 1818; 28th, and 25 Dec. 1868. This last was a proclamation of Saratoga, 27 Aug. 1879; 29th at Boston, 23-28 Aug complete amnesty to all persons who had participated in 1880; 30th at Cincinnati, 17 Aug. 1881.

the rebellion; a contest arose as to its validity. A American Institute of Instruction, incor- rather sweeping amnesty bill was passed by Congress, 10 porated in Massachusetts, 1831. Meets annually'in vari- April, 1871, and another on 22 May, 1872, which restored ous cities for educational discussion. Francis Wayland with certain exceptions, covering the cases of only about

the political privileges of all participants in the rebellion, was its first president. American Organ, a free-reed keyed wind instru- granted by the emperor of Austria at his coronation as

600 persons.-An amnesty for political offences was ment, resembling the harmonium, with important differ- king of Hungary, 8 June, 1867.-An amnesty association ences; the principle was discovered, about 1835, by a workman employed by Alexandre of Paris. The inven- —2245 French communists pardoned by decree, pub

on behalf of the Fenians was active in Britain, Oct. 1873. tion was taken to America, where instruments were lished 17 Jan. 1879; many others during the year. A made by Mason & Hamlin, of Boston, about 1860.

general amnesty for political offences passed by the Americanisms: a dictionary of these expressions chamber (333–140) 21 June, 1880.

compiled by John R. Bartlett, and first published in 1848; reprinted, 1859; revised ed. 1878.

Amoaful, near Coomassie, W. Africa. After a se

vere conflict, 31 Jan. 1874, the Ashantees were defeated Americanists, a name assumed by some persons at this place by sir Garnet Wolseley. Captain Buckle devoted to the study of the archæology, ethnology, etc., was killed, and about 20 officers and 200 men were of North and South America, who held their first inter- wounded. The 420 Highland regiment was very enernational congress at Nancy in July, 1875; one at Lux

getic. embourg, Sept. 1877; at Brussels, Sept. 1879; at Madrid, autumn 1881.

Ameba, sec Protoplasm. Amethyst, the ninth stone upon the breastplate of

Amoy, see China, 1853-5. the Jewish high-priest, 1491 B.C. It is of a rich violet Amphictyonic Council, asserted traditionally color. One worth 200 rix-dollars, having been rendered to have been established at Thermopyle by Amphiccolorless, equalled a diamond in lustre, valued at 18,000 tyon, for the management of all affairs relative to Greece. gold crowns.De Boot. Amethysts discovered at Kerry, This celebrated council, composed of twelve of the wisest in Ireland, in 1775.

and most virtuous men of various cities of Greece, began Amherst College, at Amherst, Mass. Founded 1498 [1113, Clinton] B.C., and existed 31 B.C. Its im1821.

mediate office was to attend to the temples and oracles Amiens, a city in Picardy (N. France); the cathe- of Delphi. Its calling on the Greek states to punish dral was built in 1220. It was taken by the Spanish, 11 the Phocians for plundering Delphi caused the Sacred March, and retaken by the French, 25 Sept. 1597. The wars, 595-586, and 356-316 B.C. preliminary articles of the peace between Great Britain, | "Amphion," a British frigate of 38 guns, blown up

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while riding at anchor in Plymouth Sound, and the Anæsthetics, see Opium, Chloroform, Ether, Amywhole of her crew then on board, consisting of more than lene, Kerosolene, Nitrous Acid. Intense cold has been also two hundred and fifty persons, officers and men, perished, employed in deadening pain. 22 Sept. 1796.

