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was prohibited in 1483; but it was used in the court the enemy's ships, and destroyed eight more, thus precostume of Elizabeth's reign. Dresden, Valenciennes, venting a descent upon England. Mechlin, and Brussels have long been famous for their fine lace. An ounce weight of Flanders thread has been 1520, and was long the capital of the Mongol empire.

Lahore (N.W. India) was taken by Baber about frequently sold for four pounds in London; and its value, It fell into the power of the Sikhs in 1798. It was ocwhen manufactured, has been increased to forty pounds, cupied by sir Hugh Gough, 22 Feb. 1846, who in March ten times the price of standard gold. A framework concluded a treaty of peace; see Durbar. Visit of the knitter of Nottingham, named Hammond, is said to prince of Wales, 18 Jan. 1876. have invented a mode of applying his stocking-frame to the manufacture of lace from studying the lace on his

Laing's Nek, see Transvaal, 1881. wife's car, about 1768.- MacCulloch. So many improve- Lake Champlain, a long and narrow body of waments have been made in this manufacture, particularly ter in northern New York, discovered by Champlain, an by Heathcote (1809, 1817, etc.), Morley and Leaver eminent French navigator, in 1609. In the French and (1811, etc.), that a piece of lace which about 1809 cost Indian war, the American war for independence, and 171. may now be had for 7s. (1853).—Ure. The process the last war between the United States and Great Britof “gassing,” by which cotton lace is said to be made ain, this lake became the theatre of important events. equal to fine linen lace, was invented by Samuel Hall of Upon its western shore stood the fortresses of TiconderoBasford, near Nottingham. He died in Nov. 1862. ga and Crown Point, where first the French and English, Seguin's “ La Dentelle; Histoire,” etc., published 1874. and then the English and Americans, contested for do

minion. Lacedæmon, or LACOXIA (Tzakoniu), see Sparta.

On the lake below these fortresses naval en

gagements between British and American ressels, the La Colle Mills, ATTACK on, in Lower Canada, latter under gen. Arnold, took place in 1776. In front not far from Rouse's Point, by 3000 Americans of gen. of Plattsburg British and American vessels had a sharp Wilkinson's division, on 30 March, 1814. The mill was conflict on 11 Sept. 1814, when the latter were victorifortified, and garrisoned by 200 British soldiers under ous; see Battle of Plattsburg, and Butlles, Naval Bottles major Hancock. The Americans lost 16 killed and 122

(United States). wounded, the British loss was 10 killed and 46 wounded.

Lake Dwellings contain relics of the stone, iron, Lacteals (absorbent vessels connected with diges- and brass ages. Herodotus (about 450 B.C.) described tion) were discovered in a dog by Jasper Asellius of the Pæonians as living on platforms in Lake Prasias. Cremona, 1622, and their termination in the thoracic In 1855 Dr. Keller discovered the remains of lake habiduct by Pecquet, 1651 ; see Lymphutics.

tations which had been supported on piles in several Ladocea, in Arcadia. Here Cleomenes III., king Swiss lakes ages ago. His book was published in Engof Sparta, defeated the Achæan League, 226 B.C. land in 1866. The artificial fortified islands termed

Ladrone Isles (N. Pacific), belonging to Spain, “ Crannoges" discovered in some Irish lakes are attribdiscovered by Magellan in 1520. He first touched at uted to the ninth and tenth centuries. They have been the island of Guam. The natives having stolen some frequently used as places of refuge. of his goods, he named the islands the Ladrones, or Lake Erie. On the shores and waters of this lake Thieres. In the seventeenth century they obtained the great historical events have occurred. Once French exname of Marianna islands from thic queen of Spain. peditions sailed to place missionaries and trading-stations

Lady. The masters and mistresses of manor houses, in the West, and military ones at the close of the Indian in former times, served out bread to the poor weekly, war, in connection with the important post of Detroit. and were therefore called Lafords and Lefdays ; signi- Along its shore, from Detroit to Buffalo, were stirring fying bread-givers (from hlof, a loaf): hence Lords and scenes during the last war between the United States Ladies. Wedgewood considers this fanciful, and derives and Great Britain; and near its western end an importhe words from the Anglo-Saxon luford, lord, and hlaf- tant naval engagement took place on 10 Sept. 1813, bediy, lady:-LADY-DAY (March 25), a festival instituted tween an American fleet under commodore Perry and a about 350, according to some authorities, and not before British fleet under commodore Barclay. The Americans the seventh century according to others; see Annunciu- were victorious. Then Perry sent to gen. Harrison his tion. The year, which previously began on this day, noted despatch,“We have met the enemy, and they are was ordered to begin on Jan. 1, in France in 1564; and ours !" See Battles, and Naval Battles (United States). in Scotland, by proclamation, on 17 Dec. 1599; but not Lake Ontario, the most easterly of the chain of in England till 3 Sept. 1752, when the style was altered. great American lakes. Its shores and waters were the

Lady-birds. About 18 Aug. 1869, great flights of scenes of engagements between the Americans and Britthese insects alighted on the southeast coasts of Eng- ish during the last war between the United States and land, and advanced inland as far as London. A similar Great Britain, in 1812-14; see York, Sackett's Harbor, event occurred in 1867.

