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Mineralogy and Mines. Strabo and Tacitus to the British by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was enumerate gold and silver as among the products of retaken by the Spanish and French in July, 1756, and Britain. The earliest instance of a claim to a mine royal admiral Byng fell a victim to public indignation for not being enforced occurs 47 Hen. III. 1262. It related to relieving it; see Byng. It was restored to the British mines containing gold, together with copper, in Devon- at the peace in 1763 ; taken 5 Feb. 1782; again captured shire, In Edward I.'s reign, according to Mr. Ruding, by the British under gen. Stuart, without the loss of a the mines in Ireland, which produced silver, were sup- man, 15 Nov. 1798; given up at the peace of Amiens, 25 posed to be so rich that the king directed a writ for March, 1802. working them to Robert de Ufford, lord justice, 1276. Minorities. In the new Reform bill, passed 15 The lead-mines of Cardiganshire, from which silver has Aug. 1867, provision was made for the representation of ever since been extracted, were discovered by sir Hugh minorities in constituencies with three members by limMiddleton in the reign of James I. ; see Coal, and the iting each elector to two votes. It was introduced as an various metals.

amendment by lord Cairns, in the lords, 30 July, and acThe study of mineralogy was advanced by Becker, cepted by the commons, Aug. 1867. The principle was Kircher, and Woodward in the seventeenth century.

adopted in a new constitution by the state of Illinois, A British Mineralogical Society established in.. Haüy's " Traité de Minéralogie” appeared in.... 1801 U. S., July, 1870. Mining Journal established.

29 Aug. 1835 The government School of Mines, etc., Jermyn street, St.

Minster, or MONASTERIUM, a place occupied by James's, opened in...

.Nov. 1851 monks; see Westminster and York.
An act for the regulation of mines passed in.
A Miners' Protection Association proposed by Mr. Will-

Minstrels, originally pipers appointed by lords of iam Gurney and others in...

. March, 1862 manors to divert their copyholders while at work, owed Value of the total mineral produce of the United King. their origin to the gleemen or harpers of the Saxons,

dom estimated at 29, 155, 701l, in 1854; 31,680,5811. in and continued till about 1560. John of Gaunt erected a 1859; 40,310,9311. in 1865; 40,345,9451. in 1866; 41,5217051. in 1868; 46,094,6001. in 1870; 69,041, 1581. in 1873;

court of minstrels at Tutbury in 1380. So late as the 64,421,3221, in 1879.

reign of Henry VIII, they intruded without ceremony James D. Dana's "System of Mineralogy,” 5th edition, 1868 into all companies, even at the houses of the nobility ; Miners' conference, for amelioration of their condition, held at Merthyr-Tydvil; well conducted; Mr. Halliday

but in Elizabeth's reign they were adjudged rogues and president...

...Oct. 1871 vagabonds (1597). Metalliferous Mines Regulation act passed.. 10 Aug. 1872 The Amalgamated Association of Miners, begun in Lan

Mint. Athelstan enacted regulations for the govcashire about 1869, held a conference at Newport, 1872;

ernment of the mint about 928. There were several at Bristol....

...8 Oct. 1873 provincial mints under the control of that of London. Mineralogical Society of Great Britain held first meeting in London, 3 Feb. 1876; fourth..

a Henry I. is said to bave instituted a mint at Winchester,

.22 Aug. 1879 Another society termed itself h, k, I, Miller's symbol 1125. Stow says the mint was kept by Italians, the for the face of a crystal...

1876 English being ignorant of the art of coining, 7 Edw. I. A miners' national conference on wages; opened at Bir

1278. The operators were formed into a corporation by mingham..

. 20 April, 1881

the charter of king Edward III., in which condition it Minerva, see Athens and Parthenon.

consisted of the warden, master, comptroller, assay-mas

The first entry Minié Rifle, invented at Vincennes, about 1833, by ter, workers, coiners, and subordinates. M. Minié (born 1810). From a common soldier' he of gold brought to the mint for coinage occurs in 18 raised himself to the rank of chef d'escadron. His rifle, Edw. III. 1343. Tin was coined by Charles II. 1684 ; considered to surpass all made previous to it, was adopt- his abdication. Sir Isaac Newton was warden, 1699–

and gun-metal and pewter by his successor, James, after ed by the French, and, with modifications, by the British, 1727, during which time the debased coin was called in, 1852; see Fire-arms.

and new issued at the loss of the government. Between Minims (from minimi, the least), an order of monks, 1806 and 1810, grants amounting to 262,0001. were made founded by San Francisco di Paolo, in Calabria, received by parliament for the erection of the present mint, which their name, as professing themselves inferior to the Min- was completed in 1810; it was injured by tire 31 Oct. orites (from minor, less); see Franciscans. St. Francis 1815. The new constitution of the mint, founded on the died in France in 1507, where he had established houses report of the hon. Wellesley Pole, took effect in 1817. of his order.

