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Two battles on Lake Champlain, the Americans com- governors, one of whom, Garcias Ximenes, took the title manded by Benedict Arnold

...11, 13 Oct. 1776 of king in 857. In 1076, king Sancho IV. was poisoned, Paul Jones, in Providence privateer, takes 15 prizes in the autumn of..

and Sancho Ramorez of Aragon seized Navarre. In Manly and others make many prizes on the northeast 1134, Navarre became again independent under Gar

cias Ramorez IV. In 1234, Thibault, count of ChamPaul Jones's attack on Whitehaven

. April, 1778 He captures the British frigate Serapis. 23 sept. 1779 pagne, nephew of Sancho VII., became sovereign of U. S. frigate Constellation captured the French frigate Navarre; and in 1284, by the marriage of the heiress L'Insurgente..

..Feb. 1799 Jane with Philip IV. le Bel, Navarre was united to Constellation and La Vengeance combat..

.Feb. 1800

France. Frigate Philaulelphia taken by the Tripolitans..

1803 Philadelphia frigate destroyed by Decatur ...... ..3 Feb. 1804 Tripoli bombarded' by commodore Preble........... Aug. 1274. Jane I. and (1284) Philip-le-Bel of France. Chesapeake tired upon by the Leopard for refusing to be 1305. Louis X., Hutin, of France. searched..

...June, 1807 1316. Philip V., the Long, of France. Contest between American frigate President and British 1322. Charles I., the Fair, IV. of France. sloop Lillle Belt....

. 16 May, 1811 1328. Jane II. (daughter of Jane I.), and her husband Philip U. S. frigate Constitution captures British frigate Guer.

d'Evreux. rière...

19 Aug. 1812 1349. Charles II., the Bad. Capt. Elliott captured the Detroit and Caledonia on 1387. Charles III., the Noble. Lake Champlain

.8 Oct. 1425. Blanche, his daughter, and her husband, John of AraCapt. Jones, with sloop Wasp, captured the British

gon. brig Frolic, and both vessels captured by the British 1441. John II., alone, who became king of Aragon in 1458. 74-gun ship Poictiers on the afternoon of the same

He endeavored to obtain the crown of Castile also.

18 Oct. 1479. Eleanor de Foix, his daughter. Commodore Decatur, with frigate United States, captured

Francis Phabus de Foix, her son. the British frigate Macedonian.

25 Oct. 1483. Catharine (his sister) and her husband John d'Albret. Commodore Bainbridge, with the frigate Constitution,

Ferdinand of Aragon conquers and annexes all Nacaptured the British frigate Java..

29 Dec.

varre south of the Pyrenees, 1512. Capt. Lawrence, with the sloop Hornet, captured the British brig Resolute, Feb. 10, 1813; and the brig Pea


24 Feb. 1813 1516. Henry d'Albret. Capt. Lawrence, with the frigate Chesapeake, surrendered 1555. Jane d'Albret and her husband, Anthony de Bourbon, to the British frigate Shannon..

.1 June,

who died 1562. Capt. Allen, with sloop Argus, surrendered to the sloop 1572. Henry III., who became in 1589 king of France, to Pelican.

.14 Aug

which Lower Navarre was formally united in 1609. Lieut. Burrows, with the U. S. brig Enterprise, captured the British brig Borer..

4 Sept. Navigation began with the Egyptians and PhæniCommodore Perry, with a small fleet, captured British

cians. The first laws of navigation originated with the fleet on Lake Erie...

10 Sept. Commodore Chauncey, with the American flotilla, capt.

Rhodians, 916 B.C. The first account we have of any ured the British flotilla on Lake Ontario, .......5 Oct. considerable voyage is that of the Phænicians sailing Capt. Porter, with U. S. frigate Essex, surrendered to

round Africa, 604 B.C.-Blair. the British frigate Phabe.

.28 March, 1814 Capt. Bainbridge, with U. S. sloop Frolic, surrendered to Plane charts and mariner's compass used... .about 1420 the frigate Orpheus..

20 April,
Variation of the compass observed by Columbus.

1492 Capt. Warrington, with sloop Peacock, captures the Brit- That the oblique rhomb lines are spiral, discovered by ish brig Epervier....

29 April,

1537 The U. S sloop Wasp, Capt. Blakeley, captured British First treatise on navigation.

1545 brig Reindeer.

28 June,
The log first mentioned by Bourne..

1577 Commodore Hardy, with a British ficet, attacked Sto- Mercator's chart.

1599 nington...

.9-12 Aug. Davis's quadraut, or backstaff, for measuring angles, Commodore M‘Donough's fleet on Lake Champlain capt.

about 1600 ures the British fleet off Plattsburg ...

.11 Sept.

Logarithmic tables applied to navigation by Gunter..... 1620 Commodore Decatur, with frigate President, surrendered Middle-latitude sailing introduced.

1023 to the British frigate Endymion..... .15 Jan. 1815 Mensuration of a degree, Norwood..

1631 Capt. Stewart, with the l. S. frigate Constitution, capt. Hedley's quadrant..

1731 ured the British ships of war Cyane and Levant,

Harrison's time-keeper used...

1764 20 Feb. “Nautical Almanac" first published

1767 Commodore Biddlo, with the sloop Hornet, captured the Barlow's theory of the deviation of the compass.. 1820 British brig Penguin.

