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for domestic purposes by judge Jesse Fell of Wilkes- | Governor, sir B. C. C. Pine, 1869; hon. H. T. Irving, 1873; barre, Pa., 1808.

hon. Geo. Berkeley, 1874-80. Anthropological Society (äv pw ros, Greek for Antilles, or CARIBBEE ISLANDS, an carly name of man), for promoting the science of man and mankind, the West Indies, which see. held its first meeting on 24 Feb. 1863; Dr. James Hunt,

Anti-masonry. A political movement in the Unitpresident, in the chair. The Anthropological Review ed States. It had its origin in the alleged abduction of tirst came out in May, 1863. The Anthropological and William Morgan, of Batavia, N. Y., 1826. Anti-masonic Ethnological Societies were amalgamated 17 Jan. 1871, party organized in western New York, 1827 ; national and styled “The Anthropological Institute," sir John convention, 1831, nominated Wirt and Ellmaker for presiLubbock president. The London Anthropological So- dent and vice-president of the United States. Ritner, ciety established 1873, ceased 1875. An Anthropologi- anti-masonic candidate for governor of Pennsylvania, cal congress at Paris was opened 16 Aug. 1878.

elected 1835. Anthropomorphites, a name given to the Audi

Antimony, a white brittle metal, compounds of ani, which see.

which were early known. It was, and is still, used to Anthropophagi (eaters of human flesh), see Can- blacken both men's and women's eyes in the East (2 nibals.

Kings ix. 30, and Jer. iv. 30). Mixer with lead it forms Antiburghers, see Burghers.

printing -type metal. Basil Valentine wrote on antiAntichrist (opposed to Christ), 1 John ii. 18, termed mony about 1410.—Priestley. See Braro Case. the “ Man of sin," 2 Thess. ii. 3; of these passages many Antinomians (from the Greek avti, against, and interpretations have been given, and many myths were vouoc, law), a name given by Luther (in 1538) to John current in the middle ages respecting the incarnation Agricola, who is said to have held “that it mattered not of the devil, etc. The term is applied to each other by how wicked a man was if he had but faith.” (Opposed Roman Catholics and Protestants.

to Rom. iii. 28, and v. 1, 2.) He retracted these docAnti-Corn-law League (for procuring the re- trines in 1540. The Antinomians were condemned by peal of the laws charging duty on the importation of the British parliament, 1648. corn), sprung from various metropolitan and provincial Antioch, now ANTAKIEH, Syria, built by Seleucus, associations, was founded at Manchester, 18 Sept. 1838, 300 B.C. (after the battle of Ipsus, 301), acquired the name and supported by Messrs. Charles Villiers, Richard Cob- · Queen of the East." Here the disciples were first den, John Bright, etc.; Jobn Benjamin Smith, first chair- called Christians, A.D. 42 (Acts xi. 26). Antioch was man, died 15 Sept. 1879; see Corn Laws and Protection- taken by the Persians, 540; by the Saracens about 638; ists.

recovered for the Eastern emperor, 966; lost again in Meetings held in various places... March and April, 1841 1086; retaken by the Crusaders in June, 1098, and made Excited meeting at Manchester.

.18 May,

capital of a principality, 1099; and held by them till A bazaar held at Manchester, at which the league real. June, 1268, when it was captured by the sultan of Egypt. ized 10,0001.....

.2 Feb. 1842 It was taken from the Turks in the Syrian war, 1 Aug. About 600 deputies connected with provincial associations assemble in London. ...


1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, but restored at the peace. AnThe league at Manchester proposed to raise 50,0001., to tioch suffered much by an earthquake, and about 1600 depute lecturers throughout the country, and to print

persons were killed, 3 April, 1872.- The ERA of Antioch pamphlets....

...20 Oct. First meeting at Drury-lane theatre..........15 March, 1843 is much used by the early Christian writers of Antioch Monthly meetings at Covent Garden, commenced 28 and Alexandria ; it placed the Creation 5492 years B.C. Sept. ; great free-trade meetings at Manchester,

31 councils were held at Antioch, 252-1161. 14 Nov. 1843, and 22 Jan. 1845 Bazaar at Covent Garden opened..

..5 May, Antipodes. Plato is said to be the first who Great Manchester meeting, at which the league proposed

thought it possible that antipodes existed (about 388 to raise 250,000L...

