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(According to the Almanach de Gotha.)






...... 1677

Anhalt, E.... Population in Dec. 1875 213,689 Frederick, duke..

29 April, 1831.. 22 May, 1871. Argentine Confederation, R.C... 1869 1,877,490 N. Avellaneda, president. .

12 Oct. 1874. Austrian Empire, R.C. (after cession 1866).

Dec. 1875 37,904,435 Francis Joseph, emperor.. 18 Aug. 1830... 2 Dec. 1848. Baden, R.C..

..Dec. 1875 1,507,179 Frederick, grand-duke. 9 Sept. 1826.... 24 April, 1852. Bavaria, R.C. (after cessions 1866)

Dec. 1875
5,022,390 Louis II., king:

25 Aug. 1845... 10 March, 1864. Belgium, R.C..... Dec. 1875 3,403,006 Leopold II., king ..

9 April, 1835... 10 Dec. 1865. Bolivia, R.C... 1850 2,325,000 N. Campero, president.

1 June, 1880. Brazil, R.C... 1876 10,108,291 Pedro II., emperor.

2 Dec. 1825. 7 April, 1831. Brunswick, L.. Dec. 1875 327,493 William, duke..

25 April, 1806.. 20 April, 1831. Bulgaria... 1873 1,965,474 Alexander I., prince.

5 April, 1857. 29 April, 1879. Chili, R.C. 1876 2,136,724 Anibal Pinto, president..

19 Sept. 1876. Chinese Empire (estimated), B., 1877 434,600,000 Kwang-su, emperor.


Jan. 1876. Colombia, state, R.C.. 1880 3,000,000 Aquileo Parra, president..

1 April, 1876. Costa Rica, R.C. 1880 185,000 Thomas Guardia, president.

Oct. 1877. Denmark & colonies, L. (estm.). 1876 2,032,000 Christian IX., king..., S April, 1818. 15 Nov. 1863. Egypt, etc., M. 1874 16,922,000 Mehemed Tewfik, khedive.


8 Aug. 1879. Eqnator, R.C. (estimated). 1,040,400 J. de Veintamilla(?), president..

8 Sept. 1876. France alone, R.C....

1876 36,905,788 Jules Grévy, president.. 15 Aug. 1813.. 30 Jan. 1879. Germany, R.C., L. and E.... Dec. 1875 42, 727,360 William I., emperor.

22 March, 1797. 18 Jan. 1871. Gt. Britain & colonies, P. (estm.) 1877 238, 159,800 Victoria, queen..

24 May, 1819... 20 June, 1837. Greece & Ion. Is., G.C.(estm.)... 1870 1,457,894 George I., king.

24 Dec. 1845... 6 June, 1863. Guatemala, R.C... 1880 1,190,754 Rufinos Barrios, president.

1879. Hayti (estimated). 572,000 Gen. Salomon.

July, 1876. Hesse-Darmstadt, L. 1675 884,218 Louis IV., grand-duke.

12 Sept. 1837.. 13 June, 1877. Holland, not colonies, C....... 1879 4,037,010 William III., king.

19 Feb. 1817... 17 March, 1519. Honduras, R.C.. 1874 351,700 M. A. Soto, president.

29 May, 1877. Italy, R.C. (estimated). Dec. 1976 27,165,553 Humbert I., king

14 March, 1844. 9 Jan. 1878. Japan (estimated). 35 to 40 mil. Montz Hito, mikado


1867. Liberia, P. $80,000 A. W. Gardner, president.

1880. Liechtenstein, R.C.

8,664 John II., prince..

5 Oct. 1840.. 12 Nov. 1858. Lippe, C.. Dec. 1875 112,452 Waldemar, prince..

18 April, 1824.. 8 Dec, 1875. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, L. .Dec. 1875 553,785 Frederic Francis, grand-duke 23 Feb. 1823.. 7 March, 1842. Mecklenburg-Strelitz, L...

1875 95,673 Frederic William, grand-duke.. 17 Oct. 1819.. 6 Sept. 1860. Mexico, R.C. (estimated). 1879 9,636,777 Manuel Gonzales, president.

1 Dec. 1SSO. Monaco, R.C. 1873 5,741 Charles III., prince..

8 Dec. 1818. 20 June, 1856. Montenegro, G.C. (estm.). 1875 170,000 Nicholas I., prince..

7 Oct. 1841. 14 Aug. 1860. Morocco, M.

8,000,000 Muley Hassan, sultan.

25 Sept. 1873. Nicaragua, R.C.. 1875 300,000 Joaquin Zavala, president.

1 March, 1879. Oldenburg, P. (estimated). 1971

314,591 Peter, grand-duke..

8 July, 1827. 27 Feb. 1853. Papal States annexed to Italy.... 1870

Leo XIII., pope..