..23 Feb.

Quarterly Journ of Naval Science, Commodore Conner, with U. S. fleet, bombarded Vera

Reed, published...

... April, 1872-5 Cruz, in conjunction with a land force under gen.

(See Compass, Latitude, Longitude, Steam, etc.) Scott...

March, 1847 Farragut passes the forts below New Orleans, and de- Navigation Laws. A code of maritime laws is stroys the Confederate flotilla, 24 April, 1862; anchors

attributed to Richard I. of England, said to have been before the city

25 April, 1862 Ships Congress and Cumberland destroyed by Confeder:

decreed at the isle of Oleron, 1194 (see Oleron), and furate iron-clad Merrimac in Hampton Roads. ..8 March, ther enactments were made by Richard II. in 1381. In Fight between the Monitor and Merrimac......9 March, Oct. 1651, the parliament passed an act entitled “Goods The Kearsarge destroys the Alabama........ .19 June, 1861 from foreign parts, by whom to be imported," the prin

Naval College, Royal, established at Greenwich ciples of which were affirmed by 12 Charles II. c. 18,“ An Hospital, and opened 1 Feb. 1873.

act for the encouraging and increasing of shipping and Naval Knights of Windsor, see Poor Knights.

navigation" (1660). The latter act restricts the im

portation and exportation of goods from or to Asia, Naval Reviews, Salute, And Volunteers, Africa, or America, to English ships, of which the massee under Nary.

ters and three fourths of the mariners are to be English. Navarino (S.W. Grecce), settled by the Arabs, sixth This was followed by many acts of similar tenor; which century; taken by the Turks, 1500; by Venetians, 1686; were consolidated by 3 & 4 Will. IV.c. 51 (1833). These by Turks, 1718; by Greeks, 1821 ; by Turks, 1825. Near acts were in the whole or in part repealed by the act to here, on 20 Oct. 1827, the combined tleets of England, amend the laws in force for the encouragement of British France, and Russia, under command of admiral Codring: shipping and navigation” (passed 12 & 13 Viet. c. 29, 26 ton, nearly destroyed the Turkish and Egyptian tleet. June, 1849, after much opposition), and which came into

operation 1 Jan. 1850. The Steam Navigation act, More than thirty ships, many of them four-deckers, were blown up or burned, chietly by the Turks themselves, to passed 14 & 15 Vict. c. 79, 1851, came into operation i prevent their falling into the hands of their enemies. Jan. 1852. The act regulating the navigation of the This destruction of the Turkish naval power was char

river Thames was passed in 1786.-In Feb. 1865, the acterized by the duke of Wellington as an “ untoward emperor recommended the modification of the French

navigation laws; in Feb. 1872, new restrictions were event."

laid upon foreign ships, chiefly affecting British. Navarre, now a province of Spain, formed a part of Navigation laws were passed by the United States the Roman dominions, and was conquered from the Sar-Congress, 1792-3, which are still in force. Since the acens by Charlemagne, 778. His descendants appointed introduction of iron steamships, American shipping

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has greatly decreased, and earnest efforts have been inches thick; 6170 tons burden; cost about 400,0001. ; made, ineffectually, to secure the moditication of the A royal commission recommends the abolition of the

launched (censured in 1864)...

.29 Dec. 1860 navigation laws, in order to promote American ship

board of admiralty, and the appointment of a minister owning

of the navy departinent...

March, 1861

Lord Clarence Paget, secretary of admiralty, states that Navigators (or Navvies). These helpers in the England has 67 steamships of the line; while France construction of railways probably derived their name

has 37, Russia 9, Spain 3, and Italy 1 11 April, (about 1830) from formerly making the inland naviga- New act for the government of the navy (the Naval Dis


cipline act) passes.. tion in Lincolnshire, etc., and are doubtfully said to be Four iron-plated vessels (400 ft. long; 594 ft. wide; and descendants of the original Dutch canal laborers. Navvy

cost about 600,0001. each) building...

.Dec. Mission Society (new) met at Lambeth Palace, 7 May, Cupola or turret ships, Capt. Cowper Coles's mode of

constructing iron · plated vessels, with a cupola or 1880. A "steam navvy,” suitable for working in sand, turret for firing from, the other parts of the vessel begravel, or heavy clay, made by Messrs. Ruston, Proctor, ing nearly submerged, made known in 1855, and rec& Co., of Lincoln, 1878.

ommended to the admiralty in 1861; adopted by

Ericsson in the Monitor, 1862; proposed to be adopted Navy of EnglaND, “ whereon, under the good six different kinds of plated vessels said to be construct

by the British government..

1852 providence of God, the wealth, safety, and strength of

ing; E. J. Reed authorized to build the Enterprise the kingdom chiefly depends."— Act for the Government as a specimen of an iron-plated sea-going vessel, of the Navy. See Naval Battles.


Royal Oak, iron-clad steamer, launched at Chatham, A fleet of galleys built by Alfred..


10 Sept. The number of galleys greatly increased under Edgar, Twin or double screws for vessels of light draught introwho claimed to be lord of the ocean surrounding Brit.


1803 ain....