23 Dec. The Corn Importation Bill having passed, 26 June, the

B.c.). Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of pope league is formally dissolved; Mr. Cobden was re- Zachary, is said to have denounced a bishop as a heretic warded by a national subscription, nearly 80,0001.,

for maintaining this doctrine, A.1). 741. The antipodes

2 July, 1846 On the accession of the Derby ministry, a revival of the

of England lie to the southeast of New Zealand, near Anti-Corn-law league was proposed at Manchester, Antipodes Island. and a subscription was opened, which produced within half an hour 27,5201. (soon proved unnecessary).2 March, 1852

Anti-popes, rival popes elected at various times, es

pecially by the French and Italian factions, from 1305 Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Md., U. S. to 1439. In the article Popes, the anti-popes are printHere was fought a terrible battle on 17 Sept. 1862, be- ed in italics. tween the Federals under gen. McClellan and the Confederates under Lee. After his victory at Bull Run or have existed in Ireland, 700 B.C.

Antiquaries. A college of antiquaries is said to Manassas, 30 Aug., Lee invaded Maryland, and was im- national Congress of Prehistoric Archæology originateg

The annual Intermediately followed by McClellan. On 16 Sept. Lee was joined by Jackson, and at five o'clock next morning the at La Spezzia in 1865; meetings have been held since

at Paris, Norwich, etc. conflict began. About 100.000 men were engaged, and the battle raged till night, Victory rested with neither A society was founded by archbishop Parker, Camden, Stow,

and others in 1572. -Spelman. side; but at night both armies held their original po- Application was made to Elizabeth for a charter, her death sitions, and the Confederates retreated and repassed the ensued, and her successor, James I., was far from favoring Potomac on 18 and 19 Sept. The loss of the Federals The Antiquaries' seast,” mentioned by Ashmole, 2 July, was estimated at 12,469; of the Confederates, 9000 or

1659. 10,000. Antietam is commonly called a drawn battle, The Society of Antiquaries revived, 1707; received its charter and, so far as the issue on the field is concerned, it

of incorporation from George II., 2 Nov. 1751 ; met in was so; but in its effect it served all the purposes of

Chancery Lane, 1753; apartments in Somerset House (grant

ed 1776); occupied, 15 Feb. 1781; removed to Burlington a victory for the National troops; Lee was compelled, House, 1874; first meeting 14 Jan. 1875. Memoirs entitled by his failure to overcome McClellan, to abandon an in- ** Archæologia," first published in 1770 ; president, earl vasion of the North, which threatened very serious harm

Stanhope, elected, 1846; died 24 Dec. 1875; succeeded by

Frederic Ouvry; by the earl of Carnarvon, 1878. to the National cause. His offensive campaign was British Archæological Association founded Dec. 1843. brought to an end, and he was compelled to retire to his Archæological Institute of Great Britaiu formed by a seceding defensive lines in Virginia. A national cemetery here Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh founded in 1780.

part of the Association, 1845. was dedicated 17 Sept. 1867.

Since 1845 many county archæological societies have been Antigua, a West Indian island, discovered by Co- formed in the United Kingdom. lumbus in Nov. 1493 ; settled by the English in 1632; The Society of Antiquarios of France (1814) began in 1805

as the Celtic Academy. made a bishopric, 1842. Population in 1874, 35,642. / "Tho Antiquary," a magazine, begau 1980.

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Anti-Rent Riots, a series of disturbances, begin- | dant in Norway, and in Sombrero, a small West India ning about 1839, among the tenants of lands of patroons, island. or manorial owners, in the counties of Albany, Rens

Apocalypse, or REVELATION, written by St. John selaer, and several others, in New York. The trouble in the isle of Patmos about A.n. 95.* arose from the determination of these tenants to cease paying the dues exacted by the landlords under their

Apocrypha. In the preface to the Apocrypha it old feudal tenure, Since 1847 the anti-rent controversy

is said, “ These books are neyther found in the Hebrue has been mostly in the form of lawsuits, and the course

nor in the Chalde."Bible, 1539. The history of the of the decisions has been in favor of the tenants,

Apocrypha ends 135 B.C. The books were not in the

Jewish canon, were rejected at the council of Laodicea Antisana, see Andes.

about A.D. 366, but were received as canonical by the Anti-Trinitarians. Theodotus of Byzantium, at Roman Catholic church at the council of Trent on 8 the close of the second century, is supposed to have been April, 1546. Parts of the Apocrypha were admitted to the first who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus. be read as lessons by the church of England, by the 6th This doctrine, advocated by Arius about 318, spread article, 1563. Many of these were excluded by the act widely after the Reformation, when it was adopted by passed 1871. Lelius and Faustus-Socinus; see Arians, Sociniuns, Uni

1 Esdras..

from about B.C. 623-445 tarians.