Anadolia (Asia Minor) comprises the ancient LyAmphipolis, Macedon (N. Greece). A city found- cia, Caria, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and ed here by the Athenians, 437 B.C.; was seized by Brasi- Phrygia (which see). das the Spartan, 424; both he and the Athenian general, Cleon, were killed in a fruitless attempt at the capture ters of a word or sentence (as army from Mary), are said

Anagrams, formed by the transposition of the letof the city by the Athenians, 422.

to have been made by ancient Jews, Greeks, etc. On Amphitheatres, round or oval buildings said to have been first constructed by Curio, 76 B.C., and by Ju- the question put by Pilate to our Saviour,“ Quid est ve

ritas ? ” (What is truth?) we have the anagram, Est lius Cæsar 46 B.C. In the Roman amphitheatres the people witnessed the combats of gladiators with wild Nelson” is Ionor est a Nilo" (Honor is from the Nile).

vir qui adest" (The man who is here); from Horatio beasts, etc. They were generally built of wood, but Statilius Taurus made one of stone, under Augustus Cæsar; Analysts, Society of Public, founded by professor see Coliseum. The amphitheatre of Vespasian (capable Redwood, Dr. Dupré, and others, 7 Aug. 1874; see Adulof holding 87,000 persons) was built between a.d. 70 and teration. 80; and is said to have been a fortress in 1312. The

Anam, see Annam. amphitheatre at Verona was next in size, and then that of Nismes.

Anastatic Printing, see Printing, 1811. Amphitrite,” THE Ship; see Wrecks, 30 Aug. Anathema, the sentence of excommunication (1 1833.

Cor. xvi. 22), used by the early churches, 365; see ExAmputation, in surgery, was greatly aided by the communication. Pope Pius IX. propounded a series of invention of the tourniquet by Morel, a French surgeon, anathemas, Feb. 1870. in 1674, and of the flap-method by Lowdham of Exeter,

Anatomy (Greek, cutting up). The human body in 1679.

was studied by Aristotle about 350 B.C., and became a Amsterdam (Holland). The castle of Amstel was branch of medical education, under Hippocrates, about commenced in 1100; the building of the city in 1203. 420 B.C. Erasistratus and Herophilus first dissected the Its commerce was greatly increased by the decay of that human form, having been previously confined to animals; of Antwerp after 1609. The exchange was built in 1631, it is said that they practised upon the bodies of living and the noble stadthouse in 1618; the latter cost three criminals about 300 and 293 B.C. Galen, who died A.D. millions of guilders, then a large sum. It was built upon 193, was a great anatomist. In England the schools 13,659 piles. Amsterdam surrendered to the king of

were long supplied with bodies unlawfully exhumed Prussia, when that prince invaded Holland, in favor of from graves; and, until 1832, the bodies of executed the stadtholder, in 1787. The French were admitted murderers were ordered for dissection.* Pope Boniface without resistance, 18 Jan. 1795. The Dutch govern- VIII, forbade the dissection of dead bodies, 1297.—The ment was restored in Dec. 1813. A crystal palace for an first anatomical plates, designed by Titian, were employed industrial exhibition was opened by prince Frederick of by Vesalius, about 1538. Leonardo da Vinci

, Raphael, the Netherlands, 16 Aug. 1864. The canal, from Amster- and Michael Angelo studied anatomy. The great disdam to the North Sea, was inaugurated by the king 1 coveries of Harvey were made in 1616. William and Nov. 1876. A new university was opened Dec. 1877. John Hunter were great anatomists: William died 1783,

Amulets, or Charms, employed from the earliest and John, 1793. Quain's and Wilson's large anatomical times. Amulets were made of the wood of the true plates were published 1842, and Bourgery's great work cross about 328.

by Jacob, 1830-55. Comparative anatomy has been treatAmyl, a chemical alcohol radical (first isolated by ed systematically in the present century by Cuvier, Owen. professor Edward Frankland in 1819).

Müller, Huxley, and others. The anatomy of plants has Amylene, a colorless, very mobile liquid, first pro- been studied since 1680; see Botany. cured by M. Balard of Paris, in 1844, by distilling fusel Anchorets, see Monachism. oil (potato-spirit) with chloride of zinc. The vapor was

Anchorites, see Monachism. employed instead of chloroform first, by Dr. Snow, in 1856. It has since been tried in many hospitals here

Anchors were invented by the Tuscans.Pliny. and in France. The odor is more unpleasant than chlo- The second tooth, or fluke, was added by Anacharsis the roform, and more vapor must be used.