Oswego, Sandy Creek, Fort Niagaru, and Naral Battles Laffeldt (Holland). Here marshal Saxe defeated (United States). the English, Dutch, and Austrians, 2 July, 1747.

Lake Poets, a term applied to Wordsworth (1770Lagos, in the Bight of Benin (Africa), was assaulted from their residence in the neighborhood of the lakes of

1850), Coleridge (1772-1834), and Southey (1774-1843), and taken by the boats of a British squadron under

Westmoreland. commodore Bruce, 26, 27 Dec. 1851. This affair arose out of breaches of a treaty for the suppression of the

Lake Regillus (Italy), where, tradition states, the slave-trade. In 1861 the place was ceiled to the British Romans defeated the Latin auxiliaries of the expelled government, and created a settlement: Henry Stanhope Tarquins, about 499 B.C. Freeman, first governor; see Gold Coust Colony.

Lamaism, the religion of Mongolia and Thibet Lagos Bay (Portugal). Here was fought a battle (dating about 1357), is a corrupt form of Buddhism between admiral Boscawen and the French admiral De (which see). la Clue, who lost both his legs in the engagement, and Lambeth Palace. A considerable portion was died next day, 17, 18 Aug. 1759. The Centuur and built early in the thirteenth century by Hubert Walter, Modeste were taken, and the Redoutable and Océan ran archbishop of Canterbury. The tower of the church on shore and burned; the scattered remains of the was erected about 1375, and other parts of the edifice in French fleet got into Cadiz.

the tifteenth century. Simon of Sudbury', archbishop of La Hogue (N.W. France), BATTLE OF, 19 May, Canterbury, was killed here by the followers of Wat Ty1692, when the English and Dutch fleets under admirals ler, who attacked the palace, burned the furniture and Russell and Rooke defeated the French fleet commanded books, and destroyed the registers and public papers, 14 by admiral Tourville. The English burned thirteen of June, 1381. The domestic portion of the palace was

1819

greatly enlarged for archbishop Howley (who died 1848) | at various times employed medical men as commissionby Mr. Blore, at an expense of 52,0001. The palace was ers of inquiry. The reports of the Analytical Sanitary reopened after restoration, Oct. 1873; see Canterbury, commission of the Luncet in 1851-4 were published by Articles, and Pan-Anglican Synods. Lambeth bridge Dr. A. H. Hassall, as “ Food and its Adulterations,” in was freed from toll 24 May, 1879.

1855. The Lancet commissioners (three physicians) inLamian War, 323 B.C., between Athens and her quired into the state of work house infirmaries in London, allies (excited by Demosthenes, the orator), and Antip- 1865, and in the country, 1867. ater, governor of Macedon. Antipater fled to Lamia, Land is said to have been let generally in England in Thessaly, and was there besieged. He escaped thence for 1s. per acre, 36 Hen. VIII, 1544. The whole rental and defeated bis adversaries at Cranon, 322 B.C. of the kingdom was about 6,000,0001. in 1600; about

Lammas-day, the 1st of August, one of our four 14,000,0001. in 1688. In 1798 Mr. Pitt proposed his incross quarter-days of the year. Whitsuntide was the come-tax of 10 per cent, on an estimate of 100 millions, first, Lammas the second, Martinmas the third, and taking the rent of land at 50 millions, that of houses at Candlemas the last; and such partition of the year was 10 millions, and the profits of trade at 40 millions ; but once equally common with the present divisions of Lady- in his estimate were exempted much land and the infeday, Midsummer, Michaelmas, and Christmas. Some rior class of houses. The rental of the United Kingdom rents are yet payable at each of these quarterly days in was estimated at 59,500,0001. in 1851. An act for renEngland, and very generally in Scotland. Lammas prob- dering the transfer of land more easy was passed in 1862; ably comes from the Saxon hlammæsse, loaf mass, because see Agriculture, Domesduy (Old and New). formerly upon that day our ancestors offered bread made A species of land-tax was exacted in England in the tenth of new wheat. Anciently, those tenants that held lands Land-banks were proposed by Yarranton in

century, which produced 82,0001. (see Danegelt) in..., 1018

1648 of the cathedral church of Y were by tenure to bring the land tax grew out of a subsidy scheme of 48. in the a lamb alive into church at high-mass.

