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trand du Guesclin. Peter was totally defeated, and | THIS PILLAR WAS SET VP IN PERPETUAL REMEMBRANCE OF THAT


AND CARRYED OX BY Ye TREACHERY AND MALICE OF YO Montigny, see under Fire-arms.


OF OUR LORD 1666, IN ORDER TO Ye CARRYING ON THEIR Montlhery (Seine-et-Oise, France), site of an inde


AND SLAVERY. termed “ The League of the Public Good," 16 July, 1465. Montmartre, HEIGHTS OF, near Paris, taken by

Monuments, see Ancient. An act passed 22 July, Blucher, 30 March, 1814. They were fortified during 1878, empowers the Metropolitan Board of Works to the communist insurrection, March, 1871; and retaken take care of Cleopatra's Needle and other monuments. by the army of Versailles, 28 May.

Moodkee (India). Here, on 18 Dec. 1815, the Montmirail (Marne, France). Here Napoleon de- Sikhs attacked the advanced guard of the British, and feated the allies, 11 Feb. 1814.

were repulsed three miles, losing many men and fifteen

pieces of cannon, Sir Robert Sale was mortally wounded. Montpellier (S. France), built in the eighth cen- The battle followed that of Ferozeshah (which see). tury, prospered as the neighboring city, Maguelonne, decreased. It was acquired by marriage by the king of

Mooltan (N.W. India), an ancient city, was stormed Aragon, 1204; by the king of Majorca, 1276; was ceded by, Runjeet Sing, 1818. Here his son, Moolraj Sing, to France, 1349; given to Charles the Bad, king of Na- ruler of the Sikhs, treacherously murdered Mr. Vans

Sevevarre, in exchange for Mantes, etc., 1365; sequestered by Agnew and lieutenant Anderson, 21 April, 1848. France, 1378. It was seized by the Huguenots early in rál conflicts took place between the British and the the reign of Henry III., and held by them till sept. Sikhs, in which the latter were beaten, and Mooltan 1622, when it surrendered after a siege, followed by a taken after a protracted siege, 2–22 Jan. 1849. treaty of peace, 20 Oct.

Moon. Opacity of the moon, and the true causes Montreal, the second city in Lower Canada, built of lunar eclipses, taught by Thales, 640 B.C. Hipparby the French, about 1642. Population, 1871, 107,225.

chus made observations on the moon at Rhodes, 127 B.C.

Posidonius accounted for the tides from the motion of Surrendered to the English.

.8 Sept. 1760 the moon, and said that the moon borrows her light from Taken by the Americans...

12 Nov. 1775 Retaken by the British.

15 June, 1776

79 B.C.Diog. Laert. The church, Jesuits' college, prison, and many buildings burned down..

Maps of the moon constructed by Hevelius, 1647; Cas.6 June, 1803 sini..

1680 Great military affray.

29 Sept. 1833 Bishopric founded.

Beer and Mädler's map published... 1836

1834 Riots against the government..

.6 Nov. 1837

Professor John Phillips invited the British Association The self-styled loyalists” of Montreal assault the gov

to make arrangements to obtain a systematic repreernor-general, lord Elgin; enter the parliament-house,

sentation of the physical aspect of the moon" drive out the members, and set fire to the building,

Photographs of the moon taken by Draper at New York, 25 April, 1849

1840; by Bond, 1850; by Mr. Warren de la Rue, 1957; by Rutherford..

1871 A bishopric established.. A destructive fire...

..23 Aug. 1850 Largest photograph ever taken of the moon, made by Another, destroying 1200 houses; the loss estimated at a

professor Henry Draper of New York.. million sterling..

Hansen's - Tables of the Moon," calculated at the ex

.12 July, 1852 At an anti-papal lecture here, by Gavazzi, riots ensued,

pense of the British and Danish governments, pub. lished at the cost of the latter...

1857 and many lives were lost..

..10 June, 1853 The cathedral destroyed by fire

The British Association "lunar committee” publish two

.10 Dec. 1856 Victoria railway bridge (which see) formally opened by

sections of a map of the moon, on a scale of 200 inches

to her diameter.... the prince of Wales.. .25 Aug. 1860

..July, 1867 Fierce riots at the attempt to bury Joseph Guibord, a

The earl of Rosse made experiments on the radiation of heat from the moon...

..., 1868-73 Roman Catholic, while under censure, in the Roman

Prof. J. F. Julius Schmidt, of Athens, completed his map Catholic cemetery

..Sept. 1875

of the moon after 34 years' work: diameter 2 metres. 1874 (He belonged to the Institut Canadien," censured for possessing forbidden books; he died in 1869; after

Mr. James Nasmyth and Mr. J. Carpenter published the much litigation, the privy-council judicial committee

result of many years' observations in “The Moon”... affirmed his right to burial against the clerical authori

Mr. Edmund Neison published - The Moon and the Conties.)

ditions and Contigurations of its Surface".......July, 1876 Riot at a memorial Romanist procession; one man killed,

Prof. Schmidt's map published at Berlin...