Scythian (592 B.c.).—Strabo. Anchors said to have Anabaptists, those who baptize at full age and re- been forged in England A.D. 578. The Admiralty anject infant baptism; see Baptists. The name was first chor was introduced about 1841. Improved anchors given to Thomas Münzer, Storck, and other fanatics who were made by Pering and Rodgers about 1828; preached in Saxony in 1521, and excited a rebellion of ter, 1838; by Costell, 1848; by Trotman, 1853; the lower orders in Germany, which was quelled with several other persons. Trotman's is attached to the bloodshed in 1525. A similar insurrection took place in queen's yacht the Fuiry. The anchors of the Great Westphalia, headed by Matthias, 1533; and, after his Eastern are of enormous size. Acts for the proving and assassination, by John Boccold of Leyden, who was sale of chain cables and anchors were passed in 1864 and

1871. crowned “king of Sion" in Münster, 24 June, 1534. Münster was taken in June, 1535; and John was executed Ancient Buildings. A society for their protec13 Feb. 1536. Several anabaptists were executed in Eng- tion from injudicious restoration, etc., was established in land in 1535, 1538, and 1540. On 6 Jan. 1661, about eighty anabaptists in London appeared in arms, headed

* By 32 Hen. VIII. c. 42 (1540), surgeons were granted four by their preacher, Thomas Venner, a wine-cooper. They bodies of executed malefactors for anathomyes,” which privfought desperately, and killed many of the soldiers ilege was extended in following reigns; but in consequence or brought against them. Their leader and sixteen others the crimes committed by resurrection-men in order to supply

the surgical schools (robbing churchyards and even commitwere executed 19 and 21 Jan.-Annals of England. ting murder, see Burking), a new statute was passed in 1832, Anacreontic Verse, of the bacchanalian strain, which abated the ignominy of dissection by prohibiting that

of executed murderers, and made provision for the wants of named after Anacreon of Teos, the Greek lyric poet, surgeons by permitting, under certain regulations, the diswhose odes are much prized. He is said to have been section of persons dying in workhouses, etc. choked by a grapestone in his eighty-fifth year, about appointed inspectors of anatomy, regulated the schools, and 514 B.C. Ilis odes have been frequently translated; repealed the clauses of the act of 1828, which directed the

required persons practising anatomy to obtain a license. Thomas Moore's version was published in 1800.

dissection of the body of an executed murderer.

The act also



pope, 1802.


1877; lord Houghton, prof. S. Colvin, Thomas Carlyle, He also first ascended Antisana, 19,260 feet, 10 March; and and many eminent artists, members.

Cayambe, 19,200 feet, 4 April, 1880.

(All these mountains are in Ecuador.) Ancient Concerts, or “ King's Concerts,” Lon- Andorra, a small republic in the Pyrenecs, bearing don. “The Concert of Antient Music” was established the title of " the valleys and sovereignties of Andorra," in 1776 by the earls of Sandwich and Exeter, and oth- was madle independent by Charlemagne about 778, cer

Sir Henry Bishop was sole conductor from 1843 to tain rights being reserved to the bishop of Urgel. The 1818, when the concerts ceased.

feudal sovereignty, which long appertained to the counts Ancient History commences in the Holy Script- of Foix, reverted to the French king, Henry IV., in 1589; ures 4004 B.C., and in the history of Herodotus about but was given up in 1790. On 27 March, 1806, an im1687 B.C.; and is considered to end with the destruction perial decree restored the old relations between Andorra of the Roman empire in Italy, A.D. 476. Modern history and France. The republic is now governed by a council begins with Mahomet, A.D. 622, or with Charlemagne, elected for four years; but the magistrates are appointed 768.

alternately by the French government and the Spanish Ancient Monuments in Britain. Bills for their bishop of Urgel, to both of whom tribute is paid. The preservation (especially of prehistoric) have been brought population is about 10,000. Andorra, though neutral, into parliament in vain. One by sir John Lubbock, read was attacked by the Carlists in Sept. 1874. second time, 7 March, 1877, was withdrawn; again read André's EXECUTION, see United States, 1780. second time, 19 Feb. 1878; read second time in the Andrew, St., said to have been martyred by crucilords, 11 March, 1880.

