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Napoleon in Jan. 1852, after dissolving the National As- | 1870. Funded debt...

.£741,514,681 Unfunded..

6,761,600 sembly, 2 Dec. 1851. The present French National As

1871. Funded debt.

732,013,270 sembly was elected 8 Feb., and met 13 Feb. 1871; see Unfunded...

6,091,000 France.

1872. Funded debt.

731, 756,962 Unfunded.

5,155, 100 National Assembly, German, see Germany, 1873. Funded debt.

727,374,082 1848.

Unfunded..

4,829, 100 1874. Funded debt..

723,614,005 National Associations. One was formed in Unfunded..

4,479,600 1584, headed by the earl of Leicester, to protect queen

1875. Funded debt..

714,797,715 Elizabeth from assassination, in consequence of the dis- 1876. Funded debt.

Unfunded.

5,239,000

713,657,517 covery of various plots. Another for the defence of Will

Unfunded.

*11, 401,800 iam III. against assassins was established in 1696, of 1877. Funded debt.

712,621,355

Unfunded.. which all persons holding office under government were

*13,943,800 1878. Funded debt..

710,843,007 required to be members; see Aid to Sick and Wounded,

Unfunded.

*20,603,000 Artillery, Colonies, Employers, Farmers, Social Science, 1879. Funded debt.

709,430,693 and Volunteers for other national associations.

Unfunded.

25,870,100 1880. Funded debt.

710.476,359 National Benevolent Institution, established Unfunded.

27,344,900 1812, incorporated 1859. Pensions are granted to de

(Exclusive of terminable annuities, estimated 1867, cayed gentry, and to professional people, teachers, and

27,521,5131. ; 1872, 55, 749,070l. ; 1876, 51,911,2271. ;

1878, 46,335,5891.] others in reduced circumstances.

Sir Stafford Northcote's act provides the annual charge of

28,000,0001.; the surplus to be devoted to the reduction of National Convention of France, constituted in

the debt-1876. the hall of the Tuileries 17 Sept, and formally opened 21 The annual interest in 1850 was 23,862, 2571. ; and the total inSept. 1792, when M. Grégoire, at the head of the National terest, including annuities, amounted to 27,699,7401. On 1 Assembly, announced that that assembly bad ceased its

Jan. 1851, the total unredeemed debt of Great Britain and

Ireland was 769,272,5621., the charge on which for interest functions. It was then decreed “ That the citizens and management was 27,620,4491. The total charge on the named by the French people to form the National Con- debt for interest and management, 1872, 26,839, 6011. vention, being met to the number of 371, after having

ESTIMATED FOREIGN NATIONAL DEBTS, 1872. verified their powers, declare that the National Conven- France. £748,000,000 Holland. . £80,000,000 tion is constituted." This convention continued until a Italy:

360,000,000 Portugal..

64,000,000 Russia

355,000,000 Belgium. new constitution was organized, and the Executive Di

27,000,000 Austria.. 306,000,000 Greece

18,000,000 rectory was installed at the Little Luxembourg, 1 Nov. Spain.

261,000,000 Roumania.

13,000 1795; see Directory. The Chartists (which see) in Eng- Turkey. 124,000,000 Denmark...

12,000 land formed a National Convention in 1839.

National Debt OF THE UNITED STATES. The National Debt. The first mention of parliamen- following statement shows the amount of the national tary security for a debt of the nation occurs in the reign debt of the United States on 1 Jan. of each year until of Henry VI. The present national debt may be said 1843, and on 1 July in each year since that time: to have commenced in the reign of William III., 1689.

1 Jan.

1837.

$336,957.83 It amounted, in 1697, to about tive millions sterling, and 1791.

$75,463,476.52 1838.

3,308,124.07 was then thought to be of alarming magnitude. The sole 1792

77, 227,924.66 1839.

10,434,221.14 cause of the increase has been war. By an act passed 1793.

80,352, 634.04 1840.

3,573,343.82 1794,

78,427,404.77 1841 31 May, 1867, the conversion of 24,000,0001. of the debt

5,250,875.54 1795. 80,747,587.39 1842.

13,594, 480.73 into terminable annuities was provided for. The law is 1796.

83,762, 172.07 1843,

20,601, 226.28 consolidated by the National Debt act, passed 9 Aug.

1797
82,064, 479.33

1 July,

1798. 1870; amended by act passed 2 Aug. 1875; see Sinking

79,228,529.12 1843..

32,742,922.00 1799. 78, 408, 669.77 1844.

23,461, 652.50 Fund.

Debt.
1800
82,976, 294.35 1845.

15,925, 303.01 1689. William III..

£664,263
1801.
83,038,050.80 1846.

15,550,202.97 1702. Anne...

16,394,702
1802.
80,712,632.25 1847.

38,826,534.77 1714. George I..

54, 145,363
1803
77,054, 686.30 1848.

47,044,862.23

1804 1763. George III.(end of Seven Years' war), nearly 138,865,430

86,427, 120.88 1849.

63,061,858.69 1786. After American war.

249,851, 628
1805.
82,312, 150.50 1850.

63,452, 773.55 1793. Beginning of French war..

244,440,306
1806.
75,723, 270.66 1851.