pound (which produced 500,0001. in 1692) imposed.... 1699

Ministers were left in a minority in the house of comLampeter College (Cardiganshire) was founded

mons on the Land-tax bill in 1767, it being the first by bishop Burgess in 1822, and incorporated 1828. Henry instance of the kind on a money-bill since the Revolu. James Prince, founder of the Agapemone (which see),

tion. Its rate varied in diflerent years from 1s. to 48. was one of the revivalist Lampeter Brotherhood insti- Mr. Pitt made the tax perpetual at 4s. in the pound, but

in the pound. tuted among the students here about 1836.

introduced his plan for its redemption........2 April, 1798 Lamps. The earthen lamp of Epictetus the philos- The tax in 1810 produced 1,418,3371.; in 1820, 1, 338,4202.

in 1830, 1,423,6181.; in 1840, 1,298,6221. ; in 1852, opher sold after his death for 3000 drachmas. Lamps 1,151,6131. ; in year 1872–3, 1,108,225l. ; in 1875-6, with horn sides said to be the invention of Alfred. Lon- 1,090, 1771. From the Revolution to the year 1800, the don streets were first lighted with oil-lamps in 1681, and Land-tax and house-duty (to 31 March), in 1875, 2, 440,

land tax had yielded 227,000,0001. with gas-lamps in 1814. A lamp “constructed to pro- 0001. ; 1876, 2, 496,0001. ; 1877, 2,532,0001.; 1878, 2,670,-. duce neither smoke nor smell, and to give considerably 0001. ; 1979, 1,075,5111. (land-tax only). more light than any lamp hitherto known," was patent- Land Allotments. Lord Braybrooke's successful experi.

ment in Essex of allotting small portions of land to ed by M. Aimé Argand in 1784, and was brought into

poor families to assist them and relieve the parish general use in England early in the present century. poor-rates On his principle are founded the lamps invented by Car- [The little colony was first called Pauper Gardens, cel about 1803, and since 1825 the moderator lamps of

but afterwards New Village, and it is calculated that

2001. per annum were saved to the parish.) Levavasseur, Hadrot, and Neuburger; see Safety-lump. Landed Estates Court, established to facilitate the sale Paraffine oil and naphtha spirit are now much used in and transfer of land in Ireland” (see Encumbered Es

tates act) lamps.

The Land Registry Office for transfer of land opened in Lanark (W. Scotland) was a Roman station, and 1862; reported to be a failure by a commission..Mar. 1870 made a royal burgh 1103.

LAND TENURE REFORM LEAGUE held its first meeting,

John Stuart Mill in the chair ....... ...15 May, 1871 Lancashire was created a county palatine by Ed- Bill to facilitate sale and transfer of land by means of ward III. for his son John of Gaunt, who had married registration brought in by lord chancellor Selborne, 29 the daughter of llenry, first duke of Lancaster, iu 1359, The transfer of land in Scotland facilitated by the Con

April, 1873; by lord chancellor Cairns......26 March, 1874 and succeeded him in 1361. The court of the duchy veyancing act passed....

.7 Aug. chamber of Lancaster was instituted in 1976. On the Agricultural Holding act and Land Transfer act for Engaccession of Henry IV., in 1399, the duchy merged into four bills respecting land introduced by lord chancellor,

land passed

13 Aug. 1875 the crown. Net revenue to the queen in 1866, 29,000l. ;

23 Feb. 1880 total receipts, 42,545l. ; see Cotton.

Owners of Land in England and Wales (exclusive of the Lancaster, supposed to have been the Ad Alau

metropolis), of less than one acre, 703,289; one acre

and more, 269,547. Estimated value, 124,000,0001. ; nam of the Romans. Lancaster was granted by William tithes, estimated, 5,000,0001. I. or II. to Roger de Poitou, who erected a castle upon Land Bill, see Ireland, 1880-1. its hill. It was taken by the Jacobites, Nov. 1715, and Nov. 1743. It was disfranchised for bribery by the Re- by Frederick the Great (see Crédit Foncier), 1763.

Land Credit Company (for Silesia), established form act of 1867. Lancasterian Schools, based on a system of ed

Land League, see under Leagues and Ireland, 1879. ucation by means of mutual instruction, devised by Jo- Landen, or NEERWINDEN (Belgium). Near here seph Lancaster about 1796, were not much patronized the French under marshal Luxembourg defeated the altill about 1808. The system led to the formation of the lies, commanded by William III. of England, chiefly British and Foreign School Society in 1805, whose schools through the cowardice of the Dutch, 19 July (N.s. 29), are unsectarian, and use the Bible as the only means of 1693. The duke of Berwick, illegitimate son of James religious instruction. Lancaster was accidentally killed II., fighting on the side of France, was taken prisoner. at New York in 1838.