2 March, 1810.. 20 Feb. 1878. Paraguay, R.C. 1873 221,079 Candido Bareiro, president.

25 Nov. 1878. Persia, M. (estimated). 1877 7,000,000 Nassir-ed-Deen, shah..


10 Sept. 1848. Peru, R.C. (estimated).

2,673,075 N. de Pierola, president.

23 Dec. 1879. Portugal and col., R.C. Dec. 1872 7,618, 729 Luis I., king..

31 Oct. 1838.. 11 Nov. 1861. Prussia, E.... .Dec. 1875 25,742,204 William I., king.

22 March, 1797. 2 Jan. 1861. Reuss, L., 1871 149,360 Henry XXII., prince..

28 March, 1846. 8 Nov. 1859. Roumania (Dan. Prncip.), estm. 1975 4,500,000 Chs. of Hohenzollern, king 20 April, 1839.. 20 April, 1866. Russia, G.C., Poland, etc. (estm.) 1874 85,685,945 Alexander III., czar.

10 March, 1845. 13 March, 1881. Sandwich Islands (Hawaii, etc.). 1861 69,800 Kalakaua I., king..

16 Nov. 1836... 12 Feb. 1874. San Marino, R.C...


7,816 Capitani reggenti San Salvador, R.C..

600,000 R. Zaldivar, president.

May, 1876. Saxe-Altenburg, P..

145,844 Ernest, duke.

16 Sept. 1826.. 3 Aug. 1553. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, L. 1875 152,599 Ernest II., duke.

21 June, 1818 29 Jan. 1944. Saxe-Meiningen, L.... 1875 194,494 George II., duke.

2 April, 1826... 20 Sept. 1866. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, L. 1975 292,933 Chas. Alexander, grand-duke.. 24 June, 1818.. 8 July, 1853. Saxony, P. 1975 2,760,586 Albert, king..

23 April, 1828.. 29 Oct. 1873. Schaumburg-Lippe, L. 1875 33,133 Adolphus, prince..

1 Aug. 1817.. 21 Nov. 1860. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, L.... 1875 76,676 George, prince..

23 Nov, 1838.. 26 Nov. 1869. Schwartzburg-Sondershausen, L. 1575 67,480 Charles, prince..

7 Aug. 1830... 17 July, 1880. Servia, G.C. (estimated)....

....... 1873
1,338,505 Milan IV.

10 June, 1863. Spain and colonies, R.C. (estm.). 1870 25,779,976 Alfonso XII.

28 Nov. 1857... 12 July, 1874. St. Domingo, R.C. (estimated) 136,500 F. A. de Merino

10 Aug. 1854.. 1850. Sweden, Norway, L. (estimated). 1871 6,137,559 Oscar II., king.

21 Jan. 1829

18 Sept. 1872. Switzerland, R.C. and P.... Dec. 1876 2,759,554 E. Marte, president..

4 June, 1577. Turkish Empire, M. (estimated). 1974 47,627,000 Abdul-Hamid II., suitan. 22 Sept. 1842... 31 Ang. 1676. Uruguay, R.C. 1876 450,000 F. S. Vidal, president..

11 March, 1880. Venezuela, R.C.. 1873 1,784,194 A. G. Blanco, president.

1879. Würtemberg, L. 1875 1,891,505 Charles, king.

6 March, 1923.. 25 June, 1864. United States of America, P... 1880

50,155,783 Chester A. Arthur, president... 5 Oct. 1830..... 19 Sept. 1851.

PREDOMINANT Religioxg.-R.C., Roman Catholic; G.C., Greek Church ; P., Protestant; L., Lutheran; E., Evan

gelical Church-a combination of Calvinists and Lutherans ; C., Calvinist or Reformed; M., Mahometan; B., Buddhist.


B.C. 79 . A. D. 305

1131 1142 1200 .1206 ..1296 . 1309 .1439

..1449 25 Oct. 1555 16 Jan. 1556

. 1669 fied 11 Dec. 1688


1730 ..1759 .. 1795


ABE Aargau (Switzerland), formerly included in Berne, | abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, and St. John's, Colcheswas made an independent canton in 1803, and settled as ter, were executed as traitors for denying the king's susuch in 1815. It was much disturbed by religious dis-premacy, probably for not surrendering their abbey's, sensions in 1841; and the expulsion of the Jesuits was 1539; see Glastonbury. demanded in 1844.

Abbot's Ripton, see Railway Accidents, 1876. Abacus, the tile on the capital of a column. That

ABC Club, a name adopted by certain republican on the Corinthian column is ascribed to Callimachus, enthusiasts in Paris, professing to relieve the abaissés, or about 540 B.C.—This name is also given to a frame trav-depressed. Their insurrection, 5 June, 1832, was supersed by stiff wires, on which beads were strung, used pressed with bloodshed, 6 June. These events are defor calculating by the Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. M. scribed by Victor Hugo in “ Les Misérables” (1862). Lalanne published an ABACUS at Paris in 1845.-The multiplication-table has been called the Pythagorean abacus.