fixion, 30 Nov. 69, at Patræ, in Achaia. His festival was Ancients, see Councils, French,

instituted about 359. The Royal Society's anniversary Ancona, an ancient Roman port on the Adriatic. is kept on St. Andrew's day. The Russian Order of si. The mole was built by Trajan, 107. After many changes Andrew was instituted in 1698 by Peter I. For the Britof rulers (Lombards, Saracens, Greeks, and Germans),

ish order, see Thistle. Ancona was annexed to the papal states in 1532. It was

Andrew's, St. (E. Scotland), made a royal burgh taken by the French, 1797; retaken by the Austrians, in 1140. Here Robert Bruce held his first parliament in 1799; reoccupied by the French, 1801; restored to the 1309; and here Wishart was burned by archbishop Bea

It was occupied by the French in 1832, ton, 1545, who himself was murdered here in 1546. The evacuated in 1838; and, after an insurrection, was bom- university was founded in 1411 by bishop Wardlaw. The barded and captured by the Austrians, 18 June, 1849. cathedral (built 1159-1318) was destroyed by a mob, exThe Marches (comprising this city) rebelled against the cited by a sermon of John Knox, June, 1559. Sir R. Sibpapal government in Sept. 1860. Lamoricière, the pa- bald's list of the bishops commences with Killach, 872. pal general, fled to Ancona after bis defeat at Castelfi- The see became archiepiscopal in 1470, ceased soon after dardo, but was compelled to surrender himself, the city, 1689, but was reinstituted in 1844. See Bishops. and the garrison, on 29 Sept. The king of Sardinia en- Andrussov, PEACE OF (30 Jan. 1667), between tered soon after.

Russia and Poland, for 13 years, with mutual concessions, Ancyra, now Angora or Engour, a town in ancient although the latter bad been generally victorious. Galatia, Asia Minor. Councils were held here, 314, 358, Anemometer (Greek, ävejos, the wind), a meas375. It was taken by the Persians, 616; by the Sara- urer of the strength and velocity of the wind, was incens, 1085; by the Crusaders, 1102. Near this city, on vented by Woltius, in 1709. The extreme velocity was 28 July, 1402, Timour or Tamerlane defeated and took thought by: Dr. Lind to be 93 miles per hour. Osler's prisoner the sultan Bajazet, and is said to have conveyed and Whewell's anemometers were highly approved of in him to Samarcand in a cage.

1844. “Robinson's anemometer is the simplest and best.” Andalusia (S. Spain), a province once part of the --Buchun, 1867. ancient Lusitania and Bætica. The name is a corrup- Aneroid, see Barometer. tion of Vandalitia, it having been held by the Vandals from 419 to 429, when it was acquired by the Visigoths. ing four pennyweights, valued at 6s. 8d. in the reign of

Angel, a gold coin, impressed with an angel, weighThe latter were expelled by the Moors in 711, who established the kingdom of Cordova, and retained it till The angelot, a gold coin, value half an angel, was struck

Henry VI., and at 108. in the reign of Elizabeth, 1562. 1236.

at Paris when held by the English, 1431.- Wood. Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal. The

Angelic Knights or Sr. GEORGE This order is inhabitants are dwarfs, and in the lowest state of bar- said to have been instituted by Constantine, who died barism. At Port Blair, on South Island, made a penal 337. The Angelici were instituted by the emperor Ansettlement for the Sepoy rebels in 1858, the earl of Mayo, gelus Comnenus, 1191.—The Angelicæ, an order of nuns, vjcny of India, was assassinated by Shere Alec, a con- founded at Milan by Louisa Torelli, 1534. 8 Feb. 1872, when going on board the Glasgow.

Angers (W. Central France), the Roman JuliomaAndernach, Rhenish Prussia, once an imperial gus, possessing an amphitheatre; afterwards Andegacity. Near here, the emperor Charles I.

, while attempt. vum, the capital of Anjou (which see). It was frequently ing to deprive his nephews of their inheritance, was to- besieged, and many councils were held in it between tally defeated by one of them, Louis of Saxony, 8 Oct. 453 and 1448, relating to ecclesiastical discipline. 876.