2 Esdras.

734-678 Antium, maritime city of Latium, now Porto d'Anzio, Judith near Rome, after a long struggle for independence, be- Esther.. came a Roman colony, at the end of the great Latin Wisdom of Solomon,


B.c. 300 or 180 war, 340-338 B.C. It is mentioned by Horace, and was

Baruch.. a favorite retreat of the emperors and wealthy Romans, Song of the Three Children. who erected many villas in its ricinity. The treasures History of Susannah. deposited in the temple of Fortune here were taken by Bel and the Dragon.

Prayer of Manasses.

676 Octavius Cæsar during his war with Antony, 41 B.C. 1 Maccabees.

. about 323-135 2 Maccabees.

from about 187-161 Antivari, a seaport on the Adriatic, ccded to Mon- There are also Apocryphal writings in connection with the tenegro by the Berlin treaty, 13 July, 1878.

New Testament. Antonelli Case, see Italy, 1877-9.

Apollinarists, followers of Apollinaris, a reader in Antoninus' Wall, see Roman Walls.

the church of Laodicea, who taught (366) that the divinAntwerp (French, Anvers), the principal port of ity of Christ was instead of a soul to him; that his flesh Belgium, is mentioned in history in 517. It was a small was pre-existent to his appearance upon earth, and was republic in the eleventh century, and was the first com

sent down from heaven, and conveyed through the Virmercial city in Europe till the wars of the sixteenth and gin; that there were two sons, one born of God, the othseventeenth centuries.

er of the Virgin, etc. These opinions were condemned

by the council of Constantinople, 381. Its fine exchange built..

1531 Taken after 14 months' siege by the prince of Parma, Apollo, the god of the fine arts, medicine, music,

17 Aug 1585 poetry, and eloquence, had many temples and statues, Truce of Antwerp (between Spain and United Provinces)

particularly in Greece and Italy. His most splendid for 12 years concluded.....

29 March, 1609 Much injured by the imposition of a toll on the Scheldt temple at Delphi was built 1263 B.C.; see Delphi. His by the treaty of Münster.

1618 temple at Daphne, built 434 B.C., during a period in After Marlborough's victory at Ramillies, Antwerp sur

which pestilence raged, was burned A.D. 362, and the renders at once.

.6 June, 1706 The Barrier treaty concluded here.

...16 Nov. 1715 Christians were accused of the crime.—Lenglet. The Taken by marshal Saxe,

9 May, 1746 statue of Apollo Belvedere, discovered at Antium, in Occupied by the French..

.1792-3, 1794–1814 Italy, in 1503, was purchased by pope Julius II., who Civil war between the Belgians and the House of Orange (see Belgium)..


placed it in the Vatican. The Belgian troops, having entered Antwerp, were op

Apollonicon, an elaborate musical instrument conposed by the Dutch garrison, who, after a dreadful conflict, being driven into the citadel, cannonaded the

structed on the principle of the organ (keys and barrel), town with red hot balls.

...27 Oct. 1830 was invented by Messrs. Flight & Robson, of St. MarThe citadel bombarded by the French, 4 Dec. ; surren- tin's lane, Westminster, and exhibited by them first in dered by gen. Chassé..

.23 Dec. 1832

1817.-Timbs. Exchange burned; archives, etc., destroyed......2 Aug. 1858 A fine-art fête held....

17-20 Aug. 1861 Apologies for CHRISTIANITY were addressed by Great Napoleon wharf destroyed by fire; loss, 25 lives and about 400,0001...

Justin Martyr to the emperor Antoninus Pius about 139,

2 Dec. Great fête at the opening of the port by the abolition of

and to the Roman senate about 164. Other apologies the Scheldt dues....

.3 Aug. 1863 were written by Quadratus, Aristides, and other early Fortifications constructed.

1860-70 fathers of the church. Statue of Leopold I. uncovered.

2 Aug. 1868 Tercentenary of Rubens's birth celebrated......18 Aug. 1877 Apostles (Greek, årboto.oc, one sent forth ). Plantin-Moretus Museum, containing collections of about 300 years-viz., 12,000 old letters, printing-types, por.

Twelve were appointed by Christ, A.D.31-viz., Simon Petraits, etc., made by the Plantins (descendants of ter and Andrew (brothers), James and John (sons of ZebCharles de Tiercelin, seigneur de la Roche du Maine), edee), Philip, Nathanael (or Bartholomew), Matthew (or who were printers to the kings of Spain--opened Levi), Thomas, James the Less (son of Alphæus), Simon about......