68,304, 796.02 1802. Close of French war.

571,000,000
1807
69,218,398.64 | 1852.

66,199,341.71 1817. English and Irish exchequers consolidated, 848, 282, 477

1809.
65, 196, 317.97 1853.

69,803, 117.70 1830. Total amount

840,184,022
1809.
57,023, 192.09 1854.

42, 242, 222. 42 1840. Ditto

789,578,720
1810.
53,173, 217.52 1855.

35,586,956,56 1850. Ditto..

787,029, 162
1811.
48,005,587.76 1856..

31,972,537.90 1854. Ditto

775,041,272
1812.
45,209,737.90 | 1857.

28,699,831.85 (31 March)

1813.
55,962,827.57 1858.

44,911,881.03 1865. Ditto,

793,375, 199
1814.
81,487,846.24 1859.

58,496,837.88 1856. Ditto

807,981, 788
1815.
99,833,660.15 | 1860.

64,842,287.88 1857. Funded debt.

780,119,722
1816.
127,334,933.74 1861.

90,580,873.72 Unfunded.

27,989,000
1817.
123,491,965.16 1862.

624,176,412.13 1858. Funded debt.

779, 225, 495
1818..
103, 466,633.83 1863

1,119,772, 138.63 Unfunded..

25,911,500
1819.

95,529,648.28 1864. 1,815,784,370.57 1859. Funded debt.

786, 801, 154
1820.

91,015,566.15 1865. 2,680,647,869.74 L'ofunded.

18,277,400
1821.

89,987,427.66 1866. 2,773,236,173.69 1860. Funded debt.

785,962,000
1822

93,546,676.98 1867. 2,678, 126, 103.87 l'nfunded..

1823.
16,228,300
90,875,877.28 1868

2,611,687,851.19 1861. Funded debt.

785,119,609
1824
90,269,777.77 1869.

2,588, 452, 213.94 Unfunded..

16,689,000
1825.
83,788,432.71 | 1870.

2,480,672, 427.81 1862. Funded debt.

784,252,338
1826.

81,054,059.99 1871. 2,353,211,332.32 l'nfunded..

16,517.900
1827.

73,987,357.20 1872, 2, 253, 251,328.78 1863. Funded debt.

783,306,739
1828.

67,475, 043.87 1873. 2.234, 482,993. 20 l'nfunded..

16,495,400
1829

58,421, 413.67 | 1874. 2,251,690,468.43 1864. Funded debt.

777,429,224
1830.

48,565, 406.50 1875.. 2,232,284,531.95 l'nfunded..

13.136.000
1831
39,123,191.68 1876.

2,180,395,067.15 1865. Funded debt.

775, 768, 295
1832.

24,322, 235.18 1877. 2, 205,301,392. 10 l'nfunded..

7,001,698.83 1878. 2,256, 205, 892.53 1866. Funded debt.

773,313, 229
1834.

4,760,082.08 1879. .... 2,349,567, 482.04 t'pfunded..

1835. 8,187,700

37,733,05 1880... 2.120,415,370.63 1867. Funded debt..

769,541,004
1836...

37,513,05 | 1881........ 2,069,013,569.58 Unfunded...

7,956,800 The following statement of the various refunding operations 1868. Funded debt.

741, 190,328 of the national treasury is compiled from the article " Re. Unfunded.

7,911,100 1869. Funded debt..

740,418,032

* Including Suez Canal bonds, 1876, 4,000,0002. ; 1877, 3,990,Unfunded..

8,896, 100 000l. ; 1878, 3,929, 2002.

10,742,500 1833..

funding the National Debt" in " Appletons Annual Cy. On 4 April, 1879, subscriptions to the 4-per-cent. loan were reclopædia" for 1879:

ceived, amounting to more than $132,000,000. About half The house of representatives passed a resolution, 21 Sept. of these subscriptions were rejected, and the sales ceased.

1789, directing the secretary of the treasury to prepare a On 16 April, 1879, $150,000,000 of the 4-per-cents. and $15,000,plan for supporting the public credit. In response, the sec- 000 of refunding certiticates were offered, the bonds at a

retary (Hamilton) submitted his first report, 9 Jan. 1790. premium of one half of 1 per cent., and 4-per-cents. were The first refunding act, drawn in accordance with Hainilton's also offered in exchange for ten-forties, Within two days

suggestions, was approved 4 Aug. 1790. Under this act the the subscriptions exceeded the offering by nearly $35,000,000. state debts, and the foreign and domestic debt of the nation, A subscription for $10,000,000 of the certificates was also were consolidated and refunded in three classes of bonds. declined, in order that the loans might be distributed widely The proceeds of the loans authorized being insufficient to among the people. For that purpose restrictions were placed refund the whole debt, a new loan was authorized by act of upon the sale of the certificates, which was completed in congress, approved 3 March, 1795.