Prof. Thomas Graham, the master of the mint, died 16 Minister of War, see War Minister,

Sept. 1869. By the Coinage act, passed 4 April, 1870,

the office was combined with that of the chancellor of the Ministers, see Administrations.

exchequer, the duties being transferred to the deputyMinisters, in Scotland: church patronage was abol- master (Mr. C. W. Freemantle), see Coinage. ished in 1874. Minnesingers, lyric German poets of the twelfth 1817. Wellesley Pole. 1835. Henry Labonchere.

1823. Thomas Wallace.

1841. William E. Gladstone. and thirteenth centuries, who sang of love and war to

18:27. George Tierney

1815. Sir George Clerk. entertain knights and barons of the time.—The Meister- 18:28. J. C. Herries.

1846. Richard L. Sheil. singers, their successors, an incorporated fraternity in 1830. Lord Auckland. 1850. Sir John F. Herschel,

FRS. the fourteenth century, composed satirical ballads for 1834. James Abercrombie.

1835. Alexander Baring. 1855. Thomas Graham, F R.S. the amusement of the citizens and lower classes. Hans Sachs, a shoemaker (1494-1576), a poet of the Reforma- Mint oF THE UNITED STATES was established by tion, was for a time their dean. His works were pub- act of congress in April, 1792, and began to coin money lished at Nuremberg, 1560. “Owleglass” and “ Reynard the next year. The total coinage of the United States the Fox” are attributed to the Meistersingers.

mint from its establishment to 1881, inclusive, has been : Minnesota, a western state of the United States,


$1,211,837, 186.00 Silver

319,983,403.65 was organized as a territory, 3 March, 1819, and admitted

Minor coins.

13,688,277.00 into the Union in 1857. On 17 Aug. 1862, the Sioux

(See Coinage.) Indians commenced a series of outrages at Acton, des

Minuet, a French dance, said to have been first olating the country and massacring above 500 persons, danced by Louis XIV., 1653. of both sexes and of all ages. Gen. Sibley beat the Indians in two battles and rescued many captives. Thirty

Minus, see Plus. eight Indians were executed as assassins,

Miracle Plays, see under Drumu. Minorca and Majorca, the Balearic Isles (which

Miridites, or MIRDITES, see Turkey, 1877. see). Port Mahon in Minorca was captured by lieut.- Mirrors. In ancient times mirrors were made of gen. Stanhope and sir John Leake in 1708, and was ceded / metal; those of the Jewish women of brass. Mirrors


of silver were introduced by Praxiteles, 328 B.C. Mirrors siege. Here Lord Byron died, 19 April, 1824. It was or looking-glasses were made at Venice, A.D. 1300; and surrendered to the Greeks in 1829. in England, at Lambeth, near London, in 1673. The

Missouri, one of the United States. Was a part improvements in manufacturing plate-glass, and that of of the vast territory of Louisiana, and included in its very large size, bave cheapened looking-glasses very purchase from the French in 1803. St. Louis settled by much. Various methods of coating glass by a solution the French in 1764. Only a sort of trading-post until of silver, thus avoiding the use of mercury, so injurious 1804, when the territorial government was formed. Adto the health of the workmen, have been made known; mitted into the Union in 1821. It decided on neutrality by M. Petitjean in 1851; by M. Cimeg in 1861, and by in the conflict of 1861, but was invaded by both the conLiebig and others.

federate and federal forces in June of that year, and beMischna, see Talmud.

came one of the seats of war. Population, 1880, 2,168,Miserere (Psalm li.), s

,sung at Rome in the" Tenebrce," 804. Capital, Jefferson City. the service in Holy or Passion Week, in a peculiarly Missouri Compromise. During the session of effective manner, to old music. One arrangement is by congress in 1818-19, a bill was introduced into congress Costanzo Festa, dated 1517.

which contained a provision forbidding the introduction Missal, or Mass-BOOK, the Romanist ritual compiled of slavery or involuntary servitude into the new state by pope Gelasius I., 492-6; revised by Gregory I., 590- of Missouri, when admitted. This brought out violent 604. Various missals were in use till the Roman missal debates upon the subject of slavery. The whole country was adopted by the council of Trent, 1545-63. The mis- was greatly agitated by it. Finally a compromise was sal was superseded in England by the Book of Common effected (28 Feb. 1821) by an agreement that slavery Prayer, 1549.

