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July, the seventh, originally fifth, Roman month, duced to put the accused on trial. The constitution of named by Marc Antony from Julius Cæsar, the dictator 1791 established the trial by jury in France. An imof Rome, who was born in it.
perial decrec abolished trial by jury throughout the AusJune, the sixth month, owes its name to Junius, trian empire, 15 Jan. 1852. Trial by jury began in Ruswhich some derive from Juno, and others from Juniores, sia, 8 Aug. 1866. A true bill for libel granted against this being the month for the young, as May was for alderman sir F. Truscott in his absence, who was honoraged persons. Ovid, in his “ Fasti,” introduces Juno as ably acquitted, 18 Sept. 1879. claiming this month.
COERCION OF JURIES. - It is said that in early times the suit.
ors used to feed the jury empanelled in their action, and Junius's Letters began in the Public Advertiser, hence arose the common-law of denying sustenance to a jury 21 Jan. 1769.
after the hearing of the evidence. A jury may be detained
during the pleasure of the judge if they cannot agree upon a They have been ascribed to Mr. Burke, Mr. William Gerard verdict; and may be contined without meat, drink, or fire, Hamilton, commonly called Single-speech Hamilton, John candle-light excepted, till they are unanimous. Some jurors Wilkes, Mr. Dunning (afterwards lord Ashburton), sergeant have been fined for having fruit in their pockets when they Adair, the rev. J. Rosenhagen, John Roberts, Charles Lloyd, were withdrawn to consider of their verdict, though they did Samuel Dyer, gen. Lee, the duke of Portland, Hugh Boyd, not eat it.-Leon Dyer, 137. A jury at Sudbury not being lord George Sackville, and sir Philip Francis. The last named able to agree, and having been some time under duress, forcibly is generally considered to have been the author. Junius said, broke from the court where they were locked up, and went "am the depository of my own secret, and it shall perish home, 9 Oct. 1791. - Phillips. In Scotland, Guernsey, Jersey, with me." The work of Mr. Chabot and hop. E. T. B. Twisle and France, juries decide by a majority; in France, since 1831, ton was considered decisive of sir Philip Francis being Ju- a majority of two thirds is required. nius, May, 1871. Junker Party (Junker, German for young noble), a
“Juste Milieu," according to Louis Philippe (in term applied to the aristocratic party in Prussia, which 1830), is the only principle of government which can
secure the welfare of France. came into power under Otho von Bismarck-Schönhausen, appointed prime-minister, 9 Oct. 1862. Their political Justices, Lords, were appointed by English sovorgan is the Kreuz-Zeitung.
ereigns to govern during their absence; especially by Juno, the planet discovered by M. Harding, of Lilien- William III., and George I. and II. (1695-1760). George thal, near Bremen, 1 Sept. 1804. Its distance from the sun III. never left England. In Sept. 1821, when George is 254 millions of miles, and it accomplishes its revolu- IV. went to Hanover, lords justices were appointed, the tion in four years and 128 days, at the rate of nearly 42,000 duke of York being the first. No such appointment miles an hour. Its diameter is estimated by German has been made during the present reign, it having been astronomers at 1424 English miles.
decided by the law authorities in 1843 to be unneces
sary when the queen went to France. Ireland was someJunonia, festivals in honor of Juno (the Greek times temporarily ruled by lords justices. - Two words Hera, or Here) at Rome, and instituted 431 B.C.
justices of the court of uppeal in chancery, having rank Junta. The Spanish provincial juntas, or councils, next after the chief baron of the exchequer, were apdeclared against the French in 1808, and incited the pointed from 1 Oct. 1851, salary 60001. For recent people to insurrection.
changes see Court of Justiciary and 4 ppeal. Jupiter, known as a planet to the Chaldeans, it is 1851. Sir James L. Knight-Bruce, resigned Oct., died 7 Nov said, 3000 B.C. The discovery of the satellites, incorrectly attributed to Simon Mayr (Marius) in 1609, was 1853. Sir George James Turner, Jan., died 9 July, 1867.
Robert, lord Cranworth (afterwards lord chancellor). made by Galileo on 8 Jan. 1610; see Planets. Jupiter's 1866. Sir Hugh M. Cairns, 29 Oct., became lord chancellor 29 moons were all invisible on 21 Aug. 1867; a very rare occurrence.-JUPITER AMmon's temple in Libya was
1867. Sir John Rolt, July; resigned Feb. 1868.
1868. Sir Charles Jasper Selwyn, 8 Feb., died 11 Aug. 1869. visited by Alexander, 332 B.C. Cambyses's army sent Sir William Pago Wood, March; lord chancellor, 2 against it perished miserably, 525 B.C. The Greek Zeus
Nov. was the Roman Jupiter.