... about 965 Mr. E. J. Reed appointed chief constructor of the Royal A formidable feet equipped by the contribution of every Navy..

..Jan. town in England, in the reign of Ethelred II., when it Navy consists of 1014 vessels of all classes; 85 line ofrendezvoused at Sandwich, to be ready to oppose the battle ships, 69 frigates, 30 screw corvettes.......Jan. Danes..... 1007 Steam ram Valiant launched.....

14 Oct. A fleet collected by Edward the Confessor to resist the Minotaur iron steamer launched

12 Dec. Norwegians, 1042; and by Harold to resist the Nor- Royal School of Naval Architecture, South Kensington, mans 1066 established

1864 Richard I. collected a fleet and enacted naval laws,

The turrel-ship Sovereign, constructed on Coles's princi.

about 1191 ple, put out of commission, and placed among reserved ¡The Cinqne Ports and maritime towns frequently ships; this blamed by some....

..Oct. furnished fleets commanded by the king or his officers.) Naval models from the time of Henry VIII, collected Edward III. s tleet defeat the French at the battle of

early in the present century by sir Robert Seppings, Sluys, 24 June, 1340; and the Spanish off Winchelsea,

removed to South Kensington Museum

.Dec. 29 Aug. 1350 29 iron-clad vessels building “to be ready for sea this Henry V. made efforts to increase the navy 1415-22

. March, 1865 Henry VII. built the Royal Harry; considered to be the Bellerophon, iron-clad, by Mr. E. J. Reed, and the Lord beginning of the Royal Navy.. 1488 Warden, iron-clad, Jaunched..

..May. The Trinity House established and the Navy Office ap- A British flect entertained at Cherbourg, Brest, etc., 15 pointed (see Admiralty and Trinity House).

1512 Aug. etc.; and a French fleet at Portsmouth, [The navy then consisted of Great Harry, 1200 tons,

29-31 Aug two ships of 800 tons, and six or seven smaller.)

Royal Navy "iconsists of 735 vessels and steamships of James I. and Charles I. improve the navy. The Sove

all classes” (30 iron-clads ready for sea) (seo under reign of the Seas launched 1637 Cannon).

..July, 1866 Frigates said to have been first built. 1649 New Naval Discipline act, passed..

.Aug. James II. systematizes sea-signals and improves the Difficult launch of the Northumberland iron-clad, 17 nary

March et seq. ; effected

.17 April

Experimental cruise of the iron - clad fleet in stormy Years. Ships. Tons. Men. Navy Estimates. weather; general performance satisfactory (Times),

Sept. - Xov. 1546 58 12,455 8,546 No account. 150 wooden ships of all classes sold..

..1859-67 1558 27 7,110 3,505

[Of these were 7 line of battle ships, and 6 frigates; 1578 24 10,506 6,700

cost above 1,000.0001., sold for 87,5431.] 1003 42 17.055 8.346

Acts for protection of naval stores passed.......1867 and 1969 1658 157 57,000 21,910

Hercules, 12, armor-plated ship, 1200 horse-power, floated 1683 173 101,892 42,000

at Chatham.

10 Feb, 1868 1702 274 159,020 40,000 £1,056,915 The Monarch, our first armor-clad turret ship, launched 1760 412 321,134 70.000

at Chatham.


5 May, 1793 498 433,226 45,000 5,525,331

47 armored vessels afloat, with 598 guns; 66 efficient un. 1800 767 668,744 135,000 12,422,837

armored vessels; and a large number of vessels of the 1808

892,800 143,800 17,496,047
old type, constitute the nary

... April, 1869 1814 901 966,000 146,000 18,786,509 Satisfactory trial-trip of the Navy Reserve squadron,

July, Reign of George III. ; dimensions of ships increased; Explosion of the boiler of the Thistle gunboat op trial. copper sheathing adopted for ships of every class;

trip; 10 killed.

...3 Nov establishments of naral stores provided at all dock Derastation, iron turret - ship, first rivet of her keel yards and naval stations, and various improvements clinched by Mr. Childers, the first lord, at Portsmouth, made in ship-building. .1760-1820

12 Nov. Great Britain had 901 ships; 177 of the line in 1814; 621 Resignation of Mr. E. J. Reed, chief constructor.... July, 1870

ships, some of 140 guns each, and down to surveying Admiral sir T. M. C. Symonds reports on the Monarch vessels of two guns only; 148 sail employed on foreign and Captain turret ships (the latter suid to be orerand home service

1830 masted and unfit to cruise under sail alone). ..... Aug. The screw-propeller introduced in the Royal Navy.. 1840 The Captain founders near Finisterre about 12.15 A.M., The total number of ships of all sizes in commission, 183,

7 Sept. 1 Jan. 1841 [472 lives were lost, including the captain, Hugh BurThe navy consisted of 339 sailing and 161 steam vessels.. 1850 goyne, Captain Cowper Coles, the designer of the ship, Naval Coast Volunteers' act passed...

. Aug. 1853 Mr. Childers (a son of the first lord), and other othcers, Of 315 sailing vessels, 97 screw-steamers,

and 114 paddle

the dite of the service; 18 men of the crew were saved. steamers

. . April, 1854 "She capsized in a heavy squall shortly after midReview of the Baltic fleet at Spithead by the queen,

night, and went down in three minutes."'-Gunner's 10 March, 1854, and 23 April, 1856 Report. Her destruction was attributed to too low freeOf 271 sailing vessels, carrying 9594 guns, and 258 steam board, heavy top-weight, masts, and hurricane-deck. vessels, carrying 6582 gins; together 573 vessels, carry.