June, 1879. The next refunding operation was undertaken in 1807. An This finished the work of refunding all the interest-bearing

act for the conversion of the various outstanding stocks obligations of the government which were then subject to into a new 6-per-cent. stock was approved 13 Feb. 1807. redemption. It was accomplished without loss to the gov. The holders of the old bonds did not respond to the offers ernment or the least disturbance of the business of the

made them, except in part, and the scheme partially failed. country. The result has been to make an annual saving of The next refunding operation occurred in 1812. An act for

$19,900,846.50 in interest. the conversion of the old 6-per-cent, and deferred stocks into a new 6-per-cent. stock was approved 6 July, 1812. National Dramatic Academy was proposed About $3,000,000 was converted under this act.

by prof. H. Morley and others in 1879. The next effort was made in 1822, when an act was approved,

20 April, authorizing the issue of a 5.per-cent. stock in ex- National Gallery, London, began with the purchange for the outstanding 6 and 7 per cent, stocks. This chase, by the British government, of the Angerstein

atteipt failed almost entirely. The next effort was made in 1824, under an act approved 26 collection of 38 pictures, for 57,0001., in 1824. The first

May, authorizing a 4. per-cent, bond. This was only in exhibition of them took place in Pall Mall on 10 May, part successful, and a new attempt was made the next year, 1824. Sir G. Beaumont (1826), Mr. Holwell Carr (1831), under an act approved 3 March, 1825. failed, chiefly because the rate of interest offered (4} per stitution, contributed many fine pictures; and the col

This scheme also and many other gentlemen, as well as the British Incent.) was too low. No further attempts were made at that time to refund the lection has been since greatly augmented by gifts and debt; but it matured and was paid during the next ten

purchases. The present edifice in T'rafalgar Square, years, the whole being practically extinguished in 1836. A vew debt grew up in the years following, and in 1861 it designed by Mr. Wilkins, was completed and opened 9

amounted to'$90,580,873.72. During the civil war this debt April, 1838. In July, 1857, a commission appointed to was swelled enormously, until, on 31 Aug. 1865, the interest: consider the propriety of removing the pictures reported bearing portion amounted to $2,381,530, 291.96. This debt in favor of their remaining in their present locality; and was represented by bonds, as follows:

in 1860, 15,0001. were voted to be expended in adapting Four-per-cents..

$618,127.98 Five-per-cents..

69, 175,727.65

the central part of the building to exhibition purposes. Six-per-cents.

1,281,736,439.33 On 11 May, 1861, the National Gallery was reopened Seven-and-three-tenth per cents.... 830,000,000.00 after having been closed 8 months, during which time Some of these bonds were paid, and others converted into great improvements were made in the internal arrangethe five-twenty consols of 1865, 1867, and 1868, bearing 6 per ments. On 19 June, 1865, the house of commons voted cent. interest. Refunding at lower rates of interest was 20,0001. to buy land to enlarge the building, and an act clearly impossible until the credit of the government should be established more firmly than it was then, when the 6-per- for this purpose was passed 15 July, 1866. Visitors in cent, bonds were sold in the market below par.

1866, 775,901; in 1871, 911,658; sum voted for year The needed improvement of credit may be said to have been 1867-8, 15,895l.; for 1876, 20,0981. Legacy from Francis

begun by the passage of the act of 18 March, 1869, pledging William Clarke, about 24,0001., fell in 1880; 1880, pictthe faith of the government for the payment of the debt in coin.

ures 1040. The first post bellum refunding act was approved 14 July, 1870, Sir Charles Eastlake, director, 1850; sir William Boxall, 1866;

and a further, amendatory, act was approved 20 Jan. 1871. The best classes of our 6-per-cent. bonds were still held at a

Frederick W. Burton, 1874; C. L. Eastlake. Feb. 1878. considerable discount in 1870; but the improvement was so

A parliamentary return gives a list of pictures presented to or rapid that the secretary of the treasury (Boutwell) gave no.

purchased for the National Gallery-284 presented, 256 be. tice on 28 Feb. 1871 of his purpose to open subscriptions for

queathed, and 313 purchased. The cost of the 313 pur. a new 5-per-cent, lo under the refunding act.

chases, which has been spread over 45 years, has been 254,

The books were opened on 6 March, and by 1 Aug. the subscriptions

5271. Up to 1871, 337,1951. had been expended. The Peel received amounted to $65,775,550. Early in that month

collection (70 pictures), bought for 75,0001., spring, 1871. the syndicate” arrangement was made, under which an

The "Congress of Munster, ' a masterpiece of Terburg (valassociation of bankers took the remainder of the $200,000,

ued at 72801. in 1868), presented by sir Richard Wallace, Oct.

1871. 000 offered, and the whole transaction was completed before Mr. Wynn Ellis (a silk-merchant, born July, 1780; died 27 Nov.

1 April, 1872. Further sales of 5-per-cent. bonds were made under new

1875) bequeathed about 800 pictures to the National Gallery offers, until the whole amount authorized by the act, viz.,

on certain conditions. Reopened; new galleries erected by $500,000,000, had been sold and a like amount of 6-per-cent.