Landgrave (from land, and graf, a count), a GerLancastrians, see Roses.

man title, which commenced in 1130 with Louis III. of

Thuringia, and became the title of the house of Hesse Lancers, see Regiments.

about 1263. "Lancet," a weekly medical journal, established and

Landlord, see Rent. edited by Thomas Wakley, surgeon (afterwards coroner for Middlesex and M.P. for Finsbury), first published 3

Landlord and Tenant Act (Ireland), passed 1 Oct. 1823. An injunction obtained by Mr. Abernethy | Aug. 1870. against the publication of his lectures in the Lancet was Landshut (Silesia), where the Prussians were dedissolved by the lord chancellor in 1825. Mr. Wakley feated by the Austrians under marshal Laudohn, 23 died 16 May, 1862. The proprietors of the Lancet have June, 1760.

1858

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Landslips. Landslips are due to decay of the Hellenic (Greek and its dialects). rocks or excessive saturation of the soil by rain.

Wendic (Lettic : Old Prussian; Slavonic dialects—Bohemian,

Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, etc.). Rossberg mountain behind the Rigi slipped down, bury. Teutonic (High - German : Modern German; Low - German :

ing villages and hamlets with above 800 inhabitants.. 1806 Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Dutch, Frisian, English; ScandinaLyme Regis, Dorset, a strip of chalk cliff three fourths vian : Old Norse, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic).

of a mile long, between 100 and 150 feet high, undermined by rain, slid forward on the beach, carrying

II. SEMITIC : Southern-Arabic (including Ethiopic and Amfields, houses, and trees...

.24-27 Dec. 1839

haric); Middle—Hebraic (Hebrew, Samaritan, Phænician Naini or Nynee Tal, a sanitary hill-station in the Hima

inscriptions); Northern-Aramaic (Chaldee, Syriac, Cunei. layas, India, was destroyed by the descent of the

form inscriptions of Babylon and Nineveh). mountain; about 30 valuable British lives (including III. TURANIAN (from Tura, swiftness). major Martin Morphy, col. Fred. Sherwood Taylor, and Northern Division. -Tungusic (Chinese, etc.), Mongolic, Turk capts. F. T. Goodeve, H. S. F. Haynes, and A. Balder.

ic, Samoyedic, and Finnic. ston) and 200 natives perished..

.18 Sept. 1880 Southern Division.—Taic (Siamese, etc.), (Himalayas), Malayic Near Northwich, Cheshire, salt-works stopped,

(Polynesia, etc.), Gangetic, Lonitic (Burmese, etc.), Munda, 6 Dec. et seq.

Tamulic. Landwehr (German for land-defence), the militia of

Langue d'Oc, see Troubadours. Germany, especially of Prussia, which was very effective in the war with Austria in 1866, and in that with France the Roman Gallia Narbonensis; was named Gothia, as

Languedoc (a province, S. France), formed part of in 1870. No ranks in life are exempt from this service, having been held by the Visigoths 409, who were exand many persons in foreign countries returned to serve pelled by the Saracens; in turn driven out by Charles in 1870.

Martel in the eighth century. In the dark ages the Langdale's Act, LORD, 7 Will. IV. & 1 Vict. c. 26 country was named Septimania (probably from its con(1837), relates to copy holds, etc.

taining seven important towns): afterwards Languedoc Langensalza (N. Germany). Here the Hanoverian/ (from its dialect, see Troubadours), about 1270, when anarmy, on its way to join the Bavarians, was attacked by nexed to the monarchy. It suffered during the persecuthe Prussians, who were defeated, with the loss of about tions of the Albigenses and Huguenots. a thousand killed and wounded and 912 prisoners, 27 Lansdown, near Bath (Somersetshire). The parJune, 1866. The victory was of little avail, for the liamentary army under sir William Waller was here deHanoverians were soon surrounded by Falckenstein, and feated, 5 July, 1643. compelled to capitulate on honorable terms on 29 June.

Lanterns of scraped horn were invented in England, Langobardi, see Lombards.

it is said, by Alfred; and it is supposed that horn was Langside (S. Scotland), where the forces of the re- used for window lights also, as glass was not generally gent of Scotland, the earl of Murray, defeated the army known, 872–901.-Stow, London was lighted by susof Mary queen of Scots, 13 May, 1568. Mary fled to pended lanterns with glass sides, 1415. England and crossed the Solway Frith, landing at Work- Lanthanum, a rare metal discovered in the oxide ington, in Cumberland, 16 May. Soon afterwards she of cerium by Mosander in 1839. was imprisoned by Elizabeth.