1878 26 Sept.

(See Eclipse.) Guibord buried with military and police escort..16 Nov.

Moore's Creek Bridge (North Carolina), BATViolent bread riots..

...17 Dec. Fierce Orange riots, with loss of life......12 July et seq. 1877

TLE At, between Americans, 1000 strong, and Tory

Scotch settlers, numbering 1500, on 27 Feb. 1776. The Montserrat, a West India island, discovered by

Tories were beaten, losing 70; the Americans none. Columbus in 1493, and settled by the British in 1632. It has several times been taken by the French, but was

Moors, formerly the natives of Mauritania (which secured to the British in 1783,

see), but afterwards the name given to the Numidians

and others, and now applied to the natives of Morocco Monument of London, built by sir Christopher

and the neighborhood. They frequently rebelled against Wren, 1671-7. The pedestal is 40 feet high, and the the Roman emperors, and assisted Genseric and the Vanedifice altogether 202 feet, that being the distance of its dals in their invasion of Africa, 429. They resisted for base from the spot where the fire which it commemo

a time the progress of the Arab Mahometans, but were rates commenced. It is the loftiest isolated column in overcome in 707, and in 1019 by them introduced into the world. Its erection cost about 14,5001. The stair- Spain, where their arms were long victorious. In 1063 case is of black marble, consisting of 345 steps of the they were defeated in Sicily by Roger Guiscard. The four original inscriptions, three were Latin, and the fol- Moorish kingdom of Granada was set up in 1237, and lowing in English-cut in 1681, obliterated by James II.; lasted till 1492, when it fell before Ferdinand V. of Casrecut in the reign of William III. ; and finally erased tile, mainly owing to internal discord. The expulsion by order of the common council, 26 Jan. 1831. They of the Moors from Spain was decreed by Charles V., produced Pope's indignant lines:

but not fully carried into effect till 1609, when the big* Where London's column, pointing at the skies, otry of Philip III. inflicted this great injury to his comLike a tall bully, lists the head, and lies.''

try. About 1518 the Moors established the piratical

states of Algiers and Tunis (which see). In the history * William Green, a weaver, fell from this monument, 25 of Spain, the Arabs and Moors must not be confourided. June, 1750. A man named Thomas Craddock, a baker, pre. cipitated himself from its sunimit, 7 July, 1780.

Mr. Lyon

Moplahs, industrious fanatical Mahometans in Lery, a Jewish diamond merchant, of considerable respect. Malabar, East Indies, gave trouble by their attacks on ability, threw himself from it, 18 Jan. 1810, as did more Hindoos and the British, especially in 1845; an outrecently three other persons, in consequence of which a fence was placed round the railing of the gallery in 1839.

break was suppressed about 15 Sept. 1873.

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Moral Philosophy, the science of ethics, defined | Christ of LATTER-DAY Saints). This sect derives its as the knowledge of our duty, and the art of being vir- origin from Joseph Smith, called the Prophet, who antuous and happy. Socrates (about 430 B.c.) is regard- nounced in 1823, at Palmyra, N. Y., that he had had ed as the father of ancient, and Grotius ( about 1623) a vision of the angel Moroni. In 1827 he said that the father of modern, moral philosophy; see Philosophy. he found the Book of Mormon, written on gold plates in

Morat (Switzerland), where Charles the Bold of Egyptian characters. This book is said to have been Burgundy was completely defeated by the Swiss, 22 written about 1812 by a clergyman named Solomon June, 1476. A monument, constructed of the bones of Spaulding (or by Martin Harris, who died Sept. 1875),

of the Scripture the vanquished, was destroyed by the French in 1798, as a religious romance in imitation and a stone column erected. 400th anniversary kept, style. It was translated and published in America in 1876.

1830, in England in 1841. It fell into the hands of RigMoravia, an Austrian province, occupied by the lon and Smith, who determined to palm it off as a new Slavonians about 518, and conquered by the Avars and revelation. The Mormons command the payment of Bohemians, who submitted to Charlemagne. About tithes, permit and enjoin polygamy, encourage labor, 1000 it was subdued by Boleslas of Poland, but recover- aries are propagating these doctrines in Europe with

and believe in their leaders working miracles. Missioned by Ulrich of Bohemia in 1030. After various changes, Moravia and Bohemia were amalgamated into the Aus

more success than would be expected. trian dominions in 1526. Moravia was invaded by the The Morinons organize a church at Manchester, N. Y., Prussians in 1866, and they established their headquar- settle at Kirtland, Ohio, where they number 1000 in.... 1831

6 April, 1830 ters at Brünn, the capital, 13 July. The demand of the They found Zion, in Jackson county, Mo.....

.1831-2 Moravians for home rule was resisted Oct. 1871.