Abdications of sovereigus, voluntary or compul

sory, have been numerous : Abancay, a river in Peru, on the banks of which the Spanish marshal Almagro defeated and took prisoner Syla, Roman dictator.

Diocletian, Roman emperor. Alvarado, a partisan of Pizarro, 12 July, 1537.

Stephen II. of Hungary. Abattoirs, slaughter - houses for cattle. In 1810 Albert the Bear of Brandenburg

Lescov V. of Poland... Napoleon decreed that five should be erected near Paris, Uladislaus III. of Poland.. which were opened in 1818. One was erected at Edin- John Balliol of Scotland. burgh in 1851; and they form part of the new London otho (of Bavaria) of Hungary.. metropolitan cattle - market, opened on 13 June, 1855. Pope Felix V...

Eric IX. of Denmark, etc.. Abattoirs were first introduced into America in 1866. Charles V. as emperor.. Abbassides, descendants of Mahomet's uncle, Ab- Christina of Sweden...

as king of Spain..

16 June, 1651 bas-Ben-Abdul-Motalleb. Merwan II., the last of the John Casimir of Poland. Ommiades, was defeated and slain by Abul Abbas in 750, James II. of England. , and became caliph. Thirty - seven Abbasside caliphs Philip V. of Spain (resumed).

Frederick Augustus 11. of Poland..

.1724 (including Haroun al Raschid, 786-809) reigned from Victor Amadeus of Sardinia. 750 to 1258. They settled at Bagdad, built by Al-Man- Charles of Naples.. sour about 762. Their color was black; that of the Stanislaus of Poland..

Charles Emmanuel II. of Sardinia..

4 June, 1802 Fatimites being green, and that of the Ommiades wbite. Francis II. of Germany, who became emperor of AusAbbaye, a military prison near St.-Germain-des

11 Aug. 1801 Prés, Paris, where 164 prisoners were murdered by in- Charles J. of Spain, in favor of his son, 19 March ; in

1 May, 1803 furiated republicans led by Maillard, 2 and 3 Sept. 1792. Joseph Bonaparte of Naples (for Spain).. .1 June, 1803 Abbeville, N. France. Here Henry III. met Louis Louis of Holland.

Gustavus IV. of Sweden...


.1 July, 1810 IX. of France and made peace, renouncing his right to Jerome of Westphalia.. Normandy and other provinces, 20 May, 1259.

Napoleon I. of France..

5 April, 1814 Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.

13 March, 1821 Abbeys, monasteries for men or women; see Mona- Pedro IV. of Portugal..

.2 May, 1826 chism and Convents. The first abbey founded in Eng- Charles X. of France..

..2 Aug. 1830 land was at Bangor in 560; in France, at Poitiers, about Dom Miguel of Portugal (by leaving it).

.7 April, 1831

26 May, 1834 360; in Ireland in the fifth century; in Scotland in the William I. of Holland... sixth century. 110 alien priories were suppressed in Louis Philippe of France.

21 March, 1848 England, 2 Henry V. 1414.-Salmon. The gross disor- Louis Charles of Bavaria..

2 Dec, 1848 ders in these establishments occasioned their destruction Charles Albert of Sardinia.

23 March, 1849 in Britain. After visitations of inquiry, king Henry Leopold II. of Tuscany.

..July, 1859 VIII. commenced the suppression of small monasteries Bernhard of Saxe. Meiningen...

20 Sept. 1866 to raise revenues for Wolsey's colleges at Oxford and Amadeus of Spain....

25 June, 1870

11 Feb. 1873 Ipswich, 7 June, 1525; many small monasteries were suppressed in 1536; and all religious houses were sup

Abecedarians, followers of Storch, an Anabaptist pressed throughout the realm by parliament, 1539-40 in the sixteenth century, derive their name from their 186 large monasteries (revenue 104,9191. 138. 3d.), 347 less rejection of all worldly knowledge, even of the alphabet. monasteries (revenue 33,4791. 138. 7 d.), and 48 houses Abecedarium, a logical machine, constructed by of the knights hospitallers (revenue 2385l. 128. 8d.; total, Mr. William Stanley Jevons, and described in his “ Prinhouses, 608; estimated revenue, 140,7841. 198. 61 d.).—ciples of Science,” 1874. He states that, by means of Tanner. Many abbeys were suppressed in France in symbolic terms, it can perform all the processes of ana1790, in Spain in 1837 and 1868, and in Italy in 1866-73. lytic reasoning with infallible accuracy.