Angerstein Gallery, see National Gallery. Andersonville Prison. An open pen near Andersonville, Georgia, in which prisoners of war were first the seat of the Druids, who were massacred in great

Anglesey, called by the Romans Mona (X. Wales), luulged by the Confederates, 15 Feb. 1864. In one year numbers when Suetonius Paulinus ravaged the isle, 61. 44,882 prisoners were received, of whom 12,926 died of It was conquered by Agricola in 78; occupied by the starvation and want of proper care. Henry Wirz, on

Normans, 1090; and, with the rest of Wales, annexed by of the prison officers, was hanged 10 Nov. 1865, for his Edward I. in 1284. He built the fortress of Beaumaris in cruelty to prisoners under his charge.

1295. The Menai suspension bridge was erected 1818Andes, CORDILLERA DE Los, the great mountain 25, and the Britannia tubular bridge 1819-50. system of South America,

Anglican Church, see Church of England. Chimborazo, perpetually snowclad, was ascended by Alexander

Angling Allusion is made to it in the Bible; von Humboldt to the height of 19,286 feet, 23 June, 1802; by Amos iv. 2 (787 B.c.). Boussingault and Hall, 19,695 feet, 16 Dec. 1831; by Edward

Why mper, 20,545 feet, 3 Jan.; and 20,489 fect, 3 July, 1880. Oppian wrote his “Halieutics," a Greck epic poem on Fishes Colopaxi, volcanic; ascended by Edward Whymper, 19,600 and Fishing, about A. D. 198. feet, 18 Feb. 1880

In the book on “Hawkynge and Huntynge," by Juliana Ber.

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printed at Westmestre by Wynkyn de Worde” in 1496, is ters—aniline blue, 1861; violet, 1863; "night" green, ners, or Barnes, prioress of Sopwith, near St. Albans, sem. \(rosaniline) (which see), and several other coloring mat** The treatise of fysshyng with an Angle.Izaak Walton's ** Compleat Angler” was first published in etc. After much litigation, the patent of Simpson, Maule,

& Nicholson, for aniline colors, was annulled by the Anglo-American Association, to cultivate house of lords, 27 July, 1866. See Alizarine. more cordial relations between Great Britain and the

Animal Magnetism (to cure diseases by sympaUnited States, established 25 Jan. 1871.

thetic affection) was introduced by father Heh), a Jesuit, Anglo-Continental Society, founded in 1853 at Vienna, about 1774, and had its dupes in France and to diffuse the principles of the Church of Engla abroad: England about 1788-89. Hebl for a short time associ20th anniversary kept at St. Paul's, 27 Oct. 1874. ated with Mesmer, but they soon quarrelled. Mr. Per

Anglo-Saxons, or Angles, derive their name kins (who died in 1799) invented "Metallic Tractors for from a village near Sleswick, called Anglen, whose popu- collecting, condensing, and applying animal magnetism;" lation (called Angli by Tacitus) joined the first Saxon but Drs. Falconer and Haygarth put an end to his prefreebooters. East Anglia was a kingdom of the heptar- tensions by performing many wonders with a pair of chy founded by the Angles, one of whose chiefs, Uffa, wooden tractors. Brande. See Mesmerism. Animal assumed the title of king, 571; the kingdom ceased in magnetism disproved by commissions of the French 792; see Britain. Cædmon paraphrased part of the Academy of Sciences, 1837-8; investigation closed as of Bible in Anglo-Saxon about 680; a translation of the a “dead letter," 1840. gospels was made by abbot Egbert, of Iona, 721; of Animalcules. Leeuwevhoek's remarkable microBoethius, Orosius, etc., by Alfred, 888. The Anglo-Sax- scopical discoveries were published in the Philosophical on laws were printed by order of government in 1840. Transactions of the Royal Society for 1677; in his “ ArA professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford was founded by Dr. cana Naturæ," at Leyden, 1696. The great works of

Richard Rawlinson in 1795; one at Cambridge by Dr. Joseph Ehrenberg, of Berlin, on the Infusorial Animalculæ, etc., Bosworth in 1867.

were issued 1838-57. Pritchard's “Infusoria," ed. 1861, Anglo - Turkish Convention, see Turkey, 4 is valuable; and Mr. W. Savile Kent's “Manual of InfuJune, 1878.