E. Barry; pictures rearranged, Aug. 1876. bonds retired. On 24 Aug. 1876 the secretary of the treasury (Morrill) entered

National Guard or FRANCE was instituted by into a contract with bankers for the sale of $300,000,000 of the Committee of Safety at Paris on 13 July, 1789 (the 44 percent. bonds for refunding purposes of this sum there day before the destruction of the Bastile), to maintain was sold, before 4 March, 1877, about $90,000,000, and that order and defend the public liberty. Its first colors were amount of 6-per-cent. bonds was retired. On 6 April, sec. retary Sherman, who had succeeded to the treasury, au

blue and red, to which white was added, when its formanounced his intention to withdraw the 41-per-cent. loan from tion was approved by the king. Its action was soon the market as soon as $200,000,000 should be sold, and be paralyzed by the revolution, and it ceased altogether fore 1 July, 1877, this amount had been taken. Of the pro- under the consulate and empire. It was revived by ceeds $15,000,000 was applied to the resumption of specie Napoleon in 1814, and maintained by Louis XVIII., but

payments, the remainder to the retirement of old bonds. On 9 June, 1877, the first contract for the sale of 4-per-cent. was broken up by Charles X., after a tumultuous review

bonds was made. For 30 days this loan was kept open to in 1827. It was revived in 1830, and helped to place the public, under agreement with the bankers contracting for it, and during that time $75,496,550 was taken, of which Louis Philippe on the throne. In 1848 its reconstitu*25,000,000 were applied to resumption purposes. At the tion and its enlargement from 80,000 to 100,000 men led end of the calendar year, 1878, there had been sold for re- to the frightful conflict of June, 1818. Its constitution

funding $173,085, 450 of 4-per-cent. bonds. The fear that refunding operations would cause an outflow of

was entirely changed in Jan. 1852, when it was subjected gold to Europe in payment of called bonds led the secre entirely to the control of the government. Formerly it tary to make a contract, 21 Jan. 1879, by which $5,000,000 had many privileges, such as choosing their own officers, of the 4 per cents. was to be taken to England each month.

etc. In consequence of the defection of part of the NaAn act of congress, approved 25 Jan. 1879, authorized the ex. tional Guard and the incompetency of the rest during change of 4- per cent. congols of 1907 for equal amounts of 6. the outbreak in Paris in 1871, its gradual abolition was per cent. five-twenty bonds, upon terms favorable to the decreed by the national assembly at Versailles (488holders. Refunding certificates of the denomination of $10, designed to popularize the loan, were authorized by act of 15t), 24 Aug. 1871. The peaceful disarmament began congress, approved 26 Feb. 1879.

in September. National Guards have been established in Spain, Naples, and other countries during the present observed by the Protestants at all. Pope Sergius I., century.

about 690, established the latter, but it was not generNational Health Society, founded in 1873 for ally received in France and Germany till about 1000 ; the collection and diffusion of sanitary knowledge, by The festival of the nativity of St. John the Baptist, 24

nor by the Eastern Christians till the twelfth century. lectures and otherwise.

June, Midsummer-day, is said to have been instituted in National Opera - house, N. Thames Embank- 488. ment; Mr. Mapleson, proprietor; Mr. F. H. Fowler, archi

Natural History was studied by Solomon, 1014 tect; Mr. Wm. Webster, contractor. First brick laid by B.C. (1 Kings iv. 33); Aristotle (384-322 B.C.); by TheoMlle. Tietjens, 7 Sept.; first stone laid by the duke of phrastus (394–297 B.C.); and by Pliny (23-79 A.D.); see Edinburgh, 16 Dec. 1875. Failure of the scheme re

Botany, Zoology, etc. ported, Nov. 1877. Scheme that the works to be resumed Nov. 1878; agreed to Jan. 1880.

Natural Philosophy, see Philosophy. National Portrait Exhibitions proposed by

Natural Selection, see Species. the earl of Derby, earl Granville, and others, at a meet- Naturalism, a realistic style in literature, mainly ing in London, 13 July, 1865. They were held in what introduced by Balzac, 1829 et seq. had been the refreshment- room of the exhibition of Edmond and Jules de Goncourt published Medical and 1862 at South Kensington. The first was opened 16 Physiological Novels," 1846 et seq. April; closed 18 Aug. 1866; second, opened 3 May; Emile Zola, in his "Rougon - Macquart” series, 1871 et seq..

portrayed deformed and diseased rather than true nature. closed 31 Aug. 1867; third, opened 13 April; closed 22

A dramatized form of his "Assommoir," entitled " Drink, Aug. 1868.

was much performed in London in 1879. National Portrait Gallery was determined on Naturalization is defined to be “the making a in Feb. 1857, in pursuance of votes from both houses of foreigner or alien a denizen or freeman of any kingdom parliament. The sum of 20001. was appropriated for the or city, and so becoming, as it were, both a subject and a purchase of portraits of persons eminent in British his native of a king or country that by nature he did not tory. Donations are received under certain restrictions. belong to." The first act of naturalization passed in The gallery, Gt. George street, Westminster, was opened 1437; and various similar enactments were made in 15 Jan, 1859. The collection was removed to South

most of the reigns from that time; several of them Kensington, Dec. 1869, and reopened 28 March, 1870. special acts relating to individuals. An act for the A valuable collection of national portraits appeared at naturalization of the Jews passed May, 1753 ; but was the Manchester Exhibition in 1857.

repealed in 1754, on the petition of all the cities in EngNational Schools, see Education and Music, 1873. land; see Jeu's, for the privileges since granted them. National Society for Promoting the Education Vict., 7 Feb. 1840.