From 1833 to 1839 the sect endured much persecution,

and was driven from place to place, till the city Nau. Moravians, or UNITED BRETHREN, said to have voo, Ii., on the Mississippi, was laid out, 1837, and a been part of the Hussites, who withdrew into Moravia temple was built...

1840-1 in the fifteenth century, but the brethren assert that Josephi and his brother Hyrum, when in prison on a

charge of treason, shot by an infuriated mob, and their sect was derived from the Greek church in the

Brigham Young chosen seer...

June, 1841 ninth century:

In 1722 they formed a settlement Much harassed by their neighbors; departure from Naucalled Herrnhut, the watch of the Lord, on the estate The Great Salt Lake chosen "for an everlasting abode,"

voo determined on.

1845 of count Zinzendorf. Their church consisted of 500 per- and taken possession of...

24 July, 1847 sons in 1727. They were introduced into England by The valley surveyed by order of the United States gov. count Zinzendorf about 1738; he died at Chelsea in the pros isional government abolished and the Utah ter

1849 June, 1760. In 1851 they had thirty-two chapels in

ritory recognized by the United States; Brigham England. They are zealous missionaries, and founded Young appointed the first governor; and the universisettlements in foreign parts about 1732. London Asso- ty of Deseret was founded....

.1849-50 ciation founded in 1817. The United Brethren in the The crops at the Utah settlement said to be destroyed

The population, 11.354.. United States, in 1880, had 4524 organized churches by locusts..

Aug. 1855 and 157,835 communicants. They settled in Pennsyl- The United States judge at l'tah resigned from inability vania in 1746.

to discharge his functions, in consequence of the vio.

lent and treasonable conduct of the Mormons, and Moray Floods, see Inundations, 1829.

their leader, Brigham Young.


A conference of Mormon elders, etc., was held in London; Mordaunt, see Administrations, 1689.

offensive speeches made and songs sung advocating Morden College ( Blackheath ), almshouses for the United States government sent an army to Utah, a

1 Sept. decayed merchants with pensions, established by sir

compromise was entered into, and peace was estab. John Morden, 1695; opened 1702.

lished by governor Cummings in...

June, 1858 A Mormon meeting at Southampton.

.18 Feb. 1861 Morea, a name given to the Peloponnesus in the A French Mormon priest preached at laris in...... Oct. 1862 thirteenth century; see Greece.

“Latter-day Saints'" meetings held in London.. 1805 Moreton Bay (New South Wales). The colony

Utah settlement visited by Hepworth Dixon; he stated

that it contained 200,000 persons, and an army of founded here in 1859 has since been named Queensland 20,000 ritles (“ New America," published in 1867)..... 1866 (which see).

Reported schisms, through increasing opposition to polygamy.

....June, 1867 Morganatic * Marriages, when the left hand is Synod held in Store street, London (London conference given instead of the right, between a man of superior said to include 1172 members)..

.5 April, 1868 and a woman of inferior rank, in which it is stipulated 650 new Mormons sailed from Liverpool for tahl that the latter and her children shall not enjoy the Bill depriving polygamists of civic rights passed U.S.

6 June, rank or inherit the possessions of the former. The house of representatives...

. March, 1870 children are legitimate. Such marriages are frequently Brigham Young, ordered to be tried for bigamy, fices

Hawkins, a Mormon elder, sentenced to three years' contracted in Germany by royalty and the higher no

imprisonment for adultery..

end of Oct. 1871 bility. It has been asserted that our George I. was thus Brigham Young surrenders for trial, 2 Jan.; proceedings married to the duchess of Kendal; the late duke of Sus

ammulled by the Supreme Court.. .about May, 1872 sex to lady Cecilia Underwood; Frederic VI. of Den- Brigham Young resigns temporal powers ......10 April, 1873

The Mormon conferences at the Holborn Amphitheatre, mark to the countess of Damer, 7 Aug. 1850; and sev

25 May, eral Austrian princes recently.

Vineteen missionaries for Britain arrive at Lirerpool,

12 Nov. Morgarten (Switzerland). 1300 Swiss engaged Brigham Young again indicted for polygamy, 20,000 Austrians, commanded by the duke Leopold,

about 15 Oct. 1874 whom they completely defeated, 15 Nov. 1315, upon the Adjudged to support one of his wives while she sues for

divorce, Marchi; imprisoned in his own house for nonheights of Morgarten, overlooking the detile through

compliance, Nov.; discharged. .

Dec. 1875 which the enemy was to enter their territory from Zug. Bishop J. 1. Lee shot for his share in Mountain Mead

ows massacre; Brigham Young suspected (see Mas. Morice-dance, an ancient dance peculiar to some sacres)...