soria” is an excellent summary of our present knowledge Angola (S. W. Africa), settled by the Portuguese of animalcules (1881). The Rev. W. H. Dallinger and soon after the discovery by Diego Cam, about 1484. Lo- Dr. Drysdale, by their unwearied, continuous microscopanda, their capital, was built 1578.

ical observations of bacteria and other low forms of life, Angora, see Ancyra.

have greatly increased our knowledge, 1873-8. Angoulême (the Roman Iculisma), capital of the

Animals, CRUELTY TO. Mr. Martin, M.P., as a senprovince of Angoumois, Central France, w., was a bish- ator, zealously labored to repress it; and in 1824 the opric in 260. Angoulême became an independent coun

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals try about 856; was united to the French crown in 1308; was instituted. Its new house in Jermyn Street, Lonwas held by the English, 1360 to 1372, in the reign of don, was founded 4 May, 1869. It opposed vivisection Edward III. The count of Angoulême became king of in 1860, in unison with a French society, and in Oct. France as Francis I. in 1515.

1873, offered premiums for improved trucks for convey

ing cattle. A jubilee congress of this and similar socieAngria's Fort, see India, 1756.

ties met in London 17 June, 1874. Convictions obtained Anguilla, Snake Island, West Indies, settled by the by the society 1835 to June, 1876, 28,209; see Vivisection. British, 1666. Valuable deposits of phosphate of Jime Mr. Martin's act was passed 1822, and similar acts were were found here in 1859.

passed in 1827, 1835, 1837, 1849, and 1854. Dogs were Anhalt, House OF, in Germany, deduces its origin forbidden to be used for draught in 1839. from Berenthobaldus, who made war upon the Thurin- " Fellowship of Animals' Friends," organized about 10 July, gians in the sixth century. In 1606 the principality 1879; earl of Shaftesbury, president. was divided among the four sons of Joachim Ernest by The American Society for the

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

(Henry Bergh, president) was organized in New York city, the eldest, John-George. Thus began the four branches

1865. It has branches and auxiliary societies in many of -Anhalt-Dessau (descended from John-George); Zerbst, the chief cities of the Union, and nearly all the states have extinct, 1793; Plotsgau, or Coethen, extinct, 1847; and passed laws forbidding cruelty to animals, under penalty of

fine and imprisonment. Bernburg, extinct, 1863 (the last duke died without issue, 22 Aug. 1863). The princes of Anhalt became dukes Anjou, a province, W. France, was taken by Henry in 1809. Anhalt is an hereditary constitutional monar- II. of England from his brother Geoffrey, in 1156; their chy (by law 19 Feb. 1872); population in 1871, 203,437; father Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou, having in 1875, 213,565.

married the empress Matilda in 1127. It was taken by Anhalt joined the North German Confederation, 18 Aug. 1866. king John from Philip of France in 1205; was reconLeopold (born Oct. 1, 1794) became duke of Anhalt-Dessau, 9 quered by Edward III. ; relinquished by him at Aug. 1817, and of Anhalt-Bernburg, 30 Aug. 1863; died 22 peace of Brétigny in 1360, and given by Charles May, 1871.

his brother Louis with the title of duke. The univerFrederick, duke of Anhalt, born 29 April, 1831. Heir: Leopold, born 18 July, 1855.

sity was formed in 1349. Anholt, ISLAND OF, Denmark, was taken possession 1360. Louis I., duke, invested by the pope with the dominions of by England, 18 May, 1809, in the French war, on ac

of Joanna of Naples, 1381; his invading army destroyed by

the plague, 1383; he dies, 1384. count of Danish cruisers injuring British commerce. The

Louis II., his son, receives the same grant, but is also Danes made a fruitless attempt to regain it, 27 March, unsuccessful. 1811.

Louis III., adopted by Joanna; dies 1434.