should be allowed in Missouri, and in all territory west Missionary Bishops, see under Bishops.

of it, south of 36° 30' N. lat., and prohibited in all ter

ritory north of this line. This act was virtually reMissionary Ridge (Tennessee), BATTLE AT, 25 pealed in 1854 by the act erecting the territories of NeNov. 1863; see Chattanooga.

braska and Kansas, Missions,* see Mark xvi, 15. Among the Roman

“Mistletoe," see Wrecks. ists, the religious orders of St. Dominic, St. Francis, St. Augustin, etc., have missions to the Levant and to

Mithridate, a medical preparation in the form of an America. Marco Polo is said to have introduced mis- electuary, supposed to be an antidote to poison, and the sionaries into China, 1275. The Jesuits have missions oldest compound known, is said to have been invented to China (which see) and to most other parts of the world. by Mithridates, king of Pontus, about 70 B.C. Among the Protestants, an early undertaking of this kind Mithridatic War, caused by the massacre of 80,was a Danish mission, planned by Frederick IV. in 1706. 000 Romans by Mithridates VI., king of Pontus, 88 B.C., The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign and remarkable for its duration, its many sanguinary Parts was established 1701, and the Moravian Brethren battles, and the cruelties of its commanders. Mithridates encouraged missions about 1732. The London Mission- having taken the consul Aquilius, made him ride on an ary Society held their first meeting, 4 Nov. 1794. Most ass through a great part of Asia, crying out as he rode, Christian sects now support missions. British Contribu- I am Aquilius, consul of the Romans." He is said to tions to Foreign Missions: 1871, 855,742l.; 1877, 1,100,- have killed him by causing melted gold to be poured 7931. (in 1871-7, 6,977,5861.).

down his throat, in derision of his avarice, 85 B.C. MithCommander Allan Gardner, R. N., who left England in the ridates was defeated by Pompey, 66 B.C.; and committed

Ocean Queen in Sept. 1850, on the l'atagonian mission, with suicide, 63 B.C.
Mr. Williams, surgeon, Mr. Maidment, catechist, and four
others, died on Picton Island, at the mouth of the Beagle

Mitrailleuse, or MITRAILLEUR, a machine-gun in Channel, to the south of Tierra del Fuego, having been which 37 or more large-bored rities are combined with starved to death; all his companions having previously per- breech-action, by means of which a shower of bullets may

ished, 6 Sept 1851. M. Schoftler, a missionary to Cochin China, was publicly ex

be rapidly projected by one man. It was invented in ecuted at Son Tay, by order of the grand mandarin, for Belgium, and adopted by the French emperor soon after preaching Christianity, such preaching being prohibited by the Prusso-Austrian war in 1866, and was much used in ihe law of that country, 4 May, 1851.

the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. Its peculiar “dry, Mississippi, a great river, North America, explored shrieking, terrible sound" was described in the bombardby De Soto about 1541. The Mississippi trade was be- ment of Saarbrück, 2 Aug. 1870. Modifications of the gun in England, in Nov. 1716. Law's Mississippi scheme mitrailleuse have been made by Montigny and others. in France, commenced about the same period, exploded The Fosbery mitrailleuse was tried and approved at in 1720; at which time the nominal capital is said to Shoeburyness, 11 Aug. 1870. It is mentioned in Grose's have amounted to 100,000,0001. The ruin of thousands Military Antiquities (1801) that in England, in 1625, a soon followed; see Law's Bubble.

patent was granted to William Drummond for a machine Mississippi, one of the United States. First set- composed of a number of muskets joined together, by the tled by the French at Natchez, and claimed as a part of help of which two soldiers can oppose a hundred, and Louisiana, 1716. Colony attacked by the Natchez lo- named, on account of its effect, "thunder carriage," or, dians. Indians almost annihilated by the French in more usually, “ fire carriage." An English mitrailleuse, 1730. Ceded to Great Britain in 1763. Erected into

a moditication of the American Gatling, containing 50 territory (including Alabama) in 1812. Admitted into cartridges, was tried at Woolwich, 18 Jan. 1872; 50 of the Union in 1817. Adopted ordinance of secession 9 them were ordered to be made by Armstrong. Jan. 1861. Ordinance repealed by constitutional con- Mitre. The cleft cap or mitre was worn by the vention, 21 Aug. 1865. Readmitted to the Union by act Jewish high-priest, 1491 B.C. It had on it a golden of congress, 23 Feb. 1870. Population, 1880, 1,131,592. plate inscribed “HOLINESS TO THE LORD” (Exod. Capital, Jackson.