Laocoön, an exquisite work of Grecian art, in marLanguage must either have been revealed originally ble, modelled by Agesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus, from heaven, or is the fruit of human invention. The all of Rhodes, and other eminent statuaries (about A.D. latter opinion is embraced by Horace, Lucretius, Cicero, 70); it represents the death of the Trojan hero Laocoon, and most of the Greek and Roman writers; the former priest of Neptune, and his two sons, as described by Virby the Jews and Christians, and many modern philoso- gil.-Æneid, ii. 200. It was discovered in 1506 in the phers. Some suppose Hebrew to have been the language Sette Salle near Rome, and purchased by pope Julius II. spoken by Adam; others say that the Hebrew, Chaldee, It is now in the Vatican. and Arabic are only dialects of the original tongue. Laodicea, see Seven Churches. “ And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech” (Gen. xi. 1).* George I. in 1724, and George

Laon (N. France). A succession of actions between II. in 1736, appointed regius professors of modern lan- the allies (chiefly the Prussians) and the French was guages and of history to each of the universities of Eng-defeat of the latter with great loss

, 9, 10 March, 1814.

fought under the walls of the town, which ended in the land.

Laon surrendered to the Germans, 9 Sept. 1870. As the The original European languages were thirteen, viz. : Greek, last man of the garde mobile left the citadel, a French

Latin, German, Slavonian, spoken in the east; Welsh; Biscayan, spoken in Spain; Irish; Albanian, in the mountains soldier, in contravention of the capitulation, blew up the of Epirus; Tartarian; the old Illyrian; the Jazygian, re- powder-magazine, causing great destruction to the town maining yet in Liburnia; the Chaucin, in the north of Hun and fortress. The grand-duke William of Mecklenburg

gary; and the Finnic, in east Friesland. From the Latin sprang the Italian, French, Spanish, and Por- Schwerin was bruised, and 95 German riflemen and 300 tuguese.

French gardes mobiles were killed or wounded; gen. The Turkish is a mixed dialect of the Tartarian.

Theremin du Hame, the commander, was wounded. The From the Teutonic sprang the present German, Danish, Swed. French attributed the explosion to accident.

ish, Norwegian, English, Scotch, etc. There are 3424 known languag or rather dialects, in the of these, 937 are Asiatic; 587 European; 276 Afri- tion of which was a highly important advance in sur

Laparo-elytrotomy, an operation, the introduccan; and 1624 American languages and dialects. - Adelung. In 1861 and 1862 professor Max Müller lectured on the “Sci: gery, was devised and performed by Dr. T. G. Thomas,

ence of Language” at the Royal Institution, London. He of New York, in 1870. Dr. A. T. C. Skene, of Brookdivides languages into three families :

lyn, N. Y., first successfully performed the operation, I. ARYAN (in Sanskrit, noble).

Oct. 1875. Southern Division.-India (Prakrit and Pali; Sanskrit; dialects of India; Gipsy).

La Perouse's Voyage. In 1785 La Perouse Iranic (Parsi; Armenian, etc.).

sailed from France for the Pacific, with the Boussole and Northern Division. -Celtic (Cymric: Cornish, Welsh, Manx, Astrolabe under his command, and was last heard of from

Gaelic, Breton, etc.).
Italic (Oscan; Latin; 'Umbrian—Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Botany Bay, in March, 1788. Several expeditions were
French, etc.).

subsequently despatched in search of Perouse ; but no Illyric (Albanian).

certain information was obtained until capt, Dillon, of

the East India ship Research, ascertained that the French * Eminent Linguists. --Anas Montanus, editor of the Ant. ships had been cast away on the New Hebrides, authen. werp Polyglot Bible (1527-98); sir William Jones (1746–91); cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti

' (1774-1849) is said to have ticated by articles which he brought to Calcutta, 9 April, known 114 languages or dialects, and 50 well; and Nicbuhr 1828. (1776-1831) knew 20 languages in 1807, and more afterwards; Hans Conon von der Gabelentz knew many languages criti.

Lapland, or SAMELAND (N. Europe), nominally subcally: he died 3 Sept. 1874, aged nearly 67.

ject to Norway in the thirteenth century, and now to

world.

408

Sweden and Russia. Several Laplanders were exhibited | Suetonius ...... about 120 | Ammianus Marcellinus.. 390

Juvenal...

128 Claudian at the Westminster Aquarium, Nov. 1877.

Aulus Gellius. . flourished 169 Macrobius

415 174 Boethius..

524 La Plata, see Argentine Republic, and Wrecks, 1874. Apuleius.

(See Fathers of the Church.) Larceny (French, lurcin; Latin, latrocinium), see Theft.

Latin Union, that of France, Italy, Belgium, and Larentalia, see Laurentalia.