1434. Regnier or Renó le bon (a prisoner) declared king of Aniline, an oily alkaline body, discovered in 1826 Naples, 1435; his daughter, Margaret, marricil Henry VI. of by Unverdorben among the products of distillation of

England, 1445; he was expelled from Anjou by Louis XI.,

1474, and his estates confiscated. indigo. From benzole (which see) Bechamp, in 1856, ob- Francis, duke of Alençon, brother to Henry III. of France, be. tained it by successive treatment with concentrated ni- came duke of Anjou; at one time he favored the Protestants, tric acid and reducing agents. The scientific relations and vainly offerod marriage to Elizabeth of England, 1581

died 1584. of aniline hare been carefully examined by several chemists, especially by Dr. A. W. Hofmann. It was long Anjou or BeauGÉ, BATTLE OF, between the English known to yield a series of colored compounds, but it was and French; the latter commanded by the dauphin of not till 1856 that Mr. W. H. Perkin showed how a violet France, 22 March, 1421. The English were defeated : oxidation-product (mauve) could be applied in dyeing. the duke of Clarence was slain by sir Allan Swinton, a Aniline is now manufactured on a large scale for the Scotch knight, and 1500 men perished on the field; the commercial production of "mauve” and “magenta” | earls of Somerset, Dorset, and Huntington were taken

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prisoners. Beaugé was the first battle that turned the num, accumulating at 10 per cent., compound interest, tide of success against the English.

amounts in 100 years to 20,0001. The Government AnAnnam, or Anam, an empire of Asia, to the east of nuities and Life Assurances Act was passed in 1864, for the India, comprising Tonquin, Cochin China, part of Cam- benefit of the working classes; since it enables the gorbodia, and various islands in the Chinese Sea; said to ernment to grant deferred annuities for sums payable in have been conquered by the Chinese, 234 B.C., and held small instalments. Works on annuities were published by them till A.D. 263. In 1406 they reconquered it, but by De Witt, 1671; De Moivre, 1724; Simpson, 1742; abandoned it in 1428. After much anarchy, bishop Tables by Price, 1792; Milne, 1815; Jones, 1843 ; Farre, Adran, a French missionary, obtained the friendship of 1864; Institute of Actuaries, 1872. Louis XVI. for his pupil Gia-long, the son of the nomi- Annuity Tax: a tax levied to provide stipends nally reigning monarch, and with the aid of a few of his for ministers in Edinburgh and Montrose, and which countrymen established Gia-long on the throne, who caused much disaffection, was abolished in 1860, and reigned till his death, in 1821, when his son became king. other provisions made for the purpose. These, however, In consequence of the persecution of the Christians, war proved equally unpalatable, and its abolition was probroke out with the French, who defeated the army of vided for by an act passed 9 Aug. 1870. Annam, 10,000 strong, about 22 April, 1859, when 500

Annunciation OF THE VIRGIN MARY, 25 March, were killed. On 3 June, 1862, peace was made ; three Lady-day (which see), a festival commemorating the provinces were ceded to the French, and toleration of tidings brought to Mary by the angel Gabriel (Luke the Christians granted. An insurrection in these prov- i. 26): its origin is referred to the fourth or fifth century, inces against the French, begun about 17 Dec. 1862, was The religious order of the Annunciation was instituted suppressed in Feb. 1863. Ambassadors sent from Annam in 1232, and the military order, in Savoy, by Amadeus, with the view of regaining the ceded provinces arrived count of Savoy, about 1362, in memory of Amadeus I., at Paris in Sept. 1863 ; had no success. Three provinces who had bravely defended Rhodes against the Turks, were annexed to the French empire by proclamation, 25 1355. New statutes, 1869. June, 1867. Several native Christians were massacred by order of a bonze, July, 1868.

Anointing, an ancient ceremony observed at the By a treaty concluded 15 March, 1874, at Saigon, the inde inauguration of priests, kings, and bishops. Aaron was pendence of the king of Annam was recognized by France, anointed as high-priest, 1491 B.C.; and Saul as king, the ports were opened to commerce, and toleration of the 1095 B.C. Alfred the Great is said to have been the Christian religion was secured.

first English king anointed, A.1), 871; and Edgar of ScotKing: Hoang-Nam succeeded his father, Thicutri, 1847.

land, 1098.—The religious rite is derived from the epistle Annapolis, see Port Royal.

of James v. 14, about A.D. 60. Some authors assert that Annates, see First-fruits.