23 March, 1877 of the country parts of England, and, it is said, also to Death of Brigham Young, aged 76..

...29 Jug Scotland; it was performed before James I. in Hereford- No successor appointed; John Taylor chief of 12 apostles,

Sept. shire.

Conference in London opened... Morisonians, followers of the rev. James Morison

Morning Post, fashionable daily paper, favorable of Kilmarnock, suspended for heterodoxy, 1811.

to the Whigs and High-church party, first appeared 2 Mormons (calling themselves the Church of Jesus Nov. 1772. Conservative, 1874. Price reduced to 1d.,

27 June, 1881. * Said to be derived from Morgengabe, the gift of a husband of a limited part of his property to such a bride on the morn

Morocco, or MAROCCO, an empire in North Africa, ing after the marriage.

formerly Mauritania (which see). In 1051 it was sub




.30 Sept.


14 Aug.

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dued for the Fatimite caliphs by the Almoravides, who in Greece in the time of Alexander and his successors, eventually extended their dominion into Spain. These when Sosos of Pergamos, the most renowned Mosaic artwere succeeded by the Almohades (1121), the Merinites ist of antiquity, flourished. He acquired great fame by (1270), and in 1516 by the Scherifs, pretended descend- his accurate representation of an “unswept floor after a ants of Mahomet, the now reigning dynasty. The Moors feast.” The Romans also excelled in mosaic-work, as have had frequent wars with the Spaniards and Portu- evidenced by the innumerable specimens preserved. guese, due to piracy. Population about 6,000,000. Byzantine mosaics date from the fourth century after

Christ. Invasion of Sebastian of Portugal, who perishes with his

The art was revived in Italy by Tafi, Gaddi, army at the battle of Alcazar...

....4 Aug. 1578 Cimabue, and Giotto, who designed mosaics, and introTangiers (which see) acquired by England, 1662; given up. 1683 duced a higher style in the thirteenth century. In the The Moors attack the French in Algeria at the instiga

sixteenth century Titian and Veronese also designed tion of Abd-el. Kader; the prince de Joinville bombards Tangiers, 6 Aug., and Mogador...

.16 Aug. 1844 subjects for this art.

The practice of copying paintings Marshal Bugeaud defeats the Moors at the river Isly, in mosaics came into vogue in the seventeenth century; and acquires the title of duke...

and there is now a workshop in the Vatican where chemPeace between France and Morocco. .....10 Sept. The Spaniards, who possess several places on the coast

ical science is employed in the production of colors, and of Morocco (Ceuta, Peñon de Velez, etc.), having suffer- where 20,000 different tints are kept. In 1861, Dr. Saled much annoyance by Moorish pirates, declare war, viati of Venice had established his manufacture of

22 Oct. 1859

“ enamel - mosaics;" and in July, 1864, he fixed a large Negotiations fruitless; the Spanish government increas. ing their demands as the sultan yielded; the English

enamel mosaic picture in one of the spandrils under the government interfered in vain (for the war, see dome of St. Paul's cathedral, London. He has since exeSpain)..


cuted commissions for the queen and other persons. A Moorish ambassador (the first since the time of Charles

II.) in London (he gave 2001, to the lord mayor for the Mosandrium, see Philippium.
London charities).

..June-Aug. 1860 The British government gave a guarantee for a loan of Moscow, the ancient capital of Russia, was founded, 426,0001. to the sultan to meet his engagements with

it is said, by Dolgorouki, about 1147. The occupation of Spain..

24 Oct. 1861 Insurrection of a pretender, Elkadin ben-Abderahman,

the south of Russia by the Mongols in 1235 led to Mossuppressed..

Dec. 1873 cow becoming the capital, and, beginning with Jaroslav Prince Sidi Shereef visits Britain,

.Aug. 1877 II., 1238, its princes became the reigning dynasty. It is

regarded as a holy city by the Russians. 1822. Muley Abderahman.

Cathedral of the Assumption built, 1326; of the Transfig1859. Sidi Muley Mohammed, Sept. ; died Sept. 1873.


1328 1873. Muley Hassan (son), proclaimed 25 Sept.

The Kremlin founded..


1382 Morphia, an alkaloid, discovered in opium by Ser- Moscow_plundered by Timour...

By the Tartars.

1451, 1477 türner in 1803,

Massacre of Demetrius and his Polish adherents, the

* Matins of Moscow Morrill Tariff, see United States, 1861.

... 27 May, 1606 Moscow ravaged by Ladislas of Poland in..

1611 Morris-dance, see Morice.

The university founded.


Entered by Napoleon I. and the French, 14 Sept. ; the Mortality Tables have been frequently com- governor, Rostopchin, is said, doubtfully, to havé or. piled. The Northampton tables (for 1735-80), by Dr. dered it to be set ou fire (11,840 houses burned, besides Price; the Carlisle tables (for 1780-7), by Dr. Hails- The French evacuate Moscow...

palaces and churches)..