She cost 440.0001. She was built by Messrs. Laird at ing 16,176 guns; also 155 gunboats, and 111 vessels on

Birkenhead.] harbor service..

July, H.M.S. iron clad frigate Triumph launched at Jarrow, Proclamation for manning the nary.. .30 April, 1859

27 Sept. Naval Reserve Force authorized.

. Aug. A court-martial for the nominal trial of James May, the Flogging not to be inflicted on first-class seamen except


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gunner, and 17 other survivors, was held 27 Sept. to 4 after a trial....


Oct.; Mr. E. J. Reed and other eminent authorities Great excitement respecting the French government

were examined; the verdict was that the loss of the building the plated frigate Gloire (see page 478)..... 1860

ship was due to instability from faulty construction: The Warrior, our first iron plated steam frigate, the "a grave departure from her original design having largest vessel in the world except the Great Eastern

been committed '', (sce Steam), length,380 ft.; breadth,58 ft. ; iron-plate, 41 Report on the Monarch that her reserve of energy to pre

.......8 Oct

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vent upsetting by a squall is 16 to 1 of that of the Cap- Great naval demonstration at Portsmouth ; attack on tain (l'imes). 10 Nov. 1870 forts; electric ligbt used at night...

.10 Aug. 1830 Navy.---55 armored vessels atloat; 9 constructing; eflec- Doterel, 6 guns; capt. Richard Evans; destroyed by ex

tive force afloat, 354 vessels; and a large number of plosion in Strait of Magellan; out of 150 about 143
1871 persons perished....

26 April, 1881 Megaera troop-ship lost near Amsterdam island (see Polyphemus, huge double-screw steam armor-plated ram Wrecks).

16 June,

and torpedo-boat; launched at Chatham (desigued by The Agincourt, captain Hamilton Beamish, 6621 tons,

sir G. Sartorius).

.15 June, struck on the Pearl Rock near Gibraltar, 11 A. M. 11 ANNUAL EXPENDITURE OF THE British Navy.-1850, 6,942,3971. ; July; got off by great skill and management by the

1854, 6,610,5961. ; 1855 (to 31 March, Russian war), 14, 490,Hercules, capt. lord Guildford.

.4 July,

105l. ; 1856, 19,654,585l. ; 1859, 9, 215, 4871. ; 1861, 13,331,6681. [After trial, admirals Wellesley and Wilmot ordered

1862, 12,598,0421.; 1863, 11,370,5881. ; 1864, 10,821,59 to strike flags; capts. Beamish and Well superseded; 1865, 10,898, 2531. ; 1866, 10,259,7881.; 1867, 10,676, 1011.; others censured; lord Guildford commended, Aug. 1868, 11, 168,949. ; 1869, 11,366,545l. ; 1870, 9,757, 2901. ; 1871, 1871.)

9,456,6411.; 1872, 9,900,4861. ; 1873, 9,543,0001. ; 1874, 10,Turret vessels of the Monitor type designed by E. J. 279,9001. ; 1875, 10,680,4041. ; 1876, 10.285, 1941. ; 1877, 11,

Reed, launched; the Glatton, 6 March; Devastation, 288,8721. ; 1878, 11,053,9011. i 1879, 10,586,8911. i 1880, 10,12 July; Cyclops..

...18 July, 492, 935l. ; 1881, 10,725,9191. New rules respecting promotions, etc., published..9 Feb. 1872 NAVAL SALUTE TO THE British Flag began in Alfred's reign; The Thunderer, ocean - going turret - ship, launched at and, though sometimes disputed, may be said to have been Pembroke...

.25 March,

continued ever since. The Dutch agreed to strike to the Lord Clyde, iron-clad, stranded off Pantellaria, 15 March;

English colors in the British seas in 1673. The honor-ofcapt. Bythesea and staff - commander May dismissed the-llag salute at sea was also formally assented to by France the service....,

in 1704, although it had been long previously exacted by A trial-trip of the Devastation reported successful,

England (see Flag and Salutes at Sea).

15 April, 1873 NAVAL UNIFORMS. The first notice of the establishment of a Royal Naval Artillery Volunteer force established by act

uniform in the British naval service which we have met passed..

..5 Aug

with occurs in the Jacobite's Journal of 5 March, 1748, under Navy.-23 great iron-clads; 27 smaller.


the head of Domestic News," in these terms: -- An order “We now carry 35-ton guns on board ships in turrets

is said to be issued, requiring all his majesty's sea officers, protected by 14-inch plates(Times).

.28 Aug

from the admiral down to the midshipman, to wear a uniH.M.S. Alexandra launched at Chatham. ...7 April, 1875 formity of clothing, for which purpose pattern-coats for H.M.S. Vanguard, double-screw iron-clad (cost 350,0001.), dress-suits and frocks for each rank of oflicers are lodged at

sunk by collision with the Iron Duke during a fog off the Navy-oflice, and at the several dock-yards, for their in. the Wicklow coast; crew (about 400) saved; 50 m. spection.” This is corroborated by the Gazette of 13 July, past noon...

