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Glee Club formed 1787.

Music-halls. In 1878, 347 of these were licensed Musical Union founded by John Ella, 1845. Harmonic Union (for performances of ancient and modern in London: first class, 3 ; second class, 6; third class, 13 ; music), 1852-4.

fourth class, 53; etc. Musical Society of London established 1858.

Musketry Schools at Hythe and Fleetwood were "Popular Monday Concerts " at St. James's Hall, founded by

S. A. Chappell, commenced with a "Mendelssohn night, established in 1854 under major-gen. C.C. Hay. He re14 Feb. 1859.

signed in 1867. The school at Fleetwood was closed the London Academy of Music founded in 1860.

same year. Cæcilian Society, London, founded by Z.W. Vincent and oth. ers in 1785; ceased in 1861.

Muskets, see Fire-arms. "Musical Education Committee of the Society of Arts, Lon.

don, with the prince of Wales as chairman, held its tirst Muslin, a fine cotton cloth, so called, it is said, from

meeting 22 May, 1865. Its first report, dated 27 June, 1865, having a downy nap on its surface resembling moss National Training School for Music; building near the Ayvert (French, mousse); according to others, because it was

Hall, founded by the duke of Edinburgh, 18 Dec. 1873 ; first brought from Moussol, in India. Muslins were first opened by him i7 May, 1876; first public concert, 23 June, worn in England in 1670.-- Anderson. By means of the 1879.

mule (which see), British much superseded India muslins. Royal and National College of Music; establishment proposed

at a meeting at Marlborough House, the prince of Wales in Muta (Syria). Here Mahomet and his followers the chair, Aug. 1878.

defeated the Christians in his first conflict with them, “Musical Association for the Investigation and Discussion of

629. Subjects connected with the Art and Science of Music,” founded 16 April, 1874, by Messrs. Spottiswoode, Wheatstone, Mute. A prisoner is said to stand mute, when, being Tyndall

, G. A. Macfarren, J. Hullah, Sedley Taylor, Stone, arraigned for treason or felony, he either makes no anPole, Chappell, Barnby, and others. Henry Leslie's musical choir formed about 1855; dissolved 1880. swer, or answers foreign to the purpose. Anciently a Church Choral Society, London, incorporated as Trinity Col. mute was subjected to torture.

lege, 1875. National Opera house, N. Thames embankment, first brick laid Walter Calverly, esq., of Calverly in Yorkshire, laving mur. by Mlle. Tietjens, 7 Sept.; first stone by the duke of Edin.

dered two of his children, and stabbed his wife in a fit of burgh, 16 Dec. 1075.

jealousy, being arraigned for his crime at York assizes, stood Great Peace Jubilee in Boston, Mass., U. S., 15–20 June, 1869.

mute, and was thereupon pressed to death in the castle-a World's Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival,

large iron weight being placed upon his breast, 5 Aug. 1605. held in Boston, Mass., U. S., 17 June-4 July, 1872.

-Stow. The Wagner Society in London gave concerts to introduce R. Major Strangeway suffered death in a similar manner at NewWagner's so-called "Music of the Future? (the due combi

gate, for the murder of his brother-in-law, Mr. Fussell,

1657. nation of music and poetry), Feb. 1873. Wagner's “ Lohengrin performed at Covent Garden, 8 May; Judgment was awarded against mutes, as if they were conat Drury-lane, 13 June, 1875. " Tannhjuser” performed at

victed or had confessed, by 12 Geo. III. 1772. Covent Garden, 29 April, 1876.

A man refusing to plead was condemned and executed at the Three series of performances of Wagner's “Ring des Nibe

Old Bailey on a charge of murder, 1778, and another on a lungen," in four parts (Rheingold, Wa:küre, Siegfried, and

charge of burglary at Wells, 1792. Gitterverdümmerung), at Bayreuth, in presence of the em.

An act passed by which the court is directed to enter a plea perors of Germany and Brazil, the king of Bavaria, and

of “not guilty” when the prisoner will not plead, 1827. many other sovereigns and princes, 13 Aug. et seq. 1876; at Mutina (now Modena), N. Italy. Here Marc AnBerlin, May, 1881. Wagner l'estival, Royal Albert Hall, London (Wagner present), tony, after defeating the consul Pansa, was himself beat7-19 May, 1871.

en with great loss by Hirtius, the other consul, and fled MUSICAL CHARITIES. Royal Society of Musicians established to Gaul, 27 April, 43 B.C. 1738; incorporated 1790.

Mutinies, BRITISH. The mutiny throughout the Royal Society of Female Musicians established 1839. Choir Benevolent Fund, 1851.

fleet at Portsmouth for an advance of wages, April, Sacred Harmonic Benevolent Fund, 1855.

1797. It subsided on a promise from the admiralty, EMINENT MUSICAL COMPOSERS.

which not being quickly fulfilled occasioned a second

Born Died mutiny on board the London man-of-war; admiral ColTallis Palestrina

1529

1894 poys and his captain were put into continement for orT. Morley.