1869. Sir George M. Giffard, Dec., died 13 July, 1870.
1870. Sir George Mellish, July; died 15 June, 1877. Juridical Society was established in Feb. 1855, and opened with an address by sir R. Bethell on 12 May 1875. Sir Richard Baggallay, Nov. following:
1876. Sir George W. W. Bramwell.
Sir William Baliol Brett. Juries. Trial by jury was introduced into England
1877. Sir Henry Cotton. during the Saxon heptarchy, mention being made of 1880. Sir Robert Lush. six Welsh and six Anglo-Saxon freemen appointed to try causes between the English and Welsh men of prop- trates, invested with extensive powers in minor cases
Justices of the Peace are unpaid local magiserty, and made responsible, with their whole estates: but subject to supersession and punishment by the King's real and personal, for false verdicts.-Lambard. By most authorities their institution is ascribed to Alfred Bench for an abuse of their authority. They were tirst
nominated by William I. in 1076.–Stow. Persons termabout 886. In Magna Charta, juries are insisted on as
ed conservators of the peace in each county were apthe great bulwark of the people's liberty. When either party is an alien born, the jury shall be one half deni- pointed by 1 Edw. III. c. 2, 1327; and their duties were zens, and the other half aliens, stat. 28 Edw. 111. 1353. settled by the judges, 23 Eliz. 1580.- Hawkins. . See
detined in 1360. The form of a commission of the peace By the common - law a prisoner upon indictment or appeal might challenge peremptorily thirty-five, being
Eyre. under three juries; but a lord of parliament, and a peer Justiciars. In ancient times the kings of England of the realm, who is to be tried by his peers, cannot chal- used to hear and determine causes; but it is declared by lenge any of his peers. An act for the trial by jury in law that if the king cannot determine every controversy, civil cases in Scotland was passed in 1815. An act to he, to ease himself, may divide the labor among perconsolidate and amend the laws relating to juries in Ire- sons, men of wisdom and fearing God, and out of such to land was passed 4 Will. IV. 1833. A new act respecting appoint judges. The Saxon kings of England appointed juries, regulating their payment, etc., was passed 9 Aug. a judge after this manner, who was, in fact, the king's 1870. The clause respecting their payment was re- dieputy. After the Norman conquest, the person investscinded by act passed 28 Feb. 1871. Laws respecting ed with that power had the style of Capitalis Justicia, juries in Ireland amended, 14 Aug. 1871. New Juries or Justiciarius Angliæ. These judges continued until bill brought in by the attorney-general, sir John Cole- the erection of the courts of King's Bench and the Comridge, Feb. 1873. Juries are summoned to assist the mon Pleas. The first justiciars of England were Odo, coroner in investigating the causes of sudden or violent bishop of Bayeux, and William Fitz-Osborne, in 1067 death.--GRAND JURIES (of not less than 12 or more than and the last was Philip Basset, in 1261, or Hugh le De23 persons) decide whether sufficient evidence is ad- I spencer, 1263 (llenry III.). Authorities vary,
PRESENT LORDS JUSTICES.
Justiciary, COURT OF, see Court of Justiciary. 1862, assertions were made that it could be employed as
a substitute for cotton. In 1853, 275,578 cwt.; in 1861, Justinian Code compiled by a commission ap- 904,092 cwt.; in 1871, 3,454,120 cwt. ; in 1874, 4,270,164 pointed by the emperor Justinian I. Feb. 528, wherein
cwt.; in 1875, 3,416,617 cwt.; in 1877, 3,649,877 cwt. of was written what may be termed the statute law (scat- undressed jute were imported into the United Kingtered through 2000 volumes reduced to fifty). It was
dom. promulgated April, 529. To this code Justinian added the Digest or Pandects, the Institutes, and Novels, pro- Jutland (Denmark), the home of the Jutes who setmulgated 16 Nov. 534. These compilations have since tled in our southern counties. South Jutland was taken been called, collectively, the Body of Civil Law (Corpus by the allies in 1813, and restored in 1814. Juris Civilis).
Juvenile Offenders. In 1838 an act was passed Jute, the fibres of two plants, the chonch and isbund for instituting a prison for instructing and correcting (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis), since juvenile offenders, and the military hospital at Park1830 extensively cultivated in Bengal for making gun- hurst in the Isle of Wight was appropriated for this purny-cloth, etc. Jute has been much manufactured at pose. An act for their committal to reformatories was Dundee as a substitute for flax, tow, etc., and in July, I passed in 1854.