.15 Sept. 1812

.Oct. ham; see Bills of Mortality.

Railway to St. Petersburg opened..


Industrial exhibition
Mortar, a short gun with a large bore and close Very great tire, about 50 houses burned..

16 July, 1865

18 June, 1876 chamber for throwing bombs; said to have been used at Zvartofsky's burned; about 24 persons Naples in 1435, and first made in England in 1543. The perish..

...8 March, 1880 mortar left by Soult at Cadiz, in Spain, was fixed in St. Möskirch (Baden). Here the Austrians were deJames's park in Aug. 1816. On 19 Oct. 1857, a colossal feated by Moreau and the French, 5 May, 1800. mortar, constructed by Mr. Robert Mallet, was tried at

Moskwa or Borodino, BATTLE OF; see Borodino. Woolwich, with a charge of 70 lbs. it threw a shell weighing 2550 lbs. 1} miles horizontally, and about

Mosquito Coast (Central America). The Indmile in height.

ians inhabiting this coast were long under the protection

of the British, who held Belize and a group of islands in Mortara Abduction, see Jeus, 1858.

the bay of Honduras. The jealousy of the United Mortella Towers, see Martello.

States long existed on this subject. In April, 1850, the Mortimer's Cross (Herefordshire). The earl of

two governments covenanted not to occupy or fortify Pembroke and the Lancastrians were here severely de- or colonize, or assume or exercise any dominion over, any feated by the young duke of York, afterwards Edward part of Central America.” In 1855 the United States IV., 2 Feb. 1461. He assumed the throne as Edward IV. charged the British government with an infraction of in March following.

the treaty ; on which the latter agreed to cede the disMortmain Acts (mort main, dead hand). When reservation.*' The matter was finally settled in 1859.

puted territory to the republic of Honduras, with some the survey of all the land in England was made by Will. iam I., 1085-6, the whole was found to amount to 62,215 soldiers secreting themselves in the mosses on the bor

Moss-troopers, desperate plunderers, and lawless knights' fees, of which the church then possessed 28,015, ders of Scotland. Many severe laws were enacted to which additions were afterwards made, till the 7th against them, but they were not extirpated till the of Edward I. 1279, when the statute of mortmain was passed, from a fear that the estates of the church might eighteenth century. grow too bulky. By this act it was made unlawful to Motets, short pieces of church music, some of which give any estates to the church without the king's leave; are dated about the end of the thirteenth century. Good and this act, by a supplemental provision, was made to motets were written between 1430 and 1480; and very reach all lay fraternities, or corporations, in the 15th of fine ones in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Richard II. 1391. Mortmain being such a state of pos- The “Motet Society,” for the publication of these works, session as makes property inalienable, it is said to be in was founded in 1847, by Wm. Dyce. a dead hand. Several statutes have been passed on this Motion. On 13 Nov. 1873, prof. Sylvester described subject : legacies by mortmain were especially restricted by the 9th Geo. II. c. 36 (1736).

* St. Juan del Norte (Greytown) was held by the British on

behalf of the Mosquitos till the American adventurers under Mosaic - work (the Roman opus tessellatum) is col. Kinney took possession of it in Sept. 1855.

He joined of Asiatic origin, and is probably referred to in Esther Walker; and on 10 Feb. 1856, their associate, Rivas the presi. 6, about 519 B.C. It had attained to great excellence

ident, claimed and annexed the Mosquito territory to Nicara. gua.


to the London Mathematical Society a machine for con- 1753; named, from Crompton's residence, hall-in-theverting spherical into rectilinear and other motions, and wood-wheel; and muslin-wheel

, from its giving birth to for producing perfectly parallel motion, the discovery of the British muslin and cambric manufacture; and mule, M. Peaucellier, a French engineer officer, about 1867; from its combining the advantages of Hargreaves's spinsee Kinematics.

ning-jenny and Arkwright’s adaptation. It is stated Mottoes, Royal Dieu et mon Droit, first used that Crompton at the time knew nothing of the latter. by Richard I., 1198. Ich dien, “I serve,” adopted by He did not patent his invention, but gave it up in 1780. Edward the Black Prince at the battle of Cressy, 1346. It produced yarn treble the fineness and very much Honi soit qui mal y pense, the motto of the Garter, 1349. softer than any ever before produced in England. ParJe maintiendrai, “I will maintain," adopted by William liament voted him 50001. in 1812, now considered a most III., to which he added, in 1688, “ the liberties of Eng- inadequate compensation. Mr. Roberts invented the land and the Protestant religion.” Semper eadem was self-acting mule in 1825. assumed by queen Elizabeth, 1558, ard adopted by queen Mulhouse, or MÜLHAUSEN (in N.E. France), an Ame, 1702, see them severally.