Abbot (from Ab, father), the head of an abbey. In Abelard, a celebrated teacher of theology and logic, England, mitred abbots were lords of parliament; twen- in 1118 fell in love with Heloise, the niece of Fulbert, a ty-seren abbots and two priors thus distinguished, 1329; canon of Paris, became her tutor, and seduced her. After the number reduced to twenty-five, 1396.—Coke. The la compulsory marriage, he placed her temporarily in a


20 Oct. 1813

..8 Oct. 1840 24 Feb. 1848

convent. llaving been cruelly mutilated at the instiga- Aberdeen Peerage Case. Gcorge, earl of Abertion of her relatives, he entered the abbey of St. Denis, deen, grandson of the premier, succeeded his father, 22 from which he was compelled to depart, accused of heresy, March, 1864. After travelling in a yacht, he became a on account of his censuring the dissoluteness of the merchant seaman, and chief mate of the llera; he was mouks. He then built and lectured at the oratory of drowned 27 Jan. 1870. His brother John's claim to the the Paraclete (or Comforter) which eventually he made succession was allowed by the house of lords, 3 May, a convent, with Heloïse for the abbess. He died under 1872. the charge of heresy, 21 April, 1142, and was buried in Aber Edw, S. Radnorshire. Near here Llewelyn, the Paraclete, where also Heloïse was laid, 17 May, 1164. the last independent prince of Wales, was surprised, deTheir ashes were removed to the garden of the Muséum feated, and slain by the lords marchers, 11 Dec. 1282. Français in 1800, and to the cemetery of Père la Chaise

Abergele (N. Wales), see Railway Accidents, 20 in 1817. Their epistles, etc., were published in 1616.

Aug. 1868. Abencerrages, a powerful Moorish tribe of Gra

Aberration of LIGHT; discovered by James Bradnada, opposed to the Zegris. From 1480 to 1492 their ley, through his observation of an apparent motion of quarrels deluged Granada with blood and hastened the

the fixed stars, 1727. fall of the kingdom. They were exterminated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last king, who was dethroned by 11.) to the court party in England, the opponents of the

Abhorrers, a name giren in 1679 (reign of Charles Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492; his dominions were annexed to Castile.

Addressers (afterwards Whigs), so called from their adAbensberg, Bavaria. The Austrians were here de- of the parliament, which was delayed on account of its

dress to the king praying for the imniediate assembly feated by Napoleon I. 20 April, 1809.

being adverse to the court. The former (afterwards Abeokuta, see Dahomey.

Tories) expressed their abhorrence of those who endeavAberdeen (N. Scotland), said to have been founded ored to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1680.llume. in the third century after Christ, and erected into a city The commons expelled several members for being Ab about 893. Old Aberdeen was made a royal burgh in horrers, among them sir Francis Withens (whom they 1154; it was burned by the English in 1336; and soon sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty to remove after New Aberdeen was built. A statue of the prince others from places of trust. They also resolved," that consort was inaugurated by the queen 13 Oct. 1863; and it is the undoubted right of the subject to petition for one of queen Victoria by the prince of Wales, 20 Sept. 1866. the calling of a parliament, and that to traduce such The University was founded by bishop William Elphinstone, petitions as tumultuous and seditious is to contribute to

who had a bull from pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's the design of altering the constitution.” Oct. 1680. college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scotland, in

Abingdon Law. In 1645, lord Esses and Waller 1593; rebuilt in 1837. In 1858 the university and colleges held Abingdon, an ancient abbey town in Berks, against were united. By the reform act of 1868, the universities Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by of Aberdeen and Glasgow send one member to parliament. Above thirty persons drowned by overcrowding a boat, 5 sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by prince Rupert in April, 1876.

1645. On these occasions the defenders put every Irish Malcolm III., having gained a great victory over the prisoner to death without trial; hence the term “ AbingDanes in the year 1010, resolved to found a new Bishop- don law.” ric, in token of his gratitucle for his success, and pitched Abiogenesis (a, not, Bios, life), a term given to upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where St. Beanus was first spontaneous generation by professor Huxley in his Britbishop, 1015. The see, removed to Aberdeen early in the ish Association address, 1870. twelfth century, was discontinued at the revolution, 1689,

Abjuration of the pope was enjoined by statute in and is now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721; the reigns of Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and James I., and see Bishops in Scotland.

of certain doctrines of the church of Rome by stat. 25 Aberdeen Act, introduced by the earl of Aber- Charles II. 1673. The oath of abjuration of the house deen, and passed, 1845, to enforce the observance of of Stuart was enjoin by stat. 13 & 14 Will. III. 1702; convention made with Brazil in 1826 to put down the the form was changed in after-reigns. By 21 & 22 Vict. slave-trade. Repealed in April, 1869.

c. 48 (1858) one oath for the three oaths of abjuration, Aberdeen Administration, called the Coali- allegiance, and supremacy was substituted; see Ouths. tion Ministry, as including Whigs, Radicals, and followers Abkasia, a province of the Caucasus, annexed by of sir R. Peel. Formed in consequence of the resigna- Russia, the last prince (Michael Shervashiji) being detion of the first Derby administration; sworn in, 28 Dec. posed. An insurrection against the Russian authorities, 1852; resigned 30 Jan. 1855; succeeded by the Palmer- 8 Aug. 1866, was quelled with much bloodshed. ston administration, which see.