xxxix. 28.). The most ancient mitre that has the nearest Missolonghi, a town in Greece, taken from the resemblance to the present one is that upon the seal of Turks, 1 Nov. 1821, and heroically and successfully de- the bishop of Laon, in the tenth century.Fosbroke. fended against the Turks by Marco Bozzaris, Oct. 1822- Anciently the cardinals wore mitres; but at the council 27 Jan. 1823. It was taken 22 April, 1826, after a long of Lyons, in 1245, they were directed to wear bats.

Mitylene, or LESBOS, Egean Sea. Near here the * Missions, “a series of sermons, generally by a “mis. Greeks defeated and nearly destroyed the Turkish fleet, sioner,' or special preacher, often followed by confessions and 7 Oct. 1824. communions” (a species of revivalism), were authorized in the metropolis by the bishops of Loudon, Winchester, and

Mnemonics, artificial memory, was introduced by Rochester, held 1869 and since.

Simonides the younger, 477 B.C.- Arundelian Marbles.



"Mnemonica” was published by John Willis in 1618; | with the voting by universal suffrage, was annexed to and the “Memoria Techvica" of Dr. Grey first appeared Sardinia on 18 March, 1860. Population in 1857, in 1730. A system of mnemonics was announced in 604,512. Germany in 1806–7; and others since.

1814. Francis IV. An invasion of his states by Murat was Moabites, descendants of Lot, a people living to

defeated 11 April, 1815. He was expelled by his sub. the southeast of Judæa. They were frequently at war jects in 1831, but was restored by the Austrians.

His with the Israelites, and were subdued with divine help 1846. Francis V. (born 1 June, 1819) succeeded 21 Jan.

subjects rose against him soon after the Italian war by Ehud about 1336, by David about 1040, and by

broke out, in April, 1859. He fled to Verona, estab. Jehoshaphat, 895 B.C., but often harassed the Jews in

lished a regency 11 June, which was abolished 13 the decay of their monarchy. The discovery of a stone June; Farina was appointed dictator, 27 July; a conwith inscription in Phænician characters, said to relate

stituent assembly was immediately elected, which

offered the duchy to the king of Sardinia, 15 Sept., to Mesha, king of Moab, referred to in 2 Kings iii., was who incorporated it with his dominions, 18 March, announced in Jan. 1870, and impressions were exhibited

1860. Francis died 20 Nov. 1875. soon after, which caused much discussion among Orien

Moderados. A political party in Spain, long talists.

headed by Ramon Maria Narvaez, duke of Valencia Mobile, Alabama. The city is situated at the south-(who died 23 April, 1868), who opposed the Progresistas, west corner of the state, at the mouth of Mobile river, headed by Espartero and Prim. The party was reinand with a harbor on the Gulf. After the capture of forced by the favorers of Don Carlos, after his total deVicksburg in 1863, an attack on this city was contem- feat in 1876. plated, but was given up, the Red river campaign be

Modoc Indians (a few hundreds), dwelling in ing strongly urged by the United States government. lands south of Oregon, were removed to other lands by Admiral Farragnt attacked Forts Morgan and Gaines, the United States government. Not obtaining sub5 Aug. 1861. On that day Fort Powell was blown up; sistence, they returned to their old possessions, and their on the 8th, Fort Gaines was surrendered with its garri- able leader, captain Jack, defeated the troops sent to exson, and Fort Morgan was occupied on the 23d. After pel them, 17 Jan. 1873. During negotiations for a peacepassing the forts on the 5th, Farragut captured the con- ful settlement, they decoyed the United States commisfederate ram Tennessee. The result of this brief naval sioners into an ambush (il April), and massacred general campaign was the possession of Mobile bay by the na- Canby and commissioner Thomas. Fighting took place, tional forces. Alter Hood's defeat at Nashville (Dec. 15, 16 April, and the Indians retreated to almost impreg1864), military operations against Mobile were com- nable positions. The troops were tired on, and suffered menced. On 25 March, gen. Canby had the 13th and much loss, 27 April. The Indians were gradually sur16th corps (under Gordon Granger and A. J. Smith) at

rounded. Jack and about twenty warriors held out Danley's

, on Fish river, east of Mobile. The siege of desperately. Some surrendered, and he himself was Spanish Fort was commenced on the 27th: A week captured, i June; tried, July, and executed 3 Oct. 1873. before this, gen. Steele, with an army which he had landed at Pensacola, marched northward against Mont

