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Occupied by gen. Wade in..

1745 | the “ Pilgrim Fathers” (with 28 women), arrived here Antiquarian Society established

1813 Literary and Philosophical Society founded 1793: liber.

in the Mayflower, and founded the settlement at Plymally endowed by Robert Stephenson..

1858-9 outh 11 Dec. (0.s.) 1620. This was the nucleus of T. Bewick, the wood-engraver, dies.

1828 Massachusetts, from whence were gradually dereloped The magnificent market erected by Richard Grainger, who

New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, and Rhode greatly improved the town..

1835 British Association met here..

1838

Island. In 1613 these settlements formed the first Amcr- , High level bridge erected by Robert Stephenson; and ican confederation, a defensive union, with a constitution grand central station built..

.1846–50 based on the Mosaic law, governed by a religious aris1533 persons die of cholera ..

.31 Aug. to 26 Oct. 1853 Great fire through the explosion of Gateshead (which see),

tocracy, which lasted till 1693. Maine was made an in

5, 6 Oct. 1854 dependent state in 1820. Great distress through failure of Northumberland Jointstock Bank..

... Nov. 1857

New Forest (Hampshire) was made ("afforested ") Richard Grainger dies, aged 63

..4 July, 1861 by William the Conqueror, 1079-85. It is said that the Enthusiastic reception of Mr. W. E. Gladstone.. 7-9 oct. 1862 whole country for thirty miles in compass was laid British Association met here, second time....... 26 Aug. 1863

waste. Great fire at Brown's flour-mills, etc., near the new level

William Rufus was killed in this forest by an bridge, which is injured; about 70,0001. loss.. 24 June, 1866 arrow shot by Walter Tyrrel, that accidentally glanced The Central Exchange destroyed by fire........11 Aug. 1867 against a tree, 2 Aug. 1100, the site of which is now Mr. Mawson, the sheriff, and Mr. Bryson, the town sur

pointed out by a triangular stone. The New Forest veyor, and others, killed, while attempting to bury some nitro-glycerine in the town-moor, to get rid of it,

Deer Removal act was passed 14 & 15 Vict. c. 76, 7 Aug.

18 Dec. 1851. Agitation for the preservation of this forest, Strike of about 9000 engineers, for day's work of nine autumn, 1870; see, Forests. hours; begun about

..16 May, 1871 College of Physical Science in connection with the Dur. Newfoundland (North America), discovered by ham University, opened..

..Oct, Sebastian Cabot, who called it Prima l'ista, 24 June, Engineers' strike closed; terms, nine hours a day to be.

1497. It was formally taken possession of by Sir Humgin on 1 Jan. 1872; men to work overtime when needed; wages to remain the same; arranged by Mr.

phrey Gilbert, 1583. In the reign of Elizabeth, other R. B. Philipson and Mr. Joseph Cowen .. .6 Oct. nations had the advantage of the English in the fishery. Elswick estate purchased by a committee for a public In 1577 there were 100 tishing-vessels from Spain, 50 park, announced..

.Aug. 1873 New R. C. church built by the Dominicans, opened

from Portugal, 150 from France, and only 15 (but of larg.

10 Sept. er size) from England.-Makluyt. But the English fishNew swing bridge over the Tyne (281 feet long; weight, ery in some years afterwards (1625) had increased so 1450 tons, lifted by a hydraulic crane); begun 1868;

much that the ports of Devonshire alone employed 150 completed

....June, 1876 Bishopries act; permitting the erection of a see at New. ships, which sold their fish in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. castle, passed..

.......16 Aug. 1878 The sovereignty of England was recognized in 1713, Technical college for north of England inaugurated,

Newfoundland obtained the privilege of a colonial legis

24 Sept. 1880 Public library opened

lature in 1832; and the bishopric was established in Centenary of birth of George Stephenson celebrated, 1839; population in 1874, 161,389. Appalling tire at St.

9 June, 1881 Johns, a great portion of the town destroyed, the loss Newcastle Administration, formed April, estimated at 1,000,0001, sterling, 9 June, 1846. On 14 1754; resigned Nov. 1756, when the duke of Devon- Jan. 1857, a convention was concluded between the Engshire became first lord of the treasury.

lish and French governments, confirming certain French Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle, first lord of the privileges of tishery in exchange for others. The Engtreasury.

lish colonists were dissatisfied with this convention. Henry Bilson Legge, chancellor of the erchequer. Earl of Holdernesse and sir Thomas Robinson (afterwards lord Canada, March, 1869; a railway from St. Johns to St.

Newfoundland consented to union with the dominion of Grantham), secretaries of state. The latter succeeded by Henry Fox (afterwards lord Holland).

George's bay proposed by the colonial government Aug. Lord Anson, first lord of the admiralty.

1878. Governor, col. sir Stephen J. Hill, 1870; sir Jobu Earl Grenville, loril president. Lord Gowes (succeeded by the duke of Marlborough 1755), Lord H. Glover, Jan. 1876; see Canada, Nov. 1877. priry seal.