1604 dering the marines to fire, whereby some lives were lost. Orlando Gibbons.

1683 1621 The mutiny subsided 10 May, 1797, when an act was H. Lawes..

1600 1662

passed to raise the wages, and the king pardoned the Lully

1633 1672 Purcell.

1658 1695

mutineers. J. Seb. Bach*

1685 1750 Mutiny of the Bounty, 28 April, 1789; see Bounty. G, F. Handel.

1684 1759 Mutiny at the Nore, which blocked up the trade of the Thames, T. A. Arne

1710 1778 broke out on 27 May, 1797, and subsided 13 June, 1797, C. Gluck..

1714 1787

when the principal mutineers were put in irons, and sev. W. A. Mozart

1756 1791 eral executed (including the ringleader, who had assumed Joseph Haydn. .

1732

1809 the name of rear admiral Richard Parker), 30 June, at SheerC. Dibdin..

1748 1814 ness. S. Webbe

1740 1817 Mutiny of the Dantë frigate; the crew carried the ship into J. W. Callcott

1766 1821 Brest harbor, 27 March, 1800. C. Weber.

1786

1826 Mutiny on board admiral Mitchell's fleet at Bantry Bay, Dec. L. Beethoven.

1770 1827

1801, and January following; see Bantry Bay. Franz Schubert

1797 1828 Mutiny at Malta, began 4 April, 1807, and ended on the 12th, M. Cherubini.

1760 1842 when the mutineers (chiefly Greeks and Corsicans) blew F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

1809 1849 themselves up by setting fire to a large magazine, consistH. Bishop

1787 1855 ing of between 400 and 500 barrels of gunpowder. R. Schumann

1810 1856 Mutiny on the Jefferson Borden, U. S. schooner; two mates L. Spohr....

1783 1859 murdered; put down by the captain, 20 April; vessel arJ. E. Halévy

1799 1862 rived at Gravesend, May; 2 men condemned at Boston, U. S., J. Meyerbeer.

1794 1864 1 Oct. 1875. J. Rossini.

1792 1868 Mutiny on the Lennie, British ship, bound for America, capM. W. Balfo.

1808 1870 tain and two mates murdered by foreign seamen, 31 Oct. D. T. Auber

1784 1871 1875. Van Hoydek, steward, managed to get the vessel to S. Thalberg.

1812 1871 the Isle of Rhé; 11 men seized and conveyed to London; J. Moscheles.

1794 1871 tried, 4 convicted, 4 May; executed, 23 May, 1876. W. Sterndale Bennett.

1816 1875 Mutiny on the Caswell, Glasgow bark, capt. G. Best, 4 Jan., Julius Benedict..

1804

on way home from Valparaiso; captain and 3 men killed; M. Costa

1810

mutineers overcome by others, some killed; vessel brought G. A. Macfarren.

1813

to Queenstown, 13 May; Christos Baumbos sentenced to R. Wagner

1813

death, 31 July; executed at Cork, 25 Aug. 1876. Giuseppe C. F. Gounod...

1818

Pistoria executed at Cork, 25 Aug. 1879. A. Sullivan. .....

Mutiny in 19th Hussars, Curragh camp, Dublin; through disMusical Glasses, see under Harmonic and Copo

content with officers on account of extra duty, 8 Sept. ; 75

arrested; court-martial; sentenced to penal servitude, 2 for phone.

5 years, 2 for 6 years, 1 for 7 years, 1 for 8 years, 14 Nov.

1877. * He had eleven sons musicians: four distinguished. For Indian mutinies, see Madras, 1806, and India, 1857.

30

..... 1814

Mutiny Act (1 & 2 Will. and Mary, c. 5), for the , English established a prince of the old royal family as discipline, regulation, and payment of the army, etc., maharajah of part of Mysore in 1799. Being without an was passed 12 April, 1689, and has since been re-enacted heir, he was permitted to adopt a child of four years of annually.

age, in Aug. 1867; who succeeded him at his death, 27 A parliamentary commission reported in favor of consolidating March, 1868, and assumed the government in May, 1881.

and simplifying military law by combining the Mutiny act Tippoo's last surviving son, Gholam Mahomet, a British and articles of war in a new aci to be pussed annually, etc., pensioner, died at Calcutta, 11 Aug. 1872. July, 1878.