The act for the naturalization of prince Albert passed, 3 of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church naturalization laws, appointed May, 1868, earl of Claren

A comınittee to inquire into the of England, founded 1811; incorporated 1817. About 13,000 schools and a million scholars are connected with don chairman, met 25 Oct. 1868; reported about Feb.

1869; and new acts for this purpose were passed 12 May, it. Office : Sanctuary, Westminster. Training colleges :

1870, and 25 July, 1872. In 1870 there were about St. Mark's, Chelsea, Whitelands, and Battersea.

9500 Americans in England, and about 2,500,000 British National Testimonials (subscribed for) were subjects in the United States of America. By the new presented to Rowland Hill (for his exertions in obtain- act the latter were enabled to renounce their allegiance; ing the penny postage), 17 June, 1846 ; and to Miss and by the convention signed 3 Feb. 1871, the nationality Florence Nightingale (for her beneficent exertions for of British subjects was made dependent on choice and the sufferers during the Crimean war), 29 Nov. 1855.

not on birth. National Thrift Society, formed at Oxford in the first American naturalization law passed by the colo. 1878. Meetings have been held at the Mansion-house, Naturalization authorized by law in Virginia, 1671; in

1666 London, 1880 et seq.

New York, 1683; in South Carolina, 1693; in MassaNational Trade Society, formed in June, 1871,

chusetts.

1731 to watch over and secure the interests of traders, and General law in New York.

Act passed by British parliament for colonial naturalizapromote amendments in the law affecting commercial interests. President, W. H. Smith, M.P. Civil-service Uniform national law on the subject passed by Congress, trading, the income tax, and international exhibitions Supreme Court decided that the power to make laws on

26 March, 1790 have been considered by the committee.

this subject belongs exclusively to the national governNational Training School for Music, South Kensington, founded by the duke of Edinburgh, 18 Dec.

Nature, a weekly illustrated journal of science, 1873; opened by him, 17 May, 1876.

first appeared 4 Nov. 1869; editor, Mr. Joseph Norman National Union was formed in 1869 to combine a Lockyer, F.R.S. number of associations supporting the Conservative

Nature - printing. This process consists in imparty. Lecturers were employed and pamphlets circu- pressing objects, such as plants, mosses, feathers, etc., into lated. The party was termed Nationalists in Aug. 1871. plates of metal, causing these objects, as it were, to enIt included the dissatisfied of various parties.

grave themselves; and afterwards taking casts or copies National Union Convention, see United States, tit for printing from. Kniphoff of Erfurt, between 1728 1866.

and 1757, produced his Ilerbarium vivum by pressing the National Workshops, see Atéliers Nationaux, plants themselves (previously inked) on paper; the im

pressions being afterwards colored by hand. In 1833, Nationality, a word much used since 1818. In Poland, Hungary, Italy, and Germany, the struggle for lead plaies. In 1842 Mr. Taylor printed lace.

Peter Kyhl, of Copenhagen, made use of steel rollers and

In 1847 nationality has been long and severe. In 1866, agita- Mr. Twining printed ferns, grasses, and plants; and in tion for this principle began in Bohemia, Slavonia, and the same year Dr. Branson suggested the application of other parts of the Austrian empire. The nationality of electrotyping to the impressions. In 1849, professor Ireland is the alleged basis of the Fenian agitation ; see Leydolt of Vienna, by the able assistance of Mr. Andrew Ireland, 1870, and Ilome Government.

Worring, obtained impressions of agates and fossils. The Nativity. There are three festivals in the Roman first practical application of this process is in Von Heuand Greek churches, under this name. The Nativity Her's work on the mosses of Arpasch, in Transylvania; of Christ, also observed by the Protestants on 25 Dec. the second (the first in this country) in “ The Ferns of (see Christmas); the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, not I Great Britain and Ireland," edited by Dr. Lindley, the

1715

tion.

1740

ment.

1817

illustrations to which were prepared under the superiu- of which are taken or destroyed, 23 Nov.; the Dutch tendence of Mr. Henry Bradbury in 1855-6, who also,

admiral sails in triumph through the Channel with a

broom at his mast-head, to denote that he had swept in 1859-60, printed “The British Seaweeds," edited by the English from the seas..... ..........29 Nov. 1652 W. G. Johustone and Alex. Croall. The process was The English gain a victory over the Dutch fleet off Portsapplied to buttertlies by Joseph Merrin, of Gloucester, in

mouth, taking and destroying 11 men-of-war and 30

merchantmen. Van Tromp was the Dutch, and Blake 1864,

the English admiral...

.18-20 Feb. 1653 Naturforscher - Gesellschaft, see German Again, off the North Foreland. The Dutch and English Union.

fleets consisted of near 100 men-of-war each. Van

Tromp commanded the Dutch; Blake, Monk, and Nauvoo (Illinois), a city of the Mo pons (which

Deane, the English. Six Dutch ships taken, 11 sunk, see); founded 1840; left 1818.

and the rest ran into Calais roads,

.2 June,

Again, on the coast of Holland; the Dutch lose 30 men. Naval Architects' Institute was established of war, and admiral Tromp was killed (the seventh and in Jan. 1860.

last battle)..

.31 July.