Abney Park, see Cemeteries.
Earl of Aberdeen,* first lord of the treasury.
Lord Cranworth, lord chancellor.

Abo, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157, was till Earl Granville. president of the council.

1809 capital of Swedish Finland. It has suffered much Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal.

by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; was seized by the Lord John Russell, t foreign secretary. Viscount Palmerston, home secretary.

Russians in Feb. 1808; ceded to them, 17 Sept. 1809; Duke of Newcastle, I colonial and war secretary.

and rebuilt by them after the great fire in 1827. The William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of erchequer.

university, erected by Gustavus Adolphus and Christina, Sir James Graham, first lord of the admiralty. Sir Charles Wood, president of the India board.

1640 et seq., was removed to Helsingfors, 1827. The Edward Cardwell, president of board of trade.

peace of Abo, by which Sweden ceded part of Finland to Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war.

Russia, was signed 18 Aug. 1743.
Sir William Molesworth, chief commissioner of works.
Marquess of Lansdowne (without office).

Abolitionists, the party in the northern part of Viscount Canning, lord Stanley of Alderley, right hon. Edward the United States opposed to slavery. They formed a Strutt, etc.

small society at Boston about 1832, which became the * Born in 1784; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813; be- nucleus of a great political party, and ultimately attained came foreign secretary, Jan. 1828; joined the party of sir R. its object by the war of 1861-5. During the revolution, Peel, 1846; died 14 Dec, 1860.

and when the constitution was made, various societies | Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secretary by were formed for the abolition of slavery. The first of the earl of Clarendon (Feb. 1853), but continued a member of these originated in Philadelphia, 14 April

, 1775, Benjaof the coupeil, in the room of carl Granville, appointed to the min Franklin president. John Jay, and after him Alexduchy of Lancaster (June, 1854).

ander Hamilton, were the first presidents of a second so# In June, 1854. the offices were separated;

the duke of ciety for the same purpose, formed in New York, 25 Jan. Newcastle remained secretary of war, and sir George Grey was 1788. Others followed in different parts of the Union, made colonial secretary.

The meetings, publications, and petitions of these bodies then to imprisonment for fraudulent deception, 15 July, were treated respectfully until the development of cotton- Dr. Tanner, at New York, fasted forty days and nights, drink

1870. planting in the early part of the nineteenth century raised ing a little water occasionally ; losing 36 lbs. from 157} lbs. : the value of slaves. Then began the struggle between noon 28 June to noon 7 Aug. 1880; see Fasts, Teetotalers. the antislavery and proslavery interest, which culmi- Mr. Griscom, of Chicago, said to have fasted thirty-six days, nated in the emancipation proclamation of 1 Jan. 1863.

5 July, 1881. By the 13th article of amendment to the constitution,

Abstinents, an ascetic sect in Gaul and Spain : adopted by congress, 31 Jan. 1867, and proclaimed, after about 288. ratification by the requisite number of state legislatures, Abydos, see tellespont. The tablet of Abydos, ded18 Dec. 1865, slavery was forever prohibited "within the icated to the memory of his ancestors by Pharaoh RameUnited States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” ses II. (1311-1245 B.C.), was bought for the British Mu

Aborigines (without origin), a name given to the seum, 1837. earliest known inhabitants of Italy (whence came the Abyssinia, the country of the Habese, N. E. Africa. Latini); now applied to the original inhabitants of any Its ancient history is very uncertain. The kingdom of country.-The Aborigines Protection Society was estab- the Auxumitæ (its chief town Auxume) flourished in lished in 1838. Reports on the condition of the abori- the first and second centuries after Christ. The religgines in the British colonies were presented to parlia- ion of the Abyssinians is a corrupt form of the Christiment in 1834 and 1837. The society was active in 1874. anity introduced about 329 by Frumentius. About 960,

Aboukir (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. In the Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a great part of the bay Nelson defeated the French fleet, 1 Aug. 1798; see

royal family, and reigned forty years. The young king Nile

. A Turkish army of 15,000 was defeated here by escaped ; and the royal house was restored in 1268 in the 5000 French under Bonaparte, 25 July, 1799. A British person of his descendant Icon Amlac. In the middle expedition to Egypt under general sir Ralph Abercrom- ages it was said to be ruled by Prester John, or Prete by landed here, and Aboukir surrendered to them after Janni. The Portuguese missions, commenced in the fifan obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, 8 teenth century, after much struggling against opposition, March, 1801; see Alexandria,

were expelled about 1633. The encroachments of the

Gallas and intestine disorders soon after broke up the emAbraham, ERA OF, used by Eusebius; so called pire into petty governments. From the visits of James from the patriarch Abraham, who died 1822 B.C. The

Bruce, 1768-73; Henry Salt, 1809-10; Edward Rüppeil, era began 1 Oct. 2016 B.C. To reduce this era to the 1834-7; major Harris, 1841; Mansfield Parkyns, 1844-7, Christian, subtract 2015 years and three months.- much information respecting Abyssinia has been gained. Nicolas.