Fishery Dispute. At Fortune bay, U.S., fishers fixed nets Earl of Hardwicke, lord chancellor.

on Sunday, 13 Jan. 1878; this being contrary to local Duke of Grafton, earl of Halifax, George Grenville, etc.

regulations, they were forcibly removed; controversy

ensued, Mr. Evarts, on part of U.S. government, sent Newcastle and Pitt Administration (see despatch, 24 Ang ; correspondence, Sept., Oct.; the Chatham Administration), formed June, 1757. After marquis of Salisbury refused compensation; but earl various changes it resigned, May, 1762; lord Bute com

Granville granted it; 15,0001. were awarded by arbitra-
tion....

.. 28 May, 1881 ing into power.

New France, see Canada. Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle, first lord of the treasury.

Newgate, LONDON. The PRISON derives its name William Pitt (afterwards lord Chatham), secretary of state for from the gate which once formed part of it, and stood a

the northern department, and leader of the house of commons little bevond the Sessions-house in the Old Bailey. It Earl of Holdernesse, secretary of state for the southern depart. ment.

was used as a prison for persons of rank as early as 1218; Earl Granville, lord president.

but was rebuilt about two centuries afterwards by the Earl Temple, privy seal. H. B. Legge, chancellor of the erchequer.

executors of sir Richard Whittington, whose statue with Duke of Devonshire, lord chamberlain.

a cat stood in the niche till the time of its demolition Duke of Rutland, lord steward.

by the great tire of London, in 1666. It was then reconLord Auson, admirally.

structed; but, becoming an accumulation of misery and Duke of Marlborough (succeeded by lord Ligonier), ordnance. Sir Robert Henley, lord keeper of the great seal.

inconvenience, was pulled down and rebuilt between 1778 Henry Fox, George Grenville, viscouut Barrington, lord Hali and 1780. During the riots in 1780, the interior was fax, James Grenville, etc.

destroyed by fire, but shortly afterwards restored. In New Church, see Swedenborgiuns.

1857 the interior was pulled down to be re-erected on New College (St. John's Wood, London), erected a plan adapted to the reformatory system.-- Newgate by the Independent dissenters for the education of their MARKET, established in 1681, was ordered to be abolished ministers, 1850–1 , was formed by the union of Homerton, meat and poultry market in Smithfield was opened, 1

by an act passed in 1861, which took effect when the Highbury, and Coward colleges; see 0xford.

Dec. 1868. New-departure Democrats, see L'nited States,

New Granada (South America), discovered by 1871.

Ojeda in 1499, and settled by the Spaniards in 1536. It New England (North America). The first settle- formed part of the new republic of Bogota, established ment, made in 1607, was named New England by capt. in 1811; and, combined with Caracas, formed the republic Smith, in 1614. A band of 102 immigrants, now termed / of Colombia, 17 Dec. 1819; see Colombia.

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President M. Ospina entered on office... .1 April, 1857 New Lanark (W. Scotland). Here Robert Owen
After several reunions and dissolutions, the republic of
New Granada merged into the Granadine Confedera-

endeavored to establish socialism in 1801 ; and here the tion, which includes Bolivar, Antioquia, Panama, and first infant-school was set up, 1815. other small states....

...15 June, 1858 Struggles between the conservatives, partisans of the old

"New Learning," a term applied to the revival government, and the liberals.

...Jan. 1861 of the study of the Bible and the Greek and Latin clas. Gen. Mosquera (liberal) deposes Ospina; and seizes the sics, in their original tongues, in the fifteenth and sixgovernment.

.18 July, A congress of the states determine on union, under the

teenth centuries, which conduced greatly to the Reforname of the United States of Colombia ...20 Sept.

mation; see Humanism. Arboleda, chief of the conservatives, assassinated (suc- Newmarket (Cambridgeshire), renowned for its ceeded by Cassal)...

....1 Nov. 1862 New constitution established.

..8 May, 1863

horse-races. It is first mentioned in 1227; and probMosquera invites Venezuela and Ecuador to join the con- ably derived its name from the market then recently federation

.. Aug. established. James I. erected a hunting-seat here, callEcuador declines; war ensues.

. 20 Nov. The troops of Ecuador defeated, 6 Dec.; peace ensues,

ed the king's house, to which Charles I. was taken as a and Ecuador remains independent.

30 Dec.

prisoner in 1647, when the parliament army was quarCoup d'état of Mosquera, who declares himself dictator, tered in the neighboring village of Kennet. Charles II.,

11 March, 1866 who was fond of racing, built a stand-house for the sake Mosquera deposed by Santos Acosta, who becomes provisional president...

......23 May, 1867 of the diversion, about 1667,* and from that period races Mosquera, the ex-president, exiled.......... ...1 Nov. have been annual to the present time, and many exGen. Santas Gutierrez Vergara, the president, deposed traordinary races have been run; see Races.

and imprisoned, and gen. Ponce made provisional presi. dent. Ponce compelled to abdicate; scceeded by Cor. New Mexico (North America), ceded to the United reoso, 29 Aug., who defeated his opponents...12 Nov. 1868 States in 1848, and organized as a territory, 9 Sept. 1850. The republic now named Colombia (which see).