Mosia (now Bosnia, Servia, and Bulgaria) was

It was success. gomery, and, returning near the close of the month, finally subdued by Augustus, 29 B.C. joined the besieging army around Mobile. Spanish fully invaded by the Goths, A.D. 250, who eventually Fort was evacuated by the confederates on 8 April

, and settled here ; see Goths. occupied by the national troops. The next day Fort Moguls, see Tartary. Blakely was assaulted and captured, and Mobile was

Mohacz (Lower Hungary). Here Louis, king of evacuated (11, 12 April). This was the last campaign Hungary, defeated by the Turks under Solyman II. with of the civil war. Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered on the loss of 22,000 men, was suffocated by the fall of his 4 May. The population of Mobile decreased from horse in a muddy brook, 29 Aug. 1526. Here also prince 32,034 in 1870 to 31,205 in 1880. Mobile and Memphis Charles of Lorraine deseated the Turks, 12 Aug. 1687. are the only American cities which did not increase in

Mohammerah, a Persian town near the Euphrates, population during that decade.

captured, after two hours' cannonading, by sir James Möckern (Prussia). Here the French army under Outram, during the Persian war, 26 March, 1857. News Eugène Beauharnais was defeated by the Prussians of the peace arrived 4 April. under Yorck, 5 April, 1813; and here Blucher defeated

Mohilow (Russia). Here the Russian army, under the French, 16 Oct. 1813.

prince Bagration, was signally defeated by the French Models. The first were figures of living persons, under Marshal Davoust, prince of Eckmühl, 23 July, and Dibutades, the Corinthian, is the reputed inventor

1812. of those in clay. His daughter, being about to be separated from her lover, traced his profile by his shadow on

Mohocks, ruffians who went about London at the wall; her father filled up the outline with clay, night wounding and distiguring the men and indecently which he afterwards baked, and thus produced a figure exposing the women. One hundred pounds were offered of the object of her affection, giving rise to an art till by royal proclamation in 1712 for apprehending any then unknown, about 985 B.C.

one of them.-Northouck. A beautiful model of the new town of Edinburgh, before the

Mohurrum, a Mahometan festival in honor of the building began, was formed in wood.

prophet's nephews: at its celebration in Bombay, Feb. A model was made of a bridge over the Neva, of incommon 1874, the Mahometans fiercely attacked the Parsees, and

strength as well as elegance; and of the mountains of Switzerland, by general Pfiffer (1766-85).

were quelled by the military. M. Chofliu's model of Paris also was remarkable for its pre- Moldavia, see Danubian Principalities, Fine inodels of Gibraltar, Quebec, and other fortified places Molinists, a Roman Catholic sect, followers of Louis are deposited in the Rotunda at Woolwich.

Molina, a Jesuit, born 1535. He maintained the reconModena (formerly Mutina), capital of the late cilability of the doctrines of predestination and freeduchy in Central Italy, was governed by the house of will, 1588. Este from 1288 till 1796, when the last male of that

Molly Maguire, a secret society in mining dishouse, the reigning duke Hercules III., was expelled by tricts, United States (which see), 1877. the French. By the treaty of Campo Formio, the

Molokani, a sect in West Russia, said to date from Modenese possessions were incorporated with the Cisalpine republic , 1797, and with the kingdom of Italy, 1805. doctrines and practices ; well described by Mr. D. Mac

the sixteenth century, who maintain primitire Christian The archduke Francis of Este, son of the archduke kenzie Wallace in his “ Russia," published 1877. Ferdinand of Austria, and of Mary, the heiress of the last duke, was restored in 1814. Modena, in accordance Moluccas, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean (the


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chief island Amboyna), discovered by the Portuguese pasteboard by the Hollanders so late as 1574; see Coin,
about 1511, and held by them secretly until the arrival Gold, Copper, Mint, Banks, etc. For Money -orders,
of the Spaniards, who claimed them, till 1529, when see Post-office. The czar Nicholas struck coins in plat-
Charles V. yielded them to John III. for a large sum of inum. A monetary conference was held at Paris (dur.
money. The Dutch conquered them in 1607, and have ing the international exhibition), Aug. 1878.
held them ever since--except from 1810 to 1814, when

Moneyers travelled with our early kings, and cointhey were subject to the English.

ed money as required; see Mint, Molwitz (in Prussian Silesia). Here the Prussians,

Mongols, see Tartary. commanded by Frederick II., obtained a great victory

Moniteur Universel, a French newspaper, was over the imperialists, 10 April (0. s. 30 March), 1741.