the Canaanite and Jude or Thaddeus (brothers), and JuAnvar-i-Suhaili, or the Lights of Canopus, the das Iscariot. Matthias was elected in the room of Judas ancient Persian version of the ancient Fables of Pilpay, Iscariot, A.D). 33 (Acts i.); and Paul and Barnabas were Bidpai, or Vishnu Sarma, made by Husain Vaiz, at the appointed by the Holy Spirit, A.D. 45 (Acts xiii. 2). order of Nushirvan, king of Persia. The English translation by E. B. Eastwick published 1854; see Fables. * Some ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the heretic, Anzin Coal-mines, near Valenciennes, N. France; and others to John, the presbyter, of Ephesus. In the first

centuries many churches disowned it; and in the fourth cenfirst tapped 24 June, 1734. The company formed has tury was excluded from the sacred canon by the council of become immensely rich: cabinet ministers generally di- Laodicea, bnt was again received by other councils, and conrectors. Output, in 1790, 300,000 tons; in 1872, 2,200,000 firmed by that of Trent, held in 1545 et seq. Although the

book had been rejected by Luther, Michael's, and others, and tons.

its authority questioned in all ages, from the time of Justin Apatite, mineral phosphate of lime. About 1856 it Martyr (who wrote his first “* Apology for Christians” in A.D.

139), yet its canonical authority is still almost universally ac. began to be largely employed as manure. It is abun- knowledged.

.20 Aug.


Apostles' Creed, erroneously attributed to the which first sat 8 Nov. 1875: present the lord chancellor, lord apostles, is mentioned as the Roman creed by Rufinus The house of lords was reconstructed as a court of final ap:

Coleridge, baron Bramwell, and justice Brett. (died about 410). Irenæus, bishop of Lyons (clied 202),

peal by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act introduced by lord gives a creed resembling it. Its repetition in public Cairns, 11 Feb., and passed 11 Aug. 1876. worship was ordained in the Greek church at Antioch, Two lords of appeal were to be appointed; to be peers for life. and in the Roman church in the eleventh century,

Appeals may be heard during prorogation or dissolution of

parliament. whence it passed to the church of England.

The new Supreme Court of Appeal first sat 21 Nov. 1876. Apostolical, see Canons and Fathers.

Appenzell, a Swiss canton, threw off the supremacy Apostolici, a sect, at the end of the second century, and became the thirteenth member of the Swiss confed

of the abbots of St. Gall early in the fifteenth century, which renounced marriage, wine, flesh, etc. A second

eration, 1513. sect, founded by Sagarelli about 1261, wandered about, clothed in white, with long beard, dishevelled hair, and Appian Way, a Roman road made by Appius Claubare heads, accompanied by women called spiritual sis- dius Cæcus while censor, 312 B.C. ters, preaching against the growing corruption of the Apples. Several kinds are indigenous to England; church of Rome, and predicting its downfall. They re- but those in general use have been brought at various nounced baptism, the mass, purgatory, etc., and by their times from the continent. Richard Harris, fruiterer to enemies were accused of gross licentiousness. Sagarelli Henry VIII., is said to have planted a great number of was burned alive at Parma in 1300, and his followers the orchards in Kent; and lord Scudamore, ambassador were dispersed in 1907, and extirpated about 1404. to France in the reign of Charles I., planted many of

Apothecary (literally, a keeper of a storehouse). those in Herefordshire. Ray reckons 78 varieties of apOn 10 Oct. 1345, Edward III. settled sixpence per diem ples in his day (1688). In 1866 there were 1500 vari for life on Coursus de Gangeland, A pothecarius London', eties in the collection of the Royal Horticultural Society, for taking care of him during his severe illness in Scot- many not worth cultivation. land.— Rymer's Fædera. See Pharmacy and Medical Apportionment Act (for rents) passed 1 Aug. Council.

1870. Apothecaries exempted from serving on juries or other

Appraisers. The valuation of goods for another civil offices..

1712 was an early business in England; and so early as 1283, London Apothecaries' Company separated from the by the statute of merchants, or of Acton-Burnel,“ it was

Grocers' and incorporated, 1617; hall built..... 1670 enacted that if they valued the goods of parties too high, Their practico regulated and their authority extended over all England by the Apothecaries Act, 55 Geo. III.

the appraisers should take them at such price as they c. 19, 1815; amended by 6 Geo. IV. c. 133, 1825; and have limited.” In 1845 their annual license was raised by 37 & 38 Vict. c. 34. .....

1874 from 10s. to 40s. Botanical Garden at Chelsea left by sir Hans Sloane to

the company, Jan. 1753, on condition of their intro- Apprentices. Those of London were obliged to ducing every year fifty new plants, until their number wear blue cloaks in summer and blue gowns in winter, should amount to 2000...