Capital, Santa Fé. New Guinea, or Papua, a large island, Pacific New Orleans, chief city of Louisiana, U. S. (which ocean, discovered by the Portuguese after their settle- see), founded in 1717, under the regency of the duke ment of the Moluccas, between 1512 and 1530. It was of Orleans. In 1788, seven eighths of the city were devisited by Saavedra, a Spaniard, in 1528. It is said stroyed by fire. The British attacked New Orleans in to have been named New Guinea by Ortiz de Retes, a Dec. 1814, and were repulsed with great loss by the Portuguese, 1549. Torres Strait, which divides New Americans under gen. Jackson, 8 Jan. 1815.– New OrGuinea and Australia, was discovered by Torres, a Span- leans was surrendered to the federals in April, 1862. The iard, in 1606. It was frequently visited by the Dutch strong feeling of the inhabitants in favor of the confedin the seventeenth century. They established a colony erates and against the federals induced gen. B. F. Butler and erected a fortress, named Dubus, on the S.W.coast, to rule them with military rigor, May to Oct. 1862. He in 1828, which was unsuccessful, and removed in 1835. was replaced by gen. Banks, 16 Dec. 1862. Sanguinary On 9 Oct. the New Guinea Colonizing Association pro- riots, begun 30 July, 1866, only suppressed by martial

posed to lord Carnarvon, the colonial secretary, to send law; about 40 persons, white and colored, were killed, to New Guinea an expedition of 200 men with 50

and about 160 wounded; similar riots occurred 24 Oct. officers, in a ship of 1200 tons burden; he declined to sanction it, and referred to dangers.... ....30 Oct. 1875 1868, and often since. New Hampshire, one of the original United Disputed election of governor, 4 Nov. 1872; Kellogg rec

ognized by the national government. States, was settled in 1623, placed under Massachusetts, White League formed..

1873 1641; separated, 1679. Population, 1880, 346,984. Cap- Refuse to surrender arms..

.15 Sept. 1874 ital, Concord.

Kellogg government overthrown by the White League,

15 Sept. New Harmony, see llurmonists.

Reinstated by proclamation of the president....18 Sept.

The government troops eject members from the legislaNew Hebrides (S. Pacific ocean), discovered by

tive assembly as unduly elected...

.... 4 Jan. 1875 Quiros, who, believing them to be a continent, named After much discussion, a peaceful compromise.... April, them Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, in 1606. Bou- Much trouble, two governors at one time, Jan. ; disputes

settled in favor of Democrats by president Hayes; gainville in '1768 found them to be islands; and in 1774

prospect of peace.

... 25 April, 1877 Cook gave them their present name.

Epidemics of yellow fever in New Orleans:
1847

deaths 2350 New Holland, see Australia, New South Wales, 1853.

7844 etc.

1855..

2670

4845 New Ireland, an island in the Pacific ocean, lat. 1867.

3107 2° 3' S., long. 152° E.; 200 miles long, 25 miles average

1878..

3977 width. An attempt of the French marquis de Rays to colonize this island was reported a disastrous failure in teenth century to that of Bacon (which see).

New Philosophy, a term applied in the sevenAugust, 1880, and May, 1881; see also Ireland, New.

New Plymouth, see New England. New Jersey, one of the United States, was first settled at Bergen, by some Danish families from New III. and James 1.

Newport (Monmouthshire). Chartered by Edward York, in 1622, and by the Dutch on the Delaware, in

CHARTIST Riots. 1623. In 1631, a colony of Swedes settled on the Dela

About 10,000 chartists (which see), from the

neighboring minęs, armed with guns, pikes, etc., arrived at ware from Cape May to Burlington. The province was

Newport, 4 Nov. 1839. They divided themselves into two granted to the duke of York in 1664, and by him con- bodies--one, under the command of Mr. John Frost, an exveyed to lord Berkeley and sir George Carteret, who magistrate, proceeded down the principal street; while the

other, headed by his son, took the direction of Stow Hill. established a government there in 1665. With New

They met in front of the Westgate hotel, where the magis. York it was surrendered to the Dutch in 1673, and sur- trates were assembled with about 30 soldiers of the 45th rendered by them to the English in 1674. In 1676, the

regiment, and several special constables. The rioters broke

the windows and fired on the inmates, by which the mayor, province was divided into East and West Jersey ; Car

Mr. (afterwards sir Thomas) Phillips, and several other per. teret taking the former, and William Penn and others

sons, were wounded. The soldiers returned the fire, and the latter by purchase. They afterwards purchased East Jersey. After much difficulty, the province was * During the races, on 22 March, 1683, Newmarket was nearsurrendered to the crown in 1702, and continued a royal ly destroyed by an accidental fire, which occasioned the hasty government until the Revolution. The independent departure of the company then assembled, including the king, state was organized in 1776, and in 1787 adopted the of the nobility; and to this disaster historians have ascribed

the queen, the duke of York, the royal attendants, and many federal constitution. Population, 1880, 1,130,983. Capi- the failure of the Rye House Plot, the object of which was said tal, Trenton.

to be the assassination of the king and his brother on the road

from Newmarket to London, if the period of their journey had New Jerusalem Church, see Swedenborgians. not been thus anticipated; see Rye House Plot.