established in Paris by C. J. Panckoucke, 5 May, 1789; Molybdenum, a whitish, brittle, almost infusible daily paper, 24 Nov. 1789; the organ of the government, metal. Scheele, in 1778, discovered molybdic acid in a 28 Dec. 1799. It was superseded by the Journal Officiel, mineral hitherto confounded with graphite. Hjelm, 1 Jan. 1869; resumed its official position about 23 Sept. 1782, prepared the metal from molybdic acid ; and in 1870; and was again superseded by the Journal Officiel, 1825 Berzelius described most of its chemical characters. Feb. 1871. It became the organ of MacMahon's govern-Gmelin.

ment in 1875. Monachism (from the Greek jóvoc, alone). Catho

Monitor Ships, see L'nited States. The American lic writers refer to the prophet Elijah, and the Nazarites monitor Miantonomah arrived at Plymouth in Juve, mentioned in Numb. vi., as early examples. The 1866, and excited much attention. first Christian ascetics appear to be derived from the

Monitorial System (in education ), in which Jewish sect of the Essenes, whose life was very austere, pupils are employed as teachers, was used by Dr. Bell practising celibacy, etc. About the time of Constantine in the Orphan Asylum at Madras in 1795, and was also (306–22) numbers of these ascetics withdrew into the deserts, and were called hermits, monks, and anchorets, * adopted by Joseph Lancaster in London; see Educution. of whom Paul, Anthony, and Pachomius were most

Monk, see Monachism. celebrated. Simeon, the founder of the Stylitæ (or pil- Monmouth, BATTLE OF. Sir Henry Clinton, at lar saints), died 451. He is said to have lived on a pil- the head of the British army, lest Philadelphia for New lar thirty years. St. Benedict, the great reformer of York on 18 June, 1778, with 11,000 men and an immense western monachism, published his rules and established baggage and provision train. Washington pursued him, his monastery at Monte Casino, about 529. The Car- harassed him much in New Jersey, and engaged in batthusians, Cistercians, etc., are varieties of Benedictines. tle with him near Monmouth Court-house on 28 June, In 964, by decree of king Edgar, all married priests were 1778. The battle lasted all day. It was exceedingly ineffectually ordered to be replaced by monks. Relig- sultry weather, and more than 50 American soldiers died ious orders expelled from France, by decree, 29 March, of exhaustion. Night closed the conflict. Both armies 1880. See Abbeys and Benedictines.

slept upon their arms until towards midnight, when Monaco, a principality, N. Italy, held by the Gen- Clinton, with his whole force, stole off in the dark, to oese family Grimaldi since 968. By treaty on 2 Feb. avoid another engagement in the morning, and escaped, 1861, the prince ceded the communes of Roquebrune and leaving a large number of sick and wounded behind. Mentone, the chief part of his dominions, to France for The Americans lost 228 of their men; less than 70 were 4,000,000 francs. The present prince, Charles III., born 8 killed. The British left about 300 dead on the field. Dec. 1818, succeeded his father. Florestan, 20 June, 1856.

Monmouth's Rebellion. James, duke of MonHeir: Albert, born 13 Nov. 1818. A commercial con- mouth (born at Rotterdam, 9 April, 1649), a natural son vention between the prince and France, signed 9 Nov. of Charles II. by Lucy Waters, was banished England 1865, was much discussed as tending towards the aboli- for his connection with the Rye-house plot, in 1683. He tion of the French navigation laws. Population, 1878, invaded England at Lyme, 11 June, 1685; was pro7049. Petitions against Monte Carlo, the great gaming claimed king at Taunton, 20 June; was defeated at establishment, Dec. 1880.

Sedgmoor, near Bridgewater, 6 July; and beheaded on
Monarchy. Historians reckon various grand mon-

Tower bill, 15 July.
archies—the Chaldæan, Assyrian, Babylonian, Median, Monochord, a box of thin wood, with a bridge,
Persian, Grecian, Parthian, and Roman (which see). over which is stretched a wire or chord, said to have
Monasteries, see Abbeys.

been invented by Pythagoras, about 600 B.C. Moncontour (near Poitiers, France). Here the

Monolith, Greek for “ single stone;" see Obelisk. admiral Coligny and the French Protestants were de- Monophysites, see Eutychians. feated with great loss by the duke of Anjou (afterwards Monopolies were formerly so numerous in EngHenry III.), 3 Oct. 1569.

land that parliament petitioned against them, and many Moncrieff System, see Cannon.