At Cadiz, when two galleons, worth 2,000,000 pieces of Naval Architecture. A scientific committee of

eight, were taken by Blake..

.Sept. 1656 fifteen appointed to consider the present state of naval Spanish tleet vanquished, and burned in the harbor of architecture, and the requirements of naval warfare; English and French: 130 of the Bordeaux fleet destroyed

.20 April, 1657 six naval officers, nine scientific men; lord Dufferin

by the duke of York (afterwards James II.)....4 Dec. 1664 chairman; about 19 Dec. 1870. A royal school of naval The duke of York defeats the Dutch fleet off Harwich; architecture established at South Kensington in 1864,

Opdam, the Dutch admiral, blown up with all his crew; merged into the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.

18 capital ships taken, 14 destroyed.... ...3 June, 1663

The earl of Sandwich took 12 men-of-war and 2 India Naval Artillery Volunteer Force, Royal, ships..

.4 Sept. established by act passed 5 Aug. 1873.

A contest between the Dutch and English fleets for four

days. The English lose 9, and the Dutch 15 ships, Naval Asylum, Royal, begun at Paddington in

1-4 June, 1666 1801, was transferred to Greenwich in 1807. The inte- Decisive engagement at the mouth of the Thames; the

English gain a glorious victory. The Dutch lose 24 rior of the central portion of the building was commenced men-of-war, 4 admirals killed, and 4000 soamen, in 1613 by Anne, queen of James I., and completed in

25, 26 July, 1635 by queen Henrietta Maria, whose arms still adorn The Dutch admiral De Ruyter sails up the Thames and

.11 June, 1667 the ceiling of the room in which her son Charles II. was Twelve Algerine ships of war destroyed by sir Edward born, 1630.

Spragg.

.10 May, 1671 Naval Asylum of THE UNITED STATEs, near Coast of Holland; by prince Rupert, 28 May, 4 June, and

Battle of Southwold bay (see Solebay).

..28 May, 1672 Philadelphia, established 1835.

11 Aug., sir E. Spragg killed; D'Estrées and Ruyter de. feated..

1673 Naval Battles. The Argonautic expedition, Of Beachy Head; the English and Dutch defeated by the undertaken by Jason, is the first upon record, 1263 B.C. French under Tourville.

.30 June, 1600 -- Dufresnoy. The first sea-fight on record is that be- Who is defeated by them near Cape La Hogue, tween the Corinthians and Corcyreans, 664 B.C.-Blair. or St. Vincent; the English and Dutch squadrons, under

19 May, 1602 The following are among the most celebrated naval admiral Rooke, defeated by the French......16 June, 1393 engagements (for the details of which, see separate Off Carthagena, between admiral Benbow and the French articles):

fleet, commanded by admiral Du Casse. Fought

19 Aug. 1702 Battle of Salamis (Greek victory).. .B.C. 20 Oct. 480 | The other ships of the squadron, falling astern, left BenBattle of Eurymedon (ditto)...

466 bow alone to maintain the battle. A chain-shot shat. Battle of Cyzicus; the Lacedæmonian fleet taken by Al. tered his leg, yet he would not be removed from the cibiades, the Athenian..

410 quarter-deck, but continued fighting till the morning, Battle of Arginusæ..

406 when the French sheered off. He died in Oct. follow. Battle of Ægospotamos (Spartans victors).

405 ing, of his wounds, at Jamaica, where, soon after bis The Persian fleet, under Conon, defeats the Spartan, arrival, he received a letter from the French admiral,

at Cnidos; Pisander, the Athenian admiral, is killed, of which the following is a translation:
and the maritime power of the Lacedæmonians de-
stroyed..

394

"Carthagena, 22 Aug. 1702. Battle of Mylæ (Romans defeat Carthaginians)

260 "Sir, I had little hopes on Monday last but to The Roman fleet, off Trepanum, destroyed by the Cartha

have supped in your cabín; yet it pleased God to or. ginians.

249

der it otherwise. I am thankful for it. As for those The Carthaginian fleet destroyed by the consul Lutatius, 241 cowardly captains who deserted you, hang them up, Battle of Actium.

31 for, by G-d, they deserve it.

Du Casse." The emperor Claudius II. defeats the Goths, and sinks 2000 of their ships .

269 Capts. Kirby and Wade were shot on their arrival at Battle of Lepanto (Turks defeated)

7 Oct. 1571 Plymouth, having been previously tried by a courtBay of Gibraltar; Dutch and Spaniards (a bloody conflict

martial. and decisive victory, giving for a time the superiority Sir George Rooke defeats the French fleet off Vigo to the Dutch).... . 25 April, 1607 (which see).

.12 Oct. The Austrians defeat the Italians at Lissa (see Lissa), ON Malaga; bloody engagement between the French, un

20 July, 1866 der the count of Thoulouse, and the English, under sir George Rooke.

.13 Aug. 1704 XAVAL ENGAGEMENTS IN BRITISH HISTORY.

At Gibraltar; French lose 5 men-of-war. ........5 Nov. [Hallam considers that the naval glory of England In the Mediterranean, admiral Leake took 60 French vescan first be traced "in a continuous track of light"

sels, laden with provisions.