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1858.

dispersed the mob, which fled, leaving about 20 dead and free-trade budget near the end of the year. Industrial others wounded. A detachment of tho 10th royal hussars Exhibition opened by the governor, 11 April, 1874.

arrived from Bristol, and the town became tranquil. Frost was apprehended on the following day, together Population in 1856, 269,722; in 1862, 367,495; in 1866,

with his printer, and other influential persons among 411,388; in 1871, 519,163. The imports amounted to the chartists. He and others were tried and sentenced

to death (afterwards commuted to transportation). Jan. 1840 6,597,0531. in 1859, to 13,672,7761. in 1876; the exporis An amnesty was granted them, 3 May, and they returned

to 4,768,0491, in 1859, to 13,003,9411. in 1876. Goverto England..

Sept. 1856 or, sir John Young, 1860; earl of Belmore, 1867; sir HerFrost died, aged 96..

29 July, 1877 cules Robinson, April, 1872; see Australia and Sydney. Newport (Rhode Island), a celebrated watering- Town of Jerilderie seized and robbed by the Victorian place. Here the eminent bishop Berkeley, and also thieves, “ Kelly gang"

..8-10 Feb. 1879 Smybert, the earliest professional portrait-painter in Lord Augustus William F. S. Loftus appointed governor,

May; arrives at Sydney...

. 4 Aug. America, resided for a while. It is near the entrance of International Exhibition opened by Lord A. Loftus, Narragansett bay, and was the scene of many stirring

17 Sept. events during the American Revolution, being occupied alternately by the British, American, and French troops, issued, it is said, 691 B.C.

Newspapers. The Roman Acta Diurna were

In modern times, a Gazetta, the latter, under Rochambeau, having landed there in which derived its name from its price, a small coin, was 1780. Newport is one of the capitals of Rhode Island.

published in Venice (about 1536). The Gazette de France, New River, for the supply of London with water, now existing, first appeared in April, 1631, edited by Rewas begun 1609, and finished in 1613, when the projector, naudot, a physician. It was patronized by the king, Hugh Myddelton, a London goldsmith, was knighted by Louis XIII., who wrote one article for it, and by RicheJames 1.- Strype. This artiticial river, which rises in lieu. The first real newspaper published in England † Hertfordshire,* and which, with its windings, was 48 was established by sir Roger L'Estrange, in 1663 ; it was miles long, was brought to London, and opened 29 Sept. entitled the Public Intelligencer, and continued nearly 1613. So little was the benefit of it understood that for 3 years, when it ceased, on the appearance of the Gazette. above 30 years the 72 shares into which it was divided In the reign of James I., 1622, appeared the London netted only 5l. apiece. Each of these shares was sold Weekly Courant; and in the year 1643 (the period of originally for 1001. A part of a share sold at the rate the civil war) were printed a variety of publications, cerof 94,0501, the share, 1 Nov. 1876; part of a king's share tainly in no respect entitled to the name of newspapers. at rate of 90,000l.; of an adventurer's share at rate of The following are the titles of some of them : 93,2001., 15 May, 1878; king's share, rate 88,2001.; adventurer's, 91,0001., Oct. 1878; king's share, rate 91,0101.; The Kingdom's Intelligencer.

England's Memorable Accidents. adventurer's, 94,5001., Nov. 1880.

The Diurnal of Certain Passages in Parliament.

The Mercurius Aulicus. | New Road, N. London (now Pentonville, Euston,

The Scotch Intelligencer. and Marylebone roads) was cut through verdant mead. The Parliament's Scout. ows, 1756-7, after much opposition.

The Parliament's Scout's Discovery, or Certain Information.

The Mercurius Civicus, or London's Intelligencer.
New Ross (Wexford), S.E. Ireland. Here gen. The Country's Complaint, etc.
Johnston totally defeated the rebels under Beauchamp The Weekly Accounts.
D. Bagenal Harvey, 4 June, 1798.

Mercurius Britannicus.
New Rugby, Tennessee, U. S., a colony of British A paper called the London Gazette, I published 22 Aug. 1642.

The London Gazette of the existing series published tìrst at farmers and others, founded on English principles by

Oxford, the court being there on account of the plague, 7 Mr. Thomas Hughes, formerly M.P., author of "Tom Nov. 1665, and afterwards at London, 5 Feb. 1666, Brown's Schooldays," etc.; inaugurated 5 Oct. 1880. Printing of newspapers and pamphlets prohibited, 31 Chas. I.

1680. —Salmon's Chron. Newry (N. Ireland). In the rebellion of 1611, The regular newspapers commenced on the abolition of tho Newry was reduced to a ruinous condition; it was sur- censorship of the press, in 1695. prised by sir Con. Magenis, but was retaken by lord Con- Daily Courant said to have been first published in 1702.

1711

The stamp duty imposed way.

After the Restoration the town was rebuilt. It Sunday Newspapers began with The British Gazette and Sun. was burned by the duke of Berwick when fleeing from day Monitor, 26 March, 1780; followed by the Observer, 1791; Schomberg and the English army, and only the castle Bell's Messenger, 1796; Weekly Dispatch, 1801, etc. and a few houses escaped, 1689.