were abolished, about 1601-2. They were further supMonday Concerts, see under Music.

pressed by 21 Jas. I. 1624. Sir Giles Mompesson and

sir Francis Mitchell were punished for their abuse of Mondovi (Piedmont). Here the Sardinian army, monopolies, 1621. In 1630, Charles I. established monopcommanded by Colli, was defeated by Napoleon Bona- olies of soap, salt, leather, and other common things, to parte, 22 April, 1796.

supply a revenue without the help of parliament. It Monetary Conferences. InTERNATIONAL, open- was decreed that none should be in future created by ed at Paris, 16 Aug. 1878; and 19 April, 1881.

royal patent, 16 Chas. I. 1610. Money is mentioned as a medium of commerce in Monothelites, heretics who affirmed that Jesus Gen. xxiii., 1860 B.C., when Abraham purchased a field Christ had but one will, were favored by the emperor as a sepulchre for Sarah. The coinage of money is as- Heraclius, 630; they merged into the Eutychians (which cribed to the Lydians. Moneta was the name given to see). their silver by the Romans, it having been coined in the Monroe Doctrine, a term applied to the detertemple of Juno Moneta, 269 B.C. Money was made of mination expressed by James Monroe, president of the different metals, and even of leather and other articles, United States, in his message to the congress, 2 Dec. both in ancient and modern times. It was made of 1823, not to permit any European power to interfere

with the concerns of any independent states of North or * The anchorites of the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth South America, or to acquire dominion on the continent. centuries must not be confounded with the anachorets and This doctrine was referred to in 1859, with the view of anchorets, or hermits. The former were confined to solitary cells; the latter permitted to go where they pleased. weakening the influence of Great Britain and Spain on

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sect, 204,

the American continent, and, in 1865, in relation to the at Podgoritza; 21 Montenegrins said to be killed by

The scheme of M. de Lesseps Threatened war prevented by intervention of the great

.20 Oct. 1874 new Mexican empire. for cutting a canal across the isthmus of Panama, and

powers; each nation to punish culprits .. ..Jan. 1875 securing its neutrality by a joint international guaranty, Some rioters executed...

15 May, led to much discussion of the Monroe doctrine in 1879, '80, Montenegro with difficulty restrained from intervention

in Herzegovina... and '81. The doctrine has been repeatedly reaffirmed as the prince declared war and joined the Servians, 2 July, 1876

.autumn and winter, the settled policy of the people and government of the (See Turkey and Russo-Turkish War, 1876–8.) United States. It has been emphasized, 1881, in state Declared independent of Turkey by treaty of San Stefano,

3 March; (with new boundaries, and Antivari for a papers by Mr. Blaine, secretary of state under president

seaport) by the Berlin treaty.... ......13 July, 1878 Garfield.

Podgoritza surrendered by Turkey.

....7 Feb. 1879

After much resistance by the Albanians, and negotiation Mont Blanc, in the Swiss Alps, is the highest

with Turkey, Gussinge surrendered.

..... April, 1880 mountain in Europe, being 15,781 feet above the level of the sea.

The summit was first reached by Saussure, aided by a guide named Balma, on 2 Aug. 1787. The 1851. Daniel, born 25 May, 1826; assassinated, 13 Aug. 1860. summit was attained by Dr. Hamel (when three of his 1860. Nicolas, or Nikita (nephew), born 7 Oct. 1841; married

princess Milena, 8 Nov. 1860. guides perished) in 1820, and by many other persons be- Heir : Danilo, born 30 June, 1871. fore and since, Accounts of the ascents of Mr. John Auldjo, Charles Fellows (1827), and of professor Tyndall

Montenotte, a village in Piedmont, memorable as (1857–8), have been published; see Alps. 57 ascents being the site of the first victory gained over the Aus

trians by Napoleon Bonaparte, 12 April, 1796. reported in 1873. Mont Cenis, see Alps.

Montereau (near Paris). On the bridge of Monte

reau, at his meeting with the dauphin, John the Fear. Montalembert's Trial, see France, 1858.

less, duke of Burgundy, was killed by Tanneguy de Montanists, followers of Montanus of Ardaba, in Châtel in 1419. This event led to our Henry V. subduMysia, about 171, who was reputed to have the gift of ing France, the young duke Philip joining the English. prophecy, and proclaimed himself the Comforter prom- Here the allied armies were defeated by the French, ised by Christ. He condemned second marriages as commanded by Napoleon, with great loss in killed and fornication, permitted the dissolution of marriage, for- wounded; but it was one of his last triumphs, 18 Feb. bade avoiding martyrdom, and ordered a severe fast of 1814. three lents; he hanged himself with Maximilla, one of

Monterey (Mexico), was taken by gen. Taylor after his female scholars, before the close of the second cen- a three days' conflict with the Mexicans, 21-24 Sept. tury.-Cave. The eloquent father Tertullian joined the 1816.