Kaaba, see Caaba.
army, determined to storm their intrenchments. The Kabyles, see Algiers.
conflict lasted from 31 Dec. to 9 Jan. 1854, when the Rus
sians were compelled to retire. Among these conflicts Kadseah, see Parsees.
one occurred at Citate, 6 Jan.; see Citate. Kalafat was Kaffraria, an extensive country in S. Africa, ex. invested 28 Jan., and gen. Schilders attacked it vigortending from the north of Cape Colony to the Orange ously on 19 April without success, and the blockade was River. Our war with the natires began in 1798. raised 21 April The Kaffirs, headed by Mokanna, a prophet, attack Gra. Kalakh, ancient capital of middle Assyria ; where
hamstown; repulsed with much slaughter.. 1819 many discoveries have been made by Layard and othAgain defeated, 1828, 1831...
1834 The Kaffirs rise; sir Harry Smith, the governor, pro
ers; see Assyria. claims martial law, and orders the inhabitants to rise Kaleidoscope, an optical instrument, which, by en masse to defend the frontier...
31 Dec. 1850 Disastrous operations against the Kafirs in the Water
an arrangement of mirrors, produces a symmetrical rekloefl follow; col. Fordyce and several officers and men flection of various transparent substances placed between, of the 74th regiment killed..
.6 Nov. 1851 was invented by Dr. (afterwards sir David) Brewster of Wreck of the Birkenhead with reinforcements from
Edinburgh; it was suggested in 1814 and perfected in England (see Birkenhead)...
26 Feb. 1852 The hostilities of the Kaflirs having assumed all the feat
1817; see Debusscope. ures of regular warfare, the governor-general, Cathcart, attacked and defeated them..
Kali Yugh, see Cali Yugh.
20 Dec. The conditions offered by Cathcart accepted, and peace Kalitsch (Poland). Here the Russians defeated the restored.
..9 March, 1853 Death of Makomo, an eminent chief. ........ 11 Sept. 1873 Swedes, 19 Nov. 1706 ; and here the Saxons under the Alleged insurrection of Langalibalele suppressed (sec
French general Reynier were beaten by the Russians Natal)..
1874 under Winzingerode, 13 Feb. 1813. Kreli, a Galcka chief in the Transkei territory, attacks
the Fingoes and their British protectors; repulsed at Kalmar, see Calmar. Ibeka.
..24 and 29 Sept. 1877 Sir Bartle Frere, the governor-general, with officers and
Kalmuck, see Tartar. volunteers, proceeds to the spot; Kreli defeated by
Kalunga Fort (E. Indies), attacked unsuccessfully commandant Griffith; his kraal burned, 9 Oct.; deposed
by the British forces, and gen. Gillespie killed, 31 Oct. and his lands annexed.. Galekas defeated and expelled from their territories, 1814; and again unsuccessfully, 25 Nov. It was evacu
2 Dec. ated by the Nepaulese, 30 Nov. same year. Rise of the Gaikas under Sandilli, an old chief (who
after education relapsed into barbarism), about 30 Dec. Kamptulicon, a substance used for flooring, patCetywayo, king of the Zulus, troublesome; sir Bartle ented by Elijah Galloway in 1843, and manufactured Frere requests help; 90th regiment and a battery of
since 1851 by Messrs. Tayler, Harvey, & Co. It is artillery sent from England..
tana, 7 Feb., by gen. Thesiger (about 400 Kafirs killed; cating machines.
Kamtschatka, a peninsula, E. coast of Asia, was continued fighting, sometimes severe .... March-May, discovered by Morosco, a Cossack chief, 1690; taken posSandilli and other chiess reported dead; his sons capt- session of by Russia in 1697 ; and proved to be a penin
ured; Kaffir refugees in dreadful condition .....June, Amnesty proclaimed to all surrendering rebels, about
sula by Behring in 1728. Four months, commencing at
2 July, our midsummer, may be considered as the spring, sumThanksgiving day for restoration of peace...... .1 Aug. mer, and autumn here, the rest of the year being winWar still lingered on the borders during.. .Aug.
ter. Tini Macomo and Gangubele condemned to death as
The amiable capt. Clarke, a companion of capt. traitors; intercession for them in London; reprieved,
Cook, died in sight of Kamtschatka, 22 Aug. 1779, and
Sept. was buried in the town of St. Peter and Paul, in the For the war, see also Basuto Land, Transvaal, and Zululand.
peninsula. Kagosima, see Japan, 1863.