imperial city, under Rodolph of Hapsburg ; joined the Mount Everest, 29,002 feet high, the highest Swiss Confederation in 1515, annexed to France in point in the Himalayas and as yet known in the world, 1798; conquered and annexed to Germany, 1870-1. was named after the late sir George Everest, superintend- The calico manufacture was introduced in 1716. ent of the trigonometrical survey of India in Dec. 1843, Mummies (from the Arabic mum, wax); see Emby his successor, col. Andrew Waugh.

balming. The mummies in the British Museum, with Mountain Meadow, see Mussacres.

other Egyptian antiquities, were placed there about

1803. Mr. Alex. Gordon, in 1737, published an essay on Mountain Party, see Clubs, French,

three Egyptian mummies, one of which was brought to Mounts, see Bernard, Calvary, Etna, Hecla, Olivet, England in 1722 by capt. Wm. Lethieullier; two others and Vesuvius.

came in 1734, one of which was retained by Dr. Mead, Mourning for the Dead. The Israelites neither the other was given to the College of Physicians. In washed nor anointed themselves during the time of 1834, Mr. T.J. Pettigrew published a “ History of Egypmourning, which for a friend lasted seven days; upon

tian Mummies." extraordinary occasions a month. The Greeks and Ro- Münchengrätz (Bohemia) was taken by the Prusmans sasted. White was used in mourning for the im- sians under prince Frederick Charles, after a severe perial family at Constantinople, 323. The ordinary action, 28 June, 1866. The Austrians lost about 500 color for mourning in Europe is black; in China, white, killed and 1000 prisoners, and the prince gained about 12 in Turkey, violet; in Ethiopia, brown, it was white in miles of country. Spain until 1498. Anne of Brittany, the queen of two Munda (now Monda, S. Spain). Here Cneius Scipio successive kings of France, mourned in black, instead of defeated the Carthaginians, B.C. 216; and here Julius wearing white, as was then the custom, on the death of Cæsar defeated the sons of Pompey, 17 March, 45, after her first husband, Charles VIII., 7 April, 1498.Hénault. a severe conflict. Mousquetạires, or MUSKETEERS, horse - soldiers

Mundane Eras. That of Alexandria fixed the under the old French régime, raised by Louis XIII., 1622. Creation at 5502 B.C. This computation continued till This corps was considered a military school for the A.D. 284, Alex. era 5786; but in A.D. 285 ten years were French nobility. It was disbanded in 1646, but was re- subtracted, and 5787 became 5777. This coincided with stored in 1657. A second company was created in 1660, the Mundane era of Autioch (which dated the Creation and formed cardinal Mazarin's guard. -- llenault.

5192 B.C.).-Nicholus. Mozambique, chief of the Portuguese territories, Munich, the capital of Bavaria, founded by duke E. Africa, on an isle, was visited by Vasco de Gama, Henry of Saxony, 962. It was taken by Gustavus 1498; conquered by the Portuguese under Tristan da Adolphus of Sweden in 1632, by the Austrians, in 1704, Cunha ai Albuquerque, 1506; a settlement was estab- 1741, and 1743 ; and by the French under Morean, 2 lished, 1508.

July, 1800.

It abounds in schools, institutions, and Mucker (hypocrites), a German sect; see Ebelians manufactories. The university was founded by king and Brazil, 1874.

Louis in 1826. A Bavarian art-exhibition was opened Muggletonians, so called from Ludowic Muggle- here by prince Adalbert, 20 July, 1869. A congress of ton, a tailor, known about 1641, prominent about 1650;

“Old Catholics” (which see) met here, 23 Sept. 1871. convicted of blasphemy, Jan. 1676, died 1697. He and International exhibition opened, 19 July, 1879. PopulaJohn Reere atlirmed ibat God the Father, leaving the tion, Dec. 1871, 169,693, 1877, 198,829. government of heaven to Elias, came down and suffered Municipal Corporations, etc., see Corporudeath in a human form. They asserted that they were tions. the two last witnesses of God who should appear before Münster (W. Prussia). The bishopric, said to have the end of the world, Rev. xi. 3. This sect existed 1850. been founded by Charlemagne, 780, was secularized in

Mühlberg, on the Elbe, Prussia. Here the Ger- 1802; seized by the French, 1806, part of the duchy of man Protestants were defeated by the emperor Charles Berg, 1809; annexed to France, 1810; ceded to Prussia, V., 24 April, 1547, and John Frederick, elector of Saxony, 1815. The Anabaptists, under John of Leyden, the king was taken prisoner.

of Münster, held the city in 1534-5. Here were signed Mühldorf (Bavaria). Near this place Frederick, the preliminaries of the treaty of Westphalia (which see), duke of Austria, was defeated and taken prisoner by

or Münster, Jan. 1647 ; definitively signed 24 Oct. 1648. Louis of Bavaria, 28 Sept. 1322.