Mycale (Ionia, Asia Minor), BATTLE OF, fought be- Mysteries, derived from the Greek uvotņplov, a tween the Greeks (under Leotychides, the king of Spar- mystery or revealed secret. The Sacred mysteries is a ta, and Xantippus the Athenian) and the Persians, 22 term applied to the doctrines of Christianity, called the Sept. 479 B.C.; the day on which Mardonius was defeat- “ mystery of godliness," 1 Tim. iii. 16, as opposed to the ed and slain at Platæa by Pausanias. The Persians “mystery of iniquity,” 2 Thess. ii. 7. The Profune (about 100,000 men), who had just returned from the mysteries were the secret ceremonies performed by a unsuccessful expedition of Xerxes in Greece, were com- select few in honor of some deity. From the Egyptian pletely defeated, thousands of them slaughtered, and mysteries of Isis and Osiris sprang those of Bacchus and their camp burned. The Greeks sailed back to Samos Ceres among the Greeks. The Eleusivian mysteries with an immense booty.

were introduced at Athens by Eumolpus, 1356 B.C. Mycenæ, a division of the kingdom of Argives, in

MYSTERY PLAYS, see Drama. the Peloponnesus. It stood about fifty stadia from Ar- Mystics, a name given to those theologians who, in gos, and flourished till the invasion of the Heraclidæ. addition to the obvious meaning of the Holy Scriptures, Early history mythical.

assert that there are interpretations to be discovered by Perseus removes from Argos, and founds Mycenæ,

means of an emanation of the Divine Wisdom, by which

B. c. 1431, 1313, or 1282 the soul is enlightened and purified; for which purpose Reign of Eurystheus, ...

...1289, 1274, or 1258 they advocate seclusion for contemplation and asceti[Towards the close of his reign is placed the story of the labors surmounted by Hercules.)

cism. Ægisthus assassinates Atreus: Agamemnon succeeds to Mysticism taught at Alexandria by Clemens, Pantænus, Origen,

the throne; becomes king of Sicyon, Corinth, and and others, who mingled Christianity and Platonism, sec. perhaps of Argos.

1201 ond and third centuries. He is chosen generalissimo of the Grecian forces going Much promoted by the works of the Pseudo-Dionysius (" The to the Trojan war..

..about 1193 Mystic Theology," etc.), sixth century. Ægisthus, in the absence of Agamemnon, lives in adul- Introduced into the Western empire, ninth century:

tery with the queen Clytemnestra. On the return of Eminent mediæval mystics (opposed by the schoolmen): the king they assassinate him; and Ægisthus mounts Master Eckhart (1251-1329); John Tauler of Strasburg, the throne.

1183 where he acted heroically during the plague termed the Orestes, son of Agamemnon, kills his mother and her “black death" (1290-1361); Henry Suso (1300-65). They paramour..

1176 aimed at a more spiritual religion than Romanism; but Orestes dies of the bite of a serpent........

their followers were charged with immorality, pantheism, The Achaians are expelled...

communism, and maintaining private inspiration. Invasion of the Heraclidæ, and the conquerors divide Jacob Böhme or Behmen, the German mystic, published his the dominions..

1103

"Aurora" (an alleged divine revelation), 1612; died 18 Nov. Mycenæ destroyed by the Argives..

468 Discoveries on the supposed site of Mycenæ made by For modern mystics, see Quakers, Quietists, Hutchinsonians,

Dr. Schliemann; reported..... A.D. March, 1874-Sept. 1876 and Swedenborgians.
Visited by the emperor of Brazil..
Discovery of tombs of Agamemnon and others, and Mythology (Greek jūloc, fable), the traditions re-

many treasures; announced by Dr. Schliemann, 28 Nov. specting the gods of any people. Thoth (or Mercury Dr. Schliemann reports his discoveries to the Society

Trismegistus) is supposed to have introduced mytholoof Antiquaries, London, 22 March; publishes his “ My.

.Dec. 1877 gy among the Egyptians, 1521 B.C.; and Cadmus, the Mylæ, a bay of Sicily where the Romans, under worship of the Egyptian and Phænician deities among

the Greeks, 1493 B.C. their consul Duilius, gained their first naval victory over the Carthaginians, and took fifty of their ships, 260 B.C.

Greek Gods.

Roman. Here also Agrippa defeated the fleet of Sextus Pom- Kronos

Saturn

Cybele) peius, 36 B.C.

parents of Zens.

...Jupiter (Jovis-pater). Myographion, an apparatus for determining the Plouton (Aïdes, Hades)..

Pluto.

Poseidon. velocity of the nervous current, invented by H. Helm

..Neptune. Hērë, or Hēra.

..Juno. holtz in 1850, and since improved by Du Bois Raymond Deméter..

Ceres. and others.

Hestia..

Vesta.

JUPITER'S CHILDREN. Mysore (S. India) was made a flourishing king

Apollon.

Apollo. dom by Hyder Ali, who dethroned the reigning sover- Ares..

Mars. eign in 1761, and by his son, Tippoo Sahib, who consid- Hermes..

Mercury. Hephaistos..

Vulcan. erably harassed the English. Tippoo was chastised by

Athena, or Athēnē.

...Minerva them in 1792; and on 4 May, 1799, his capital, Seringa

Aphrodité..

Venus. patam, was taken by assault, and himself slain. The Artūmis..

Diana.

1106

66

1624.

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15 Oct.

66

cena"

Rhea parents of

N.