Kandahar, see Candahar. Kainardji (Bulgaria). Here a treaty was signed, Kangaroos, animals indigenous to Australia (first July, 1774, between the Turks and Russians, which seen by capt. Cook, 22 June, 1770), were bred at San opened the Black Sea and gave the Crimea to the lat- Donato, the estate of prince Demidoff, in 1853, and ter.
since. Kalafat, on the Danube, opposite the fortress of Kansas, a western state of the United States, orWiddin. This place was fortified by the Turks under ganized as a territory 30 May, 1854; admitted into the Omar Pacha when they crossed the river, 28 Oct. 1853. Union 29 Jan. 1861. . During the greater part of 1855 et In December, prince Gortschakoff, with the Russian seq. this state was a scene of anarchy and bloodshed
through fruitless efforts to make it a slave state; see control of the king's mind grew the idea of an equity Slavery in America,
court in contradistinction to the law courts. A bill in Karaïtes (or READERS), the Protestants of Judaism, chancery is a petition through the lord chancellor to a remnant of the Sadducees, formed into a sect by Anan- the king's conscience for remedy in matters for which ben-David in the eighth century. They profess ad- the king's common-law courts afford no redress. The herence to the Scriptures alone, and reject the Talmud keeper of the king's conscience is therefore now the ofand Rabbinical traditions. They still exist in Turkey, ficer who presides in the court of chancery; see ChanPoland, the Crimea, and other parts of the East. Their cellor and Lord Keeper. name is of uncertain origin.
Keeper (Lord) OF THE GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND Karrack, see Carrack.
differed only from the lord chancellor in that the latter Kars, a town in Asiatic Turkey, captured by the Richard, a chaplain, was the first keeper under Ranulph,
had letters-patent, whereas the lord keeper had none. Russians under Paskiewich, 15 July, 1828, after three in 1116. The two offices were made one by 5 Eliz. 1562. days' conflict. In 1855 it was defended by gen. Fenwick – Cowell. See Chancellor.— The office of lord keeper of Williams, with 15,000 men, and with three months' pro- the great seal of Scotland was established in 1708, after visions and three days' ammunition, against the Russian the Union. general Mouravieff, with an army of 40,000 infantry and
Kenilworth Castle (Warwickshire) was built 10,000 cavalry. The siege lasted from 18 June to 28 Nov. 1855. The sufferings of the garrison were very about 1120, by Geoffrey de Clinton, whose grandson sold great from cholera and want of food. The Russians it to Henry III. It was enlarged and fortified by Simon made a grand assault on 29 Sept.
, but were repulsed with de Montfort, to whom Henry gave it as a marriage porthe loss of above 6000 men, and the garrison were over- tion with his sister Eleanor. Queen Elizabeth conferred
His entercome by famine alone.-Sundwith. Kars was restored it on her favorite, Dudley, earl of Leicester. to Turkey, Aug. 1856.
tainment of the queen commenced 19 July, 1575, and
cost the earl daily 10001. On accepting gen. Williams's proposal for surrendering, gen. Mouraviell said : Gen. Williams, you have made yourself a
After the battle of Evesham and defeat and death of Simon name in history; and posterity will stand amazed at the en- de Montfort, by prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.), 1265, durance, the courage, and the discipline which this siege has Montfort's younger son, Simon, shut himself up in Kenilworth called forth in the remains of an army. Let us arrange a ca
castle, which sustained a siege for six months against the pitulation that will satisfy the demands of war, without dis- royal forces of Henry III., to whom it at length surrendered. gracing humanity." In 1856 the general was made a baronet, Upon this occasion was issued the “ Dictum de Kenilworth," with the title of sir William Fenwick Williams of Kars, and or “ban of Kenilworth,'' enacting that all who had borne granted a pension.
arms against the king should pay him the value of their lands
for periods varying from 7 years to 6 months. The Russians besieging Kars compelled to retire by Mukhtar Pacha..
... about 13 July, 1877 Kennington Common (Surrey). The Chartist Under the grand-duke Michael and Loris Melikoff, de
demonstration, 10 April, 1848, took place on the common. feated 2, 4 Oct.; defeat the Turks at Aladja Dagh (which see).....
14, 15 Oct.
It was directed to be laid out as a public pleasure-ground Kars taken, after 12 hours' fighting, by surprise (it is in 1852. said by treachery)..
.17, 18 Nov. (Killed and wounded: Russian, about 2500; Turkish,
Kensal Green, see Cemeteries. 5000, with loss of 10,000 prisoners, 100 guns, etc.)