- MUNSTER, the southern province of Ireland, an ancient

kingdom. In 1568 a commission was issued for its gorMulberry-trees. The alleged first planted in ernment by a president and council, and new colonies England are in the gardens of Sion House. Shakespeare were founded in 1588. planted a mulberry-tree with his own hands at Stratfordupon-Avon; and Garrick, Macklin, and others were en

Muradal, see Toloso. tertained under it 1742. Shakespeare's house was

Murcia, a province, formerly a kingdom, N.E. Spain, afterwards sold to a clergy man of the name of Gastrel, was subdued by the Moors, 713; by Ferdinand of Caswho cut down the mulberry-tree for fuel, 1765. A silver- tile, 1240; and divided between Castile and Aragon, smith purchased the whole, and manufactured it into 1305. memorials.

Murcia, the capital, was sacked by the French under Sebas. Mule, a spinning - machine invented in 1779

tiani, 23 April, 1810. It was inundated by the Segura, after

a violent storm, 15–17 Oct. 1879, when about 1000 persons by Samuel Crompton, born at Bolton, Lancashire, in perished.

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Murder, the highest offence against the law of God. I the harp and the organ" (3875 B.C., Gen. iii. 21). The (Gen, ix. 6, 2348 B.C.) A court of Ephetæ was establish- Alute, and harmony, or concord in music, are said to have ed by Demophoon of Athens for the trial of murder, been invented by Hyagnis, 1506 B.C.-drund. Marbles. 1179 B.C. The Persians did not punish the first offence. Vocal choruses of men are first mentioned 556 B.C:-DuIn England, during a period of the heptarchy, murder fresnoy. See Organ, and other musical instruments. was punished by tines only. So late as Henry VIII.'s Prior to 1600, the chief music in England was masses, time the crime was compounded for in Wales. Murder- ballads, and madrigals; but dramatic music was niuch ers were allowed benetit of clergy in 1503. Aggravated cultivated from that time. About the end of James I.'s murder, or petit treason (a distinction now abolished), reign, a music professorship was founded in the Univerhappened in three ways: by a servant killing his master, sity of Oxford by Dr. William Hychin; and the year 1710 a wife her husband, and an ecclesiastical person his supe- was distinguished by the arrival in England of George rior (stat. 25 Edw. III. 1350). The enactments relating to Frederick Handel. Mozart came to England in 1763; this crime are very numerous, and its wilful commission Joseph Haydn in 1791; and Carl Maria von Weber in has been rarely pardoned by our sovereigns. The act | 1825. whereby the murderer should be executed on the day Dictionaries of Music: Rousseau's, published 1767; in next but one after his conviction was repealed 1836; see ". Encyclopédie Methodique," 1791; Fétis, " BiograAssussinations, Executions, Triuls ; also London, 1872, plije Universelle des Musiciens,'' 1835-44, and..... 1860-5 Bravo, Burton, Euston, Ratcliffe, Road, Richmond, Har- The publication of the excellent “ Dictionary of Music and

Musicians,'' edited by Mr. George Grove, began..Jan. 1878 ley Street, Whitechapel, Poisoning; Ruilways, 1864 and 1881.-Slough.

MUSICAL Notes, etc.; see Gamut. The first six are said to

hitve been invented by Guy Aretino, a Benedictine monk Murders in England and Wales (from Coroner's inquests). of Arezzo, about 1025.Blair. The notes at present used 1856..... 205 1862..... 221 1868..... 261 1874..... 223 were perfected in 1338. Counterpoint was brought to per1857. 270 1869 265 1875....

fection by Palestrina about 1555. Gufforio of Lodi read lect18.58..

186+. 246 1970. 222 1876... 207 ures on musical composition in the fifteenth century, and 1859. 204 1865. 2261871.. 226 1877.. 199 they effected great improvement in the science. The Ital1860.


1866, 272 1872. 257 1878. 176 ian style of composition was introduced into these coun. 1861..... 210 1867.. 255 1873 223 1879..... 153

tries about 1616. Convictions for murder; 1878, 20; 1879, 31.

The MUSICAL Pitch was settled in France in 1859. The mid. Muret (S. France). Here the Albigenses, under

dle A to be 870 simple or 435 double vibrations in a second;

but through error of measurement the fork made gave (A) the count of Thoulouse, were defeated sby Simon de 439 double vibrations (C, 522). At a meeting on the sub. Montfort, and their ally Peter of Aragon killed, 12 Sept. ject, held at the Society of Arts, on 23 Nov. 1860, the con1213.

cert pitch of C was recommended to be 528 vibrations in a

second; but the fork made by Mr. J. H. Griesbach gives 53 ) Murfreesborough (Tennessee, North America) vibrations. Mr. Hullah adopted 512 vibrations. was the site of fierce conflicts between the federals under A lower pitch was adopted at concerts in London in Jan. 1869.