22 May, 1708 from the period of the Commonwealth.)

Spanish fleet of 29 sail totally defeated by sir George Alfred, with 10 galleys, defeated 300 sail of Danish pirates Byng, in the Faro of Messina..

.31 July, 1718 on the Dorset and Hampshire coast (Asser's Life of Bloody battle off Toulon; Matthews and Lestock against Alfred).

897 the fleets of France and Spain. Here brave capt. Edward III. defeats the French near Sluys......24 June, 1340 Cornewall fell with 42 men, including officers; and the Off Winchelsea; Edward III. defeated the Spanish fleet victory was lost by a misunderstanding between the of 40 large ships, and captured 26... .29 Aug. 1350 English admirals ..

.11 Feb. 1743-4 The English and Flemings; the latter signally defeated.. 1371 of Cape Finisterre; the French fleet of 38 sail taken by Earl of Arundel defeats a Flemish fleet of 100 sail; and

admiral Anson.

.3 May, 1747 captures 80...

.24 March, 1387 Off Finisterre; when admiral Hawke took 7 men-of-war Near Milford Haven; the English take 8, and destroy 15

of the French.

.....14 Oct. French ships.

1405 of Newfoundland; when admiral Boscawen took 2 men. Off Harfleur; the duke of Bedford takes or destroys near

...10 June, 1755 ly 500 French ships.

.15 Aug. 1416 Off Cape Françoise; 7 ships defeated by 3 English, In the Downs; a Spanish and Genoese fleet captured by

21 Oct. 1757 the earl of Warwick

1459 Admiral Pocock defeats the French fleet in the East InBay of Biscay, English and French, indecisive..10 Aug. 1512 dies, in two actions, 1758, and again.

1759 Sir Edward Howard attacks the French under Prior Admiral Boscawen defeats the French under De la Clue, John; repulsed and killed.... . 25 April, 1513 off Cape Lagos...

..18 Aug. The Spanish Armada destroyed.. .......19 July, 1588 Admiral Hawke defeats the French fleet, commanded Dover straits; the Dutch admiral Van Tromp defeated by

by Conflans, in Quiberon Bay, and thus prevents a admiral Blake, 28 Sept. The Dutch surprise the Eng. projected invasion of England (sce Quiberon Bay), lish in the Downs, 80 sa l engaging 40 English, several

20 Nov.

.A.D.

of-war...

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Keppel took 3 French frigates and a flect of merchant. Admiral Duckworth effects the passage of the Darda-
men...
.9 Oct. 1762 nelles (see Dardanelles)

.19 Feb. 1807 On Lake Champlain the provincial force totally destroyed Copenhagen fleet captured..

..8 Sept. by admiral Howe..

.11 Oct. 1776 The Russian fleet of several sail, in the Tagus, surrenders Capt. Sam. Marshall, of "the saucy Arethusa,'' 32 guns

to the British

.3 Sept. 1808 (part of Keppel's fleet), summoned La Belle Poule to Aix or Basque Roads; 4 sail of the line, etc., destroyed surrender off Ushant, and fired across her bow; after

by lord Gambier..

11, 12 April, 1809 two hours' conflict, the French made sail and escaped, Two Russian flotillas of numerous vessels taken or de. 16 or 17 June, 1778 stroyed by sir J. Saumarez.

...July, Off Ushant; a drawn battle between Keppel and D’Orvil. French ships of the line driven on shore by lord Collingliers....

.27 July, wood (two of them burned by the French next day), In New England; the American fleet totally destroyed,

25 Oct. 30 July, 1779 Bay of Rosas, where lieut. Tailour, by direction of capt. Near Cape St. Vincent; admiral Rodney defeated a Span

Hallowell, takes or destroys 11 war and other ressels ish feet under admiral don Langara (see Rodney),

(see Rosas Bay)...

..1 Nov. 16 Jan. 1780 Basseterre; La Loire and La Seine, French frigates, deAt St. Jago; Mons. Suffren defeated by commodore stroyed by sir A. Cochrane,

.18 Dec. Johnstone..

..16 April, 1781 The Spartan frigate gallantly engages a large French Dogger-bank, between admiral Parker and the Dutch ad.

force in the bay of Naples.

.3 May, 1810 miral Zoutman; 400 killed on each side........5 Aug. Action between the Tribune, capt. Reynolds, and 4 Dan. Admiral Rodney defeated the French going to attack

ish brigs. Fought.

.12 May, Jamaica; took 5 ships of the line, and sent the Isle of Rhé; 17 vessels taken or destroyed by the Ar. French admiral, comte de Grasse, prisoner to England,

mide and Cadmus...

. 17 July, 12 April, 1782 | Capt. Barrett, in the merchant-vessel Cumberland, with The British totally defeated the fleets of France and 26 men, defeats four privateers and takes 170 prison. Spain in the Bay of Gibraltar..

.13 Sept.
ers...

16 Jan. 1811 East Indies; a series of actions between sir Edward Twenty-two vessels from Otranto taken by the Cerberus Hughes and Suffren, viz. : 17 Feb. 1782, the French had

and Aclive..