A penny charged for every sheet, and a half-penny for every half-sheet..

1724 News-letters. News-writers in the reign of Charles The duty made 1d., or 41. 18. 8d. the 1000.

1761 II. collected from the coffee-houses information, which The duty raised to 1 d. in 1776; to 20. in 1789; to 2}d. in

1794; to 3d. in 1797; to 4d. in.. was printed weekly and sent into the country. The Reduced to id. , and £d. for a supplement, in.

1836 London Gazette, then the only authorized newspaper, Abolished, the compulsory stamp being retained only for contained little more than proclamations and advertise

postal purposes.

1855 This also ceased

.30 Sept. 1870 ments.

Newspapers first sent with a d. stamp aflixed to the New South Wales, the principal colony of Aus

.......1 Oct. tralia. on the eastern coast of New Holland, was explored NUMBER OF STAMPS ISSUED TO BRITISHI NEWSPAPERS and taken possession of and named by capt. Cook in 1770. 1753

7,411,757

24,862. 186 At his recommendation a convict colony was first form- 1760

9,404,790

26,950,693 1774 12,300,000

30,158,741 ed here. Capt. A. Phillip, the first governor, arrived at

1790
14.035, 639 | 1835

32.874,652 Botany Bay with 800 convicts, 20 Jan. 1788; but he 1800

16,084,905

49,033,384 subsequently preferred Sydney, about seven miles dis- 1810

20,172,837 | 1843.

56,433,977 tant from the head of Port Jackson, as a more eligible In the year ending 5 Jan. 1851, there were 159 London newssituation for the capital. A new constitution was grant- papers, in which appeared 891,650 advertisements; 222 ed in 1855 (18 & 19 Vict. c. 54). The Intercolonial Exhibition was opened at Sydney, by the governor-general, # Some copies of a publication are in existence called The loru Belmore, 30 Aug. 1870. It consisted of two depart- English Mercury, professing to come out under the authority ments, agricultural and non-agricultural. A conference The researches of Mr. T. Watts of the British Museum, proved

queen Elizabeth, in 1588, the period of the Spanish Armada. of delegates from the Australian colonies met at Sydney these to be forgeries, executed about 1766. The full title of in Jan. 1873, to deliberate on a customs’union, postal and No. 50 is ". The English Mercurie, published by authoritie, for railway arrangements, etc. The ministry introduced a

the prevention of false reports, imprinted by Christopher Bar. ker, her highness's printer. No. 50." It describes the Spanish

Armada, giving "A journall of what passed since the 21st of * Myddelton turned the first sod at Chadwell, a spring rising this month, between her majestie's fleet and that of Spayne. at the foot of a hill near Ware, 19 April. 1609; the water issued transmitted by the Lord Highe Admiral to the Lordes of out of a deep hole, and combined with another spring, Am council." well, forming a river about 20 feet wide. He died poor, 10 i on 22 May, 1787, a London Gazette extraordinary was Dec, 1031.

forged, with a view of affecting the funds.

1815

cover.......

1820 1825 1830

1840

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English provincial newspapers, having 875,631 advertise. | Hour (conservative), 24 March, 1873......extinct 11 Aug. 1876 ments.

Daily Recorder of Commerce.. In Scotland, same year, there were 110 newspapers, baving St. James's Gazetto (independent).. ...... May, 1880

249,141 advertisements, In Ireland, there were 102 newspapers, having 236,128 adver

PRINCIPAL SUNDAY, WEEKLY, ETC. (1881). tisements.

London Gazette ..7 Nov. 1665 | Journal of Gaslighting.. 1849 In that year the number of stamps issued was-in England, St. James's Chronicle Journal of Society of 65,741,271 at 1d., and 11,684,423 supplement stamps at d.; (conserv.) united with

Arts..

1852 in Scotland, 7,643,045 stamps at ld., and 241,264 at fd.; in " Press"

1763 | Press (conserv.), united Ireland, 6,302,728 stamps ai 1d., and 43,358 at įd.

County Chronicle. 1787 with St. James's Reduction of newspaper duty from 4d to ld. took effect on 15 Mail..

1789 Chronicle".

1853 Sept. 1836.

Observer (whig)

1791 Field (country gentleThe distinctive die came into use 1 Jan. 1837.

Bell's Messenger (liberal

men's). Duty on advertisements abolished, 1853.

Conservative)

1796 Civil Service Gazette By the act passed 15 June, 1855 (18 & 19 Vict. c 27), the Weekly Dispatch (lib.).. 1801 Commercial Gazette.. stamp on newspapers, as such, was totally abolished, and to Examiner (lib.), extinct, Building News..

1854 be employed henceforth only for postal purposes. Many

1808–81 Saturday Review (lit.).. 1855 new papers were then started, which were but of short Literary Gazette (extinct) Overland Mail duration.

1817-62 Engineer

1856 In 1857, 71 million newspapers passed through the post office. John Bull (conservative), 1820 Court Circular. In Jan. 1860, 1060 newspapers; in Jan. 1862, 1165 newspa. Bell's Life in London City Press (neutral).