Naas (E. Ireland). Here a desperate engagement | Thursday, in “ L'Art de Vérifier les Dates "), 26 Feb. 747 took place between a body of royal forces and the in- B.C.-3967 Julian period. To find the Julian year on surgent Irish, 24 May, 1798, during the rebellion. The which the year of Nabonassar begins, subtract the year, latter were defeated with the loss of 300 killed and many if before Christ, from 748; if after Christ, add to it 747. wounded.

Nachod (Bohemia). At this place the Prussians, Nabonassar, Era OF, received its name from the under their crown-prince, defeated the Austrians, after prince of Babylon, under whose reign astronomical stud- a severe conflict, 27 June, 1866. The Prussian Uhlans ies were much advanced in Chaldæa. The years con

vanquished the Austrian cavalry. tain 365 days each, without intercalation. The first day of the era was Wednesday (said, in mistake, to be Nacolea (Phrygia). Near here the usurper Proco

493 536 543 552

593

1059

1131

pius was defeated, and soon afterwards slain by the em- Nantes (W. France), formerly capital of the Namperor Valens, 366.

netes. The edict in favor of the Protestants issued here Nafels (Switzerland). Here an Austrian army was by Henry IV., 13 April, 1598, was revoked by Louis defeated by a small body of Swiss, 1388.

XIV., 22 Oct. 1685. Awful cruelties were committed

here by the republican Carrier, Oct.-Nov. 1793; see Naga Hills Massacre, see India, 1875.

Drowning. Nag's Head Story. Matthew Parker was con- Naphtha, a clear, combustible rock oil, known to secrated archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, 17 Dec. the Greeks, called "oil of Media,” and thought to have 1559, by bishops Barlow, Coverdale, Scory, and Hodgkins. been an ingredient in the Greek fire (which see). Many years after, the Romish writers asserted that Par

Napier's Bones, see Logarithms. ker and others had been consecrated at the Nag's Head Tavern, Cheapside, by Scory. This fiction was refuted of government of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, be

Naples, formerly the continental division and seat by Burnet.

gan with a Greek colony named Parthenope (about 1000 Nahum, FESTIVAL OF. Nahum, the seventh of the B.C.), which was afterwards divided into Palæopolis (the twelve minor prophets, about 713 B.C.; the festival is old) and Neapolis (the new city); from the latter the 24 Dec.

present name is derived. The colony was conquered by Naini Tal, see Landslips, 18 Sept. 1880.

the Romans in the Samnite war, 326 B.C. Naples, after Naissus (Mæsia). The Goths were defeated near

resisting the power of the Lombards, Franks, and Gerhere with great slaughter by the emperor Claudius II., Guiscard, king of Sicily, A.D. 1131. Few countries have

mans, was subjugated by the Normans under Roger 269.

had so many political changes and cruel and despotic Najara, or NAVARETE (N. Spain). At Logroño, rulers, or suffered so much by convulsions of nature, such near these places, Edward the Black Prince defeated as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In 1856, the Henry de Trastamere, and re-established Peter the Cruel population of the kingdom of Naples was 6,886,030, of on the throne of Castile, 3 April, 1367.

Sicily, 2,231,020; total, 9,117,050. It now forms part of Names. Adam and Eve named their sons (Gen. the revived kingdom of Italy. is, 25, 26). A Roman citizen had generally three names; Naples conquered by Theodoric the Goth. prænomen, denoting the individual; nomen, the gens or the city retaken by Belisarius....... clan ; cognomen, the branch of the clan; sometimes he Taken again by Totila.... had the agnomen (e. g., Publius Cornelius Scipio Afri- Becomes a duchy nominally subject to the Eastern emcanus). The popes change their names on their exalta- pire

..568 or 572 tion to the pontificate, “a custom introduced by pope Duchy of Naples greatly extended. Sergius, whose name till then was Swine-snout," 687.- Robert Guiscard, the Norman, made duke of Apulia,

founds the kingdom of Naples... Platina. Onuphrius refers it to John XII., 956; stating Naples conquered, and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies that it was done in imitation of SS. Peter and Paul, who founded by Roger Guiscard II.. were first called Simon and Saul. In France the name

The imperial house of Hohenstaufen (see Germany) ob

tains the kingdom by marriage, and rules........ 1194-1266 given at baptism was sometimes changed. The two The pope appoints Charles of Anjou king, who defeats sons of Henry II. of France were christened Alexander the regent Manfred (son of Frederick II. of Germany) and Hercules; at their confirmation these names were

at Benevento (Manfred slain)........ ..... 26 Feb. 1266

Charles defeats Conradin (the last of the Hohenstaufens changed to Henry and Francis. Monks and nuns, at

who had come to Naples by invitation of the Ghibeltheir entrance into monasteries, assume new names; see lines) at Tagliacozzo, 23 Aug. ; Conradin beheaded, Surnames. Miss Yonge's “History of Christian Names," published 1863. M. A. Lower's “Patronymica Britan- The massacre called the Sicilian Vespers (which see),

30 March, 1232 nica,” 1860.

Andrew of Hungary, husband of Joanna I., murdered, Namur, in Belgium, was made a county in 932: His brother Louis, king of Hungary, invades Naples.