Kensington. The palace was purchased by WillKars ceded to Russia by the Berlin treaty .....13 July, 1878 iam III, from lord chancellor Finch, who made the road
Kashgaria, central Asia; subdued by China; an- through its park. The gardens were improved by queens nexed by Keen Lung, 1760; insurrections subdued, 1826 Mary, Anne, and Caroline, who died here. Here died
Mahomed Yakoob Beg, during an insurrection George, prince of Denmark, and George II. ; and here of the Tungani, made himself ruler of Kashgaria, 1866, queen Victoria was born, 24 May, 1819. and sent envoys to London, etc., 1867. He was at length By permission of the government, a military band played attacked by the Chinese, totally defeated, and said to
in Kensington Gardens on Sundays
...Aug. 1855 have been assassinated, 1 May, 1877. The capital, Kash. New parish' church erected by sir Gilbert G. Scott was
Objected to; discontinued.. gar, was taken, and the country regained by China, Nov.; consecrated..
14 May, 1872 and the war closed, Dec. 1877.
New town hall by R. Walker opened by the duchess of
.....7 Aug. 1880 Katharine's Hospital, St., founded about 1148, by Matilda, queen of Stephen, and resounded by Eleanor,
Kent, see Britain and Holy Maid. Odo, bishop of queen of Henry III., 1273. The hospital was removed Bayeux, brother of William the Conqueror, was made to Regent's Park in 1827, the site having been bought earl of Kent, 1067; and Henry Grey was made duke of for 163,0001. by the St. Katharine's Docks Company. The Kent in 1710; he died without male heirs in 1740. brethren are in orders, and restricted from marriage; the Edward, son of George III., was created duke of Kent in sisters are unmarried or widows. A school, attached in 1799 ; was father of queen Victoria, and died 23 Jan. 1829, was enlarged in 1819. New arrangements, recom
1820; see England. mended by a royal commission in 1869, have not yet been “Kent," an East-Indiaman, of 1350 tons burden, left approved by the crown.
the Downs, 19 Feb. 1825, bound for Bombay. In the Bay Order of St. Katharine for nurses instituted by tho
of Biscay she encountered a dreadful storm, 28 Feb. On queen; annual payment 501. for 3 years, badge for life; the next day she accidentally took fire, and all were in first investiture.
.4 June, 1879 expectation of perishing, either by the tempest or the Katzbach (Prussia). Near this river the Prussian flames. The Cambriu, capt. Cook, bound to Vera Cruz, general Blucher defeated the French under MacDonald providentially hove in sight, and nearly all on board and Ney, 26 Aug. 1813. Ile received the title of prince were saved. The Kent blew up, 2 March. of Wahlstatt, the name of a neighboring village.
Kentish Fire, a term given to the continuous Keating's Act, 18 & 19 Vict. c. 67 (1855), relates to cheering common at the Protestant meetings held in bills of exchange.
Kent, 1828 and 1829, with the view of preventing the Keble College (Oxford), founded in memory of passing of the Catholic Relief bill. the rev. John Keble, author of the “Christian Year,"
Kentish Petition to the house of commons, cenborn 25 April, 1792; died 29 March, 1866. The first suring its proceedings, was signed at Maidstone, 29 stone of the building was laid by the archbishop of April, 1701. It gave much offence. Canterbury, 25 April, 1868; the building was dedicated Kentish Town, N.W. London, an old manor, 23 June, 1870; the chapel, the gift of William Gibbs, was church property, originally formed part of the great dedicated and the library opened 25 April, 1876.
forest of Middlesex. Since 1855 building has very Keeper of The King's ConsCIENCE. The early greatly increased, and two railway-stations have been chancellors were priests, and out of their supposed moral erected.
Kentucky, a western state of the United States, ad- | remains the Turks and Tartars had spared, the Russians mitted into the Union 1792. It declared for strict neu- conveyed away for the construction of Sebastopol. trality in the conflict between the North and South in
Kherson, a Russian city on the Dnieper, founded April
, 1861, but was invaded by the Southern troops in 1778. Potemkin, the favorite of Catherine, who died at August. On their refusal to retire, after much corre- Jassy in 1791, is buried here, and John Howard, the spondence, the legislature of Kentucky gave in its ad- English philanthropist, who died here, 20 Jan. 1790, is hesion to the Union, 27 Nov. 1861. In the campaign buried about three miles from the town, where an obethat ensued sharp skirmishes took place, and on 19 Jan. lisk has been erected to his memory by the czar Alex1862, the confederates under Zollicoffer were defeated
ander I. and himself killed at Mill Spring, and in March no confederate soldiers remained in Kentucky; see United
Khiva (formerly Carasmia), in Turkestan, Asia, States.
governed by a kban, Muhammed Rachim. An expedi
tion sent against it by the emperor Nicholas of Russia Keroselene, a new anæsthetic, derived from the in 1839 perished through the rigor of the climate in distillation of cual-tar by Mr. W. B. Merrill, of Boston, 1840. Russian influence is extending. Population : Mass., U. S., was tried and made known early in 1861.