Several expeditions into Abyssinia have been organized Abraham, HEIGIITS OF, near Quebec, Lower Cana- by the French government. The brothers Antoine and da. The French were defeated and Montcalm, their Arnauld Abbadie visited the country 1837-45. Abyscommander, killed here by general Wolfe, who fell in the sinia was divided into four provinces. In 1847 Ras Ali moment of victory, 13 Sept. 1759; see Quebec.

was ruler of Ambara; Ras Ubie of Tigré and Samien; Abrahamites, a sect holding the errors of Paulus, and Sahela Selassie of Shoa. Population between 3,000,was suppressed by Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch,

000 and 4,000,000. early in the ninth century. A deistical sect of this name Treaty of commerce with the king of Shoa concluded by was banished from Bohemia by Joseph II. in 1783.

captain Harris..

Mr. Plowden (made British consul at Massowah, 1848) Abrantes (Portugal). By a treaty between France

concludes treaty with Ras Ali, ruler of Amhara. 2 Nov. 1849 and Portugal, signed here 29 Sept. 1801, the war was

Ras Ali deposed by his son-in-law Theodore, who is

crowned, and takes the title of negus, or king of kings, closed, and the French army withdrew; a money com

11 Feb. 1855 pensation having been agreed to, and territories in Gui- Protestant missionaries received, replacing Roman Cathana ceded to France.

Mr. Plowden (who had joined the party of Theodoro) killed Absalom's Rebellio nd death (1024–23 B.c.) is by rebels, Feb.; his friend Bell killed soon after, when described 2 Sam. xv.-xix.

avenging him; Theodore overcomes the rebels and

massacres about 150 prisoners as a sacrifice to their Absconding Debtors' Act, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

Captain C. D. Cameron appointed to succeed consul PlowAbsentee Tax (4s. in the pound), levied in Ireland den...

.Nov. 1861 in 1715 on the incomes and pensions of absentees (long He arrived at Massowah 9 Feb., goes to Abyssinia, May; complained of), ceased in 1753. A tax of 2s. in the

received by Theodore, 7 Oct. ; is sent away with a let

ter for the queen, desiring alliance against the Turks; pound was proposed in vain by Mr. Flood in 1773 and

which arrived...

..12 Feb. 1863 by Mr. Molyneux in 1783.

It is decided that this letter is not to be answered; Cam

eron, ordered by earl Russell to remain at Massowah, Absolution. Till the third century, the consent

returns to Abyssinia...

June, of the congregation was necessary to absolution; but Rev. H. Stern, missionary, beaten and imprisoned for al. soon after the power was reserved to the bishop; and in

leged intrusion upon Thcodore... the twelfth century the form “ I absolve thee” had be- Cameron, and all British subjects and missionaries, im.

prisoned for pretended insults, 3 Jan. ; report of imcome general; see Holy Cross.

prisonment reached London, 7 May; prisoners sent to Abstinence. It is said that St. Anthony lived to Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, a Chaldee Christian, first assistant

Magdala, and chained like criminals, .. .. Nov. 1864 the age of 105 on twelve ounces of bread and water daily, British political resident at Aden, sent on mission to and James the hermit to the age of 104; that St. Epi

Abyssinia; arrives at Massowah, 24 July; lieut. Priphanius lived to 115; Simeon the Stylite to 112; and Mr. Rassam having negotiated without effect for a year,

deaux and Dr. Blanc appointed to accompany him.... Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, to 185 years of Mr. Gifford Palgrave is appointed by earl Russell to go to age.-Spottiswood.

Abyssinia. July; but is stopped on the intelligence that

Theodore has invited Rassam to come to him. .12 Aug. 1865 Cicely de Ridgway, said to have fasted forty days rather than Mr. Rassam, lieut. Prideaux, and Dr. Blanc arrive at Ma.

plead when charged with the murder of her husband, John; temma from Massowah, 21 Nov. 1865; and are well redischarged as miraculously saved, 1347.

ceived by Theodore..