Jan. 1755 in the reign of queen Elizabeth, 1558. Ten pounds was The Dublin guild incorporated..


then a great apprentice fee. From twenty to one hunApotheosis, a ceremony of the ancient nations of dred pounds were given in the reign of James I.–Stow's the world by which they raised their kings and heroes Surrey. The apprentice tax enacted 43 Geo. III. 1802. to the rank of deities. The deifying a deceased empe- The term of seven years, not to expire till the apprentice ror was begun at Rome by Augustus, in favor of Julius was twenty-four years old, required by the statute of Czesar, 13 B.C.— Tillemont.

Elizabeth (1563), was abolished in 1814. An act for the Appeal or Assize Of Battle. By the old law of protection of apprentices, etc., was passed in 1851. The England, a man charged with murder might fight with apprentices of London have been, at times, very riotous; the appellant, thereby to make proof of his guilt or inno- they rose in insurrection against foreigners on Eril

In 1817 a young maid, Mary Ashford, was be- May-day (which see), 1 May, 1517. lieved to have been violated and murdered by Abraham Appropriation Clause, of the Irish Tithe Bill of Thornton, who, on trial, was acquitted. In an appeal, he 1835, brought forward by lord John Russell, whereby any claimed his right by wager of battle, which the court surplus revenue that might accrue by the working of the allowed; but the appellant (the brother of the maid) re- act was to be appropriated for the education of all classes fused the challenge, and the accused was discharged, 16 of the people. The principle was adopted by the comApril, 1818. This law was struck off the statute-book, mons, but rejected by the lords in 1835 and 1836, and was by 59 Geo. III. c. 46, 1819.

abandoned. Iu 1631 lord Rea impeached Mr. David Ramsey of treason, and

Appropriations (property taken from the church) offered battle in proof; a commission was appointed, but the began in the time of William I. The parochial clergy, duel was prohibited by king James I.

then commonly Saxons, were impoverished by the bishAppeals. In the time of Alfred (869-901), appeals ops and higher clergy (generally Normans) to enrich the ay from courts of justice to the king in council; but be- monasteries possessed by the conqueror's friends. Where ing soon overwhelmed with appeals from all parts of the tithes were so appropriated, the vicar had only such England, he framed the body of laws which long served a competency as the bishop or superior thought fit to alas the basis of English jurisprudence. The house of low. Pope Alexander IV. complained of this as the lords is the highest court of appeal in civil causes. Courts bane of religion, the destruction of the church, and a poiof appeal at the exchequer chamber, in error from the son that had infected the whole nation. Lay approprijudgments of the superior and criminal courts, were reg- ations began after the dissolution of the monasteries, ulated by statutes in 1830 and 1848. Appeals from Eng- 1536. lish tribunals to the pope were first introduced about 1151,

Apricot, Prunus Armeniaca, from Asia Minor, said were long vainly opposed, and were abolished by Henry to have been first planted in England about 1540, by the VIII. 1534 ; restored by Mary, 1554; again abolished by gardener of Henry VIII. Elizabeth, 1559. A proposition for establishing an imperial court of appeal submitted to the house of lords

April, the fourth month of our year, the second of

the ancient Romans. by the lor

chancellor Hatherly, 15 April; was referred to a select committee, 30 April, 1872. A similar Apteryx (wingless), a bird, a native of New Zeaproposition by lord chancellor Selborne, 13 Feb, 1873; see land, first brought to this country in 1813, and deposited Pricy Council, and Justices, Lord.

in the collection of the earl of Derby. Fossil specimens The jurisdiction of the house of lords as a court of appeal was discovered in New Zealand by Mr. Walter Mantell in

of a gigantic species of this bird (named Dinornis) were abolished by the Judicature Act, 1873. The abolition was suspended in 1875; and a provisional court established, 1843 and since.


Apulia, a province in S. E. Italy. The people fa- remained sole emperor, 6 Sept. 391. Eugenius was put vored Hannibal, and were severely punished by the Ro- to death, and Arbogastes died by his own hand, mortitied mans at his retreat, 207 B.C. Apulia was conquered by by his overthrow. St. Ambrose held a synod here in 381. the Normans, whose leader Guiscard received the title In 452 Aquileia was almost totally destroyed by Attila the of duke of Apulia from pope Nicholas II. in 1059. After Hun, and near it in 489 Theodoric and the Ostrogoths many changes of masters, it was absorbed into the king- totally defeated Odoacer, the king of Italy. dom of Naples in 1265.

Aquitaine, the Roman province Aquitania (S.W. Aquarii, a sect said to have been founded by Tatian France), conquered by the Romans 28 B.C.; by the Visiin the second century, who forbore the use of wine even goths, A.1), 418; taken from them by Clovis in 507. in the sacrament; during persecution they met secretly Henry II. of England obtained it with his wife Eleanor, at night. For this they were censured by Cyprian (mar- 1152. It was erected into a principality for Edward the tyred, 258).