6.1 Sept.

1757, when the first alteration in ihe uniform took place, Court-martial on capt. Dawkins; assigned as causes: 1.

and in which a reference is made to the order of 1743, al. That the squadron (under admiral Tarleton), of which

luded to in the journal above mentioned, and which, in fact, the Vanguard was one, was going at too great a speed

is the year when a naval uniform was first established. for a fog 2. That captain Dawkins had left the deck

James I. had, indeed, granted, by warrant of 6 April, 1609, before an ordered evolution was performed. 3. That to six of his principal masters of the navy, "liverie coats the speed of the Vanguard had been injudiciously re

of fine red cloth.” The warrant is stated to have been duced. 4, 5, 6. The increased speed of the Iron Duke, drawn verbatim from one signed by queen Elizabeth, but her improper navigation, and want of signals. Capt.

which had not been acted upon by reason of her death. Dawkins reprimanded and dismissed; others repri.

This curious document is in the British Museum; but king manded...

.29 Sept.

James's limited red livery is supposed to have been soon The Admiralty minute considered the speed of the squad- discontinued. -Qucrterly Review.

ron no cause of the accident; censured part of admiral NAVY PAY-OFFICE, organized in 1644, was abolished in 1836, Tarleton's evidence on responsibility of officers; and

when the army and navy pay departments were consoliremoved lieut. Evans of the Iron Duke from his com

dated in the Paymaster-general's oflice. mand...

12 Oct. NAVY-LIST was first officially compiled by John Finlaison, the Iron Duke nearly lost through a valve left open, celebratei actuary, and published monthly in 1814; now

28 Nov.

quarterly. The Monarch, iron-clad, injured by collision with Nor- NAVAL REVIEWS. The queen reviewed the feet at Spithead, wegian ship Halden in the Channel.. ..28 Nov.

near Portsmouth, 11 Aug. 1853; again, March, 1854, before it The Intlexible, with 18-inch armor and four 81-ton guns,

sailed to the Baltic, at the commencement of the Russian movable by hydraulic power, launched by princess war; and again at Portsmouth on the conclusion of peace, Louise at Portsmonth...

27 April, 1876 in the presence of the parliament, etc. The fleet extended The Téméraire, smaller iron-clad, launched at Chatham, in an unbroken line of five miles, and consisted of upwards

9 May,

of 300 men-of-war, with a tonnage of 150,000, carrying 3800 The Trunderer (see 1872 above): explosion of a boiler

guns, and manned by 40,000 seamen. There were about through sticking of safety valves; 45 deaths ensued;

100,000 spectators, 23 April, 1856. about 50 injured; during a trial trip in Stoke's Bay, A grand naval review (15 great wooden ships, 15 iron plated, near Portsmouth, 14 July ; inqnest begun 27 July ;

10 gun vessels and boats) was held at Spithead (the queen, about 50001, subscribed for the sufferers; verdict, acci

the sultan, and the viceroy of Egypt present), 17 July, 1867, dental deaths...

.30 Aug

another at Spithead before the shah of Persia, 23 June, 1873; Bacchante, unarmored war-ship, launched.. 19 Oct.

another at Spithead, by the queen (10 broadside ships, 8 Launched at Glasgow, Nelson, iron-clad.. ..4 Nov.

turret ships, etc.), 13 Aug. 1878. Northampton...

..18 Nov. NAVAL VOLUNTEERS (or Reserve). By 16 & 17 Vict. c. 73 (1853), Euryalus, unarmored corvette, launched at Chatham,

the admiralty were empowered to raise a body of seafaring

31 Jan. 1877 men to be called the Naval Coast Volunteers," not to exCommission of inquiry respecting the Inflexible, ap

ceed 10.000, for the defence of the coast, and for actual serpointed...

.about 14 July, vice if required. On 13 Aug. 1859, an act was passed to en. Four new iron-clads bought..

. March, 1878 able the admiralty to raise a number of men, not exceeding Dreadnought, iron clad, 10,886 tons; engines, 8000 horse.

30,000, as a reserve force of seamen, to be called the Royal power; four 38 ton guns, etc. ; most powerful tighting.

Naval Volunteers." In Nov, following the admiralty issnied ship in the world; constructed..

a statement of the qualifications, advantages, and obliga. Eurydice, H.M.S. frigate, training ship; foundered in a

tions of this reserve. The enrolment commenced on 1 gale oil Dunose, Isle of Wight; about 300 perished with

Jan, 1860. The engagement is for five years, and the voluncapt. Hare, 24 March; with much skill and labor, raised

teers are entitled to a pension when incapacitated after the and taken to Portsmouth, 1 Sept.; ordered to be bro.

expiration of the term. At the prospect of war with the ken up. .......