18 Sept. 1345 taken by the French, 1 July, 1692; by William of Eng- Queen Joanna put to death .

.22 May, 1382 land, 4 Aug. 1695; ceded to the house of Austria by the Alphonso V. of Aragon (called the Wise and Magnani. peace of Utrecht, and garrisoned by the Dutch as a bar- Naples conquered by Charles VIII. of France.

mous), on the death of Joanna II., seizes Naples...... 1435

1494 rier town of the United Provinces in 1716. The city And by Louis XII. of France and Ferdinand of Spain, of Namur was ceded to Austria, 1713; taken by the who divide it...

1504 French in 1746, but was restored in 1749. In 1782, the Expulsion of the French

Naples and Sicily united to Spain emperor Joseph expelled the Dutch garrison. In 1792 Insurrection of Masaniello, occasioned by the extortions it was again taken by the French, who were compelled of the Spanish viceroys. An impost was claimed on a to evacuate it in 1793; regained 1794; delivered up to basket of figs and refused by the owner, with whom

the populace took part, headed by Masaniello (Thomas the allies, 1814; assigned to Belgium, 1831. It was the

Aniello), a fisherman; they obtained the command of site of a severe conflict in June, 1815, between the Prus

Naples, many of the nobles were slain and their palsians and the French under Grouchy, when retreating aces burned, and the viceroy was compelled to abolish after the battle of Waterloo.

the taxes and to restore the privileges granted by Charles V. to the city..

...June, 1647 Nancy (N.E. France), an ancient city, capital of Masaniello, intoxi by his success, was slain by his Lorraine in the thirteenth century. After taking Nan- Another insurrection suppressed by don John of Aus

..16 July, cy, 29 Nov. 1475, and losing it, 5 Oct. 1476, Charles the Bold of Burgundy was defeated beneath its walls, and Henry II., duke of Guise, lands, and is proclaimed king, slain by the duke of Lorraine and the Swiss, 5 Jan. 1477;

but in a few days is taken prisoner by the Spaniards, see Lorraine. Nancy was embellished by Stanislas, ex- Naples conquered by prince Eugene of Savoy for the em

April, 1648 king of Poland, who resided and died here Feb. 1766.

peror....

1706 It was captured by Blucher, Jan. 1814; and on the retreat The Spaniards by the victory at Bitonto (26 May) having

Discovery of Herculaneum (which see).

1711 of MacMahon's army, and expecting the German army,

made themselves masters of both kingdoms, Charles surrendered to four Uhlans, 12 Aug. 1870. It was re- (of Bourbon), son of the king of Spain, ascends the stored at the peace.

throne, with the ancient title of king of the Two Sicilies.

1734 Nankin, said to have been made the central capital Order of St. Januarius instituted. of China, 420. It was the court of the Ming dynasty Charles, becoming king of Spain, vacates the throne in

favor of his third son, Ferdinand, agreeably to treaty, 1759 from 1369 till Yung-lo removed it to Pekin in 1410. On Expulsion of the Jesuits'.

......3 Nov. 1767 4 Aug. 1842, the British ships arrived at Nankin, and Dreadful earthquake in Calabria.

5 Feb. 1783 peace was made. The rebel Tae-pings took it on 19, 20 Enrolment of the lazzaroni (which see) as pikemen or March, 1853. It was recaptured by the imperialists, 19 The king flees on the approach of the French republicans, July, 1864, and found to be in a very desolate condition. who establish the l'arthenopean republic......14 Jan. 1799

29 Oct. 1268

1349

1501

tria. ...

Oct.

1738

1793

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Nelson appears; Naples retaken; the restored king rules Italian refugees, under count Pisaccane, land in Calabria, tyrannically

..June, 1799 are defeated, and their leader killed...27 June-2 July, 1857 Prince Caracciolo tried and executed by order of Nelson, Dreadful earthquake in the Apennines

.........16 Dec. 29 June, Amnesty granted to political offenders..........27 Dec. 1858 The Neapolitans occupy Rome...

..30 Sept. Poerio and 66 companions released and sent to North Dreadful earthquake; thousands perish ..... 26 July, 1805 America, Jan.; on their way they seize the vessel, sail Treaty of neutrality between France and Naples ratified, to Cork, 7 March; and proceed to London. .. 18 March, 1859

9 Oct. Death of Ferdinand II. after dreadful sufferings. . 22 May, Ferdinand, through perfidy, is compelled to flee to Sicily, Diplomatic relations resumed with England and France, 23 Jan.; the French enter Naples, and Joseph Bona

June, parte made king

Feb. 1806 A subscription for Poerio and his companions in England The French defeated at Maida.

..4 July,
amounted to 10,0001...

July, Joseph Bonaparte, after beginning many reforms, abdi- Insubordination among the Swiss troops at Naples, many cates for the crown of Spain

June, 1808 shot, 7 July; major Latour sent to Naples by the Swiss Joachim Murat made king (rules well). ...15 July, Confederation.