in 550, dying persons, and persons in extreme danger of Anno Domini, A.D., the year of our Lord, of death, were anointed with consecrated oil, and that this Grace, of the Incarnation, of the Circumcision, and of

was the origin of extreme unction (one of the sacrathe Crucifixion (Trabeationis). The Christian era com

ments of the Roman Catholic church). menced 1 Jan, in the middle of the 4th year of the 194th Anonymous Letters, see Threatening Letters. Olympiad, the 753d year of the building of Rome, and in 4714 of the Julian period. This era was invented by by Dr. Carpenter in 1868. In it distorted figures lose

Anorthoscope, a new optical apparatus, described a monk, Dionysius Exiguus, or Denys le Petit, about their distortion when put into rapid motion. 532. It was introduced into Italy in the sixth century, and ordered to be used by bishops by the council of

Antalcidas, PEACE OF, In 387 B.C. Antalcidas Chelsea, in 816; but was not generally employed for the Lacedæmonian made peace with Artaxerxes of several centuries. Charles III. of Germany was the first Persia, on behalf of Greece, but principally in favor of who added " in the year of our Lord” to his reign, in Sparta, giving up the cities of Ionia to the king. 879. It is now held that Christ was born Friday, 5 April, Antarctic Pole, the opposite to the north, or arc4 B.C.

tic pole; see Southern Continent, “Annoyance Juries,” of Westminster, chosen Antediluvian History, Gen. iv., V., vi. Accordfrom the householders in conformity with 27 Eliz. c. 17, ing to the tables of Mr. Whiston, the number of peo1585, were abolished in 1861.

ple in the ancient world previous to the Flood reached Annual Register, a summary of the history of to 549,755 millions in the year of the world 1482. each year (beginning with 1758, and continued to the Anthems. Hilary, bishop of Poictiers, and St. present time), was commenced by R. & J. Dodsley. (Ed. Ambrose composed them about the middle of the fourth mund Burke at first wrote the whole work, but after- century. Lenglet. They were introduced into the wards became only an occasional contributor.-Prior.) church service in 386.- Baker. Ignatius is said to have Aşimilar work, “ Annuaire des Deux Mondes,” begun in introduced them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose into aris, 1850.

the Western, church. They were introduced into the Annuals, a name given to richly bound volumes, Reformed churches in queen Elizabeth's reign, about containing poetry, tales, and essays, by eminent authors, 1560. illustrated by engravings, published annually, at tirst in English ANTHEM-WRITERS: 1520-1625, Tye, Tallis, Byrd, Gib. Germany, and also in London in 1823. The duration of bons; 1650–1720, Humphrey, Blow, Purcell, Cron, Clarke; the chief of these publications is here given:

1720-1845, Greene, Boyce, Hayes, Kent, Battishill, Attwood,

Walmisley. Forget-me-not (Ackerman's)

1823-48 Friendship's Offering

1824-44 Anthology, Greek, a collection of popular epiLiterary Souvenir (first as "the Graces '').

grams and small poems written by Archilochus, Sappho,

1827-34 Keepsake.

Simonides, Meleager, Plato, and others, between 680 and Hood's Comic Annual.

95 B.C. They were collected by Meleager, Philippus, Annuities or Pensions. In 1512, 201, a year were monk in the fourteenth century A.D., and a MS. collection

Agathias, and others, especially by Maximus Planudes, a given to a lady of the court for services done; and 6). by Constantine Cephalas was found at Heidelberg by 133. 4d. for the maintenance of a gentleman, 1536. 131. Salmasius in 1606; and published by Brunck 1772-6. 6s. 8d. deemed competent to support a gentleman in the Translations have been made by Bland, Merivale, and study of the law, 1554. An act was passed empowering others. the government to borrow one million sterling upon an annuity of fourteen per cent., 4-6 Will. & Mary, 1691-3.

Anthracene, see Alizarine. This mode of borrowing soon afterwards became general Anthracite Coal, first used as fuel by two Conamong governments. An annuity of 11. 28. 11d. per an- | necticut blacksmiths named Gore, 1768-9. ' First used



1828-56 1830-42

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