.28 Jan. 1866 Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, was Prisoners released, 12 March; all seized and imprisoned said to have lived twenty months without food ; but her

about 13 April, imposture was detected by Dr. A. Henderson, Nov. 1808. Mr. Flad sent to England by Theodore to obtain British A man named Cavanagh at Newry, in Ireland, was reported workmen, April; arrives, July; introduced to queen

to have lived two years without meat or drink, Aug. 1940. Victoria, and receives from her an autograph letter, His imposture was discovered in England, where he was dated... imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841.


Flad returned with workmen to Massowah, 29 Oct.; Sarah Jacobs, the Welsh fasting girl, aged thirteen, said by Theodore received the queen's letter.... about 19 Dec.

her father to have lived for more than a year without food, Lord Stanley's ultimatum to Theodore, demanding release after being closely watched for a week, died from exhaus- of the captives in three months (not received), sent tion 17 Dec. 1869.' Her parents were sentenced at Carmar.

16 April, 1967

16 Nov. 1841




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Mr. Flad received by the king; and made to join his Academical Study, see Education, 1872. family in prison...

May, 1867 Preparations for war; sir Robert Napier appointed com

Academies. Academia was a shady grove witlımander of an expedition; pioneer force sails from Bom- out the walls of Athens (bequeathed by Academus for bay.....

.14 Sept.

gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosoA formal letter from the British government sent to Theodore (never arrived)..

.9 Sept.

phy, and his followers took the title of Academics, 378 Advanced brigade (3500) sail from Bombay, 7, 8 Oct. ; laud B.C. Stanley.-Rome had no academies.* -Ptolemy Soat Zoulla..

21 Oct.

ter is said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, Napier's proclamation issued in Abyssinia. .26 Oct. Captives at Magdala reported well..

.11 Nov.

about 314 B.C. Abderahman I., caliph of Spain, founded Report that the Gallas have joined the revolt against academies about A.n), 773. Theodosius the Younger, Theodore.....

. 25 Nov. Charlemagne, and Alfred are also named as founders of The British parliament meets; the queen's speech announces the war, 19 Nov.; 2,000,0001. voted.26, 27 Nov.

academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies; and Third ultimatum sent by sir R. Napier; intercepted by a Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in Milan. In

rebel chief and given to Mr. Rassam, who suppressed it 1874 Girolamo Ponti, of Milan, bequeathed about 35,0001. as likely to endanger the lives of the captives..

1868 Arrival of sir R. Napier at Annesley bay.. 4 Jan.

to the academies of science of London, Paris, and Vienna. The captives relieved of their chains...... .29 March,

PRINCIPAL ACADEMIES. Sir R. Napier arrives below Magdala..

.2 April, Theodore massacres about 300 native prisoners. .9 April, American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780. Battle of Arogee; Theodore's troops attack the British

American Philosophic Society, 1743; Natural Science, Phila., first brigade; defeated with much slaughter (Good

1818. Friday)...

...10 April,

Amiens, 1750.
Theodore requests Mr. Rassam to mediate; lieut. Prideaux Ancona, of the Caglinosi, 1642.

sent to sir R. Napier returns with a letter; Theodore Angers, Belles-lettres, 1685.
receives it indignantly, and sends an insulting reply,

Basil, 1460. 11 April,

Berlin, Royal, 1700; of Princes, 1703; Architecture, 1799. Theodore sends a letter of apology offering a present of Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687; Mathematics, 1690; Sciences and

cattle; Mr. Rassam, understanding this present to have Arts, 1712.
been accepted, tells the king's agents; the European Bordeaux, Arts, Sciences, and Belles-lettres, 1703.
artisans and families sent to the British camp. 12 April,

Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626.
Part of the Abyssinian troops mutiny; Magdala bom-

Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682. barded and stormed; Theodore kills himself. .13 April, Brussels, Belles lettres, 1773. (" I fail to discover a single point of view from which it Caen, Belles-lettres, 1705.

is possible to regard his removal with regret."-Sir R. Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, 1799. Napier...

18 June.)

Copenhagen, of Sciences, 1743. Magdala burned to the ground..

.17 April,

Cortona, Antiquities, 1726. Death of Theodore's queen..

.10 May,

Dijon, 1740. Henry Dufton of the "Intelligence department” shot by

Dresden, Fine Arts, 1697. Shosho robbers..

. 28 May,

Dublin, Arts, 1742; Painting, Sculpture, etc., 1823. Immediate return of the troops ;- all had embarked Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754.

2 June,

Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612. Troops arrive at Plymouth, 21 June; sir R. Napier at Florence, Belles lettres, 1272; Della Crusca (now united wi Dover....

.2 July,

the Florentine, under that name), 1582; Del Cimento, 1657 (Cattle said to have been employed in the expedition : 45 (by card. de' Medici); Antiquities, 1807.

elephants, 7417 camels, 12, 920 mules and ponies, 7033 Geneva, Medical, 1715.
bullocks, 827 donkeys. Natives largely employed in Genoa, Painting, etc., 1751; Sciences, 1783.
the transport service.)