Switzerland, to maintain the use of the same coinage,

from 1865 to 1880. Largs (Ayrshire, S. Scotland). Here the great expedition of Haco of Norway was finally defeated by prehend persons to be brought before the king's bench

Latitat, an ancient writ directing the sheriff to apAlexander III. after a succession of skirmishes, 3 Oct.

court, had its name from its being supposed that the per1263.

son was lying hid, and could not be found in the county La Rothière (France). Here the French, com- to be taken by bill. The writ was abolished by the Unimanded by Napoleon, defeated the Prussian and Russian formity of Process act, 23 May, 1832. armies, with great loss, after a desperate engagement, 1

Latitude. First determined by Hipparchus of Nice, Feb. 1814. This was one of Napoleon's last victories.

about 162 B.C. It is the extent of the earth or the heavLaryngoscope, an instrument consisting of a con- ens, reckoned from the equator to either pole. Maupercave mirror, by which light is thrown upon a small tuis, in 1737, in latitude 66.20, measured a degree of latplane mirror placed in the posterior part of the cavity itude, and made it 69.493 miles. Swanberg, in 1803, of the mouth. By its means the vocal chords of the in- made it 69.292. At the equator, in 1744, four astronoterior of the larynx, etc., are exhibited, and have been mers made it 68.732; and Lambton, in latitude 12, made photographed. It was invented by Mr. Manuel Garcia, it 61.743. Mudge, in England, made it 69.148. Cassini, and reported to the Royal Society 24 May, 1855. One in France, in 1718 and 1740, made it 69.12; and Biot, constructed by Dr. Türck was greatly modified, in 1857, 68.769; while a recent measurement in Spain makes it by Dr. Czermak, who exhibited its successful action in but 68.63_less than at the equator, and contradicts all London in 1862. A similar apparatus is said to have others, proving the earth to be a prolate spheroid (which been constructed by Mr. John Avery, a surgeon in Lon- was the opinion of Cassini, Bernoulli, Euler, and others), don, in 1846.

instead of an oblate spheroid; see Longitude. La Salette, see Pilgrimages.

Latitudinarians, a name given to certain theoLateran, a church at Rome, dedicated to St. John, logians who endeavored to reconcile the church and non"the mother of all the churches," was originally a palace conformists in the seventeenth century-such as Hales, of the Laterani, a Roman family, and was given to the Chillingworth, Tillotson, and Burnet. bishops of Rome by Constantine, and inhabited by them

Latium, now CAMPANIA (Italy), the country of Latill their removal to the Vatican in 1377. Eleven coun- tinus, king of Janiculum, 1240 B.C. Laurentum was the cils have been held there.

capital of the country in the reign of Latinus, Lavinium Latham House (Lancashire) was heroically de- in that of Æneas, and Alba in that of Ascanius; see Italy fended for three months against the parliamentarians by and Rome. Charlotte, countess of Derby. She was relieved by prince The Latins ally with Rome..

..about B.C, 520 Rupert, 27 May, 1644. The house was, however, surren- Join Porsenna to restore Tarquin II.. dered 4 Dec. 1645, and dismantled.

Defeated by Romans near Lake Regillus

League with the Romans, 463; desert them in trouble, Lathe. The invention is ascribed to Talus, a grand- 388; union restored son of Dedalus, about 1240 B.C. Pliny ascribes it to Defeated in war, 340, 339, subdued and incorporated with

338 Theodore of Samos, about 600 B.C. Great improvements

Obtain Roman citizenship.... have been made in recent times. Latin Kingdom, EMPIRE, etc., see Latium, East

La Trappe, see Trappists. ern Empire, 1204, and Jerusalem.

Latter-day Saints, see Mormons. Latin Language (founded on the Oscan, Etruscan,

Laudanum, see Opium. and Greek), one of the original languages of Europe, Lauenburg, a duchy, N. Germany; was conquered and from which sprang the Italian, French, and Spanish, from the Wends by Henry the Lion of Saxony about see Latium. A large portion of our language is derived 1152; ceded to Hanover, 1689, incorporated with the from the Latin. It ceased to be spoken in Italy about French empire, 1810; ceded to Denmark, 1815; annexed 581; and was first taught in England by Adelmus, brother by Prussia, 14 Aug. 1865; possession taken 15 Sept. folof Ina, in the seventh century. The use of Latin in law lowing; see Gastein. Population in 1855, 50,147. deeds in England gave way to the common topgue about

Laufach, Bavaria (S.W. Germany), was taken by 1000; was revived in the reign of Henry II.; and again the Prussians under Wrangel, on 13 July, 1866, after a was replaced by English in the reign of Henry III. It sharp action, in which the Hessians were defeated, the was finally discontinued in religious worship in 1558, and Prussian needle-gun being very efficacious. in conveyancing and in courts of law in 1731 (by 4 Geo. II. c. 25). A corrupt Latin is still spoken in Roumelia.

Laundry, London and Provincial Steam Laundry, The foreign pronunciation of Latin (a, ah; e, a; i, e, etc.) Battersea, erected by a company; opened in 1880. was adopted in English universities and many schools Laureate, see Poet Laureate. about 1875-6.

Laurel was sacred to Apollo, god of poetry; and from

the earliest times the poets and generals of armies, when Died

Died victors, were crowned with laurel. Petrarch was crowned Plautus.