Black Prince in 1362; but was annexed to France in Aquarium, or AQUAVIVARIUM, a vessel containing 1370. The title of duke of Aquitaine was taken by the water (marine or fresh) in which animals and plants may crown of England on the conquest of this duchy by coexist, mutually supporting each other; snails being Henry V. in 1418. The province was lost in the reign introduced as scavengers. In 1849 Mr. N. B. Ward suc- of Henry VI. ceeded in growing seaweeds in artificial sca-water; in Arabia (W. Asia). The terms Petriea (stony), Felix 1850 Mr. R. Warington demonstrated the conditions (happy), and Desertu are said to have been applied to its necessary for the growth of animals and plants in jars divisions by Ptolemy, about A.D. 140. The Arabs claim of water; and in 1853 the glass tanks in the Zoological descent froin Islımael, the eldest son of Abraham, born Gardens, Regent's Park, were set up by Mr. D. Mitchell. 1910 B.C., Gen. xvi. Arabia was unsuccessfully invaded In 1854 Mr. Gosse published “The Aquarium.” Mr. W. by Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt, 24 B.C. In Alford Lloyd, late of Portland Road, London, who, by his A.D. 622, the Arabians under the name of Saracens, fol. enterprise in collecting specimens, did much to increase lowers of Mahomet (born at Mecca, 570), their general the value and interest of aquaria, has been much em- and prophet, commenced their course of conquest; see ployed in erecting aquaria. The great aquarium (50 Mahometanism. Arabia was conquered by the Ottoyards long and 12 wide) at the Jardin d'Acclimatation at mans 1518-39. The Arabs greatly favored literature Paris, was constructed under his direction in 1860. He and the sciences, especially mathematics, astronomy, and also constructed the aquarium at Hamburg and others. chemistry. The Koran was written in Arabic (622-632). That at Brighton was inaugurated by prince Arthur, The Bible was printed in Arabic in 1671; see Waha30 March, and publicly opened by the mayor, 10 Aug. bees. The aggression of the Turks on the South Arabs 1872. That at the Crystal Palace was opened Jan. excited jealousy in England, and was checked by the 1872.

sultan, Nov. 1873. The Royal Aquarium and Summer and Winter Garden Society Arabian Nights' Entertainments (or 1001

was established 1874; the building at Westminster, planned Tales) were translated into French by Galland, and by Mr. Wybrow Robertson and Mr. A. Bedborough, was opened by the duke of Edinburgh, 22 Jan. 1876.

published in 1704; but their authenticity was not acA woman surnamed “Zazel" permitted herself to be safely knowledged till many years after. The best English

shot from a cannon (by a spring or other mechanical con- translation from the Arabic is that of Mr. E. W. Lane,

trivance); summer of 1877, et seq. Living whales shown here soon died; see Whale; Sept., 1877; published in 1839, with valuable notes and beautiful illusJune, 1878.

trations, The Imperial theatre added, 1870.

Arabic Figures (1, 2, 3, etc.), see Arithmetic. AraAquatint, see Engraving.

BIC NEWSPAPER, “ Mur-átu-'l-Ahwâl(“Mirror of PassAqueduct, an artificial watercourse on an inclined ing Events "), published in London, end of 1876. plane. Appius Claudius advised and constructed the Arabici, a sect which sprang up in Arabia about first Roman aqueduct, as well as the Appian Way, about 207, whose distinguishing tenet was, that the soul dies 312 B.C.* There are now some remarkable aqueducts in with the body, and will rise again with it. Europe: that at Lisbon is of great extent and beauty; that at Segovia has 129 arches; and that at Versailles is

Aragon, part of the Roman Tarraconensis, a kingthree miles long, and of immense height, with 242 arches dom, N.E. Spain, was conquered by the Carthaginians,

It in three stories. The stupendous aqueduct on the Elles who were expelled by the Romans about 200 B.C. mere canal, in England (1007 feet in length, and 126 feet became an independent monarchy in A.D. 1035; see high) was completed by T. Telforil, and opened 26 Dec.

Spain. 1805. The Lisbon aqueduct was completed in 1738, and Aram, the ancient name of Syria (which see). the Croton aqueduct, near New York, was constructed

Aranjuez (Central Spain), contains a fing royal palbetween 1837 and 1842. The aqueduct to supply Mar- ace, at which several important treaties were concluded. seilles with water was commenced in 1830.

An aque- On 17 March, 1808, an insurrection broke out here against duct to supply London with water from the Welsh lakes Charles IV. and his favorite, Godoy, the prince of peace. was proposed by Mr. J. F. Bateman in 1865.