22 Feb. 11 ships to 9; 12 April, they had 18 ships to 11, yet were Off Lissa (which see); brilliant victory gained over a completely beaten. Again, 6 July, off Trincomalee, Franco Venetian squadron by capt. William Hoste, they had 15 to 12, and were again beaten with loss of

13 March, 1000 killed, 3 Sept. 1782; again

..20 June, 1783 | Amazon, French frigate, destroyed off Cape Barneur, Lord Howe defeated the French of Ushant, took six

25 March, ships of war, and sank one

..1 June, 1794 Sagone Bay; 2 French store-ships burned by capt. BarSir Edward Pellew took 15 sail; burned 7, out of a fleet rie's ships....

...1 May, of 35 sail of transports..

.8 March, 1795 Off Madagascar; 3 British frigates under capt. SchomFrench fleet defeated, and 2 ships of war taken by admi- berg engage 3 French, larger-sized, with troops on ral Hotham. Fought.

14 March,
board, and capture 2...

.20 May,
Admiral Cornwallis took 8 transports, convoyed by 3 The Thames and Cephalus capture 36 French vessels,
French men-of-war. Fought..
.7 June,

July, Eleren Dutch East-Indiamen taken by the Sceptre, man- The Naiad frigate attacked in presence of Bonaparie of-war, and some armed British Indiamen in company, by 7 armed praams; they were gallantly repulsed, 19 June,

21 Sept. L'Orient; the French fleet defeated by lord Bridport, and French frigates Pauline and Pomone captured by the

3 ships of the line taken (sce L'Orient)....... 23 June, British frigates Alceste, Active, and Unité.....29 Nov.
Dutch tleet, under admiral Lucas, in Saldanha bay, sur- Rivoli, 84 guns, taken by Victorious, 74... 21 Feb. 1812

renders to sir George Keith Elphinstone (see Saldan- L'Orient; 2 French frigates, etc., destroyed by the Nor-
ha Bay)...
.17 Aug. 1796 thumberland, capt. Hotham..

.22 May Victory of Cape St. Vincent (which ser).. .....14 Feb. 1797 British frigate Amelia loses 46 men killed and 95 wound. Cnsuccessful attempt on Sauta Cruz; admiral Nelson ed, engaging a French frigate..

7 Feb. 1813 loses his right arm....

.24 July, French frigate La Trave, 44 guns, taken by the AnVictory of Camperdown (which see)

.11 Oct.
dromache, of 38 guns....

.23 Oct. Of the Nile (which see)

..1 Aug. 1798 French frigate Ceres taken by the British ship Tagus, 6 Jan. 1814 Off the coast of Ireland; a French fleet of 9 sail, full of French frigates Alcmene and Iphigenia taken by the troops, as succors to the Irish, engaged by sir John

Venerable.

.16 Jan. Borlase Warren, and 5 taken.

.12 Oct. French frigate Terpsichore taken by the Majestic, 3 Feb. The Texel fleet of 12 ships and 13 Indiamen surrenders French ship Clorinde taken by the Dryad and Achates, to admiral Mitchell..... .30 Aug. 1799 after an action with the Eurotas..

.25 Feb. Capture of the Cerbère (which see)....

.29 July, 1800 | French frigate L'Etoile captured by the Hebrus, Copenhagen bombarded (see Copenhagen)..... ..2 April, 1801

27 March, Gibraltar bay; engagement between the French and Algiers bombarded by lord Exmouth (see Algiers), British fleets; the Hannibal, of 74 guns, lost..6 July,

27 Ang. 1816 Off Cadiz; sir James Saumarez obtains a victory over the Navarino (which see)

20 Oct. 1827 French and Spanish fleets; 1 ship captured. Fought Action between the British ships Volage and Hyacinth

12 July,

and 29 Chinese war-juoks, which were defeated, Sir Robert Calder, with 15 sail, takes 2 ships (both Span

3 Nov. 1839 ish) out of 20 sail of the French and Spanish fleets, off Bombardment and fall of Acre. The British squadron Ferrol (Calder censured)

22 July, 1805 under admiral Stopford achieved this triumph with Victory of Trafalgar (which spe).

,21 Oct.

trifling loss, while the Egyptians lost 2000 killed and Sir R. Strachan, with 4 sail of British, captures 4 French wounded, and 3000 prisoners (see Syria). ......3 Nov. 1840 ships off Cape Ortegal

4 Nov. Lagos attacked and taken by commodore Bruce, with a In the West Indies; the French defeated by sir T. Duck. squadron consisting of the Penelope, Bloodhound, Samworth; 3 sail of the line taken, 2 driven on shore, son, and Teazer, war-steamers, and the Philonel brig 6 Feb. 1806 of war....

26–27 Dec. 1851 Sir John Borlase Warren captures 2 French ships,

[For naral actions which cannot be called regular 13 March, battles, see China and Japan.)

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SHIPS TAKEN OR DESTROYED BY THE YAVAL AND MARINE FORCES OF GREAT BRITAIN.

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Naval Battles of the United States. The cers appointed. Esek Hopkins was made commandernavy, during the Revolution, was of little account. The in-chief, and in the spring of 1776 went southwari with principal exploits were performed by privateers. In a small squadron. Dec. 1775, a navy was established by Congress, and offi- | Hopkins captured several British vessels, March and April, 1776

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