......16 July, His first quarrel with Napoleon..

1811 Army increased; defences strengthened.. .........Oct. His alliance with Austria. .

..Jan. 1814 Many political imprisonments; the foreign ambassadors Death of queen Caroline

7 Sept. collectively address a note to the king staiing the neJoachim declares war against Austria. .15 March, 1815 cessity for reform in his states, 26 March; the count of Defeated at Tolentino...

..3 May, Syracuse recommends reform and alliance with EngHe retires to France, 22 May, and Corsica; he madly at

land

.. April, 1860 tempts the recovery of his throne by landing at Pizzo; Garibaldi lands in Sicily, 11 May; defeats the Neapolitan seized, tried, and shot..

..13 Oct.
army at Calatafimi.

15 May, Ferdinand, re-established, soon returns to tyrannical Revolutionary committee at Naples..

..15 June, measures..

June, Francis II. proclaims an amnesty; promises a liberal A plague rages in Naples.

.Nov. 1815-June, 1816 ministry; adopts a tricolor flag, etc... .... 26 June, Establishment of the society of the Carbonari..

1819 Baron Brenier, French ambassador, wounded in his carSuccessful insurrection of the Carbonari under gen. Pépé; riage by the mob...

..... 27 June, the king compelled to swear solemnly to a new consti- A liberal ministry formed; destruction of the commissatution..

13 July, 1820 riat of the police in 12 districts; state of siege proThe Austrians invade the kingdom at the king's instiga- claimed at Naples; the queen-mother flees to Gaeta, tion; gen. Pépé defeated.. .7 March, 1821

28 June, Fall of the constitutional gorernment.. 23 March,

Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans at Melazzo, 20 July; enters Death of Ferdinand (reigned 66 years).

... 4 Jan. 1825 Messina, 21 July; the Neapolitans agree to evacuate [In 30 years, 100,000 Neapolitans perished by various Sicily

30 July, kinds of death.)

The king of Sardinia in vain negotiates with Francis II. Insurrection of the Carbonari suppressed........ .Aug. 1828 for alliance..

...July, Accession of Ferdinand II., Bomba (as faithless and ty. Francis II. proclaims the re-estublishment of the constiturannical as his predecessors)

.8 Nov. 1830 tion of 1848, 2 July; the army proclaim count de Trani Dispute with England respecting the sulphur trade, 1838; king....

.10 July, settled

..May, 1840 Garibaldi lands at Melito, 18 Aug. ; takes Reggio. 21 Aug. Attilio and Emilio Bandiero, with 18 others, attempting Defection in army and navy; Francis II, retires to Gaeta, an insurrection in Calabria, are shot... 17 Jan. 1844 6 Sept. ; Garibaldi enters Naples without troops. 7 Sept.

[The statement that lord Aberdeen had given notice Garibaldi assumes the dictatorship, 8 Sept.; gives up the of this attempt was contradicted by his lordship. ]

Neapolitan fleet to the Sardinian admiral Persano, 11 Prospect of an insurrection in Naples: the king grants a Sept. ; expels the Jesuits; establishes trial by jury; new constitution, with liberal ministry........29 Jan. 1848 releases political prisoners...

...Sept. Great fighting in Naples; the liberals and the national He repulses the Neapolitans at Cajazzo, 19 Sept.; defeats guard almost annihilated by the royal troops, aided by

them at the Volturno

...1 Oct. the la zzaroni.......

.15 May, The king of Sardinia enters the kingdom of Naples, and A martial anarchy prevails; the chiefs of the liberal takes command of his army, which combines with party arrested in. ..Dec. 1849 Garibaldi's

.11 Oct Settembrini, Poerio, Carafa, and others, after a mock Naples unsettled through intrigues..

.Oct. trial, are condemned, and consigned to horrible dun- Cialdini defeats the Neapolitans at Isernia, 17 Oct. ; at geons for life.. ..June, 1850 Venafro...

18 Oct. After remonstrances with the king on his tyrannical gov. The plébiscite at Naples, etc.; almost unanimous vote

ernment (May), the English and French ambassadors for annexation to Piedmont (1,303,064 to 10,312). 21 Oct. are withdrawn

..28 Oct. 1856 Garibaldi meets Victor Emmanuel, and salutes him as Attempted assassination of the king by Milano....8 Dec. king of Italy....

...... 26 Oct. The Cagliari, a Sardinian mail steamboat plying between The first English Protestant church built on ground given Genoa and Tunis, sailed from the former port on 25 by Garibaldi; consecrated

.11 March, 1865 June, 1857, with 33 passengers, who, after a few hours' Cholera raged at Naples....

........autumn, 1866 sail, took forcible possession of the vessel, and com- Great eruption of Vesuvius began

.12 Nov. 1867 pelled the two English engineers (Watt and Park) to Land-slip at Naples; 20 persons engulfed... .28 Jan. 1868 steer to Ponza..

... 25 June, 1857 | Victor Emmanuel, prince of Naples (son of prince Hum. (Here they landed, released some prisoners there, bert), born at Naples....