United States in Dec. 1861, a great number of seamen at The Thunderer (see 1876), a 38-ton gun explodes while Hartlepool, Dundee, London, Aberdeen, etc., offered their practising, near Ismid, in the Sea of Marmora, Tur.

services key; 2 ollicers and 8 men killed, and between 30 and First enrolled body of Royal Naval Volunteers inspected about 40 wounded

...2 Jan. 1879 18 Jan. 1873 (see Naval College). On investigation, the cause assigned was that the gun

was charged and missed lire; recharged and both Navy oF FRANCE. It is first mentioned in history charges were fired, when it exploded.


in 728, when, like that of England at an early period, it Agamemnon, iron-clad turret-ship; 8192 tons; engines, 6000 horse-power; four 38 ton guns; launched at Chat.

consisted of galleys; in this year the French defeated han

.17 Sept.

the Frisian tieet. The French fleet was almost annihiCollision of the Achilles and Alerandra off Larnaca. Med lated by Edward III. at the battle of Sluys, 24 June, iterranean; boats injured, etc..

.2 Oct.

1340. Sham naval attack on Portsmouth; defended by torpe

It was considerably improved under Louis XIV. does, etc.

.. 16 Oct.

at the instance of his minister Colbert, about 1697. The Thunderer gun experiments at Woolwich (confirm deci. French navy was in its splendor about 1781; became sion of investigation committee of Feb. 1879),

9 Dec. 1979-3 Feb. 1880 greatly reduced in the wars with England; see Naval Alalanta training ship lost in gale (sce Atalanta),

Battles. It was greatly increased by the emperor Na12-16 Feb. poleon III., and in 1859 consisted of' 51 ships of the line


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(14 sailing-vessels and 37 steamers) and 398 other ves- Lost his right arm at the unsuccessful attack on Santa sels, in ali 449; including vessels building, converting, Gained the battle of the Nile, 1 Aug; created baron Nel

. 25, 26 July, 1797 or ordered to be built. The new French iron-clad frigate son of the Nile....

.....6 Nov 1798 Gloire, constructed by M. Dupuy de Lôme, launched in Attacks Copenhagen, 2 April; created viscount, 22 May; 1860, was generally considered as successful. The Sol- attacks Boulogne flotilla, and destroys several ships,

15 Aug. 1801 ferino and Magenta were launched in June, 1861; other appointed to chief command in the Mediterranean, iron vessels since. The Magenta was destroyed by tire,

20 May, 1803 6 killed, 31 Aug. 1875. The Devastation, a great iron- Pursues the French and Spanish fleets, March-Aug; reclad, launched at L'Orient, 19 Aug. 1879.

turns to England, Aug. ; reappears at Cadiz, and de

feats the fleels in Trafalgar Bay, where he is killed, Navy OF THE UNITED STATES. Since the civil

21 Oct. 1805 war the navy of the United States has been reduced to

The Victory man-of-war arrived off Portsmouth with bis

remains. very small proportions. It consisted, Dec. 1, 1879, of 45 The body lay in state in the Painted Hall at Greenwich, vessels in commission and 16 undergoing repairs. The 5 Jan.; removed to the Admiralty, 8 Jan.; funeral took active list included 2013 officers of all grades and 7500 The prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.), the duke of enlisted men.

Clarence (afterwards William IV.), and other royal Nazarene, a name given to Jesus Christ, and his

dukes, almost all the peers of England, and the lord

mayor and corporation of London, with thousands of disciples; but afterwards to a sect who rejected the doc- military and naval officers and distinguished men, fol. trine of Christ's divinity in the first century. A sect lowed the funeral - car to St. Paul's; the military named Nazarenes, resembling the Society of Friends in

amounted to near 10,000, independent of volunteers.

Nelson Column, Trafalgar Square, London, completed, Britain, became prominent in Hungary in the autumn

and statue placed on it (see Statues)........... 4 Nov. 1843 of 1867.

Nemean Games, celebrated at Nemea, in Achaia, Neapolis, see Naples.

said to have been instituted by the Argives in honor Nebraska, a N.W. state of the United States, was of Archemorus, who died by the bite of a serpent; and organized as a territory 30 May, 1854; admitted to the revived by Hercules, 1226 B.C. The conqueror was Union 1 March, 1867. Population, 1880, 452,433. Cap- rewarded with a crown of olives, afterwards of green ital, Omaha city.

parsley. They were celebrated every third year, or, Nebular Hypothesis, put forth by sir William according to others, on the first and third year of every Ilerschel, 1811, supposes that the universe was formed Olympiad, 1226 B.C. llerodotus. They were revived out of shapeless masses of nebulæ, or clusters of small by the emperor Julian, A.D. 362, but ceased in 396. stars. It has not been generally received. In Oct. 1860, Neo-Platonism, or New-PLATONISM, see PhilosMr. Lassell strictly scrutinized the Dumb-bell nebula, and ophy. stated that the brightest parts did not appear to be stars. In 1865, Mr. William Huggins reported that he had an

Nepaul (N. India) was conquered by the Ghoorkas, alyzed certain nebulæ by their spectra, and believed them 1768, who made treaties with the British, 1791 and 1801; to be entirely gaseous.

but frequently made incursions, and in consequence war

with them commenced 1 Nov. 1814; terminated 27 April, Necromancers, see Magic.