Gormany, Naturæ Curiosi, now Leopoldine, 1662.
Theodore's son Alamayoú, aged 7, arrives at Plymouth,

Göttingen, 1734-7. 14 July; presented to queen Victoria.... ..16 July,

Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760.
Pension of 3501. to col. Cameron (he died 30 May, 1870); Irish Academy, Royal, Dublin, 1782.

50001. given to Mr. Rassam; 20001. to Dr. Blanc; 2000%. Lisbon, History, 1720; Sciences, 1779.
to lieut. Prideaux; announced..

.23 Dec. London, see Societies. Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1768; Prince Alamayoú sailed to India for education (returned of Music, 1734–44; and 1822. to England end of 1871)...

26 Jan. 1869 Lyons, Sciences, 1710; Physic and Mathematics added, 1758. Expenses of the war : 5,000,0001. voted 18 Dec. 1868; Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713; History, 1730; Painting and 3,300,0001. more voted...

4 March,

the Arts, 1753. (Total: 8,977,5001..

... Feb. 1880] Manheim, Sciences, 1755; Sculpture, 1775. Report of a commission on the expenses of the expedi. Mantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1701. tion disclosed much waste, attributed to urgency and

Marseilles, Belles lettres, 1726. divided authority......

. Aug. 1870 Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. War between Gobazye, king of Amhara, and Kassa, king Milan, Architecture, 1380; Sciences, 1719. of Tigré; Kassa victor.

.21 June, 1871 Montauban, 1744. Gobazye beaten and taken prisoner..

.11 July,

Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759; Sciences, 1779. Kassa proposes to be crowned emperor and negus of all Naples, Rossana, 1540 ; Mathematics, 1560; Sciences, 1695 ;

Abyssinia, 21 Nov.; punishes the Catholic missionaries Herculaneum, 1755.

for partisanship; and forms alliance with Egypt..July National Academy (American) of Sciences, 1863. Kassa crowned at Axum as Johanni II.

12 Jan. 1872 National Academy of Design, New York, 1828. Said to be ruling tyrannically.

..1873-4 New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. War with Egypt; the Khedive's troops enter Abyssinia; Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682.

the natives retire, but surprise and defeat the Egyp- Padua, for Poetry, 1613; Sciences, 1792.
tians at Kherad Iska (a massacre) and at Gonda Goud. Palermo, Medical, 1645.
di (a desperate fight)...

..16 Oct. 1875 Paris, Sorbonne, 1253; Painting, 1391; Music, 1543 and 1672; Abyssinians defeated in three days' conflict.,17–19 Feb. 1876 French (by Richelieu), 1635; Fine Arts, 1648; Inscriptions Col. Gordon said to be negotiating peace for Egypt..June, 1877 et Belles lettres (by Colbert), 1663; Sciences (by Colbert), King Johanni totally defeats Menelek, king of Shoa, 1666; Architecture, 1671; Surgery, 1731; Military, 1751;

middle of June,

Natural Philosophy, 1796. Menelek submits, permitted to rule;—reported great bat. Parma, the Innominati, 1550. tle; Menelek said to be killed..

17 Sept.

Perousa, Insensati, 1561; Filigirti, 1574. Col. Gordon concludes peace; Abyssinia to have a port Philadelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1818.

Oct. 1879 Portsmouth, Naval, 1722; enlarged, 1806. Prince Alamayoú dies at Leeds, 14 Nov., buried at Wind. Rome, Umoristi, 1611; Fantascici, 1625; Infecondi, 1653; Paintsor..

ing, 1665; Arcadi, 1690; English, 1752; Lincei, about 1600; King Johanní, said to have been killed in battle, suc

Nuovi Lincei, 1847. ceeded by his son Michael (?)....

... April, 1881 Rouen, Science and Art, 1737.

Soissons, 1675. Abyssinian Era is reckoned from the creation, St. Petersburg, Sciences, 1725; Military, 1732; the School of which the Abyssinians place in the 5493d year B.C., on Stockholm, of Science, 1741; Belles-lettres, 1753; Agriculture, 29 Aug. old style; their dates consequently exceed ours

1781; Royal Swedish, 1786. by 5492 years, 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian time to Toulon, Military, 1682. the Julian year, subtract 5492 years, 125 days.

Toulouse, Floral Games (Jeux Floraux), 1323; Science, In

scriptions, and Belles lettres, 1782. Acacians. 1. Followers of Acacius, bishop of Cæs- Turin, Sciences, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778. area, in the fourth century, who held peculiar doctrines Turkey, Military School, 1775. respecting the nature of Christ. 2. Partisans of Acacius, United States American Institute of Instruction, 1830; Amerpatriarch of Constantinople, promoter of the Henoticon

* Cicero termed his villa “Academia,'' and here composed (which see), 482-4.

his “Academic Questions."

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