..11 Nov. 1869 took them on board, and sailed to Sapri, where they Maritime exhibition opened at Naples. .17 April, 1871 again landed, and restored the vessel to its commander Manzo and his band of brigands (said to be the last) deand crew. The latter steered immediately for Naples; stroyed by soldiers...

20 Aug. 1873 but on the way the vessel was boarded by a Neapolitan National exhibition of the fine arts opened at Naples by cruiser, and all the crew were landed and cons'gned to the king.

..8 April, 1877 dungeons, where they remained for nine months wait- Death of Sisto Riario Sforza, cardinal archbishop, a proing for trial, suffering great privations and insults. posed successor to the pope...

..6 Oct. This caused great excitement in England; and, after Antonio Scialoia, statesman and financier, died, aged 61, much negotiation, the crew were released, the vessel

about 17 Oct. given up to the British government, and 30001. given Revival of brigandage, chiefly in the south....July-Aug. 1878 as a compensation to the sufferers.]

(General history under Italy.)

SOVEREIGNS OF NAPLES AND SICILY. 1131. Roger I. (of Sicily, 1130), Norman.

1250. Conrad; son, 1154. William I. the Bad; son.

1254. Conradin, son; but his uncle, 1166. William II. the Good; son.

1258. Manfred, natural son of Frederick II., seizes the govern1189. Tancred, natural son of Roger.

ment; killed at Benevento in 1266. 1194. William 111. son, succeeded by Constance, married to 1266. Charles of Anjou, brother of St. Louis, king of France. Henry VI. of Germany.

(Conradin beheaded, 29 Oct. 1268.] 1197. Frederick II. of Germany (Hohenstaufen).

1282. Insurrection in Sicily.
(Separation of the kingdoms in 1282.)
NAPLES.

SICILY 1282. Charles I. of Anjou.

1282. Peter I. (III. of Aragon). 1285. Charles II. ; son.

1285. James I. (II. of Aragon). 1309. Robert the Wise; brother.

1295. Frederick II. 1343. Joanna (reigns with her husband, Andrew of Hungary), 1337. Peter II.

1343-45; with Louis of Tarento, 1349–62; Joanna put 1342. Louis.
to death (22 May, 1382) by

1355. Frederick III.
1382. Charles 1II., grandson of Charles II.; he becomes king 1376. Maria and Martin (her husband).
of Hungary; assassinated there, 1386.

1402. Martin I. Louis I., titular, crowned.

1409. Martin II. 1385. Louis II., son of Louis I.

1410. Ferdinand I. 1386. Ladislas of Hungary.

1416. Alphonso I. 1414. Joanna II., sister, dies in 1435, and bequeaths her do. minions to Regnier of Anjou. They are acquired by

1435. Alphonso I., thus king of Naples and Sicily.

66

1721 1812 1823

SOVEREIGNS OF NAPLES AND SICILY (continued).

(Separation of Naples and Sicily in 1458.) YAPLES.

SICILY. 1458. Ferdinand I.

1458. John of Aragon. 1494. Alphonso II. abdicates.

1479. Ferdinand the Catholic of Spain. 1495. Ferdinand II. 1496. Frederic II. ; expelled by the French, 1501.

THE CROWNS UNITED. 1503. Ferdinand III. (king of Spain).

1621. Philip III. (IV. of Spain). 1516. Charles I. (V. of Germany).

1665. Charles II. (of Spain). 1556. Philip I. (II. of Spain).

1700. Philip IV. (V. of Spain), Bourbons. 1598. Philip II. (III. of Spain).

1707. Charles III. of Austria.

(Separation in 1713.) YAPLES.

SICILY. 1713. Charles III. of Austria.

1713. Victor Amadeus of Savoy (exchanged Sicily for Sardinia,

1720). THE TWO SICILIES.

(Part of the Empire of Germany, 1720-34.) 1735. Charles IV. (III. of Spain).

| 1759. Ferdinand IV. fled from Naples to Sicily, 1806.

(Separation in 1806.) NAPLES.

SICILY. 1806. Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte.

1803–15. Ferdinand IV. 1808. Joachim Murat, shot 13 Oct. 1815.

THE TWO SICILIES. 1815. Ferdinand I., formerly Ferdinand IV., of Naples and 1859. Francis II., 22 May; born 16 Jan. 1836; last King of Sicily.

NAPLES; deposed; fled 6 Sept. 1860. 1825. Francis I.

1861. Victor Emmanuel II. of Sardinia, as KING OF ITALY, 1830. Ferdinand II., Nov. 8 (termed king Bomba).

March; see Italy, end. Napoléon, Code, see Codes.

war the i uchy was annexed to Prussia by decree, 20 Napoleon Memorial. Subscriptions from the Sept., and possession taken 8 Oct. 1866. Population of royal family and the three services for a statue of prince the duchy in 1865, 468,311. Louis Napoleon (killed in Zululand, 1 June, 1879) were

1788. Count Frederick William made DUKE in 1806.

1814. William George, 20 Aug. closed about 15 July, 1879. The statue was placed in

1839. Adolphus William Charles, born 24 July, 1817. St. George's chapel, Windsor, May, 1881; placing it in Westminster Abbey having been much opposed.