.B.C. 18+ Celsus ....flourished A.D. Ennius 169 Livy..

with laurel, 8 April, 1341.-The Prunus laurocerasus was flourished 166 Ovid..

18 brought to Britain from the Levant before 1629; the Cato the Elder 149 Paterculus..

21 Portugal laurel, Prunus Lusitanica, before 1648; the royal Lucilius

bay, Laurus Indica, from Madeira, 1665; the Alexandrian Lucretins. Julius Cæsar.

Seneca

65 laurel, Ruscus racemosus, from Spain, before 1713; the Cicero.. 43 Pliny the Elder

79 glaucous laurel, Laurus aggregata, from China, 1806 or Catullus.

40 Quintilian...... flourished 80 1821. Sallust

Valerius Flaccus Vitruvius... flourished 27 Pliny the Younger 100 Laurentalia were festivals celebrated at Rome in Propertius..

26 Statius..... ..about 100 honor of Acca Laurentia, or Larentia, said to have been Virgil..

19 Tacitus, .flourished 100 Tibullus 18 Silius Italicus...

either the nurse of Romulus and Remus, or a rich dissoHorace

Martial...

flourished 104 lute woman who bequeathed her property to the Roman

... 508

..498 or 496

359

Rome.....

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PRINCIPAL LATIN WRITERS.

17 18

Terence

103 Persius.
52

Lucan
44

62 65

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81

101

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people. The festival commenced about 621 B.C., and dowed by bequest of Dr. William Whewell, master of

Trinity College....

1867 was held on the last day of April and the 23d of Decem

Law Times established..

..8 April, 1843 ber.

Law Journal..

.Jan. 1866 Laurium Mines, see Greece, 1872.

The establishment of a legal university strongly advo

cated by the lord chancellor and others.. Jan. 1871 Laurustinus, Viburnum Tinus, an evergreen shrub, The council of legal education put forth a scheme involv. was brought to England from the south of Europe before

ing many changes.

Nov. 1872 Legal Practitioners' Society established..

Nov. 1873 1596.

(See Barrister, Counsel.) Lausanne, capital of the canton of Vaud, Switzer

LAW REFORM. land. Here Gibbon completed his “Decline and Fall," LAW AMENDMENT SOCIETY founded in 1843. It holds meet. 27 June, 1787. The International Workmen's Congress ings during the session of parliament, and publishes a jour

nal and reports.

Its first chairman was lord Brougham, assembled here Sept. 1867.

who introduced the subject of Law Reform by a most eloLa Valetta, see Malta.

quent speech in the house of commons, on 7 Feb. 1828.

Many acts for law reform have been passed since, and Lavalette's Escape. Count Lavalette, for join- vigorous measures proposed. ing the emperor Napoleon on his return in 1815, was Royal commission to inquire into the operation and constitucondemned to death, but escaped from prison in the

tion of the English courts of law, etc., issued 18 Sept. 1867.

The Judicature Commission (appointed 1867) recommended the clothes of his wife, 20 Dec. 1815. Sir Robert Wilson, consolidation of all the superior courts into one supreme Mr. Michael Bruce, and capt. J. H. Hutchinson, aiding court divided into chambers, April, 1869. It issued its linh the escape, were sentenced to three months' imprison- The High Court of Justice bill, introduced into the house of

. ment in the French capital, 24 April, 1816. Laralette

lords, 18 March, 1870, was dropped near the end of the was permitted to return to France in 1820, and died in session. retirement in 1830.

Royal Commission on the administrative departments of

Courts of Justice (lord Lisgar and others) appointed 4 Oct. La Vendée (W. France). The French royalists 1873. of La Vendée took arms in March, 1793, and were suc- Supreme Court of Judicature bill introduced by lord chan. cessful in a number of hard-fought battles with the re

cellor Selborne for establishing a High Court of Justice, and

a High Court of Appeal, 13 Feb. ; passed 5 Aug. 1873. publicans, between 12 July, 1793, and 1 Jan. 1794, when Its operation deferred from 2 Nov. 1874 to 1 Nov. 1875. they, experienced a severe reverse. Their leader, Henri | The abolition of the house of lords as an Appeal Court comte de La Rochejaquelein, was killed, 4 March, 1794. A rescinded, 1875.

(See Supreme Court for details.) short peace was made at La Jaunay, 17 Feb. 1795. The

Law Courts. - Commissioners appointed in 1859 reported in war was terminated by gen. Hoche in 1796, and a treaty favor of the concentration of the law courts in London on of peace was signed at Luçon, 17 Jan. 1800; see Chouans. a site near Carey street, Chancery lane, about 7 acres, on

which stood about 400 houses. The estimated expense was Lavender, Lavandula spica, brought from the south about 1,500,0001., which it was recommended to take froin of Europe before 1568.

the accumulated Chancery fund, termed “Suitors' fund."