1857 pers; and in Jan. 1868, 1404 newspapers were published in (sporting).

Solicitors' Journal.. the United Kingdom.

Sunday Times (lib.-con.) 1822 Bookseller..

1858 On 1 Oct. 1861, when the paper duty came off, the Times, Daily Lancet (medical).. 1823 Photographic News. News, and Morning Post reduced their price to 3d. each Mechanic's Magazine Chemical News..

1859 copy unstamped.

(merged into iron,

Christian World.. "Penny-a-Week Country Daily Newspaper,” single copy id. ; 1873)

Army and Nary Gazette, 1860 No. 1, 25 June, 1873.

Atlas (liberal), extinct... 1826 National Reformer

Medical Gazette... 1827 Catholic Times.
IRISH NEWSPAPERS.
Medical Times (united Fun (comic).

1861 The first was the Dublin News- Letter, by Joseph Ray, 1685; 1850)

1828 Queen (ladies'). Pue's Occurrences, 1700 or 1703. Faulkner's Journal was Athenæum (literary and Church Review (ritual.), established by George Faulkner, "a man celebrated for the scientific)

Reader (literary and scigoodness of his heart and the weakness of his head," 1728. Spectator (liberal)...

entific) (stopped 1866), 1863 The oldest of the existing Dublin newspapers are Saunders's Record(lib.-conservative), Orchestra (then Esdaile's) News-Letter, 1745; and Freeman's Journal, Court Journal (neutral). 1829 Owl (satirical) (stopped), 1864 founded as the Public Register, by the patriot Dr. Lucas, Mark Lane Express. .... 1832 English Mechanic

1865 about 1755. The Limerick Chronicle, the oldest of the pro

United Service Gazette. 1833 Engineering.

1866 vincial prints, 1768.

Naval and Military Ga. Law Journal
zette

Land and Water (natural
PROVINCIAL NEWSPAPERS.

Mining Journal

1835

history) Norwich Postman, 1706. Worcester Postman, 1709. Newcas. Watchman (Wesleyan).. Bullionist. tle-on-Tyne Courant, 1711.

Musical World.

1836 Hornet

Magnet (agricultural). 1837 Rock (Protestant). . 1868 FOREIGN NEWSPAPERS.

Railway Times.

Vanity Fair. Gazette de Venise, early in seventeenth century.

Era (theatrical).

Bazaar..

Publishers' Circular Gazelle de France (now publishing), 1631.

Academy (literary).. 1869

Ecclesiastical Gazette... 1838 Journal de Puris, alleged first French daily paper, 1 Jan. 1777.

Architect

Medical Press.. Galignani's Weekly Messenger, Paris, begun 1814.

Nature (scientific) Chinese newspaper published in London..

1876 Tablet (Roman Catholic). 1840 Graphic (illusirated). Arabic newspaper....

1876
Courrier de l'Europe

Industrial Review (forThe first newspaper set up in Germany, 1715.

Gardeners Chronicle 1841 merly Beehive)...

Nonconformist... The first published in America, the Boston News- Letter, in

Freemason..

Punch.. 1701; the first at Philadelphia in 1719; and the first in Hol

Empire

1870 land in 1732.

Jewish Chronicle (lib.).. Journal of Education. “America, whose population is 23 millions and a hall, sup.

Pharmaceutical Journal, Garden...

1871 ports 800 newspapers (50 of these publishing daily), and Hustrated London News Foreign Times their annual circulation is stated at 64,000,000. In Paris

(liberal).....
1842 British Mail.

1872 there exist 169 journals, literary, scientific, religious and Lloyd's Weekly London Metropolitan.. political.''- Westminster Review, 1830.

Newspaper (radical).. Iron (manufactures and Builder..

science).

1873 REGISTERED NEWSPAPERS.

Inquirer.

Money.

English Churchman 1850. 1865. 1812. 1876. 1878. 1881.

Illustrated Sporting and London daily

1843 12

High Church)
22

19
20
19 17

1874

Dramatic News United Kingdom daily...

News of the World (lib. 73 100

Englishman.

eral).. London weekly

58 166
209 238

Pictorial World

Law Times London generally

268 320

378

Economist (liberal) English provinces. 222 750

Accountant 903 956 1075 1087

Farmer (agricultural). Irish 102 132 134

British Architect. 138 141 154 Scotch.. 110 140 134 152

Allen's Indian Mail. 173 181

Sanitary Record

Musical Times.. 14 14 British isles.

Whitehall Review 17 19

1844 19

1876 20 British

1456 1612 1714 1986
Agricultural Gazette...

Mayfair.

1877

Guardian (Itigh Church), 1846 Brief ..
ESTABLISHMENT THE PRINCIPAL LONDON NEWSPAPERS.

Educational Times 1847 Truth
DAILY (1881). -(Mitchell).
Journal of Gaslighting.. Statist.

1878

Notes and Queries (lit. Electrician. Lloyd's List.

1726 Public Ledger (commercial)

and antiquarian). .... 1849 | Citizen .

1759 Morning Chronicle (liberal), 1770..

.ertinct 1862 Newspapers, AMERICAN. On 24 April, 1704, apMorning Herald (conservative), 1780... extinct 31 Dec. 1869 Morning Post (whig, latterly conservative).