The former was compelled to abdicate in favor of his son, Aquidaban (Paraguay). Here the war with Brazil Ferdinand VII., 19 March. was ended with the defeat and death of president Lopez,

Ararat, a mountain in Armenia (about 17,112 feet 1 March, 1870.

above the sea-level), on which Noah's ark is supposed to Aquila (S. Italy). Near here the Arragonese under have rested, B.c. 2349, now termed by the Persians, Kohthe condottiere Braccio Forte-Braccio were defeated by i-Nuh (Noah's mountain); by the Armenians, Masis; by the allied papal, Neapolitan, and Milanese army under the Turks, Agri-Dagh. Jacob Caldora, 2 June, 1424. Braccio, a wounded pris. It was ascended by Dr. Parrot. 27 Sept. 1829 ; by Major Stuoner, refused to take food, and died, 5 June.

art, 1856, and by others since. Mr. James Bryce, who as

cended 11, 12 Sept. 1876, described the summit as a little Aquileia (Istria), made a Roman colony about 180

plain of snow, silent and desolate, with a bright, green sky B.C. and fortified A.D. 168. Constantine II. was slain in above; the view stern, green, and monotonous. a battle with Constans, fought at Aquileia towards the close of March, 340. Maximus defeated and slain by Theo- habitants maintained almost unceasing war with the

Araucania, a province in South America. Its indosius, near Agileia, 28 July, 388. Theodosius defeated Spaniards from 1537 to 1773, when their independence Eugenius and Arbogastes, the Gaul, near Aquileia, and was recognized. They are now nominally subject to

Chili. * Remains of these and other noble aqueducts, constructed by emperors, still remain, and some supply water to the city, Arausio (now ORANGE), S.E. France. Throngh the

jealousy of the Roman proconsul Q. Servilius Cæpio, who carly kings, about 588 B.C. The Chinese bridges, which would not wait for the arrival of the army of the consul are very ancient, are of great magnitude, and are built C. Manlius, both were defeated here by the Cimbri with with stone arches similar to those that have been conmuch slaughter, 105 B.C.

sidered a Roman invention.* _The TRIUMPHAL arches Arbela. The third and decisive battle between

of the Romans formed a leading feature in their archi

tecture. Alexander the Great and Darius Codomanus decided the

The arch of Titus (A.D, 80), that of Trajan fate of Persia, 1 Oct. 331 B.C.

, on a plain in Assyria, be- (114), and that of Constantine (312), were magnificent. tween Arbela and Gaugamela. The army of Darius con

The arches in our parks in London were erected about sisted of 1,000,000 foot and 40,000 horse; the Macedonian 1828. The Marble Arch, which formerly stood before army amounted to only 40,000 foot and 7000 horse. Buckingham Palace (whence it was removed to CumberArrian. The gold and silver found in the cities of Susa, land Gate, Hyde Park, in 1851) was modelled from the Persepolis, and Babylon, which fell to Alexander from arch of Constantine; see lyde Park. this victory, amounted to thirty millions sterling; and Archæology, the science of antiquities; see Antithe jewels and other precious spoil, belonging to Darius, quaries. sufficed to load 20,000 mules and 5000 camels. ---Plu- Archæopteryx (ancient bird); the name giren to turch.

the earliest known remains of a bird, found in the lithoArbitration. Submission to arbitration was au- graphic slate of Solenhofen, by Herman von Meyer and thorized and made equivalent in force to the decision of Dr. Häberlein in 1861. Its structure approximated more a jury by 9 & 10 Will. III. (1698). Submissions to ar

to that of a reptile than that of modern birds does. It bitration may be made rules of any court of law or

was described by Owen in 1863. equity, and arbitrators may compel the attendance of Archangel (N. Russia), a city, is thus named from witnesses, 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 42 (1833); see Ouzel Gulley. a monastery founded here, and dedicated to St. Michael The Common Law Procedure Act (1854) authorizes the in 1584. The passage to Archangel was discovered by judges of superior courts to order compulsory arbitra- the English navigator Richard Chancellor in 1553, and tion; and, by an act passed in 1859, railway companies it was the only seaport of Russia till the formation of the may settle disputes with each other by arbitration. The docks at Cronstadt, and foundation of St. Petersburg in Arbitration (Masters and Workmen) Act was passed 6 1703. The dreadful fire here, by which the cathedral Ang. 1872 ; see Prud'hommes.

and upwards of 3000 houses were destroyed, occurred in Arbutus. The Arbutus Andrachne, Oriental straw