Uzbeks (Turk Tartars), about 100,000; Tadjiks, 100,000; Kertch, formerly Panticapæum, capital of the an- Persians, 40,000; Nomads, etc., 100,000. cient kingdom of Bosporus, late a flourishing town on To obtain redress for many outrages, a Russian expedithe strait of Yenikale, Sea of Azof. It was entered by tion sent to Khiva. ,
Feb. 1873 the allies (English and French), 24 May, 1855; the After several defeats, the town, Khiva, surrendered un
10 June, Russians retired after destroying stores, etc. The place the khan fled, but returned, and became a vassal of the was dismantled by the allies, and most of the inhabi
.5 July, tants removed.
An insurrection against the Russians repressed and pun. ished.
.. Aug. Ket's Rebellion: a revolt in July, 1549, insti- Part of Khiva annexed.
1873-4 gated by William Ket, a tanner, of Wymondham, Nor- The country disturbed by revolts. folk. He demanded the abolition of enclosures and the
Khokand, a khanate in central Asia, subject to dismissal of evil counsellors. The insurgents amounted China about 1760; rebelled and became tributary only, to 20,000 men, but were quickly defeated by the earl of 1812. A rebellion, which broke out in Sept., was supWarwick. More than 2000 fell; Ket and others were pressed Oct. 1874. trieu 26 Nov., and hanged soon after.
War with Russia; gen. Kaufmann defeats about 30,000 Kettle Creek (Georgia) BATTLE At, fought 14
men, 4 Sept.; entered Khokand without resistance, and Feb. 1779. American patriots under Pickens attacked He defeats 5000 more..
the khanate virtually subdued...
16 Sept. 1875
.21 Sept. and routed a tory force under Boyd.
The people expel the new khan.....
.21 Oct Kew (Surrey). The palace was successively occu- The people rise and massacre Russian garrison, an.
Part of Khokand annexed by Russia .. pied by the Capel family and Mr. Molyneux; by Fred
28 Nov. erick, prince of Wales, 1730, and George III. ' Queen Rebels totally defeated at Assako (chiefs submit), 30 Jan. 1876
.....29 Feb. Charlotte died here, 4 Nov. 1818. A new palace erected Khokand formally annexed as Ferghana. by George III., under the direction of Mr. Wyatt, was Khuschk, see Kuschk. pulled down in 1827. The gardens contained a fine col- Khyber Pass (the principal northern entrance into lection of plants, and were decorated with ornamental Afghanistan from India). It is ten miles west of Peshabuildings, most of them erected by sir William Cham- wur, extending about thirty-three miles towards Jellalabers, about 1760.
bad; lying between lofty slate cliffs, varying from 600 BOTANIC GARDENS.
to 1000 feet in height; held by Afreedees and other Mr. Aiton retired from his omice of director, after fifty
warlike tribes, to whom Dost Mahomed formerly paid years' service..
1841 Succeeded by sir William Hooker, at whose recommenda
subsidies, which were discontinued by his son Shere Ali, tion the gardens were opened to the public daily. The ameer of Afghanistan. royal kitchen and forcing gardens incorporated with the botanic gardens. ..
The pass forced by col. Wade, 26 July; and gen, sir John Collections in the Museum of Economic Botany began
Keane retired through it after his victorious campaign...
1839 with the private collection of sir William Hooker, given by him in
Again forced by gen. (afterwards sir George) Pollock, on Under his charge the gardens were greatly improved, and
his way to chastise Cabul for the massacres in the pre
vious winter magnificent conservatories erected.
..5-14 April, 1842 He died 12 Aug. 1865, and was succeeded by his son, Dr.
At Ali Musjid, a fort in the pass, the furtber advance of (now sir) Joseph D. Hooker....
sir Neville Chamberlain on a mission from the viceroy 687,972 (great increase) visitors in.
to the ameer was forbidden, with threats of violence,
1877 The Meteorological Observatory presented to the British
22 Sept. 1875 Association, 1842; purchased by J. P. Gassiot for
The pass held by the British
till March, 1881 10,000., and presented to the Royal Society.
(See Afghanistan.) Great damage done to conservatories and plants by storm
Kidderminster (Worcestershire), renowned for its (cost about 20001.)......