1722

peared the first regular newspaper published in the United Times (independent)..

1 Jan. 1788 States, the Boston News-Letter; although in Sept. 1690, Sun (liberal).....

.extinct 1792 an adventurous printer had made a like attempt in the Morning Advertiser (liberal).

.8 Feb. 1594 same town, the publication of which was suppressed by Globe (whig ; 1866 conservative), evening

1803 Standard (conservative), erening (morn. 29 June, 1857).: 1827 the authorities, and only one copy is now known to be Shipping and Mercantile Gazette..

.4 Jan. 1836 in existence. Daily News (liberal).. ...21 Jan. 1846 The Boston News. Letter.....

1704 Daily Chronicle and Clerkenwell News.

1855
Boston Gazette..

1719 Daily Telegraplı* (liberal, latterly conservative), 29 June, Morning Star (liberal), 1856.

..extinct Oct. 1869 New England Courant, Boston..
American Weekly Mercurie, Philadelphia.

1721 International (in French).

1863
New York Gazette.

1725 Pall Mall Gazeite (independent), evening (morning, Jan.

1736 April, 1870)..

Virginia Gazette, Williamsburgh

1865 Sportsman.

1773 Royal Gazette, New York..

Aug. Glowworm (liberal)..

Massachusetts Spy (still published in Worcester)

1775 .ertinct Columbian Centinel, Boston..

1776 Echo, 4d. (independent).

Dec. 1868 Financier

Commercial Advertiser, New York,

1797 . March, 1870 Boston Daily Advertiser..

1799 Evening Post, New York

1801 * 144,000 copies sold on 16 Dec. 1861. The prince consort National Intelligencer, Washington, D. C. died on the 14th.

The Sun, New York (the first penny paper).

1833

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1841

1689

N. Y. Daily Graphic (illustrated).

1870 | Charles II. grants all the lands between the Hudson and New York Herald.. 1835 Delaware rivers to the duke of York..

1664 New York Tribune..

French-Indian wars began....

1687 New York Times.. 1850 Sir William Johnson's victory at Lake George..

1755 The increase of newspaper literature in the United Fort William Henry (Lake George) taken by the French

Oswego taken by the French.

1756 States is marvellous enough. In 1830, with a popula- and the garrison massacred.

1757 tion of 231 millions, the number of newspapers published Abercrombie defeated at Ticonderoga.

1758 was 852 (50 of these being dailies), with a yearly issue Niagara, Ticonderoga, and Crown Point taken by the

Bradstreet took fort Frontenac.. of 68,117,796 copies; in 1840 the number of newspapers English, and the French expelled from the colony.... 1759 had increased to 1631, with a yearly issue of 195,838,673 First state constitution adopted..

. March, 1777 copies , in 1850 the number of papers published was 2526, Boundary dispute with Massachusetts settled..

.... 1786 with an issue of 426,409,978 copies; in 1860 the number Dispute with New Hampshire settled by the erection of

Vermont into a state....

1790 of newspapers published had risen to 4051, with an an- Albany made the capital..

1797 nual issue of 928,000,000 copies, being an increase of 118 Constitution revised.

1801, 1821, and 1846 Slavery abolished.....

1817 per cent, for 1860 over the preceding decennial period. In 1870 there were 5871 newspapers, with a circulation New York City, the chief city of North America, of 20,842,475 copies. In 1880 there were published in was settled by the Dutch in 1614, and called New Amthe United States 980 daily, 8718 weekly, and 1075 other sterdam. It was taken by the English, 27 Aug. 1664, newspapers and periodicals. The circulation of daily and the name changed to New York. Population, 1860, newspapers was 3,637,424; that of weekly newspapers, 805,651; 1870, 942,292; 1880, 1,206,590. Including 19,459,107 copies. The aggregate number of copies print-Brooklyn and other suburban cities, which are, in effect, ed in 1880 was 2,077,659,675. There were 54,654 per- part of New York, the population of this metropolis in sons employed mechanically, and 16,489 ially, in 1880 was about 2,000,000. the making of newspapers; the wages paid amounted to the city confirmed to England by the peace of Breda, $28,571,336.

24 Aug. 1667 Taken by the Dutch, 1673; surrendered.

1674 New Style Pope Gregory XIII., in order to rec- Leisler's rebellion.. tify the errors of the current calendar, published a new Trinity church first built.

1696

1725 one, in which ten days were omitted—5 Oct. 1582 be- First newspaper issued coming 15 Oct. The new style was adopted in France, Alleged negro plot to burn the city and murder the in

habitants; many fires occurred; 20 negroes hanged, a Italy, Spain, Denmark, Holland, Flanders, Portugal, in few burned at the stake, and 75 transported.... March, 1741 1582; in Germany in 1584; in Switzerland in 1583 and Colonial Congress meets in New York.

1765 1584; in Hungary in 1587; and in Great Britain in 1751. Street fight with British troops..

Sons of Liberty organized...