Natal (Cape of Good Hope). Vasco de Gama landed

here on 25 Dec. 1497, and hence named it Terra Natalis. Narbonne (S.E. France), the Roman Narbo Martius, founded 118 B.C., made capital of a Visigothic king- The Zulu power established about.

The Dutch attempted to colonize it about... dom, 462; captured by the Saracens, 720; retaken by Lieut. Farewell, with some emigrants, settled. Pepin le Bref, 759. Gaston de Foix, the last vicomte Capt. Allen Gardiner's treaty with the Zulus.....6 May, 1835 (killed at Ravenna, 11 April, 1512), resigned it to the king Dutch republíc, Natalia, set up; put down by the Brit

12 May, 1842 in exchange for the duchy of Nemours. Many councils Natal annexed to the British possessions.........8 Aug 1843 held here, 589-1374.

Made a bishopric (Dr. John Wm. Colenso, bishop), 1853; and an independent colony....

1856 Narceine And Narcotine, alkaloids obtained from Attempts to depose bishop Colenso for unsound doctrine Opium (which see). Narceine was discovered by Pelle- having failed, the rev. W. R. Macrorie was sent out as tier in 1832; and narcotine by Derosne in 1803.

bishop of Maritzburg, to act with the clergy opposed to their bishop..

Dec. 1868 Narva (Esthonia, Russia). Here Peter the Great of

(See Church of England, 1863-8.)

1871 Russia was totally defeated by Charles XII. of Sweden, Alleged insurrection of Caffres under Langalibalele quick

A bishop of Zululand appointed.. then in his nineteenth year, 30 Nov. 1700. The army of ly suppressed...

.Nov. Dec. 1873 * Peter is said to have amounted to 60,000, some Swedes He and others were tried, it was said illegally, and pun. affirm 100,000 men, while the Swedes were about 20,000.

ished with imprisonment; he is sent to Robben Island....

.4 Aug. 1874 Charles attacked the enemy in his intrenchments, and Bishop Colenso came to England to advocate his case... slew 18,000; 30,000 surrendered. He had several horses Sir Garnet Wolseley sent as temporary governor, Feb. ; shot under him. He said, “ These people seem disposed

Langalibalele released, and placed under surveillance

out of the colony, sir Garnet returns............ Aug. 1875 to give me exercise.” Narva was taken by Peter in Governors of Natal: Robert Wm. Keate, 1867; Anthony 1704.

Musgrave, 1873; sir Benjamin C. C. Pine, 1874; sir H.

Ernest Bulwer, Sept. 1878 ; sir Garnet Wolseley, May, Naseby (Northamptonshire), the site of a decisive

1879; sir George Pomeroy Colley, May, 1880; killed at victory over Charles I. by the parliament army under the battle of Majuba Hill..

27 Feb. 1881 Fairfax and Cromwell. The main body of the royal Population, 326,957 (20,490 whites), 1876. army was commanded by lord Astley ; prince Rupert

(For the war, see Zululand, 1879.) led the right wing, sir Marmaduke Langdale the left, National Academy of Design, New York city, and the king himself headed the body of reserve. The founded 1826. king fled, losing his cannon, baggage, and nearly 5000 National Anthem, see God save the King. prisoners, 14 June, 1645.

National Assembly, FRENCH. Upon the propoNashville (Tennessee, U. S.) was occupied by the sition of the abbé Sieyès, the states-general of France confederates in 1861, and taken by the federals, 23 Feb. constituted themselves the National Assembly, 17 June, 1862. Near here the confederates under Hood were 1789. On the 20th the hall of this new assembly was defeated by the federals under Thomas, 14 - 16 Dec. shut by order of the king; upon which the deputies of 1864.

the tiers état repaired to the Jeu de Paume, or TennisNassau, a German duchy, made a county by the court, and swore not to dissolve until they had digested emperor Frederick I. about 1180, for Wolfram, a descend- a constitution for France. On the 22d they met at the ant of Conrad I. of Germany; from whom are descended church at St. Louis. This assembly abolished the state the royal house of Orange now reigning in Holland (see religion, annulled monastic vows, divided France into Orange and Ilollund), and the present duke of Nassau. departments, sold the national domains, established a Wiesbaden was made the capital in 1839. On 25 April, national bank, issued assignats, and dissolved itself 21 1860, the Nassau chamber strongly opposed the conclu- Sept. 1792; see National Convention. In 1818 the legission of a concordat with the pope, and claimed liberty lature was again termed the National Assembly. It met of faith and conscience. The duke adopted the Aus- 4 May, and a new constitution was proclaimed, 12 Nov. trian motion at the German diet, 14 June, and after the A new constitution was once more proclaimed by Louis

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