.......23 Aug. 1879
carpet manufactures, established about 1735. Keys. The invention is ascribed to Theodore of made a parliamentary borough again in 1832. The Samos, by Pliny, about 730 B.C.
statue of Richard Baxter, the nonconformist, was unKhedivé, or Kedervi, king or lord, a title given to veiled by Mrs. Philpotts, wife of the bishop of Worcesthe viceroy of Egypt, instead of vali or viceroy, 14 May, ter, 28 July, 1875; an address was delivered by dean 1867.
Stanley: Khelat, see Beloochistan,
Kidnapping Acts (1872 and 1875), passed to Kherson, an ancient Dorian colony (deriving its prevent and punish criminal outrages upon natives of name from Chersonesus, a peninsula), came under the the islands in the Pacific Ocean; see Slavery and Melasway of the great Mithridates about 120 B.C.; and after- nesia. wards of that of Rome, A.D. 30. It continued important, Kiel, chief town of Holstein, a seaport, and a memand its possession was long disputed by the Russians ber of the Hanseatic league in 1300. The university and Greeks. Justinian II. cruelly treated it. It was was founded in 1665. By a treaty between Great taken by Vladimir, grand-duke of Russia in 988, when Britain, Sweden, and Denmark, signed here 14 Jan. he and his army received Christian baptism, and he 1814, Norway was ceded to Sweden; see Norway. An married the emperor's sister Anne, who obtained Kher- extraordinary assembly of the revolted provinces, Schlesson as her dowry. The city was destroyed by the Lithu- wig and Holstein, met here 9 Sept. 1850. By the conanians; and the Turks found it deserted when they vention of Gastein between Austria and Prussia, 14 Aug. took possession of the Crimea in 1475. What ancient 1865, the former was to govern Holstein, but Kiel to be
held by Prussia as a German federal port. This was Wren, was founded by Arthur, earl of Granard, marshalannulled in 1866 by the issue of the war.
general of the army in Ireland, 1675; and the duke of Kilcullen (Kildare). Here a large body of the in- Ormond perfected the plan in 1679. surgent Irish defeated the British forces commanded by Kilmallock (Limerick). An abbey was founded gen. Dundas, 23 May, 1798. The general, in a subsé- here by St. Mochoallog, or Molach, about 645, and an quent engagement, overthrew the rebels near Kilcullen abbey of Dominicans was built in the thirteenth ceubridge, when 300 were slain.
tury.- Ware. A charter was granted to Kilmallock by Kildare (E. Ireland). The Curragh, or race-course, Edward VI., and another by Elizabeth in 1584. The here was once a forest of oaks. Here was the nunnery town was invested by the Irish forces in 1598, but the
There was of St. Bridget, founded by her in the fifth century, and siege was raised by the earl of Ormond. here was a building called the fire-house, where it is much fighting here in 1641 and 1642 ; see Fenians, March,
1867. supposed, the nuns kept the inextinguishable fire which existed till the Reformation. The see was one of the Kilmore (Armagh), an ancient town, whose bishops earliest episcopal foundations in Ireland; St. Conlæth, were sometimes called Brefinienses, from Brefney, and who died 519, the first prelate. The first Protestant sometimes Triburnenses, from Triburna, a village; but, bishop was Thomas Lancaster, in 1550. The see is in 1454, the bishop of Triburna, by assent of pope valued, by an extent returned 39 Hen. VIII., at 691, 118. Nicholas V., erected the parish church of St. Fedlemid 4d. Irish per year. Kildare was united to Dublin in into a cathedral. Florence O'Connacty, the first bishop, 1846; see Dublin. The insurrection in Kildare, which died in 1231. Valued, 15 Jas. I., with Ardagh, at 1001. swelled into the rebellion, commenced 23 May, 1798. On per annum. The joint see of Elphin and Ardagh was that night, lieut. Gifford of Dublin and a number of united to it in 1841. other gentlemen were murdered by insurgents. This Kilsyth (central Scotland). Here Montrose defeatrebellion was quelled in 1799. The Curragh is now a ed the Covenanters, 15 Aug. 1645, and threatened Glasmilitary camp.
gow. Kilfenora (Clare), a bishopric, said to have been Kimberley's Act, see under Crime. founded by St. Fachnan. Cardinal Paparo, in 1152, rendered it a suffragan see to Cashel, but in 1660 it was his successful use of this clay for fuel and gas-making,
Kimmeridge Clay. Rer. H. Moule announced annexed to Tuam, and to Killaloe in 1752.