1770 In 1752 eleven days were left out of the calendar-3 Tea thrown into the harbor

1974 Sept. being reckoned as 14 Sept. The difference be- City surrendered to the British

15 Sept. 1776 tween the old and new style up to 1699 was 10 days; Great fires: 21 Sept. 1776, and 3 Aug. 1778; destroying

300 buildings. after 1700, 11 days; after 1800, 12 days. In Russia, Bay frozen over; heavy teams pass on the ice from the Greece, and throughout the East, the old style is still city to Staten Island..

1750

..25 Nov. 1783 retained. The czar Alexander II. was born on 17 city evacuated by the British...

Coffee-house slip fire, destroying 50 buildings.....9 Dec. 1796 April, 1818, old style, 29 April, new style, see Calendar. New York was the capital of the state from 1784 to 1797, New Testament, see Bible.

and the seat of national government from 1785 to 1790.

Washington inaugurated, in New York... 30 April, 1789 Newtonian Philosophy, the doctrines respect- Hospital riots; doctors mobbed..

1788 ing gravitation, etc., taught by sir Isaac Newton in his Yellow-fever epidemic; 200 deaths..

1791 ** Principia,” published in 1687; see Gravitation. He

2086 was born 25 Dec. 1642; became master of the mint, 1699; Corner-stone of the City Hall laid (building completed

1798 president of the Royal Society, 1703, and died 20 March, 1812)..

..30 Sept. 1803 1727. A statue of him in marble by Roubillac was set Academy of Fine Arts and Botanical Garden established, 1804 up at Trinity College, Cambridge, 14 July, 1755; and one

Great fire; 40 buildings burned..

.18 Dec.

Free School Society - the parent of the modern system; in bronze by Theed, at Grantham, 21 Sept. 1858, when incorporated.

1805 lord Brougham delivered a discourse on the life and Fulton ran the first steamboat from New York to Albany, 1807 works of Newton. The latter statue cost 16001., a sum

Great fire in Chatham street; 100 houses.. 19 May, 1811 36' houses burned in Broadway..

.22 June, 1820 obtained by public subscription.

Park Theatre burned

1821 New Year's day, etc. The beginning of the Bay frozen over

winter, Jewish year was changed and the Passover instituted Brown's ship-yard burned, with vessels..

Yellow fever epidemic..

.1819, '22, '23 1491 B.C. A feast is said to have been instituted by Gas in general use....

.14 March, 1824

1825 Numa and dedicated to Janus (who presided over the First boat by Erie canal arrived..

.4 Nov. new year) 1 Jan, 713 B.C.

Bowery Theatre burned..

.26 May, 1828

First horse railroad in the world, opened in 4th avenue. 1832 On this day the Romans sacrificed to Janus a cake of new-sist. Cholera epidemic; 3513 deaths. ed meal, with salt, incense, and wine; and all the mechan.

971

1834 ics began something of their art of trade; the men of letters Large fire, burning a whole block of buildings and ren. did the same, as to books, poems, etc.; and the consuls, dering 200 families homeless

...8 June, 1835 though chosen before, took the chair and entered upon Great fire; 674 of the most valuable business buildings their office this day. Nonius Marcellus refers the origin of destroyed ; loss, $20,000,000....

.16, 17 Dec. NEW YEAR'S Gifts among the Romans to Titus Tatius, king Methodist Book Concern burned..

..18 Feb. 1836 of the Sabines, who, having considered as a good omen a Bowery Theatre burned again.

22 Sept. present of some branches cut in a wood consecrated to Bowery Theatre burned the third time.. ...18 Feb. 1838 Strenia, the goddess of strength, which he received on the Large fire in Hammond street; 50 buildings destroyed, first day of the new year, authorized the custom afterwards,

1 Aug and gave these gifts the name of Strenæ, 747 B.C.

National ?'heatre and other buildings burned...23 Sept. 1839 New York, the “ Empire State” of the United Large fire in Water street, near Fulton......

5 Oct. States of North America, is said to have been discovered Large fire in South street, destroying many buildings,

including a public store with 20,000 chests of tea; loss, by Verrazano, a Florentine in the French service, about $1,500,000..

.28 Jan. 1840 1524; and rediscovered by Hudson, an Englishman in Great warehouse fire in Water street.

.7 May, 1841 the Dutch service, in 1609, and settled by the Dutch in Croton aqueduct completed, and water introduced..

National Theatre burned again...

.29 May,

1842 1614; but the English under col. Nichols dispossessed Fire in Broome street; 100 houses burned....31 March, them and the Swedes, 27 Aug. 1664. Population of the Burning of Harper & Bros.' establishinent......1 June,

Fire at the Tombs prison...

.18 Nov, state, 1880, 5,083,810.

Tribune building burned.

...5 Feb. 1845 First Dutch settlements made...

1614 Bowery Theatre burned, fourth time..

. 25 April, First permanent agricultural settlement made at Fort Large fire in 18th street; 100 houses burned....31 May, Orange (now Albany).... 1623 Great fire; loss, $5,000,000..

.19 July, Peter Minuit bought Manhattan island of the Indians Niblo's Theatre burned.

..18 Sept. 1846 for $24. 1626 | Park Theatre burned again.

16 Dec. 1848

66

732

...... 1795

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