528 vibrations for C adopted for performances at the interRosecrans and the confederates under Bragg, from 31

national exhibition of 1872, at a meeting, 20 Jan. 1872. Dec. 1862 to 3 Jan. 1863, when Bragg retired with great [Handel's tuning-fork, 1740, was 495; the Philharmonic loss. This struggle is called also the battle of Stone Society's, 1813-43, was 515.) river.

Mr. A. J. Ellis's elaborate “ History of Musical Pitch” is pub.

lished in “Journal of the Society of Arts,'' 5 March, 1050, Muriatic Acid, see Alkali.

and separately. Murray's Handbooks for Travellers. The Musical FESTIVALS. Several were beld on the continent

in the eighteenth century; for Haydn at Vienna, 1808, parent of the series, a “ Handbook for Travellers on the

1811; others at Erfurt, 1811; Cologne, 1821; and frequently Continent," appeared in 1836, Handbooks for France,

since. Switzerland, South Germany; etc., soon followed; one Study of music greatly increased by the teaching of John Hul.

lah and others since 1840. for Algeria appeared in Oct. 1873,

The Tonic sol-fa system, in which the letters d, r, m, f, s, 1,1 (for Muscat, or MASCAT, an Arab state on the gulf of do, re, mi, ja, so, la, ti, or si) are used instead of notes, was

invented by Miss Glover of Norwich, and improved by rev. Oman, was conquered by the Portuguese under Albu

Johu Curwen, about 1844; he died 1880. querque in 1507, but recovered by the Arabs in 1618.

The Tonic Sol fa Association founded 1853; the college estab.

lished 1862. Ahmad bin Sa'id repelled a Persian invasion and found ed present dynasty...

1741 MUSICAL FESTIVALS IN ENGLAND. Dr. Bysse, chancellor of Sa'id, his son, succeeded..


Hereford, about 1724, proposed to the members of the Sa'id bin Sultan, his son.

choirs a collertion at the cathedral door after inorning ser. Treaty with the British..

1839 vice, when forty guineas were collected and appropriated to At bis death his territories divided; after a conflict, his

charitable purposes. It was then agreed to hold festivals son Sa'id Thuwainy obtained Oman; and Majid, Zanzi

at Hereford, Gloucester, and Worcester, in rotation annual bar (which spe).


ly. Until the year 1753, the festival lasted only two days; Syud Redin compelled to fly, and a chief, Azan bin Gheo,

it was then extended at Hereford to three eveninge; and at seized the government..

.Oct. 1808

Gloucester, in 1757, to three mornings, for the purpose of The imaum endeavored to regain his authority ....Ang. 1870 introducing Handel's " Messiah,” which was warmly reThe city was taken by Sa'id Toorkee, and the chief ceived, and has been performed annually ever since. Mu. killed,

..about 30 Jan. 1871 sical festivals on a great scale are now annually held at Sa'id Abdool Aseer said to be deposed by his brother, various cathedrals in England; see Handel and Crystal Sa'id Toorkce, end of.....

...... Dec. 1875


" Sons of the Clergy" annual musical performances at St. Museum, originally a quarter of the palace of Al- Paul's begau 1709. exandria, like the Prytaneum of Athens, where eminent

MUSICAL INSTITUTIONS. The Ancient Academy of Music was learned men were maintained by the public. The foun- ;

instituted in 1710. It originated with numerous eminent dation is attributed to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who here! performers and gentlemen wishing to promote the study of placed his library about 280 B.C. Besides the British

vocal harmony. Museum, Soane's Museum, and the Museum of Geology Madrigal Society was established in 1741, and other musical

societies (which see), there are very many others in London. The The Philharmonic Society of New York, organized 2 April, opening of public museums and galleries on Sunday was 1842. long advocated in parliament: negatived by 271 to 68, Royal Society of Music arose from the principal nobility and

** Ancient concerts " began 1776; ceased, 1848. 19 May, 1871.

gentry uniting to promote the performance of operas com.

posed by Handel, 1785. Music.* “ Jubal, the father of all such as handle Philharmonic Society's concerts began in 1813.

Royal Academy of Music, established 1822 (which see).

Melodists' Club. 1925. Pythagoras (about 555 B.c.) maintained that the motions New Philharmonic Society established 1852. of the twelve spheres must produce delightful sounds, inaudi. Sacred Harmonic Society, Exeter Hall; established 1831. ble to mortal cars, which he called "the music of the spheres." 600th performance, 13 Dec. 1867; performances at St. St. Cecilia, said to have enticed an angel from the celestial James's Hall, 1880-1. regions by her melody, is termed the patroness of music. She British Orchestral Society, 1872. died in the second century.

Catch Club formed, 1761; centenary kept, July, 1861.



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