March, 1874; practicability doubted. Kilkenny (S.E. Ireland), an English settlement
Kinburn, a fort, at the confluence of the rivers Bug about 1170. The castle was built 1195, by Wm. Mar- and Dnieper. Here Suwarrow defeated the Turks, 28 shall, earl of Pembroke. At the parliament held here June, 1788. Kinburn was taken by the English and by Lionel, duke of Clarence, 1367, the statute of Kil, French, 17 Oct. 1855. Three floating French batteries, kenny was passed.* After a siege, the town surrendered said to be the invention of the emperor, on the principle to Cromwell, 28 March, 1650, on honorable terms.
of horizontal shell-firing, were very effective. On the Killala (Mayo) was invaded by a French force, 18th the Russians blew up Oczakoff
, a fort opposite. landing from three frigates, under gen. Humbert, 22
Kinder-garten (children's garden), a system of Aug. 1798. The invaders were joined by the Irish in- education devised by Froebel, but practically carried out surgents, and the battles of Castlebar and Colooney fol- by Mr. and Mrs. Ronge, in Germany, in 1849, and in lowed; and the French were defeated at Ballynamuck, England in 1851. The system, founded mainly on self8 Sept. same year.
tuition, and enliveved by toys, games, and singing, is set Killala (Sligo), an early see. The author of the forth in Ronge’s “ Kinder-garten," published in 1858; Tripartite life of St. Patrick says that “ in 434 he came and has been partially adopted in English schools. The to a pleasant place where the river Muadas (Moy) emp- Froebel Society established 1874. ties itself into the ocean; and on the south banks of the
Kindred, TABLE OF, in the Book of Common Prayer, said river be built a noble church called Kil-Aladh, of was set forth in 1563; see Lev. xviii., 1490 B.C. which he made one of his disciples, Muredach, the first bishop.” The see of Achonry was united to Killala in
Kinematics (Greek kivéw, I move), the science of the seventeenth century; and both were united to Tuam motion. Reuleaux's “Kinematics of Machinery,” transin 1839; see Tuam and Bishops.
lated by A. B. W. Kennedy; published June, 1876.
“Kinematism" is a method of treating certain diseases Killaloe (Clare), a see supposed to have been founded by St. Molua, whose disciple, St. Flannan, son to work” first appeared 1809; new ed. 1876; see Motion.
by movement. Prof. Rankine's "Machinery and Millking Theodoric, consecrated at Rome by John IV, in 639, was also bishop. At the close of the twelfth cen- King: German, König. The Latin, Rex; Scythian, tury, Roscrea was annexed to Killaloe, and Kilsenora Reis ; Spanish, Rey; Italian, Re ; French, Roy; Hebrew, has been held with it. Clonfert and Kilmacduach were Rosch, chief or head. Nimrod was the first founder of a united to them in 1836.
kingdom, 2245 B.C. - Dufresnoy. Misraim built cities in Killiecrankie (a defile in Perthshire). Here the Egypt, and was the first who assumed the title of king forces of William III., commanded by gen. Mackay, were of the king” is set forth in 1 Sam. viii., 1112 B.C. Saul
in that division of the earth, 2188 B.C. The “manner defeated by the adherents of James II. under Graham of Claverhouse, viscount Dundee, who fell in the moment cian states were originally governed by kings; and kings
was the first king of Israel, 1095 B.C. Most of the Greof victory, 17 or 27 July, 1689.
were the first rulers in Rome. Kilmacduach (Galway). This see was held with Clonfert, from 1602. St. Coleman was its first bishop, King of England.
-The style was used by Egbert, 828;
but the title Rex gentis Anglorum, king of the English in the seventh century. It was valued, 29 Eliz., 1586, nation, existed during the heptarchy; see Brilain. at 131. 6s. 8d. per annum. It is united to Killaloe.
The plural phraseology, we, us, our, was first adopted
among English kings by John.. Kilmainham Hospital (Dublin), the noble asy- The title of " king of France" assumed, and the French lum of aged and disabled soldiers in Ireland, built by Pope Leo x. conferred the title of Defender of the
Faith" on Henry VIII..... * It enacted among other things, "that the alliance of the Henry VIII. changed lord of Ireland into king. English by marriage with any Irish, the nurture of infantes, The style “Great Britain” was adopted at the union of and gossipred with the Irish, be deemed high-treason.” And England and Scotland, 6 Anno ....
1707 again, if anie man of English race use an Irish name, Irish That of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire. apparell, or anie other guize or fashion of the Irish, his lands land” at the union, when the royal style and title was shall be seized, and his body imprisoned, till he shall conform appointed to run thus: “Georgius Tertius, Dei Gralia, to English modes and customs." Said never to have been Britanniarum Rex, Fidei Defensor "-"George the enforced.
Third, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of
11 Oct. 1521