Montevideo (South America) was taken by storm Monte Carlo, see Monaco.

by the British forces under sir Samuel Auchmuty, but Monte Casino (Central Italy). Here Benedict with the loss of nearly one third of our brave troops, 3 formed his first monastery, 529. After affording a Feb. 1807. It was evacuated 7 July the same year, in refuge for many eminent persons, its monastic character consequence of the severe repulse the British met with was abolished by the Italian government in 1866, care at Buenos Ayres; see Buenos Ayres. Montevideo, a being taken for the preservation of its historical and subject of dispute between Brazil and Buenos Ayres, was literary monuments.

given up to Uruguay, 1828. For recent war, see Brazil Montebello, in Piedmont, where Lannes defeated

and Uruguay. the Austrians, 9 June, 1800, and acquired his title of Montferrat (Lombardy), House of, celebrated in duke of Montebello; and where, after a contest, of six the history of the Crusades, began with Alderan, who hours, the French and Sardinians defeated the Austri- was made marquess of Montferrat, by Otho, about 967. ans, who lost about 1000 killed and wounded, and 200 Conrad of Montferrat became lord of Tyre, and reigned prisoners, 20 May, 1859. The French lost about 670 men, from 1187 till 1191, when he was assassinated. William including gen. Beuret.

IV. died in a cage at Alexandria, having been thus imMontem, see Eton.

prisoned nineteen months, 1292. Violante, daughter of Montenegro, an independent principality in Euro- John II., married Andronicus Palæologus, emperor of the pean Turkey, was conquered by Solyman 11. in 1526. It East. Their descendants ruled in Italy amid perpetual rebelled early in the eighteenth century, and established contests till 1533, when John George Palæologus died an hereditary hierarchical government in the family of tion, to Frederick II., Gonzaga, marquess of Mantua, in

without issue. His estates passed, after much contenPetrovitsch Njegosch-permitted, but not recognized, by 1536, and next to the duke of Savoy. the Porte. Its independence was declared by the treaty of Berlin, 13 July, 1878. Population, in 1877, about Montgomery, capital of Alabama, U. S., founded 170,000. Capital, Céttinje.

1817. Here the state convention passed the ordi

mance of secession from the Union on 11 Jan. 1861; here The nephew and successor of the Vladika, Peter II., declined to assume the ecclesiastical function, and de.

the confederate congress met on 4 Feb. and elected clared himself a temporal prince, with the title of Jefferson Davis president, and Alexander II. Stephens

Daniel I., 1851; and began war with Turkey.. 1852 vice-president, of the Confederate States of North Amer-
Montenegro put in a state of blockade..... 14 Dec.
After indecisive encounters, tranquillity restored by the

ica; and here they were inaugurated on 18 Feb. On influence of the arms and negotiations of Omar Pacha, 21 May the congress adjourned to meet on 20 July at the general of the Turkish army; he left the province, Richmond, in Virginia, that state having joined the con

25 Feb. 1853 federates and become the seat of war. Blockade raised..

..10 April, War again broke out; the Turks defeated at Grahovo,

Monti di Pietà, charitable institutions for adJune; peace restored.

Nov. 1858 The country much disturbed through the tyrannical con.

vancing money on pledges, were first established at duct of prince Daniel, who was assassinated (aged 35), Perugia, Florence, Mantua, and other Italian cities, 1462

13 Aug. 1860 et seq. The Franciscans, in 1493, began to receive Succeeded by his nephew Nicolas, or Nikita (married),

interest, which was permitted by the pope in 1515.

8 Nov. An insurrection in the Herzegovina, favored by the - Monts-de-piété, established in France 1777, were sup

Montenegrins; the blockade of Montenegro ...4 April, 1861 pressed by the Revolution, but restored 1804; regulated Omar Pacha invaded the province with an army of 32,

by law, 1851-2; see Pawnbroking. 000 men in..

.. Aug. Many conflicts, with various success, but latterly in favor Montiel (Spain), BATTLE OF, 14 March, 1369, be

of the Turks; peace made, Turkish supremacy recog. nized....

.8, 9 Sept. 1862 tween Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, and his brother, Murderous quarrels between Christians and Mussulmans Henry of Trastamare, aided by the French warrior Ber

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