June, 1793. berry-tree, was brought to England from the Levant Archbishop (Greek åpxleniokotoy), a title giren about 1724.

in the fourth and fifth centuries to the bishops of chief

cities, such as Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and ConstanArcades, or walks arched over. The principal in tinople, who presided over the other metropolitans and London are the Burlington Arcade, opened 20 March, bishops in the districts attached to those places. The 1819; the Lowther Arcade, Strand, opened 1831; be- word is first found in the Apology against the Arians by tween Old Bond Street and Albemarle Street, opened Athanasius, who died 373. The Eastern archbishops May, 1880; see Strand and Exeter Change. The Royal have since been styled patriarchs.Ridille. Arcade, Dublin, opened June, 1820, was burned to the ground, 25 April, 1837. The Great Western Arcade, Bir- Before the Saxons came to England, there were three arch

bishops, London, York, and Caerleon-upon-l'sk; but soon mingham, opened 28 Sept. 1876.

after St. Augustin settled the metropolitan see at CauterArcadia, in the centre of the Peloponnesis, Greece, York continued archiepiscopal; but London and Caerleon lost

, 602; see named after Arcas, a king. The Arcadians regarded the dignity; see St. David's. their nation as the most ancient of Greece, and older the bishoprics in Scotland were under the jurisdiction of the than the moon (Frpooé Anvi, which word Döderlein con

archbishop of York until the erection of the archiepiscopal

sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow in 1470 and 1491; these jectures to mean Pre-Hellenic). Pelasgus is said to

last were discontinued at the Revolution; see Glasgow and have taught them to feed on acorns, as being more nu- St. Andrew's. tritious than herbs, their former food; for which they The rank of archbishop was early in Ireland; see Ferns.

The bishop of Moray, etc., is now styled Primus. honored him as a god, 1521 B.C. Arcadia had twenty-Four archbishops were constituted, Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, five kings, whose history is altogether fabulous.

and Tuam; (until then the archbishop of Canterbury had

jurisdiction over the Irish as well as English bishops, in liko Magna Græca, in S. Italy, said to have been colonized by manner as the archbishop of York had jurisdiction orer Arcadians under Enotrus, about 1710 B.C.; and under those of Scotland), 1151.

.B.C. 1240 of these four archbishoprics two were reduced to bishoprics Pelasgus begins his reign..

(Cashel and Tuam) conformably with the stat. 3 and 4 Will. Supposed institution of the Lupercalia, in honor of Jupi

IV. by which also the number of sees in Ireland was to be ter, by Lycaon, who reigned.

1514 reduced from twentytwo to twelve (seo Bishops, Cashel, Arcas taught his subjects agriculture and to spin wool.. 1514 Tuam; Pallium, etc.), 1833. Lycæan games instituted, in honor of Pan. Agapenor appears at the head of the Arcadians at the

Archchamberlain. The elector of Brandensiege of Troy (Homer).... The Lacedæmonians invade Arcadia, and are beaten by

burg was appointed the hereditary archchamberlain of the women of the country in the absence of their hus

the German empire by the golden bull of Charles IV. in bands (?)..

1102 1356, and in that quality he bore the sceptre before the Aristocrates I. (of Orchomenus) put to death for offering violence to the priestess of Diana.

emperor. Aristocrates II. stoned; a republic founded.

681 Archchancellors were appointed under the two Supremacy of Sparta (acknowledged 500) abolished by the Thebans; Megalopolis founded by Epaminondas.. 371 their territories were divided, the archbishops of Mentz,

first races of the kings of France (418-986); and when The Arcadians make alliance with Athens, and are defeated by Archidamus

367. Cologne, and Treves became archchancellors of GerArcadia, having joined the Achaan league, on its sup- many, Italy, and Arles. pression is annexed by Rome.. Arcadians, an ultra-conservative French political eldest deacon, who attended on the bishop without any

Archdeacon, a name early given to the first or club, composed of a section of the majority in the cham- power; but since the council of Nice his function lias bers, and opposed to liberal measures, even when emanating from the emperor (such as the new press law). * The bridge of Chester, whose span is 200 feet, was com It derived its name from Rue de l'Arcade, where its menced in 1829. The central arch of London Bridge is 162 meetings were held: Feb, 1868.

feet; and the three cast-iron arches of Southwark Bridge.

which rest on massive stone piers and abutments are, the evo Arch. It appears in early Egyptian and Assyrian side ones 210 feet cach, and the centre 240 feet: thus the cen architecture. The oldest arch in Europe is probably in feet in the span, and the long famed Ralto at l'enice, by 197

tre arch exceeds the admired bridge of Sunderland by four the Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, constructed under the feet; sec Bridges.







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