1815. A treaty of peace was signed between the parties Nectarine, the Amygdalus Persica, originally came 2 Dec. 1815. War was renewed through an infraction from Persia about 1562. Previously presents of necta- of the treaty by the Nepaulese, Jan. 1816; and, after rines were frequently sent to the court of England from several contests, unfavorable to the Nepaulese, the forthe Netherlands; and Catherine, queen of Henry VIII., mer treaty was ratified, 15 March, 1816. An extraordidistributed them among her friends.

nary embassy from the king of Nepaul to the queen of Needle-gun (Zündnadelgewehr), a musket invented Great Britain arrived in England, landing at Southampby J. N. Dreyse, of Sömmerda, about 1827, and made a ton, 25 May, and remained till Aug. 1850; it consisted breech-loader in 1836, which was adopted by the Prus- of the Nepaulese prince, Jung Bahadoor, and his suite, sian general Manteuffel about 1816. It was found to be to whom many honors were paid. He supported the a most effective weapon in the war with Denmark in English during the Indian mutiny in 1857. The prince 1864, and in that with Austria in 1866. The ignition of Wales was honorably received in Nepaul, 12 Feb. of the charge is produced by a fine steel rod or needle 1876. being pressed through the cartridge. The principle is Nephalia, sacrifices of sobriety among the Greeks, claimed for James Whitley, of Dublin, 1823; Abraham when they offered mead instead of wine to the sun and Mosar, 1831; and John Hanson, of Hudderstield, 1813. moon, to the nymphs, to Aurora, and to Venus; and

Needles. “ The making of Spanish needles was burned any wood but that of the vine, fig-tree, and mulfirst taught in England by Elias Crowse, a German, berry-tree, esteemed symbols of drunkenness (613 B.C.). about the eighth year of queen Elizabeth, and in queen Nephoscope (Greek, vépoc, a cloud). An apparaMary's time there was a negro made fine Spanish needles tus for measuring the velocity of clouds, invented by in Cheapside, but would never teach his art to any." Karl Braun, and reported to the Academy of Sciences, - Stow. The manufacture was greatly improved at Paris, 27 July, 1868. Whitechapel, London; Redditch, in Gloucestershire; and Kathersage, in Derbyshire. An exhibition of an

Neptune, a primary planet, first observed on 23 cient needle-work was formed at South Kensington Mu- Sept. 1846, by Dr. Galle at Berlin, in consequence of a seum in 1873.

letter from M. Le Verrier, who had conjectured, from the

anomalous movements of Uranus, that a distant planet Neerwinden, see Landen,

might exist nearly in the position where Neptune is sitNegro-trade, see Slurery.

uated. Calculations to the same effect had been previNegus (wine and water), said to be named after col. ously made by Mr. J. Couch Adams, of Cambridge. A Francis Negus about 1714. The sovereign of Abyssinia Oct. following. Neptune is said to have been seen by

satellite of Neptune was discovered by Mr. Lassell on 10 is termed negus.

Lalande, and thought to be a fixed star. The Greek god
Nelson's Victories, etc., see separate articles. Poseidon became the Roman Neptune.
Horatio Nelson, born at Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, Neptunium, a new metal discovered in tannalite,

29 Sept. 1758 from Connecticut, by R. Herrmann in 1877; not yet adSailed with capt. Phipps to the North Pole

1773 Distinguished himself in the West Indies..

mitted by chemists (1878). Lost an eye at the reduction of Calvi, Corsica.

Nervii, a warlike tribe in Belgic Gaul, were defeated Captured Elba....

.9 Aug. 1796 With Jervis at the victory of St. Vincent, 14 Feb.;

in a severe battle by Julius Cæsar, 57, and subdued 53 knighted and made rear-admiral..

.20 Feb. 1797 | B.C.

1780 1794

Nerwinden, see Landen.

Union, 31 Oct. 1864. Capital, Carson City. Virginia Nesbit, see Nisbet.

City was nearly destroyed by fire, 26 Oct. 1875; several Nestorians, the followers of Nestorius, bishop of lives were lost; property about $2,000,000; 10,000 perConstantinople (428–431), who is represented as a heretic sons rendered homeless. Population of Nevada in 1880, for maintaining that, though the Virgin Mary was the 62,265. mother of Jesus Christ as man, yet she was not the Neville's Cross, or Durham, Battle Of, bemother of God, since no human creature could impart to tween the Scots, under king David Bruce, and the Enganother what she had not herself; he also held that God lish, it is said (probably incorrectly) under Philippa, was united to Christ under one person, but remained as consort of Edward III., and lord Percy, 12 or 17 Oct. distinct in nature and essence as though he had never 1346. More than 15,000 of the Scots were slain, and been united at all. He was opposed by Eutyches, and their king taken prisoner. died 439; see Eutychians. Nestorian Christians in the Levant administer the sacrament with leavened bread bus, planted by the English in 1628; taken by the French,

Nevis (W. Indies), an island discovered by Columand in both kinds, permit their priests to marry, and use

14 Feb. 1782; restored to the English in 1783. The neither confirmation nor auricular confession.-Du Pin.

capital is Charleston. A Nestorian priest and deacon were in London in July, 1862.

Newark (Nottinghamshire).

The church was Netherlands, see Flanders, Holland, and Belgium. erected by Henry IV. Here, in the midst of troubles,

died king John, 19 Oct. 1216; here the royal army unNetley Hospital, near Southampton, for invalid der prince Rupert repulsed the army of the parliament, soldiers. The foundation-stone was laid by the queen, besieging the town, 21 March, 1644; and here, 5. May; 19 May, 1856.