Acts of parliament to carry out the plan were passed in 1865 Law, see Canons, Codes, Common-lar, Civil Law, and 1866. Crime, Digest, Supreme Court, The Jewish law was Competitive designs were invited, and, after much discussion given by God, and promulgated by Moses, 1491 B.C.

(public and professional), Mr. Street's design was selected,

30 May, 1868; much attacked, but approved by the commis. The laws of Phoroneus, in the kingdom of Argos (1807

sion, Aug. 1870; contracts signed 17 Feb. 1874, and the works B.C ), were the first Attic laws; they were reduced to a

were begun immediately by Bull & Son, to be finished in system by Draco, for the Athenians, 623 B.C. ; whose

1881. code was superseded by that of Solon, 594 B.C.

There are to be 18 courts, varying in size; a central hall, 231 The Spartan laws of Lycurgus were made about 844 B.C.; feet long, 48 feet wide, 30 feet high; principal entrance in they remained in full force for about 700 years, and

the Strand. formed a race totally different from all others living Offices in Eastern Block occupied 21 April, 1879. in civilized society.

Law Reports. -A new and more economical plan of preparing The Roman laws of Servius Tullius, 566 B.C., were amend

and publishing law reports was finally adopted by a comed by the Twelve Tables, published in 449 B.C., and re

mittee of barristers on 11 March, 1865 (see Year-books). mained in force till Justinian, nearly a thousand years. LAW TERMS--(see Terms), abolished by Supreme Court of Judi.

cature act, 5 Aug. 1873. BRITISH LAWS.

International Law, see Neutral Powers. The British laws of earliest date were translated into Expenditure for law and justice from the public purse exthe Saxon in ...

...A. D.

590 clusive of county rates, in the year 1865–6, 2,344,540L. Saxon laws of Ina published...

.about 690 Courts of Justice : salaries, etc., one year (to 31 March, 1877), Alfred's code of laws, the foundation of the common-law

631,7911. of England, is said to have been arranged. ......about 886 Edward the Confessor collected the laws.

Law's Bubble. John Law of Edinburgh (born

.1050-65 Stephen's charter of general liberties.

1136 1681) was made comptroller-general of the finances of Henry II.'s confirmation of it...

.1154 and 1175 France, upon the strength of a scheme for establishing a The maritime laws of Richard I. (see Oleron).

1195 Magna Charta, by king John, 1215; confirmed by Henry

bank, and an East India and a Mississippi company, by III., 1216 et seq. ; see Magna Charta and Forests the profits of which the national debt of France was to Charter.

be paid off; see Mississippi. He tirst offered his plan to Lord Mansfield, lord chief justice of the King's Bench, declared “that no fiction of law shall ever so far prevail

Victor Amadeus, king of Sardinia, who told him he was against the real truth of the fact as to prevent the ex- not powerful enough to ruin himself. The French ininecution of justice''.

..21 May, 1784 istry accepted it; and in 1716 he opened a bank in his Many legal technicalities were got rid of by 14 & 15 Vict.

own name, under the protection of the duke of Orleans, c. 100.

The act for the improvement of the adminis. tration of criminal justice passed.

... 7 Aug. 1851 regent of France, and the deluded rich subscribed for

shares both in the bank and the companies. In 1718 LAWYERS.

Law's was declared a royal bank, and the shares rose to Pleaders of the bar, or barristers, are said to have been first appointed by Edward I.

1291 upwards of twenty-fold the original value; so that in "No man of the law" to sit in parliament, by stat. of 46 1719 they were worth more than eighty times the Edw III, and 6 Hen. IV...

1372 amount of all the current specie in France. In 1720 This prohibition was declared to be invalid by Coke and

this fabric of false credit fell to the ground, spreading unconstitutional by Blackstone; attention was drawn

to it in July, 1871; and the statutes were repealed.... 1871 ruin throughout the country. Law died in poverty at Sergeants, the highest members of the bar, were alone Venice in 1729. The South Sea Bubble in England ocpermitted to plead in the court of common pleas. The first king's counsel under the degree of sergeant was

curred in 1720; see South Sea. sir Francis Bacon, in...

1604 Layamon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, a poet. Law Association charity for widows founded in. 1817 ical semi-Saxon paraphrase of the Brut of Wace, made Incorporated Law Society formed in 1823; plan enlarged, 1825; a charter obtained, 1831; renewed, 1845. The

between 1100 and 1230, was published with a literal building in Chancery lane, from the designs of Vulli- translation by sir Frederick Madden in 1847. amy, was commenced in.

1829 Juridical Society established in...

Laybach (near Trieste, in Illyria). A congress met

1855 A professorship of international law, at Cambridge, en- here in Jan. 1821, and was attended by the sorereigns

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