1646, Charles I., after his defeat at Naseby, put himself Neufchâtel, a canton in Switzerland, formerly a into the bands of the Scotch army, who afterwards gave lordship, afterwards a principality. The first known lord him up to his enemies. Newark was first incorporated was Ulric de Fenis, about 1032, whose descendants ruled by Edward VI., and afterwards by Charles II. till 1373, after which, by marriages, it frequently changed governors. On the death of the duchesse de Nemours, tional force under Burnside attacked and took the forti

Newberne (N.C.), BATTLE OF, 14 Feb. 1862. Nathe last of the Longuevilles, in 1707, there were many fications and town. claimants, among them our William III. He and the allies, however, gave it to Frederick I. of Prussia, with New Brunswick was taken from Nova Scotia, the title of prince. In 1806 the principality was ceded and received its name as a separate colony in 1785. It to France, and Napoleon bestowed it on his general was united with Canada for legislative purposes by an Berthier, who held it till 1814, when it fell to the dis- act passed 29 March, 1867. Population of New Brunsposal of the allies. They restored the king of Prussia wick in 1865, 272,780; in 1871, 285,594. Lieut.-governwith the title of prince, with certain rights and priv- or, Lemuel A. Wilmot, 1868; Samuel Leonard Tilley, ileges; but constituted it a part of the Swiss confedera- 1874. tion.

Great fire at St. John, 20-22 June, 1877; destruction of 12 After an unsuccessful attempt in 1831, the inhabitants

churches, 25 public buildings; thousands houseless; about repudiated their allegiance to Prussia, and proclaimed

20 killed, loss about 3,000,0001. Subscriptions in Britain and

United States. Neufchâtel a free and independent member of the Swiss confederation.

Newbury (Berkshire). Near here were fought The king of Prussia protested against this; and a protocol was signed between England, France, and Austria

two desperate battles (1.) 20 Sept. 1643 ; between the recognizing his claims..

1852 army of Charles I. and that of the parliament under Some of his adherents, headed by the count de Pourtalès, Essex; it terminated somewhat favorably for the king.

broke out into insurrection against the republican authorities, who, however, quickly subdued and impris.

Among the slain was the amiable Lucius Cary, viscount oned them, with the intention of bringing them to Falkland, deeply regretted. (2) A second battle of du

Sept. 1856 bious result was fought between the royalists and the parWar threatened by the king of Prussia, and great energy

liamentarians under Waller, 27 Oct. 1644. and determination manifested by the Swiss. intervention of the Euglish and French governments, A memorial to lord Falkland and bis companions at Newbury a treaty was signed by which the king of Prussia vir

was inaugurated by the earl of Carnarvon, 9 Sept. 1878. tually renounced his claims, on receiving a pecuniary compensation, which he eventually gave up.

New Caledonia (Pacific ocean), discovered by tains the title of prince of Neufchâtel, without any

Cook on 4 Sept. 1774, was seized by the French, 20 Sept. political rights..

..11 June, 1857

1853, and colonized. The French government, in Dec. The prisoners of Sept. 1856 were released without trial,

1864, redressed the outrages committed upon the British Neustria, or West FRANCE, a kingdom allotted to missionaries at a station established here in 1854. Clotaire by his father, Clovis, at his death, in 511. His In the latter part of June. 1878, some of the native tribes redescendant Charlemagne became sole king of France in volted, burned some of the towns and villages, and killed 771. It was conquered by the Northmen, and hence

about 90 of the European colonists, men, women, children,

and servants, including col. Gally-Passebose, the military named Normandy (which see).

commandant of the island. The insurrection was not subNeutral Powers. By the treaty of Paris, signed

dued till the end of the year. by the representatives of Great Britain, France, Austria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Northumberland), the Russia, Prussia, Turkey, and Sardinia, on 16 April, 1856, Roman Pons Ælia, the first coal port in the world,* and it was determined that privateering should be abolished; the commercial metropolis of the north of England. that neutrals might carry an enemy's goods not contra- The coal-mines were discovered here about 1234. The band of war; that neutral goods not contraband were first charter granted to the townsmen for digging coal free even under an enemy's tag; and that blockades to was by Henry III. in 1239. be binding must be effective. The president of the The castle built by Robert Courthose, son of William I.. 1080 United States acceded to these provisions in 1861; see Taken by William II...

1095 International Law.

St. Nicholas church built, about 1091; burned in 1216; re

stored by Edward I., to whom John Baliol did homage Neutrality Laws. A commission, in a report is

here, 1292; rebuilt .. sued in May, 1868, recommended changes. An act to Newcastle surrenders to the Scotch.. make better provision for the preservation of neutrality Who here gave up Charles I. to the parliament... 30 Jan. 1647 was passed 9 Aug. 1870. John P. McDiarmid appre

* In 1306 the use of coal for fuel was prohibited in London, hended, for breach of neutrality laws, at Bow street, 28 by royal proclamation, chiefly because it injured the sale of Oct. 1870.

wood for fuel, great quantities of which were then growing Nevada, a western state of the United States, or- and we may consider coal as having been dug and exported

about the city; but this interdiction did not long continue, ganized as a territory 2 March, 1861 ; admitted to the from this place for more than 500 years.



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